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  1. Differential gene expression analysis of in vitro duck hepatitis B virus infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures

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    Issac Aneesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human hepatitis B virus (HBV, a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. Findings A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, α-enolase, Acid α-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. Conclusions The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.

  2. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

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    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-01-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  3. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

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    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  4. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

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    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A.; Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel; Jilbert, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10 5 -fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis

  5. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

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    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A. [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel [Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Jilbert, Allison R., E-mail: allison.jilbert@adelaide.edu.au [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.

  6. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

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    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  7. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

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    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  8. Therapeutic Antiviral Effect of the Nucleic Acid Polymer REP 2055 against Persistent Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection

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    Noordeen, Faseeha; Scougall, Catherine A.; Grosse, Arend; Qiao, Qiao; Ajilian, Behzad B.; Reaiche-Miller, Georget; Finnie, John; Werner, Melanie; Broering, Ruth; Schlaak, Joerg F.; Vaillant, Andrew; Jilbert, Allison R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have both entry and post-entry inhibitory activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. The inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs prevented DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vitro and protected ducks from DHBV infection in vivo and did not result from direct activation of the immune response. In the current study treatment of primary human hepatocytes with NAP REP 2055 did not induce expression of the TNF, IL6, IL10, IFNA4 or IFNB1 genes, confirming the lack of direct immunostimulation by REP 2055. Ducks with persistent DHBV infection were treated with NAP 2055 to determine if the post-entry inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs could provide a therapeutic effect against established DHBV infection in vivo. In all REP 2055-treated ducks, 28 days of treatment lead to initial rapid reductions in serum DHBsAg and DHBV DNA and increases in anti-DHBs antibodies. After treatment, 6/11 ducks experienced a sustained virologic response: DHBsAg and DHBV DNA remained at low or undetectable levels in the serum and no DHBsAg or DHBV core antigen positive hepatocytes and only trace amounts of DHBV total and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were detected in the liver at 9 or 16 weeks of follow-up. In the remaining 5/11 REP 2055-treated ducks, all markers of DHBV infection rapidly rebounded after treatment withdrawal: At 9 and 16 weeks of follow-up, levels of DHBsAg and DHBcAg and DHBV total and cccDNA in the liver had rebounded and matched levels observed in the control ducks treated with normal saline which remained persistently infected with DHBV. These data demonstrate that treatment with the NAP REP 2055 can lead to sustained control of persistent DHBV infection. These effects may be related to the unique ability of REP 2055 to block release of DHBsAg from infected hepatocytes. PMID:26560490

  9. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

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    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  10. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

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    Chenxi Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV, dengue virus (DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  11. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

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    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression 24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus.

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    Liu, Tian; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Zhao, XinXin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2017-09-13

    Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for many years, however, a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of CHv strain and protection of CHa strain to ducks is still blank. In present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to analyze transcriptome profiling of duck spleens for the first time to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the infection of CHv and CHa at 24 h. Comparison of gene expression with mock ducks revealed 748 DEGs and 484 DEGs after CHv and CHa infection, respectively. Gene pathway analysis of DEGs highlighted valuable biological processes involved in host immune response, cell apoptosis and viral invasion. Genes expressed in those pathways were different in CHv infected duck spleens and CHa vaccinated duck spleens. The results may provide valuable information for us to explore the reasons of pathogenicity caused by CHv strain and protection activated by CHa strain.

  13. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

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    Essam A. Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  14. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

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    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (Pmimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (Pmimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (PMimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  15. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

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    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  16. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

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    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  17. Human hepatocyte depletion in the presence of HIV-1 infection in dual reconstituted humanized mice

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    Wang, Weimin; Cheng, Yan; Makarov, Edward; Ganesan, Murali; Gebhart, Catherine L.; Gorantla, Santhi; Osna, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection impairs liver function, and liver diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity in infected patients. The immunopathology of liver damage caused by HIV-1 remains unclear. We used chimeric mice dually reconstituted with a human immune system and hepatocytes to address the relevance of the model to pathobiology questions related to human hepatocyte survival in the presence of systemic infection. TK-NOG males were transplanted with mismatched human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hepatocytes, human albumin concentration and the presence of human immune cells in blood were monitored for hepatocytes and immune reconstitution, and mice were infected with HIV-1. HIV-1-infected animals showed a decline in human albumin concentration with a significant reduction in percentage of human hepatocytes compared to uninfected mice. The decrease in human albumin levels correlated with a decline in CD4+ cells in the liver and with an increase in HIV-1 viral load. HIV-1 infection elicited proinflammatory response in the immunological milieu of the liver in HIV-infected mice compared to uninfected animals, as determined by upregulation of IL23, CXCL10 and multiple toll-like receptor expression. The inflammatory reaction associated with HIV-1 infection in vivo could contribute to the depletion and dysfunction of hepatocytes. The dual reconstituted TK-NOG mouse model is a feasible platform to investigate hepatocyte-related HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29361613

  18. Human hepatocyte depletion in the presence of HIV-1 infection in dual reconstituted humanized mice

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    Raghubendra Singh Dagur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection impairs liver function, and liver diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity in infected patients. The immunopathology of liver damage caused by HIV-1 remains unclear. We used chimeric mice dually reconstituted with a human immune system and hepatocytes to address the relevance of the model to pathobiology questions related to human hepatocyte survival in the presence of systemic infection. TK-NOG males were transplanted with mismatched human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hepatocytes, human albumin concentration and the presence of human immune cells in blood were monitored for hepatocytes and immune reconstitution, and mice were infected with HIV-1. HIV-1-infected animals showed a decline in human albumin concentration with a significant reduction in percentage of human hepatocytes compared to uninfected mice. The decrease in human albumin levels correlated with a decline in CD4+ cells in the liver and with an increase in HIV-1 viral load. HIV-1 infection elicited proinflammatory response in the immunological milieu of the liver in HIV-infected mice compared to uninfected animals, as determined by upregulation of IL23, CXCL10 and multiple toll-like receptor expression. The inflammatory reaction associated with HIV-1 infection in vivo could contribute to the depletion and dysfunction of hepatocytes. The dual reconstituted TK-NOG mouse model is a feasible platform to investigate hepatocyte-related HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of duck liver and identification of differentially expressed transcripts in response to duck hepatitis A virus genotype C infection.

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    Tang, Cheng; Lan, Daoliang; Zhang, Huanrong; Ma, Jing; Yue, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Duck is an economically important poultry and animal model for human viral hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-virus interaction remain unclear because of limited information on the duck genome. This study aims to characterize the duck normal liver transcriptome and to identify the differentially expressed transcripts at 24 h after duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C) infection using Illumina-Solexa sequencing. After removal of low-quality sequences and assembly, a total of 52,757 unigenes was obtained from the normal liver group. Further blast analysis showed that 18,918 unigenes successfully matched the known genes in the database. GO analysis revealed that 25,116 unigenes took part in 61 categories of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group categories (COG), the cluster for "General function prediction only" represented the largest group, followed by "Transcription" and "Replication, recombination, and repair." KEGG analysis showed that 17,628 unigenes were involved in 301 pathways. Through comparison of normal and infected transcriptome data, we identified 20 significantly differentially expressed unigenes, which were further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 20 unigenes, nine matched the known genes in the database, including three up-regulated genes (virus replicase polyprotein, LRRC3B, and PCK1) and six down-regulated genes (CRP, AICL-like 2, L1CAM, CYB26A1, CHAC1, and ADAM32). The remaining 11 novel unigenes that did not match any known genes in the database may provide a basis for the discovery of new transcripts associated with infection. This study provided a gene expression pattern for normal duck liver and for the previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription that are altered during DHAV-C infection. Our data revealed useful information for future studies on the duck genome and provided new insights into the molecular

  20. Corneal Opacity in Domestic Ducks Experimentally Infected With H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

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    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, K; Yamada, M; Mase, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic ducks can be a key factor in the regional spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in Asia. The authors performed experimental infections to examine the relationship between corneal opacity and H5N1 HPAI virus infection in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhyncha var domestica). A total of 99 domestic ducks, including 3 control birds, were used in the study. In experiment 1, when domestic ducks were inoculated intranasally with 2 H5N1 HPAI viruses, corneal opacity appeared more frequently than neurologic signs and mortality. Corneal ulceration and exophthalmos were rare findings. Histopathologic examinations of the eyes of domestic ducks in experiment 2 revealed that corneal opacity was due to the loss of corneal endothelial cells and subsequent keratitis with edema. Influenza viral antigen was detected in corneal endothelial cells and some other ocular cells by immunohistochemistry. Results suggest that corneal opacity is a characteristic and frequent finding in domestic ducks infected with the H5N1 HPAI virus. Confirming this ocular change may improve the detection rate of infected domestic ducks in the field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  2. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Swayne, David E

    2015-05-15

    Infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in many parts of the world. However, it is not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the amount of virus shed, and transmission of the viruses. In this study we infected domestic ducks with a virulent NDV virus (vNDV) and either a LPAIV or a HPAIV by giving the viruses individually, simultaneously, or sequentially two days apart. No clinical signs were observed in ducks infected or co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV, but co-infection decreased the number of ducks shedding vNDV and the amount of virus shed (Pducks inoculated with only LPAIV compared to ducks co-infected with vNDV. Ducks that received the HPAIV with the vNDV simultaneously survived fewer days (Pducks that received the vNDV two days before the HPAIV. Co-infection also reduced transmission of vNDV to naïve contact ducks housed with the inoculated ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks can become co-infected with vNDV and LPAIV with no effect on clinical signs but with reduction of virus shedding and transmission. These findings indicate that infection with one virus can interfere with replication of another, modifying the pathogenesis and transmission of the viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  4. Independent, parallel pathways to CXCL10 induction in HCV-infected hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Jessica; Wagoner, Jessica; Lovelace, Erica S; Thirstrup, Derek; Mohar, Isaac; Smith, Wesley; Giugliano, Silvia; Li, Kui; Crispe, I Nicholas; Rosen, Hugo R; Polyak, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    The pro-inflammatory chemokine CXCL10 is induced by HCV infection in vitro and in vivo, and is associated with outcome of IFN (interferon)-based therapy. We studied how hepatocyte sensing of early HCV infection via TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I) led to expression of CXCL10. CXCL10, type I IFN, and type III IFN mRNAs and proteins were measured in PHH (primary human hepatocytes) and hepatocyte lines harboring functional or non-functional TLR3 and RIG-I pathways following HCV infection or exposure to receptor-specific stimuli. HuH7 human hepatoma cells expressing both TLR3 and RIG-I produced maximal CXCL10 during early HCV infection. Neutralization of type I and type III IFNs had no impact on virus-induced CXCL10 expression in TLR3+/RIG-I+ HuH7 cells, but reduced CXCL10 expression in PHH. PHH cultures were positive for monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell mRNAs. Immunodepletion of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) eliminated marker expression in PHH cultures, which then showed no IFN requirement for CXCL10 induction during HCV infection. Immunofluorescence studies also revealed a positive correlation between intracellular HCV Core and CXCL10 protein expression (r(2) = 0.88, p ≤ 0.001). While CXCL10 induction in hepatocytes during the initial phase of HCV infection is independent of hepatocyte-derived type I and type III IFNs, NPC-derived IFNs contribute to CXCL10 induction during HCV infection in PHH cultures. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Duck plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Duck plague is caused by a herpesvirus. Infection often results in an acute, contagious, and fatal disease. As with many other herpesviruses, duck plague virus can establish inapparent infections in birds that survive exposure to it, a state referred to as latency. During latency, the virus cannot be detected by standard methods for virus isolation. Studies of domestic species of waterfowl have detected multiple strains of the virus that vary in their ability to cause disease and death. Little is known about the response of wild waterfowl to strain differences.Duck plague outbreaks are thought to be caused when birds that carry the virus shed it through fecal or oral discharge, thus releasing the virus into food and water with which susceptible birds may have contact. Experimental studies have demonstrated spontaneous virus shedding by duck plague carriers during spring. Changes in the duration of daylight and onset of breeding are thought to be physiological stresses that stimulate virus shedding at this time of year. The carriers are immune to the disease, but the virus shed by them causes infection and disease among susceptible waterfowl. Bird-to-bird contact and contact with virus that has contaminated the environment perpetuate an outbreak. Scavenging and decomposition of carcasses of infected birds also contaminate the environment by releasing viruses from tissues and body fluids. Virus transmission through the egg has been reported, but the role of the egg in the disease cycle remains to be resolved.

  6. Hepatocyte CD81 is required for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvie, O.; Rubinstein, E.; Franetich, J.F.; Prenant, M.; Belnoue, E.; Renia, L.; Hannoun, L.; Eling, W.M.C.; Levy, S.; Boucheix, C.; Mazier, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and first invade the liver of the mammalian host, as an obligatory step of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Within hepatocytes, Plasmodium sporozoites reside in a membrane-bound vacuole, where they differentiate

  7. Knockdown of autophagy enhances innate immune response in hepatitis C virus infected hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Shubham; Raychoudhuri, Amit; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ranjit; Ray, Ratna B.

    2010-01-01

    The role of autophagy in disease pathogenesis following viral infection is beginning to be elucidated. We have previously reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in hepatocytes induces autophagy. However, the biological significance of HCV induced autophagy has not been clarified. Autophagy has recently been identified as a novel component of innate immune system against viral infection. In the present study, we have shown that knockdown of autophagy related protein Beclin1 or ATG7 in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) inhibited HCV growth. Beclin1 or ATG7 knockdown IHH when infected with HCV exhibited an increased expression of IFN-β, OAS-1, IFN-α and IFI27 mRNAs of the interferon signaling pathways as compared to infection of control IHH. Subsequent study demonstrated that HCV infection in autophagy impaired IHH displayed caspase activation, PARP cleavage and apoptotic cell death. Conclusion The disruption of autophagy machinery in HCV infected hepatocytes activated IFN signaling pathway, and induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that HCV induced autophagy impairs innate immune response. PMID:21274862

  8. Exosome RNA Released by Hepatocytes Regulates Innate Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Kouwaki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80+ cells. Moreover, extracellular vesicles released from HBV-infected hepatocytes contained viral nucleic acids and induced NKG2D ligand expression in macrophages by stimulating MyD88, TICAM-1, and MAVS-dependent pathways. In addition, depletion of exosomes from extracellular vesicles markedly reduced NKG2D ligand expression, suggesting the importance of exosomes for NK cell activation. In contrast, infection of hepatocytes with HBV increased immunoregulatory microRNA levels in extracellular vesicles and exosomes, which were transferred to macrophages, thereby suppressing IL-12p35 mRNA expression in macrophages to counteract the host innate immune response. IFN-γ increased the hepatic expression of DDX60 and augmented the DDX60-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic HBV RNA. Our results elucidated the crucial role of exosomes in antiviral innate immune response against HBV.

  9. Spinoculation Enhances HBV Infection in NTCP-Reconstituted Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ran; Zhang, Yongmei; Cai, Dawei; Liu, Yuanjie; Cuconati, Andrea; Guo, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae remain a major public health burden, but both HBV basic research and the development of antiviral therapeutics have been hindered by the lack of an efficient in vitro infection system. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as the HBV receptor. We herein report that we established a NTCP-complemented HepG2 cell line (HepG2-NTCP12) that supports HBV infection, albeit at a low infectivity level following the reported infection procedures. In our attempts to optimize the infection conditions, we found that the centrifugation of HepG2-NTCP12 cells during HBV inoculation (termed “spinoculation”) significantly enhanced the virus infectivity. Moreover, the infection level gradually increased with accelerated speed of spinoculation up to 1,000g tested. However, the enhancement of HBV infection was not significantly dependent upon the duration of centrifugation. Furthermore, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA was detected in infected cells under optimized infection condition by conventional Southern blot, suggesting a successful establishment of HBV infection after spinoculation. Finally, the parental HepG2 cells remained uninfected under HBV spinoculation, and HBV entry inhibitors targeting NTCP blocked HBV infection when cells were spinoculated, suggesting the authentic virus entry mechanism is unaltered under centrifugal inoculation. Our data suggest that spinoculation could serve as a standard protocol for enhancing the efficiency of HBV infection in vitro. PMID:26070202

  10. [Exposure to avian influenza virus and the infection status of virus among people breeding or butchering ducks in the suburb of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-na; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Hai-yue; Zhang, Li; Li, Li-li; Li, Chao; Yang, Yu-song; Chen, He; Zhang, Song-jian; Liu, Xiu-jun; Wang, Quan-yi

    2012-04-01

    To understand the exposure and the infection status of virus among people engaging in breeding or butchering ducks in the suburb of Beijing. People from six districts (Daxing, Fangshan, Huairou, Miyun, Shunyi, Tongzhou) who engaged in breeding or butchering ducks were studied and the status of infecting avian influenza virus was obtained by testing antibody level in serum. Information on demographic characteristics, status of regular exposure and exposure to sick or dead poultry were collected through a self-designed questionnaire. 1741 people were involved in this study in which 313 (18.0%) were workers in duck-breeding enterprise, 562 (32.3%) were workers in duck slaughterhouse, 261 (15.0%) farmers were in individual small-scale duck farms, 605 (34.7%) were farmers raising duck in backyard. Among farmers raising duck in backyard, the percentage of people whose ducks ever contacted with wild birds was higher than the other three groups (66.8%) (Ppoultry, higher proportion was found among those who had ever closely contacted sick or dead poultry commercial duck raisers (36.1%) and individuals who raise large amount of ducks (36.0%). 70.8% of the individual duck raisers had never taken any protective measures when closely contacting the sick or dead poultry. Among 1741 samples, 0 were positive to avian influenza virus H5 and H7 subtypes. 12 were positive to H9 subtype (positive rate was 0.7%), in which 10 were farmers raising ducks in backyard (the positive rate of 1.7%). Differences between H9 subtype antibody positive rates difference in 4 population groups were statistically significant (χ2=13.699, Ppoultry. Our findings suggested that some intervention measures should be taken to reduce the risk of avian influenza infection.

  11. Augmentation of DHCR24 expression by hepatitis C virus infection facilitates viral replication in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takashi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Satoh, Masaaki; Tokunaga, Yuko; Tateno, Chise; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Funata, Nobuaki; Sudoh, Masayuki; Kohara, Michinori

    2011-09-01

    We characterized the role of 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) in hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). DHCR24 is a cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme and cholesterol is a major component of lipid rafts, which is reported to play an important role in HCV replication. Therefore, we examined the potential of DHCR24 as a target for novel HCV therapeutic agents. We examined DHCR24 expression in human hepatocytes in both the livers of HCV-infected patients and those of chimeric mice with human hepatocytes. We targeted DHCR24 with siRNA and U18666A which is an inhibitor of both DHCR24 and cholesterol synthesis. We measured the level of HCV replication in these HCV replicon cell lines and HCV infected cells. U18666A was administrated into chimeric mice with humanized liver, and anti-viral effects were assessed. Expression of DHCR24 was induced by HCV infection in human hepatocytes in vitro, and in human hepatocytes of chimeric mouse liver. Silencing of DHCR24 by siRNA decreased HCV replication in replicon cell lines and HCV JFH-1 strain-infected cells. Treatment with U18666A suppressed HCV replication in the replicon cell lines. Moreover, to evaluate the anti-viral effect of U18666A in vivo, we administrated U18666A with or without pegylated interferon to chimeric mice and observed an inhibitory effect of U18666A on HCV infection and a synergistic effect with interferon. DHCR24 is an essential host factor which augmented its expression by HCV infection, and plays a significant role in HCV replication. DHCR24 may serve as a novel anti-HCV drug target. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimentally infected domestic ducks show efficient transmission of Indonesian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, but lack persistent viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Bingham, John; Nuradji, Harimurti; Lowther, Sue; Payne, Jean; Harper, Jenni; Junaidi, Akhmad; Middleton, Deborah; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Ducks are important maintenance hosts for avian influenza, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. A previous study indicated that persistence of H5N1 viruses in ducks after the development of humoral immunity may drive viral evolution following immune selection. As H5N1 HPAI is endemic in Indonesia, this mechanism may be important in understanding H5N1 evolution in that region. To determine the capability of domestic ducks to maintain prolonged shedding of Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 virus, two groups of Pekin ducks were inoculated through the eyes, nostrils and oropharynx and viral shedding and transmission investigated. Inoculated ducks (n = 15), which were mostly asymptomatic, shed infectious virus from the oral route from 1 to 8 days post inoculation, and from the cloacal route from 2-8 dpi. Viral ribonucleic acid was detected from 1-15 days post inoculation from the oral route and 1-24 days post inoculation from the cloacal route (cycle threshold ducks seroconverted in a range of serological tests by 15 days post inoculation. Virus was efficiently transmitted during acute infection (5 inoculation-infected to all 5 contact ducks). However, no evidence for transmission, as determined by seroconversion and viral shedding, was found between an inoculation-infected group (n = 10) and contact ducks (n = 9) when the two groups only had contact after 10 days post inoculation. Clinical disease was more frequent and more severe in contact-infected (2 of 5) than inoculation-infected ducks (1 of 15). We conclude that Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus does not persist in individual ducks after acute infection.

  13. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  14. First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 413 (305 caged and 108 free-range adult chickens, 334 (111 caged and 223 free-range adult ducks and 312 adult pigeons in Lanzhou, northwest China, were examined using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results 30 (7.26% chickens, 38 (11.38% ducks and 37 (11.86% pigeons were found to be positive for T. gondii antibodies at the cut-off of 1:5. The prevalences in caged and free-range chickens were 6.23% and 10.19% respectively, however, statistical analysis showed that the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalences in caged and free-range ducks were 6.31% and 13.90% respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in adult chickens, ducks and pigeons sold for meat in poultry markets in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and other animals in this region. This is the first seroprevalence study of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in this region.

  15. Newcastle Disease Virus infection study on duck and chicken in Subang district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprizal Panus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR matrix (M showed 19/67 (28.3% cloacal and 8/67 (11.9% pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9% of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7% shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12% birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2. Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains.

  16. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Caran; Wasilenko, Jamie; Adams, Sean C; Cardona, Carol J; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tung; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric; Roth, Jason; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2012-09-01

    In a previous study, we found clear differences in pathogenicity and response to vaccination against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI; HA dade 2.3.4) between Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata) ducks vaccinated using a commercial inactivated vaccine (Re-1). The objective of the present study was to further investigate the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species of ducks by examining clinical signs and innate immune responses to infection with a different strain of H5N1 HPAI virus (HA clade 1) in two domestic ducks, Pekin and Muscovy, and one wild-type duck, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Protection conferred by vaccination using the Re-1 vaccine against infection with this virus was also compared between Pekin and Muscovy ducks. Differences in pathogenicity were observed among the virus-infected ducks, as the Muscovy ducks died 2 days earlier than did the Pekin and mallard ducks, and they presented more-severe neurologic signs. Conversely, the Pekin and mallard ducks had significantly higher body temperatures at 2 days postinfection (dpi) than did the Muscovy ducks, indicating possible differences in innate immune responses. However, similar expression of innate immune-related genes was found in the spleens of virus-infected ducks at this time point. In all three duck species, there was up-regulation of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6, CCL19, RIG-I, and MHC class I and down-regulation of MHC class II, but variable expression of IL-18 and TLR7. As in our previous study, vaccinated Muscovy ducks showed less protection against virus infection than did Pekin ducks, as evidenced by the higher mortality and higher number of Muscovy ducks shedding virus when compared to Pekin ducks. In conclusion, infection with an H5N1 HPAI virus produced a systemic infection with high mortality in all three duck species; however, the disease was more severe in Muscovy ducks, which also had a poor response to vaccination. The

  17. Susceptibility of Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) and mallard ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) to experimental infections by different genotypes of H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    exposed to infection with H5N1. To do this, an experimental study on infections with different genotypes of H5N1 in mallards and Muscovy ducks have been conducted, where it was found that the mortality of the inoculated Muscovy ducks was at least 80%, regardless of the virus strain employed. In contrast...... in the brain. Due to their high susceptibility, it is unlikely that Muscovy ducks act as a silent reservoir. The virus strains used in this study, to a certain degree, differed in their virulence properties to the bird species in question.......It is a fact that in Viet Nam, Muscovy ducks are raised in large populations (approximately 8 million), usually kept in small flocks together with mallards and chickens. As a result, it is a great concern for epidemiologists to elucidate possible differences in relation to these species being...

  18. Temperature shift and host cell contact up-regulate sporozoite expression of Plasmodium falciparum genes involved in hepatocyte infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Siau

    Full Text Available Plasmodium sporozoites are deposited in the skin by Anopheles mosquitoes. They then find their way to the liver, where they specifically invade hepatocytes in which they develop to yield merozoites infective to red blood cells. Relatively little is known of the molecular interactions during these initial obligatory phases of the infection. Recent data suggested that many of the inoculated sporozoites invade hepatocytes an hour or more after the infective bite. We hypothesised that this pre-invasive period in the mammalian host prepares sporozoites for successful hepatocyte infection. Therefore, the genes whose expression becomes modified prior to hepatocyte invasion would be those likely to code for proteins implicated in the subsequent events of invasion and development. We have used P. falciparum sporozoites and their natural host cells, primary human hepatocytes, in in vitro co-culture system as a model for the pre-invasive period. We first established that under co-culture conditions, sporozoites maintain infectivity for an hour or more, in contrast to a drastic loss in infectivity when hepatocytes were not included. Thus, a differential transcriptome of salivary gland sporozoites versus sporozoites co-cultured with hepatocytes was established using a pan-genomic P. falciparum microarray. The expression of 532 genes was found to have been up-regulated following co-culture. A fifth of these genes had no orthologues in the genomes of Plasmodium species used in rodent models of malaria. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a selection of 21 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Time-course analysis further indicated two patterns of up-regulation following sporozoite co-culture, one transient and the other sustained, suggesting roles in hepatocyte invasion and liver stage development, respectively. This was supported by functional studies of four hitherto uncharacterized proteins of which two were shown to be sporozoite surface

  19. Tropism and infectivity of duck-derived egg drop syndrome virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kang

    Full Text Available Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV can markedly decrease egg production in laying hens. Duck is the natural host of EDSV. EDSV derived from ducks abrogate egg drop in laying hens. We have previously confirmed that duck-derived EDSVs have a variety of replication activities in chick embryo liver (CEL cells. However, it is currently unclear whether duck-derived EDSV could display tropism and adaptation in laying hens. This study assessed whether duck-derived EDSV can adapt to laying hens, and estimated the inducing factors. Complete genome sequences of duck-derived EDSVs (D11-JW-012, D11-JW-017, and D11-JW-032 isolates with various replication efficiency in CEL cells and C10-GY-001 isolate causing disease in laying hens were analyzed to find their differences. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that C10-GY-001, D11-JW-032, and strain 127 virus as vaccine were clustered into the same group, with D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 clustered in another group. Comparison between D11-JW-012 isolate that poorly replicated and D11-JW-017 isolate that replicated well in CEL cells in same cluster revealed six amino acid differences on IVa2, DNA polymerase, endopeptidase, and DNA-binding protein. These amino acids might be key candidates enhancing cellular tropism in chicken. When the pathogenicities of these isolates in laying hens were compared, D11-JW-032 showed severe signs similar to 127 virus, D11-JW-017 showed intermediate signs, while D11-JW-012 showed almost no sign. Eleven amino acids differed between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-017, and 17 amino acids were different between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-012. These results suggest that EDSVs derived from ducks have various pathogenicities in laying hens. Key amino acid candidates might have altered their affinity to tropism of laying hens, causing difference pathogenicities.

  20. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Eloi R; Colpitts, Che C; Bach, Charlotte; Heydmann, Laura; Zona, Laetitia; Xiao, Fei; Thumann, Christine; Crouchet, Emilie; Gaudin, Raphaël; Sureau, Camille; Cosset, François-Loïc; McKeating, Jane A; Pessaux, Patrick; Hoshida, Yujin; Schuster, Catherine; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-10-25

    Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi R. Verrier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers in the regulation of innate antiviral responses, and they have potential implications for virus-host interactions and antiviral therapies.

  2. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3–5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks. PMID:26106382

  3. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    L?ndt, Brandon Z.; N??ez, Alejandro.; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J.; Russell, Christine; Richard? L?ndt, Angela C.; Brown, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background? Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. Objectives? To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Methods? Pekin ducks in two age?matched groups (n?=?18), 8 and 12?weeks old (wo) were each infected with 106 EID50/0?1?ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2?2). Each day for 5?days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal ...

  4. Experimental infection with highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Yun Kyung; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon; Nahm, Sang-Soep

    2017-05-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Sub-clinical infection with HPAI in resident wild birds could be a source of dissemination of HPAIV and continuous outbreaks. In this study, the pathogenicity and infectivity of two strains of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 virus were evaluated in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). None of the birds experimentally infected with H5N8 viruses showed clinical signs or mortality. The H5N8 viruses efficiently replicated in the virus-inoculated Mandarin ducks and transmitted to co-housed Mandarin ducks. Although relatively high levels of viral shedding were noted in pigeons, viral shedding was not detected in some of the pigeons and the shedding period was relatively short. Furthermore, the infection was not transmitted to co-housed pigeons. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of HPAIV in multiple organs of the infected birds. Histopathological evaluation showed the presence of inflammatory responses primarily in HPAIV-positive organs. Our results indicate that Mandarin ducks and pigeons can be infected with H5N8 HPAIV without exhibiting clinical signs; thus, they may be potential healthy reservoirs of the H5N8 HPAIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Infection studies with two highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (Vietnamese and Indonesian) in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), with particular reference to clinical disease, tissue tropism and viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, John; Green, Diane J; Lowther, Sue; Klippel, Jessica; Burggraaf, Simon; Anderson, Danielle E; Wibawa, Hendra; Hoa, Dong Manh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Vu, Pham Phong; Middleton, Deborah J; Daniels, Peter W

    2009-08-01

    Pekin ducks were infected by the mucosal route (oral, nasal, ocular) with one of two strains of Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus: A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/453/2004 and A/duck/Indramayu/BBVW/109/2006 (from Indonesia). Ducks were killed humanely on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after challenge, or whenever morbidity was severe enough to justify euthanasia. Morbidity was recorded by observation of clinical signs and cloacal temperatures; the disease was characterized by histopathology; tissue tropism was studied by immunohistochemistry and virus titration on tissue samples; and viral shedding patterns were determined by virus isolation and titration of oral and cloacal swabs. The Vietnamese strain caused severe morbidity with fever and depression; the Indonesian strain caused only transient fever. Both viruses had a predilection for a similar range of tissue types, but the quantity of tissue antigen and tissue virus titres were considerably higher with the Vietnamese strain. The Vietnamese strain caused severe myocarditis and skeletal myositis; both strains caused non-suppurative encephalitis and a range of other inflammatory reactions of varying severity. The principal epithelial tissue infected was that of the air sacs, but antigen was not abundant. Epithelium of the turbinates, trachea and bronchi had only rare infection with virus. Virus was shed from both the oral and cloacal routes; it was first detected 24 h after challenge and persisted until day 5 after challenge. The higher prevalence of virus from swabs from ducks infected with the Vietnamese strain indicates that this strain may be more adapted to ducks than the Indonesia strain.

  6. The pathogenecity of H5N1 highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI virus clade 2.3.2. in Indonesian indigenous chicken by contact tranmission with infected duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Damayanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental transmission study was conducted using nine healthy Indonesian indigenous chickens placed together with two 30 days old ducks which were experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI clade 2.3.2 virus in the Biosafety Laboratory Level 3 (BSL-3 facilities. The aim of the study was to find out the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI virus clade 2.3.2 in Indonesian indigenous chickens. The study showed that within twenty four hours rearing, the chickens were exhibited mild clinical signs and by 48 hours, all of the chickens died, whereas the ducks survived but with severe clinical signs. The H5N1 HPAI virus has been successfully isolated from chickens and ducks swabs, confirming that those animals were infected by the virus. Histologically, the infected chicken encountered with severe inflammation reaction namely non suppuratives encephalitis, tracheitis, myocarditis, interstitial pneumonia, hepatitis, proventriculitis, enteritis, pancreatitis, nephritis and bursitis. Necrotizing spleen and pancreas were also prominent. Viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry staining in various affected visceral organs. This suggests that Indonesian indigenous chickens were susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus clade 2.3.2 and it can be transmitted easily to Indonesian indigenous chickens by contact transmission with infected ducks.

  7. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning eLi; Chuanwei eLv; Ruichao eYue; Ying eShi; Sidang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi) and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed...

  8. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks sho...

  9. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide facilitates restoration of injured intestinal mucosal immunity in Muscovy duck reovirus-infected Muscovy ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijian; Jiang, Huihui; Zhu, Erpeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Quanxi; Zhou, Wuduo; Qin, Tao; Wu, Xiaoping; Wu, Baocheng; Huang, Yifan

    2018-02-01

    To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells. Additionally, dynamics of secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) productions in intestinal mucosa were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results showed that HEP significantly improved intestinal morphological structure and related indexes, and significantly inhibited the reduction of intestinal mucosal IELs, goblet cells and mast cells caused by MDRV infection. Furthermore, HEP significantly increased the secretion of sIgA, IFN-γ and IL-4 to enhance intestinal mucosal immune functions. Our findings indicate that HEP treatment can effectively repair MDRV-caused injures of small intestinal mucosal immune barrier, and improve mucosal immune function in sick Muscovy ducklings, which will provide valuable help for further application of HEP in prevention and treatment of MDRV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in infected hepatocytes by in situ cytohybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowans, E.J.; Burrell, C.J.; Jilbert, A.R.; Marmion, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    Plasmid pHBV 114 DNA, which contains 73% of the genome of hepatitis B virus (HBV), was radiolabelled with tritium to 1-2 X 10(8) dpm/microgram by nick translation and used as a radioactive probe to detect HBV DNA present in sections of infected liver tissue by in situ hybridisation followed by autoradiography. Factors affecting the sensitivity of the reaction were examined, including different methods of fixation, hybridisation time, temperature, and buffers. The specificity of the reaction for detecting viral DNA was carefully established by the use of unrelated DNA probes, pretreatment of sections with DNAase, and comparing the stability of the binding of DNA probe at different temperatures, with the melting curve of double-stranded DNA in solution. In the one liver studied in detail, cells containing large amounts of viral DNA were distributed in foci corresponding to areas containing morphologically damaged hepatocytes. This observation suggested a relationship between active viral replication and cell damage. Viral DNA was found mainly in the cytoplasm, although a minority of nuclei in these foci were also positive

  11. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  12. THE LIVER OF WOODCHUCKS CHRONICALLY INFECTED WITH THE WOODCHUCK HEPATITIS VIRUS CONTAINS FOCI OF VIRUS CORE ANTIGEN NEGATIVE HEPATOCYTES WITH BOTH ALTERED AND NORMAL MORPHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yamamoto, Toshiki; Zhou, Tianlun; Aldrich, Carol E.; Frank, Katy; Cullen, John M.; Jilbert, Allison R.; Mason, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The livers of woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) contain foci of morphologically altered hepatocytes (FAH) with “basophilic”, “amphophilic” and “clear cell” phenotypes, which are possibly pre-neoplastic in nature. Interestingly, most fail to express detectable levels of WHV proteins and nucleic acids. We studied sections of WHV-infected liver tissue to determine if all foci of hepatocytes that failed to express detectable levels of WHV, as assessed by immunoperoxidase staining for WHV core antigen, could be classified morphologically as FAH. We found that at least half of the foci of WHV core antigen negative hepatocytes did not show clear morphological differences in either H&E or PAS (periodic acid Schiff) stained sections from surrounding hepatocytes, and were therefore not designated as FAH. In the second approach, we assayed core antigen negative foci for the presence of fetuin B, a serum protein produced by normal hepatocytes, but not by neoplastic hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinomas. Basophilic and amphophilic FAH had reduced levels of fetuin B compared to hepatocytes present in the surrounding liver; fetuin B staining was detected in clear cell FAH but the level could not be accurately assessed because of the displacement of fetuin B to the cell periphery by accumulated glycogen. The foci of morphologically normal WHV core antigen negative hepatocytes had similar levels of fetuin B to that of the surrounding hepatocytes. The co-existence of at least four types of WHV core antigen negative foci, including those with no obvious morphologic changes, raises the possibility that the different foci arise from distinct primary events. We hypothesize that a common event is loss of the ability to express WHV, allowing these hepatocytes to escape immune mediated cell death and to undergo clonal expansion to form distinct foci. PMID:17078989

  13. Seroprevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype clade 2.3.2 on ducks and muscouvy ducks in small holders farm

    OpenAIRE

    Eny Martindah; Risa Indriani; S Wahyuwardani

    2015-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies of HPAI H5 subtype in ducks and muscouvy duck in smallholders farm was carried out in Serang and Tangerang District, Banten Province. The study comprised a serological survey to define the distribution and prevalence of HPAI H5 subtype infection on ducks and muscouvy ducks as well as attempted isolation of the virus from these species. Unit of sample in each stage was randomly choosen by multy stage random sample. Blood samples were taken from ducks and muscouvy ducks t...

  14. Differences in the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in feather samples from 4-week-old and 24-week-old infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Roberta; Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Rigoni, Michela; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Maniero, Silvia; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2013-08-30

    Previous studies have reported the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus in feathers from ducks naturally and experimentally infected and suggested that feather calami (FC) could be used as diagnostic samples for the early detection of H5N1 HPAI infections. Ducks are readily infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses although the development of clinical signs and deaths were reported as age-related with younger birds being more susceptible. The correlation between age and virus localisation in FC of infected ducks has not been studied to date. In the present study juvenile (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) were infected experimentally with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (A/duck/Nigeria/1071-23/2007). Tracheal (Tr) and cloacal (Cl) swabs and FC were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection and tested by RRT-PCR and a double antibody sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) developed in house. Virus was detected in swabs and FC of challenged ducks with a higher rate of detection in juvenile ducks. In this age group virus was detected over a longer period of time in FC compared to swabs. Our study showed that FC samples collected from young ducks are a valid diagnostic specimen for H5N1 HPAI virus detection. The DAS-ELISA on FC proved to be a suitable alternative diagnostic test when molecular and/or virus isolation techniques are not available therefore it could be useful in the diagnosis of H5N1 HPAI infections in under-resourced countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z; Núñez, Alejandro; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J; Russell, Christine; Richard-Löndt, Angela C; Brown, Ian H

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Pekin ducks in two age-matched groups (n = 18), 8 and 12 weeks old (wo) were each infected with 10(6) EID(50)/0.1 ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2.2). Each day for 5 days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs collected, before three birds from each group were selected randomly for post-mortem examination. Tissue samples were collected for examination by real-time RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Severe clinical signs, including incoordination and torticollis were observed in the 8 wo group resulting in 100% mortality by 4 dpi. Mild clinical signs were observed in the 12 wo group with no mortality. Real-time RT-PCR and IHC results demonstrated the systemic spread of H5N1 virus in birds of both age groups. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs, with similar levels of shedding detected in both age groups. Variations in level and temporal dissemination of virus within tissues of older ducks, and the presence of the virus in brain and heart were observed, which coincided with the appearance of clinical signs preceding death in younger birds. These results are consistent with reports of natural infections of wild waterfowl and poultry possibly indicating an age-related association with dissemination and clinical outcome in ducks following infection with H5N1 HPAI virus.

  16. Pathogenesis of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    Löndt , Brandon Z.; Nunez , Alejandro; Banks , Jill; Nili , Hassan; Johnson , Linda K; Alexander , Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Asian H5N1 (hereafter referred to as panzootic H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and wild bird populations. Recent isolates of this virus have been reported to cause disease and death in commercial ducks, which has not been seen with other HPAI viruses. However, little is known about the dissemination of this H5N1 within the organs and the cause of death in infected ducks. Nineteen 4-week-old Pekin ducks...

  17. Pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z; Nunez, Alejandro; Banks, Jill; Nili, Hassan; Johnson, Linda K; Alexander, Dennis J

    2008-12-01

    Asian H5N1 (hereafter referred to as panzootic H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and wild-bird populations. Recent isolates of this virus have been reported to cause disease and death in commercial ducks, which has not been seen with other HPAI viruses. However, little is known about either the dissemination of this H5N1 within the organs or the cause of death in infected ducks. Nineteen 4-week-old Pekin ducks were infected with 10(6.7) median egg infectious doses of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2.2) in 0.1ml via the intranasal and intraocular routes. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken daily before three animals were selected randomly and killed humanely for postmortem examination, when samples of tissues were taken for real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Clinical signs were first observed 4 days post infection (d.p.i.) and included depression, reluctance to feed, in-coordination and torticollis resulting in the death of all the birds remaining on 5d.p.i. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected from oropharyngeal swabs than from cloacal swabs. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry identified peak levels of virus at 2d.p.i. in several organs. In the spleen, lung, kidney, caecal tonsils, breast muscle and thigh muscle the levels were greatly reduced at 3d.p.i. However, the highest viral loads were detected in the heart and brain from 3d.p.i. and coincided with the appearance of clinical signs and death. Our experimental results demonstrate the systemic spread of this HPAI H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks, and the localization of virus in the brain and heart tissue preceding death.

  18. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  19. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Resistant to HBV Infection during Differentiation into Hepatocytes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic methods for chronic hepatitis B are limited. The shortage of organ donors and hepatitis B virus (HBV reinfection obstruct the clinical application of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In the present study, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs were isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients and characterized for morphology, growth potency, surface phenotype and the differentiation potential. The results showed that both MSCs had adipogenic, osteogenic and neuron differentiation potential, and nearly all MSCs expressed CD105, CD44 and CD29. Compared with AD-MSCs, BM-MSCs of chronic hepatitis B patients proliferated defectively. In addition, the ability of AD-MSCs to differentiate into hepatocyte was evaluated and the susceptibility to HBV infection were assessed. AD-MSCs could differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. These cells express the hepatic-specific markers and have glycogen production and albumin secretion function. AD-MSCs and hepatic differentiation AD-MSCs were not susceptible to infection by HBV in vitro. Compared with BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs may be alternative stem cells for chronic hepatitis B patients.

  20. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  1. A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuradji, Harimurti; Bingham, John; Lowther, Sue; Wibawa, Hendra; Colling, Axel; Long, Ngo Thanh; Meers, Joanne

    2015-11-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs have been widely used for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAI virus) in birds. Previous studies have shown that the feather calamus is a site of H5N1 virus replication and therefore has potential for diagnosis of avian influenza. However, studies characterizing the value of feathers for this purpose are not available, to our knowledge; herein we present a study investigating feathers for detection of H5N1 virus. Ducks and chickens were experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to 1 of 3 clades (Indonesian clades 2.1.1 and 2.1.3, Vietnamese clade 1). Different types of feathers and oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were compared by virus isolation. In chickens, virus was detected from all sample types: oral and cloacal swabs, and immature pectorosternal, flight, and tail feathers. During clinical disease, the viral titers were higher in feathers than swabs. In ducks, the proportion of virus-positive samples was variable depending on viral strain and time from challenge; cloacal swabs and mature pectorosternal feathers were clearly inferior to oral swabs and immature pectorosternal, tail, and flight feathers. In ducks infected with Indonesian strains, in which most birds did not develop clinical signs, all sampling methods gave intermittent positive results; 3-23% of immature pectorosternal feathers were positive during the acute infection period; oropharyngeal swabs had slightly higher positivity during early infection, while feathers performed better during late infection. Our results indicate that immature feathers are an alternative sample for the diagnosis of HPAI in chickens and ducks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

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    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  3. The duck hepatitis B virus polymerase and core proteins accumulate in different patterns from their common mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Ermei; Schaller, Heinz; Tavis, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Hepadnaviral reverse transcription occurs in capsids in which the core (C) protein surrounds the reverse transcriptase (P) and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). We analyzed the accumulation patterns of duck hepatitis B virus P, C, and pgRNA in transfected LMH cells, infected primary duck hepatocytes (PDH), and infected duck liver. In all three systems, P accumulated over time in a different pattern compared with C, despite translation of both proteins from the pgRNA. Although the accumulation patterns of the proteins varied between the systems, in each case P became detectable at the same time or earlier than C and the ratio of P relative to C dropped with time. These accumulation patterns were consistent with the translation rates and half-lives of P and C. Comparing the translation rates of P and C with the pgRNA level over time revealed that translation of P and C was negatively regulated in LMH cells. These data provide a framework for comparing replication studies performed in LMH cells, PDHs and ducks

  4. A duck hepatitis B virus strain with a knockout mutation in the putative X ORF shows similar infectivity and in vivo growth characteristics to wild-type virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.; Scougall, C.A.; Will, H.; Burrell, C.J.; Jilbert, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses including human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) express X proteins, HBx and DHBx, respectively. Both HBx and DHBx are transcriptional activators and modulate cellular signaling in in vitro assays. To test whether the DHBx protein plays a role in virus infection, we compared the in vivo infectivity and growth characteristics of a DHBV3 strain with a stop codon in the X-like ORF (DHBV3-X-K.O.) to those of the wild-type DHBV3 strain. Here we report that the two strains showed no significant difference in (i) their ability to induce infection that resulted in stable viraemia measured by serum surface antigen (DHBsAg) and DHBV DNA, and detection of viral proteins and replicative DNA intermediates in the liver; (ii) the rate of spread of infection in liver and extrahepatic sites after low-dose virus inoculation; and (iii) the ability to produce transient or persistent infection under balanced age/dose conditions designed to detect small differences between the strains. Thus, none of the infection parameters assayed were detectably affected by the X-ORF knockout mutation, raising the question whether DHBx expression plays a physiological role during in vivo infection with wild-type DHBV

  5. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  6. Decrease in Dengue virus-2 infection and reduction of cytokine/chemokine production by Uncaria guianensis in human hepatocyte cell line Huh-7

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    Cíntia da Silva Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Dengue fever may present hemorrhages and cavitary effusions as result of exacerbated immune responses. We investigated hydro-alcoholic extracts from leaves (UGL and bark (UGB of the medicinal species Uncaria guinanensis with respect to antiviral effects in Dengue virus (DENV infection and in immunological parameters associated with in vivo physiopathological features. METHODS Chemical profiles from UGB or UGL were compared in thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance using flavonoid compounds and a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched fraction as references. DENV-2-infected hepatocytes (Huh-7 were treated with extracts. Cell viability, DENV antigens and immunological factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or flow cytometry. FINDINGS The UGL mainly differed from UGB by selectively containing the flavonoid kaempferitrin. UGB and UGL improved hepatocyte viability. Both extracts reduced intracellular viral antigen and inhibited the secretion of viral non-structural protein (NS1, which is indicative of viral replication. Reduction in secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was achieved by UGB, of interleukin-6 by UGL, and of interleukin-8 by both UGB and UGL. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The U. guianensis extracts presented, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects for DENV and possibly a hepatocyte-protective activity. Further studies may be performed to consider these products as potential candidates for the development of an herbal product for the future treatment of dengue.

  7. Decrease in Dengue virus-2 infection and reduction of cytokine/chemokine production by Uncaria guianensis in human hepatocyte cell line Huh-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Cíntia da Silva; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Wolff, Thiago; Lima-Junior, Raimundo Sousa; Fialho, Luciana Gomes; Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria; Pereira, Rita de Cássia Alves; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2017-06-01

    Dengue fever may present hemorrhages and cavitary effusions as result of exacerbated immune responses. We investigated hydro-alcoholic extracts from leaves (UGL) and bark (UGB) of the medicinal species Uncaria guinanensis with respect to antiviral effects in Dengue virus (DENV) infection and in immunological parameters associated with in vivo physiopathological features. Chemical profiles from UGB or UGL were compared in thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance using flavonoid compounds and a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid-enriched fraction as references. DENV-2-infected hepatocytes (Huh-7) were treated with extracts. Cell viability, DENV antigens and immunological factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or flow cytometry. The UGL mainly differed from UGB by selectively containing the flavonoid kaempferitrin. UGB and UGL improved hepatocyte viability. Both extracts reduced intracellular viral antigen and inhibited the secretion of viral non-structural protein (NS1), which is indicative of viral replication. Reduction in secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was achieved by UGB, of interleukin-6 by UGL, and of interleukin-8 by both UGB and UGL. MAIN. The U. guianensis extracts presented, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects for DENV and possibly a hepatocyte-protective activity. Further studies may be performed to consider these products as potential candidates for the development of an herbal product for the future treatment of dengue.

  8. Duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome" disease complex: Interplay of novel goose parvovirus-related virus and duck circovirus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, J; Zhang, R; Chen, J; Wang, W; Lan, J; Xie, Z; Jiang, S

    2018-04-01

    As a newly emerged infectious disease, duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS)" disease has caused huge economic losses to waterfowl industry in China since 2015. Novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) is believed the main pathogen of BADS disease; however, BADS is rarely reproduced by infecting ducks with NGPV alone. As avian circovirus infection causes clinical symptoms similar to BADS, duck circovirus (DuCV) is suspected the minor pathogen of BADS disease. In this study, an investigation was carried out to determine the coinfection of NGPV and DuCV in duck embryos and in ducks with BADS disease. According to our study, the coinfection of emerging NGPV and DuCV was prevalent in East China (Shandong, Jiangsu and Anhui province) and could be vertical transmitted, indicating their cooperative roles in duck BADS disease. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF FEMALE DUCK, MUSCOVY-DUCK AND MULE-DUCK

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    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of morphometrical measurements inthe female waterfowls. The animals used in this research were 90 ducks , 90 muscovy-ducks and 90mule-ducks in Bulukumba district of Brebes regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Parameters measuredwere maxilla length, neck length, body length, chest circumstance, wing length, chest length, femurlength and tibia length. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System ver. 9.1. Muscovyduckgenerally had the largest of size, followed by mule-duck and then duck. The most discriminantvariables were showed by chest length and chest circumstance. Muscovy-duck and mule-duck hadclosest genetic distance (3.974870 than both of the distance between duck and mule duck (14.10, andmuscovy-duck and duck (24.73. The smallest errorness level in grouping was showed in duck 1%followed by 2% in mule-duck and 3% in muscovy-duck.

  11. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Clade 2.3.4.4 Virus: Equivocal Pathogenicity and Implications for Surveillance Following Natural Infection in Breeder Ducks in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, A; Brookes, S M; Reid, S M; Garcia-Rueda, C; Hicks, D J; Seekings, J M; Spencer, Y I; Brown, I H

    2016-02-01

    Since early 2014, several outbreaks involving novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in poultry and wild bird species in Asia, Europe and North America. These viruses have been detected in apparently healthy and dead wild migratory birds, as well as in domestic chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. In this study, we describe the pathology of an outbreak of H5N8 HPAIV in breeder ducks in the UK. A holding with approximately 6000 breeder ducks, aged approximately 60 weeks, showed a gradual reduction in egg production and increased mortality over a 7-day period. Post-mortem examination revealed frequent fibrinous peritonitis, with severely haemorrhagic ovarian follicles and occasional splenic and pancreatic necrosis and high incidence of mycotic granulomas in the air sacs and lung. Low-to-moderate levels of HPAI H5N8 virus were detected mainly in respiratory and digestive tract, with minor involvement of other organs. Although histopathological examination confirmed the gross pathology findings, intralesional viral antigen detection by immunohistochemistry was not observed. Immunolabelled cells were rarely only present in inflamed air sacs and serosa, usually superficial to granulomatous inflammation. Abundant bacterial microcolonies were observed in haemorrhagic ovaries and oviduct. The limited viral tissue distribution and presence of inter-current fungal and bacterial infections suggest a minor role for HPAIV H5N8 in clinical disease in layer ducks. © 2015 Crown copyright.

  12. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

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    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  13. Increased of the hepatocytes and splenocytes apoptosis accompanies clinical improvement and higher survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and treated with highly diluted Lycopodium clavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski-Temporini, Gislaine Janaina; Lopes, Carina Ribeiro; Massini, Paula Fernanda; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ferraz, Fabiana Nabarro; Sandri, Patricia Flora; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Aleixo, Denise Lessa; Barion, Terezinha Fátima; Esper, Luiz Gilson; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

    2017-09-01

    Recent evidence includes apoptosis as a defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which promotes an immune response in the host induced by T cells, type 1, 2 and 17. Currently, there is no medicine completely preventing the progression of this disease. We investigated the immunological and apoptotic effects, morbidity and survival of mice infected with T. cruzi and treated with dynamized homeopathic compounds 13c: Kalium causticum (GCaus), Conium maculatum, (GCon), Lycopodium clavatum (GLy) and 7% alcohol solution (control, vehicle compounds, GCI). There was significant difference in the increase of apoptosis in the treated groups, compared with GCI, which might indicate action of the compounds in these cells. Infected animals treated with Lycopodium clavatum presented better performance compared with other groups. GLy showed a higher amount of hepatocytes and splenocytes undergoing apoptosis, higher number of apoptotic bodies in the liver, predominance of Th1 response, increased TNF-α and decreased IL-6, higher survival, lower morbidity, higher water consumption, body temperature, tendency to higher feed intake and weight gain compared with GCI. Conium maculatum had worse results with increased Th2 response with increased IL-4, worsening of the infection with early mortality of the animals. Together, these data suggest that highly diluted medicines modulate the immune response and apoptosis, affecting the morbidity of animals infected with a highly virulent strain of T. cruzi, being able to minimize the course of infection, providing more alternative approaches in the treatment of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  15. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  16. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  17. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  18. Genomic and pathogenic analysis of a Muscovy duck parvovirus strain causing short beak and dwarfism syndrome without tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai

    2017-12-01

    In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

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    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  20. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Takahiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Murakami, Shuko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Tateno, Chise; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3–6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10"5 copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10"4-10"6 copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10"3 copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. - Highlights: • Primary hepatocytes were established from tupaia that is a novel HBV infection model. • Tupaia primary hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection. • The immunodeficient chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were established. • The chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection.

  1. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Takahiro [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6, Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko, E-mail: kkohara@vet.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Transboundary Animal Diseases Centre, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24, Korimoto, Kagoshima-city, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24, Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naoki [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6, Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya [Viral Hepatitis Laboratory, Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 1, Louis Pasteur, Casablanca 20360 (Morocco); Murakami, Shuko; Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi 1, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601 (Japan); Tateno, Chise [PhoenixBio Co. Ltd., 3-4-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Kohara, Michinori, E-mail: kohara-mc@igakuken.or.jp [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6, Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)

    2016-01-08

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3–6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10{sup 5} copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10{sup 3} copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. - Highlights: • Primary hepatocytes were established from tupaia that is a novel HBV infection model. • Tupaia primary hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection. • The immunodeficient chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were established. • The chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection.

  2. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  3. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  4. Punnett and duck genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25, 191–194; reprinted in this issue as a J. Genet. classic, pages 3–7) ... 1932, starts with Punnett explaining that he started his work on ducks as he was asked ... text of Punnett's later comments on genes and human mental disease. Punnett's ...

  5. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  6. Activity of nucleic acid polymers in rodent models of HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneweis, Katrin; Motter, Neil; Roppert, Pia L; Lu, Mengji; Wang, Baoju; Roehl, Ingo; Glebe, Dieter; Yang, Dongliang; Morrey, John D; Roggendorf, Michael; Vaillant, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) block the release of HBsAg from infected hepatocytes. These compounds have been previously shown to have the unique ability to eliminate serum surface antigen in DHBV-infected Pekin ducks and achieve multilog reduction of HBsAg or HBsAg loss in patients with chronic HBV infection and HBV/HDV coinfection. In ducks and humans, the blockage of HBsAg release by NAPs occurs by the selective targeting of the assembly and/or secretion of subviral particles (SVPs). The clinically active NAP species REP 2055 and REP 2139 were investigated in other relevant animal models of HBV infection including woodchucks chronically infected with WHV, HBV transgenic mice and HBV infected SCID-Hu mice. The liver accumulation of REP 2139 in woodchucks following subcutaneous administration was examined and was found to be similar to that observed in mice and ducks. However, in woodchucks, NAP treatment was associated with only mild (36-79% relative to baseline) reductions in WHsAg (4/10 animals) after 3-5 weeks of treatment without changes in serum WHV DNA. In HBV infected SCID-Hu mice, REP 2055 treatment was not associated with any reduction of HBsAg, HBeAg or HBV DNA in the serum after 28 days of treatment. In HBV transgenic mice, no reductions in serum HBsAg were observed with REP 2139 with up to 12 weeks of treatment. In conclusion, the antiviral effects of NAPs in DHBV infected ducks and patients with chronic HBV infection were weak or absent in woodchuck and mouse models despite similar liver accumulation of NAPs in all these species, suggesting that the mechanisms of SVP assembly and or secretion present in rodent models differs from that in DHBV and chronic HBV infections. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... in primary duck hepatocytes (PDH). RESULTS: Both PNAs reproducibly inhibited DHBV RT in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) of 10nM, whereas up to 600-fold higher concentration of S-ODNs was required for similar inhibition. The PNA targeting the bulge and upper stem of epsilon appeared as more efficient RT...

  8. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  9. The first whole genome sequence and pathogenicity characterization of a fowl adenovirus 4 isolated from ducks associated with inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Liu, Linlin; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei; Cui, Hongyu

    2017-10-01

    In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks. The pathogenicity of HLJDAd15 was evaluated in SPF chickens and ducks. The results showed that chickens were more susceptible to this new genotype of fowl adenovirus, and it was more difficult to infect ducks than chickens with the duck origin virus. Thus, it appears that this severe HPS in ducks is far more likely to have been transmitted from chickens to ducks than from ducks to ducks. Therefore, transmission from chickens to ducks constitutes a threat to the duck farming industry, and this transmission route is a very important consideration for the prevention and control of the new genotype of fowl adenovirus. This is the first whole genome sequence of a FAdV-4 isolated from ducks, and this information is important for understanding the molecular characteristics and evolution of aviadenoviruses. The potential risks of infection with this new hypervirulent FAdV-4 genotype in chickens and ducks urgently require an effective vaccine.

  10. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  11. MHC classⅠ gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Weishan Ma duck (WS) is the eugenic endemic breed, one of the four famous ducks in China, as well Cherry Valley duck (CV) is the largest number of breeding variety. WS is egg strain and CV is meat type. The two duck lines mainly support the. Chinese waterfowl industry. In this study, MHC class Ⅰ genes of WS and CV ...

  12. Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome Emerged in Cherry Valley Ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Dou, Y; Zheng, X; Tang, Y; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Diao, Y

    2017-08-01

    Since June 2015, a highly pathogenic disease occurred in duck flocks in China, causing pericardial effusion, enlarged discoloured liver, renal enlargement and haemorrhagic lung with a mortality ranging from 5% to 20%. Previous study confirmed that Fowl adenovirus group C (FAdV-C) and some field FAdVs isolates had been identified as causative agents of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and geese world widely. In this study, we firstly report the isolation of FAdV-C from ducks with HHS. The two isolates, designated as SDSX and SDJX, were separated from liver samples using 9-day-old SPF chicken embryos and could cause severe cytopathic effects in duck and chicken embryonic kidney cells. The entire ORF sequences of hexon gene of the two isolates were amplified, sequenced and analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of loop 1 sequences of hexon gene of FAdVs revealed that the two isolates were closely related to FAdV-C isolates, which could cause HHS in chickens. Experimental infection indicated that the isolate was high pathogenicity to 20-day-old ducks. Our study shows that the recently emerged HHS in ducks was caused by FAdV-C and may possess a potential risk to other poultry flocks. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Development of a duplex semi-nested PCR assay for detection of classical goose parvovirus and novel goose parvovirus-related virus in sick or dead ducks with short beak and dwarfism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Ruihua; Chen, Junhao; Sun, Dapeng; Lan, Jingjing; Lin, Shaoli; Song, Shasha; Xie, Zhijing; Jiang, Shijin

    2017-11-01

    Duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) in China. Until now, it remains uncertain whether the Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS are co-infected with classical goose parvovirus (GPV) and NGPV. In this study, a duplex semi-nested PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity was developed for detection of the two viruses. Using the duplex PCR assay, NGPV was tested positive in all the 15 duck flocks with SBDS, whereas classical GPV was not detected in all the 133 sick and dead ducks collected from East China. A total of 87 (91.58%) Cherry Valley ducks aged from 5 to 18days and 35 (92.11%) mule ducks aged from 17 to 25days were detected positive for NGPV. In the NGPV-positive ducks, the virus detection rates were 81.97% to 8.20% in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, pancreas, bile, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and brain. The results indicated that NGPV was prevalent in the duck flocks of East China, whereas classical GPV was not detected in Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS. NGPV has extensive tissue tropism in Cherry Valley duck and mule duck, which could invade both the central and peripheral immune organs and break through the blood-brain barrier of ducks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sentinel model for influenza A virus monitoring in free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Jairak, Waleemas; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can cause influenza in birds and mammals. In Thailand, free-grazing ducks are known IAV reservoirs and can spread viruses through frequent movements in habitats they share with wild birds. In this study, the sentinel model for IAV monitoring was conducted over 4 months in two free-grazing duck flocks. IAV subtypes H4N6 (n=1) and H3N8 (n=5) were isolated from sentinel ducks at the ages of 13 and 15 weeks. Clinical signs of depression and ocular discharge were observed in the infected ducks. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic characterization of the isolated IAVs indicated that all Thai IAVs were clustered in the Eurasian lineage and pose low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. Serological analysis found that antibodies against IAVs could be detected in the ducks since 9-weeks-old. In summary, our results indicate that the sentinel model can be used for IAV monitoring in free-grazing duck flocks. Since free-grazing ducks are potential reservoirs and transmitters of IAVs, routine IAV surveillance in free-grazing duck flocks can be beneficial for influenza prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-09-17

    Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.

  16. Live Attenuated Vaccine based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1 and type 3 (DHAV-3 causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated DEV recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1 containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1 and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3 between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as three days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as one week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.

  17. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  18. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  19. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  20. The potential of induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Zara; Steichen, Clara; Dianat, Noushin; Weber, Anne; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for liver disease. However, the number of patients who die while on the waiting list (15%) has increased in recent years as a result of severe organ shortages; furthermore the incidence of liver disease is increasing worldwide. Clinical trials involving hepatocyte transplantation have provided encouraging results. However, transplanted cell function appears to often decline after several months, necessitating liver transplantation. The precise aetiology of the loss of cell function is not clear, but poor engraftment and immune-mediated loss appear to be important factors. Also, primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are not readily available, de-differentiate, and die rapidly in culture. Hepatocytes are available from other sources, such as tumour-derived human hepatocyte cell lines and immortalised human hepatocyte cell lines or porcine hepatocytes. However, all these cells suffer from various limitations such as reduced or differences in functions or risk of zoonotic infections. Due to their significant potential, one possible inexhaustible source of hepatocytes is through the directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This review will discuss the potential applications and existing limitations of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes in regenerative medicine, drug screening, in vitro disease modelling and bioartificial livers. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  2. Effect of species, breed and route of virus inoculation on the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Swayne, David E; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric

    2013-07-22

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.

  3. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  4. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Takahiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Murakami, Shuko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Tateno, Chise; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-08

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3-6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10(5) copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10(4)-10(6) copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10(3) copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  7. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  8. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: qmx@scau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  9. The PB2, PA, HA, NP, and NS genes of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1 are responsible for pathogenicity in ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajihara Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild ducks are the natural hosts of influenza A viruses. Duck influenza, therefore, has been believed inapparent infection with influenza A viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs in chickens. In fact, ducks experimentally infected with an HPAIV strain, A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (H5N1 (HK483, did not show any clinical signs. Another HPAIV strain, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1 (MON3 isolated from a dead swan, however, caused neurological dysfunction and death in ducks. Method To understand the mechanism whereby MON3 shows high pathogenicity in ducks, HK483, MON3, and twenty-four reassortants generated between these two H5N1 viruses were compared for their pathogenicity in domestic ducks. Results None of the ducks infected with MON3-based single-gene reassortants bearing the PB2, NP, or NS gene segment of HK483 died, and HK483-based single-gene reassortants bearing PB2, NP, or NS genes of MON3 were not pathogenic in ducks, suggesting that multiple gene segments contribute to the pathogenicity of MON3 in ducks. All the ducks infected with the reassortant bearing PB2, PA, HA, NP, and NS gene segments of MON3 died within five days post-inoculation, as did those infected with MON3. Each of the viruses was assessed for replication in ducks three days post-inoculation. MON3 and multi-gene reassortants pathogenic in ducks were recovered from all of the tissues examined and replicated with high titers in the brains and lungs. Conclusion The present results indicate that multigenic factors are responsible for efficient replication of MON3 in ducks. In particular, virus growth in the brain might correlate with neurological dysfunction and the disease severity.

  10. Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks is significantly reduced by a genetically distant H5N2 vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Boven, van M.; Stegeman, A.; Water, van de S.G.P.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza. Although it is known that vaccines that have a high homology with the challenge virus are able to prevent infection in ducks, little is yet known about the ability of genetically more distant vaccines in preventing

  11. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  12. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  13. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  14. Repolarization of hepatocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, M A; Kappus, B; Hubbard, A

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the biochemical, morphological, and functional redevelopment of polarity in freshly isolated hepatocytes cultured using a double layer collagen gel sandwich technique. Western blot analysis showed increased cellular levels of the cell adhesion protein uvomorulin as cultured hepatocytes repolarized. Immunofluorescence studies using antibodies against domain-specific membrane proteins showed polarity as early as 48 hours, although the pattern of the polymeric Immunoglobulin-A receptor (pIgA-R) differed from in vivo liver. Electron microscopy showed developing bile canaliculi at 1 day. However, the functional presence of tight junctions was absent at 1 day, but present at 5 days. We further showed functional polarity to be present at 4 days by documenting the ability of cultured hepatocytes to metabolize and excrete fluorescein diacetate into visible bile canaliculi. We conclude that hepatocytes cultured appropriately develop morphological and functional polarity. Hepatocyte culture is therefore a useful tool for the study of mechanisms responsible for the development of polarized function.

  15. Metabolic Disturbances in Liver {sup 1}H MR Spectroscopy in HIV and HCV Co-infected Patients as a Potential Marker of Hepatocyte Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasow, E.; Wierciska-Drapao, A.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Siergiejczyk, L.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Walecki, J. [Medical Academy Hospital, Bialystok (Poland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-12-01

    Purpose : To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) features in order to assess hepatocellular activation in chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients. Material and Methods : Liver in vivo {sup 1}H MR spectra were obtained in 14 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), 20 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, and 24 healthy volunteers. Resonances of lipids, glutamine/glutamate (Glx), phosphomonoesters (PME), glycogen/glucose (Glc) were assessed and metabolite ratios to total lipids (TL) were calculated. Results : A significant increase in Glx/TL and PME/TL was observed in the HCV group as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with HIV and HCV co-infection had a further increase of all metabolite ratios. Changes in metabolite ratios were due to both the increase in particular metabolite contents and to the decrease in lipid levels. HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) showed elevated PME and Glx levels and significantly decreased TL compared to patients not undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Conclusions : Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of liver {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy in detecting even slight disturbances in liver metabolism.

  16. Metabolic Disturbances in Liver 1H MR Spectroscopy in HIV and HCV Co-infected Patients as a Potential Marker of Hepatocyte Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasow, E.; Wierciska-Drapao, A.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Siergiejczyk, L.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Walecki, J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) features in order to assess hepatocellular activation in chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients. Material and Methods : Liver in vivo 1 H MR spectra were obtained in 14 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), 20 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, and 24 healthy volunteers. Resonances of lipids, glutamine/glutamate (Glx), phosphomonoesters (PME), glycogen/glucose (Glc) were assessed and metabolite ratios to total lipids (TL) were calculated. Results : A significant increase in Glx/TL and PME/TL was observed in the HCV group as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with HIV and HCV co-infection had a further increase of all metabolite ratios. Changes in metabolite ratios were due to both the increase in particular metabolite contents and to the decrease in lipid levels. HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) showed elevated PME and Glx levels and significantly decreased TL compared to patients not undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Conclusions : Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of liver 1 H MR spectroscopy in detecting even slight disturbances in liver metabolism

  17. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqueux, Éric; Picault, Jean-Paul; Amelot, Michel; Allée, Chantal; Lamandé, Josiane; Guillemoto, Carole; Pierre, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Blot, Guillaume; Briand, François-Xavier; Rose, Nicolas; Jestin, Véronique

    2014-01-10

    EU annual serosurveillance programs show that domestic duck flocks have the highest seroprevalence of H5 antibodies, demonstrating the circulation of notifiable avian influenza virus (AIV) according to OIE, likely low pathogenic (LP). Therefore, transmission characteristics of LPAIV within these flocks can help to understand virus circulation and possible risk of propagation. This study aimed at estimating transmission parameters of four H5 LPAIV (three field strains from French poultry and decoy ducks, and one clonal reverse-genetics strain derived from one of the former), using a SIR model to analyze data from experimental infections in SPF Muscovy ducks. The design was set up to accommodate rearing on wood shavings with a low density of 1.6 ducks/m(2): 10 inoculated ducks were housed together with 15 contact-exposed ducks. Infection was monitored by RNA detection on oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs using real-time RT-PCR with a cutoff corresponding to 2-7 EID50. Depending on the strain, the basic reproduction number (R0) varied from 5.5 to 42.7, confirming LPAIV could easily be transmitted to susceptible Muscovy ducks. The lowest R0 estimate was obtained for a H5N3 field strain, due to lower values of transmission rate and duration of infectious period, whereas reverse-genetics derived H5N1 strain had the highest R0. Frequency and intensity of clinical signs were also variable between strains, but apparently not associated with longer infectious periods. Further comparisons of quantitative transmission parameters may help to identify relevant viral genetic markers for early detection of potentially more virulent strains during surveillance of LPAIV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A specific PfEMP1 is expressed in P. falciparum sporozoites and plays a role in hepatocyte infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanghì, Gigliola; Vembar, Shruthi S; Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Heterochromatin plays a central role in the process of immune evasion, pathogenesis, and transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during blood stage infection. Here, we use ChIP sequencing to demonstrate that sporozoites from mosquito salivary glands expand heterochromatin......_SpzPfEMP1. Overall, we show that the epigenetic signature of var genes is reset in mosquito stages. Moreover, the identification of a strain-specific sporozoite PfEMP1 is highly relevant for vaccine design based on sporozoites....

  19. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  20. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  1. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  2. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses among Inoculated Domestic and Wild Ducks, South Korea, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Choi, Jun-Gu; Jeong, Joojin; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Yoon, Hachung; Cho, Youngmi; Kang, Young-Myong; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza, caused by a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N8) virus, occurred among poultry and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis in and mode of transmission of this virus among domestic and wild ducks. Three of the viruses had similar pathogenicity among infected domestic ducks: the H5N8 viruses were moderately pathogenic (0%–20% mortality rate); in wild mallard ducks, the H5N8 and H5N1 viruses did not cause severe illness or death; viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected mallards than in H5N1-infected mallards. Identification of H5N8 viruses in birds exposed to infected domestic ducks and mallards indicated that the viruses could spread by contact. We propose active surveillance to support prevention of the spread of this virus among wild birds and poultry, especially domestic ducks. PMID:25625281

  3. The pathogenicity of four avian influenza viruses for fowls, turkeys and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Allan, W H; Parsons, D G; Parsons, G

    1978-03-01

    Groups of 10 two-week-old chicks, turkey poults and ducklings were each infected by the intranasal route with one of four avian influenza viruses: a/fowl/Germany/34 (Hav 1N))--Rostock, A/FPV/Dutch/27 (Hav 1 Neq 1)--Dutch, A/fowl/Victoria/75 (Hav 1 Neq 1)--Australian, and A/parrot/Ulster/73 (Hav 1 N1)--Ulster. Eight hours after infection 10 birds of the same age and species were placed in contact with each group and allowed to mix. The clinical signs of disease and onset of sickness and death were recorded. Ulster virus was completely avirulent for all birds. Rostock, Dutch and Australian viruses were virulent for fowls and turkeys causing death in all birds with the exception of 3/10 in contact fowls from the Rostock virus group and 2/10 in contact fowls from the Australian virus group. Only Rostock virus caused sicked sickness or death in ducks, 9/10 intranasally infected and 6/7 in contact birds showed clinical signs and 2/10 intranasally infected and 3/7 in contact ducks died. Intranasal and in contact pathogenicity indices were calculated for each virus in each bird species and indicated quantitatively the differences in virulence of the four virus strains. Virus isolation and immune response studies indicated that surviving in contact fowls in the Rostock virus group had never been infected but that surviving Australian virus in contact fowls had recovered from infection. Infection was not established in Ulster virus in contact fowls and Australian virus intranasally infected and in contact ducks. The birds in all other groups showed positive virus isolations and a high incidence of positive immune response. The last virus isolation was made at 22 days after intranasal infection of ducks with Ulster virus.

  4. Hepatocyte polarization is essential for the productive entry of the hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Andreas; Mills, Kerry; Weiss, Thomas S; Urban, Stephan

    2012-02-01

    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high species specificity and a distinct liver tropism. Within the liver, HBV replication occurs in differentiated and polarized hepatocytes. Accordingly, the in vitro HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and the human hepatoma cell line, HepaRG, is restricted to differentiated, hepatocyte-like cells. Though preparations of PHH contain up to 100% hepatic cells, cultures of differentiated HepaRG cells are a mixture of hepatocyte-like and biliary-like epithelial cells. We used PHH and HepaRG cells and compared the influence of virus inoculation dose, cell differentiation, and polarization on productive HBV infection. At multiplicities of genome equivalents (mge) >8,000, almost 100% of PHHs could be infected. In contrast, only a subset of HepaRG cells stained positive for HBcAg at comparable or even higher mge. Infection predominantly occurred at the edges of islands of hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells. This indicates a limited accessibility of the HBV receptor, possibly as a result of its polar sorting. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), a marker selectively transported to the apical (i.e., canalicular) cell membrane, revealed two polarization phenotypes of HepaRG cells. HBV infection within the islands of hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells preferentially occurred in cells that resemble PHH, exhibiting canalicular structures. However, disruption of cell-cell junctions allowed the additional infection of cells that do not display a PHH-like polarization. HBV enters hepatocytes via the basolateral membrane. This model, at least partially, explains the difference of PHH and HepaRG cells in infection efficacy, provides insights into natural HBV infection, and establishes a basis for optimization of the HepaRG infection system. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke show strong antiviral activity against the sexually transmitted pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churqui, Marianela Patzi; Lind, Liza; Thörn, Karolina; Svensson, Alexandra; Savolainen, Otto; Aranda, Katty Terrazas; Eriksson, Kristina

    2018-01-10

    Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have been traditionally used by women of the Tacana tribe in the Bolivian Amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation. To assess the ability of extracts from Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke to block genital viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 2. Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke were collected from the Amazon region of La Paz, Bolivia. Extracts were prepared and screened for anti-viral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) using both in vitro and in in vivo models of infection. Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke efficiently blocked HSV-2 infection of cell cultures without major cell cytotoxic effects. Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke could prevent HSV-2 disease development when administered together with virus in a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. In vitro analyses revealed that both plant extracts exerted their anti-HSV-2 effects by interfering with viral cell attachment and entry, but could not block viral replication post entry. These studies show that extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have potent antiviral activities against HSV-2 comparable to those two previously identified plants, Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC. These studies confirm that plants used by the Tacana tribe could be explored further for the development of novel topical antiviral microbicides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Optimization Technique in Scheduling Duck Tours

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazwani M. Y.; Khoo; C. F.; Hasrul Nisham R.

    2011-01-01

    Tourism industries are rapidly increased for the last few years especially in Malaysia. In order to attract more tourists, Malaysian Governance encourages any effort to increase Malaysian tourism industry. One of the efforts in attracting more tourists in Malacca, Malaysia is a duck tour. Duck tour is an amphibious sightseeing tour that works in two types of engines, hence, it required a huge cost to operate and maintain the vehicle. To other country, it is not so new but...

  7. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  8. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasite's potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  9. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overall ... Then the first-strand cDNAs were syn- thesized ... opment, Tokyo, Japan) and DNAMAN demo software.

  10. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Results: Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076 showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. Conclusion: The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  11. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  12. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hatchability of incubated duck eggs owing to restricted feed intake. ... Egg numbers, infertile eggs, fertile eggs, dead embryos, and duck- lings hatched were recorded for each of the 12 pens. At the same time as the six male and 24 female ducks were ..... treatment but thereafter there was a drop, even lower than the.

  13. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  14. Dendritic cells and hepatocytes use distinct pathways to process protective antigen from plasmodium in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A Cockburn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-protective CD8+ T cells specific for the circumsporozoite (CS protein are primed by dendritic cells (DCs after sporozoite injection by infected mosquitoes. The primed cells then eliminate parasite liver stages after recognizing the CS epitopes presented by hepatocytes. To define the in vivo processing of CS by DCs and hepatocytes, we generated parasites carrying a mutant CS protein containing the H-2K(b epitope SIINFEKL, and evaluated the T cell response using transgenic and mutant mice. We determined that in both DCs and hepatocytes CS epitopes must reach the cytosol and use the TAP transporters to access the ER. Furthermore, we used endosomal mutant (3d and cytochrome c treated mice to address the role of cross-presentation in the priming and effector phases of the T cell response. We determined that in DCs, CS is cross-presented via endosomes while, conversely, in hepatocytes protein must be secreted directly into the cytosol. This suggests that the main targets of protective CD8+ T cells are parasite proteins exported to the hepatocyte cytosol. Surprisingly, however, secretion of the CS protein into hepatocytes was not dependent upon parasite-export (Pexel/VTS motifs in this protein. Together, these results indicate that the presentation of epitopes to CD8+ T cells follows distinct pathways in DCs when the immune response is induced and in hepatocytes during the effector phase.

  15. Functional characterization of duck LSm14A in IFN-β induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kexin; Li, Huilin; Chen, Huanchun; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Luo, Rui; Jin, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Human LSm14A is a key component of processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report duck LSm14A (duLSm14A) cloning from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Full-length duLSm14A encoded 461 amino acids and was highly homologous with chicken and swan goose sequences. More interestingly, the duLSm14A mRNA was extensively expressed in all the studied tissues. In DEFs, duLSm14A was localized in the cytoplasm as P-body-like dots. Expression of duLSm14A induced IFN-β through the activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-κB in DEFs. Furthermore, knockdown of duLSm14A by small interfering RNA notably decreased poly(I:C)- or duck reovirus-induced IFN-β production. The present study results indicate that the duLSm14A is an essential sensor that mediates duck innate immunity against viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nematodes of the genus Amidostomum (Railliet et Henry, 1909) in wild ducks (Anatinae) of North-western Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavetska, K.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed to quantify infections with nematodes of the genus Amidostomum in wild ducks of north-western Poland. The birds examined (282 individuals re-presenting 16 species) belonged to three, ecologically different, tribes: the Anatini, Aythyini and Mergini. The 923 individuals of

  17. Measurement of Phenotype Characteristics of Sasak Ducks: Indian Runner Ducks of Lombok Island Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil; Budi Indarsih

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the phenotype characteristics of Sasak ducks in Lombok Island. The study used 64 Sasak ducks at production stage which were kept intensively by small holder farmers. Observations on the characteristics of the feather color were carried out directly on each animal. The data observed were feather colors, beak color, and the color of the foot and shank, while the data on the size of the body that was observed were body weight, beak length, neck length, back ...

  18. U.V.-enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated herpes virus by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.; Yager, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Carcinogen treatment of cultured mammalian cells prior to infection with u.v.-irradiated virus results in enhanced virus survival and mutagenesis suggesting the induction of SOS-type processes. In this paper, we report the development of a primary rat hepatocyte culture system to investigate cellular responses to DNA damage which may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. We have obtained data demonstrating that enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occurs in hepatocytes irradiated with u.v. Cultured hepatocytes were pretreated with u.v. at the time of enhanced DNA synthesis. These treatments caused an inhibition followed by a recovery of DNA synthesis. At various times after pretreatment, the hepatocytes were infected with control or u.v.-irradiated HSV-1 at low multiplicity, and virus survival was measured by direct plaque assay. U.v.-irradiated HSV-1 exhibited the expected two-component survival curve in control or u.v. pretreated hepatocytes. The magnitude of enhanced reactivation of HSV-1 was dependent on the u.v. dose to the hepatocytes, the time of infection following u.v. pretreatment, and the level of DNA synthesis at the time of pretreatment. These results suggest that u.v. treatment of rat hepatocytes causes the induction of SOS-type functions that may have a role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis

  19. Construction of an infectious plasmid clone of Muscovy duck parvovirus by TA cloning and creation of a partially attenuated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, T-Y; Li, K-P; Ou, S-C; Shien, J-H; Lu, H-M; Chang, P-C

    2015-01-01

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection is a highly contagious and fatal disease of Muscovy ducklings. The infectious clone methodology is a valuable tool to study the pathogenic mechanisms of viruses, but no infectious clone of MDPV is yet available. In this study, a plasmid clone containing the full-length genome of MDPV was constructed using the TA cloning methodology. This MDPV clone was found to be infectious after transfection of primary Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells and passage in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the K75N mutation in the VP1 protein of MDPV resulted in the partial attenuation of the virus. The availability of an MDPV infectious clone can facilitate investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of MDPV and development of vaccines against diseases caused by MDPV.

  20. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of serum neutralizing antibodies against newly emerged duck Tembusu virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since April 2010, domesticated ducks in China have been suffering from an emerging infectious disease characterized by retarded growth, high fever, loss of appetite, decline in egg production, and death. The causative agent was identified as a duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV, a member of the Ntaya virus (NTAV group within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. DTMUV is highly contagious and spreads rapidly in many species of ducks. More than 10 million shelducks have been infected and approximately 1 million died in 2010. The disease remains a constant threat to the duck industry; however, it is not known whether DTMUV can infect humans or other mammalians, despite the fact that the virus has spread widely in southeast China, one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The lack of reliable methods to detect the serum antibodies against DTMUV has limited our ability to conduct epidemiological investigations in various natural hosts and to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines to DTMUV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 1F5 binding specifically to the E protein was developed. Based on the mAb, a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against DTMUV. The average value of percent inhibition (PI of 350 duck serum samples obtained from DTMUV-free farms was 1.0% ± 5.8% (mean ± SD. The selected cut-off PI values for negative and positive sera were 12.6% (mean +2SD and 18.4% (mean +3SD, respectively. When compared with a serum neutralizing antibody test (SNT using chicken embryonated eggs, the rate of coincidence was 70.6% between the blocking ELISA and SNT, based on the titration of 20 duck DTMUV-positive serum samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The blocking ELISA based on a neutralizing mAb allowed rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of neutralization-related antibodies against DTMUV.

  1. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  2. Factor VIIa binding and internalization in hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G; Sorensen, B B; Petersen, L C

    2005-01-01

    The liver is believed to be the primary clearance organ for coagulation proteases, including factor VIIa (FVIIa). However, at present, clearance mechanisms for FVIIa in liver are unknown. To obtain information on the FVIIa clearance mechanism, we investigated the binding and internalization...... no effect. HEPG2 cells internalized FVIIa with a rate of 10 fmol 10(-5) cells h(-1). In contrast to HEPG2 cells, FVIIa binding to primary rat hepatocytes was completely independent of TF, and excess unlabeled FVIIa partly reduced the binding of 125I-FVIIa to rat hepatocytes. Further, compared with HEPG2...... cells, three- to fourfold more FVIIa bound to rat primary hepatocytes, and the bound FVIIa was internalized at a faster rate. Similar FVIIa binding and internalization profiles were observed in primary human hepatocytes. Plasma inhibitors had no effect on FVIIa binding and internalization in hepatocytes...

  3. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo, Wang; Yongbao, Gu; Fengmei, Li [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics; and others

    1989-02-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as {gamma}-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome.

  4. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Gu Yongbao; Li Fengmei

    1989-01-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as γ-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome

  5. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ducks in intensive management systems came into lay significantly (P<0.05) earlier, (IO, 203 days and IW, 207 days) than ducks in semi-intensive management system (248 days). Eggs from ducks in IO and IW were significantly (P<0.05) heavier (76.35 and 76.27g, respectively) than eggs from those in SI. Clutch sizes were ...

  6. New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netheriancts/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs Of influenza-like illness 2-3 clays following the killing of the ducks......During the past years increasing incidences of influenza A zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza A Viruses. We present here a convenient one-step RT-PCR method that will amplify full......-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) directly from clinical samples and from all known subtypes of influenza A. We applied the method on samples collected in September 2003 from a Danish flock of mallards with general health problems and by this a previously undescribed influenza A subtype combination, H5N...

  7. An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shamim; Khan, Salah Uddin; Mikolon, Andrea; Rahman, Mohammad Ziaur; Abedin, Jaynal; Zeidner, Nord; Sturm-Ramirez, Katherine; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-05-01

    In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype. The median age of the ducks was 24 months (range: 8-36 months) and the median flock size was 300 ducks (range: 105-1100). Of 1860 egg yolk samples, 556 (30%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-32) were positive for antibodies against H5 and 58 flocks (94%) had at least one egg with H5-specific antibodies. Of 496 fecal samples, 121 (24%, 95% CI: 22-29) had detectable influenza A RNA. Thirty-three flocks (53%) had at least one fecal sample positive for influenza A RNA. Nomadic ducks in Bangladesh are commonly infected with avian influenza A (H5) virus and may serve as a bridging host for transmission of avian influenza A (H5) virus or other avian influenza A viruses subtypes between wild waterfowl, backyard poultry, and humans in Bangladesh. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

  9. Comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1979-05-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.

  10. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a huge increase in the interest and attention directed toward sea ducks, the Mergini tribe. This has been inspired, in large part, by the conservation concerns associated with numerical declines in several sea duck species and populations, as well as a growing appreciation for their interesting ecological attributes. Reflecting the considerable research recently conducted on this tribe, Ecology and Conservation of North American Sea Ducks examines the 15 extant species of sea ducks from North America.

  11. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  12. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  13. Hepatitis E Virus Induces Hepatocyte Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Pathway in Mongolian Gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils can be infected by hepatitis E virus (HEV, which induces the hepatic injury. Here, the mitochondria in hepatocytes from HEV-infected gerbils were considerably swollen, thin cristae. After HEV infection, the activity of superoxide dismutase significantly decreased (p < 0.01, while malondialdehyde concentrations significantly increased, compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01. Adenosine triphosphatase levels decreased significantly in the hepatocyte of the inoculated groups, compared with those in control group (p < 0.05 at days 21, 28, 42 post-inoculation (dpi as well. Furthermore, the levels of ATP synthetase ATP5A1 significantly decreased during HEV infection, compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. According to the TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL detection, TUNEL positive hepatocytes increased in the inoculated group, compared with that in the control group (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of the mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis regulating proteins, Bax and Bcl-2, in the HEV-infected gerbils (p < 0.05 was observed. However, cytochrome c levels in mitochondria decreased, while this molecule was detected in the cytoplasm of the infected animals, in contrast to that in the control group. Apaf-1, and active caspase-9 and -3 levels were shown to be significantly higher in the inoculated group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. Taken together, our results demonstrated that HEV infection induces hepatocyte injuries and activity of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which trigger the hepatocyte apoptosis in Mongolian gerbils.

  14. OPEC ducks quota issue amid glut worries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has ducked the question of reestablishing quotas despite the looming prospect of a second quarter oil price slide. OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna late last month approved continuing free-for-all production in the first quarter and ordered the ministerial monitoring committee to tackle the question of second quarter production levels when it meets in Geneva Feb. 12. Oil markets responded to the lack of action by dropping futures prices

  15. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is at the eastern edge of North America and has migratory bird connections with the continental mainland as well as across the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report a 4-year avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemiological study in ducks in the St. John's region of Newfoundland. The overall prevalence of AIV detection in ducks during this study was 7.2%, with American Black Ducks contributing the vast majority of the collected samples and the AIV positives. The juvenile ducks showed a significantly higher AIV detection rate (10.6%) compared with adults (3.4%). Seasonally, AIV prevalence rates were higher in the autumn (8.4%), but positives were still detected in the winter (4.6%). Preliminary serology tests showed a high incidence of previous AIV infection (20/38, 52.6%). A total of 43 viruses were characterized for their HA-NA or HA subtypes, which revealed a large diversity of AIV subtypes and little recurrence of subtypes from year to year. Investigation of the movement patterns of ducks in this region showed that it is a largely non-migratory duck population, which may contribute to the observed pattern of high AIV subtype turnover. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 H1N1 and one H5N4 AIVs showed these viruses were highly similar to other low pathogenic AIV sequences from waterfowl in North America and assigned all gene segments into American-avian clades. Notably, the H1N1 viruses, which were identified in consecutive years, possessed homologous genomes. Such detection of homologous AIV genomes across years is rare, but indicates the role of the environmental reservoir in viral perpetuation.

  17. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of eight avian influenza A viruses of H5 subtype for chickens, turkeys, ducks and quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Parsons, G; Manvell, R J

    1986-01-01

    Clinical signs, death, virus excretion and immune response were measured in 2-week-old chickens, turkeys, quail and ducks infected by intramuscular, intranasal and contact routes with eight influenza viruses of H5 subtype. Six of the viruses: A/chicken/Scotland/59 (H5N1), ck/Scot; A/tern/South Africa/61 (H5N3), tern/SA; A/turkey/Ontario/ 7732/66 (H5N9); ty/Ont; A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2); Pa/1370; A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5N8); ty/Ireland, and A/duck/Ireland/ 113/84 (HSN8); dk/Ireland, were highly pathogenic for chickens and turkeys. Two viruses, A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 (H5N2), Pa/1 and A/turkey/Italy/ZA/80 (H5N2), ty/Italy, were of low pathogenicity. Ck/Scot was more pathogenic for chickens than turkeys while ty/Ont was more pathogenic for turkeys than chickens. Other viruses showed little difference in their pathogenicity for these two hosts. No clinical signs or deaths were seen in any of the infected ducks. Only two viruses, dk/Ireland and ty/Ireland, produced consistent serological responses in ducks, although intramuscular infection with tern/SA and ty/Italy resulted in some ducks with positive HI titres. These four were the only viruses reisolated from ducks. Quail showed some resistance to viruses which were highly pathogenic for chickens and turkeys, most notably to ck/Scot and ty/Ont and to a lesser extent tern/SA and Pa/1370. Transmission of virus from intranasally infected birds to birds placed in contact varied considerably with both host and infecting virus and the various combinations of these.

  18. Carcass yields of two different strains of ducks raised in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillak, St. Y. F. G.; Mulyantini, N. G. A.; Sipahelut, G. M.; Lole, U. R.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if there is a difference in performance and carcass yield between ducks of two different strains raised in different altitude. Ducks different strains (Muscovy vs Pekin ducks) and they raised either in high or low altitude (high altitude which was between 500 and 1000m vs low altitude which was below 500m). All ducks were given one of two different diet s and provided water ad libitum. The diets were: 1) commercial diet, and 2) local diet. There were three replicate per treatment and there were 5 ducks per replication. Ducks from each strain were standardized to a similar weight. The results show that Pekin ducks carcass performance was significantly better than Muscovy ducks. Ducks given diet 2 had significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Pekin ducks is significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Muscovy ducks.

  19. Replication and pathogenic potential of influenza A virus subtypes H3, H7, and H15 from free-range ducks in Bangladesh in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Krauss, Scott; Vogel, Peter; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2018-04-25

    Surveillance of wild aquatic birds and free-range domestic ducks in the Tanguar Haor wetlands in Bangladesh has identified influenza virus subtypes H3N6, H7N1, H7N5, H7N9, and H15N9. Molecular characterization of these viruses indicates their contribution to the genesis of new genotypes of H5N1 influenza viruses from clade 2.3.2.1a that are dominant in poultry markets in Bangladesh as well as to the genesis of the highly pathogenic H5N8 virus currently causing disease outbreaks in domestic poultry in Europe and the Middle East. Therefore, we studied the antigenicity, replication, and pathogenicity of influenza viruses isolated from Tanguar Haor in the DBA/2J mouse model. All viruses replicated in the lung without prior mammalian adaptation, and H7N1 and H7N9 viruses caused 100% and 60% mortality, respectively. H7N5 viruses replicated only in the lungs, whereas H7N1 and H7N9 viruses also replicated in the heart, liver, and brain. Replication and transmission studies in mallard ducks showed that H7N1 and H7N9 viruses replicated in ducks without clinical signs of disease and shed at high titers from the cloaca of infected and contact ducks, which could facilitate virus transmission and spread. Our results indicate that H7 avian influenza viruses from free-range ducks can replicate in mammals, cause severe disease, and be efficiently transmitted to contact ducks. Our study highlights the role of free-range ducks in the spread of influenza viruses to other species in live poultry markets and the potential for these viruses to infect and cause disease in mammals.

  20. Generation of human hepatocytes by stem cell technology: definition of the hepatocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, Jan G; Brulport, Marc; Schormann, Wiebke; Bauer, Alexander; Hermes, Matthias; Nussler, Andreas K; Fandrich, Fred; Ruhnke, Maren; Ungefroren, Hendrik; Griffin, Louise; Bockamp, Ernesto; Oesch, Franz; von Mach, Marc-Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Since 1999, numerous articles have reported the generation of hepatocytes from different types of extrahepatic stem or precursor cells. This opens exciting new possibilities for pharmacology and toxicology, as well as for cell therapy. Hepatocyte marker expression, including albumin, cytokeratin 18, c-met, alpha-fetoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 and -2B6, has been observed after transplantation of different types of human stem cells into the liver of laboratory animals or in vitro after incubation with cytokines. These intriguing observations have prompted scientists to classify stem cell-derived cell populations as hepatocytes. However, this conclusion may be premature. It has been shown that factors of the liver microenvironment can induce expression of a limited number of hepatocyte marker genes in nonhepatic cell types. To conclude on the grounds of a limited number of markers that these cells are true hepatocytes is not indicated. In this case one should carefully evaluate crucial hepatocyte-defining enzymatic properties. The present article: i) reviews studies describing the fate of extrahepatic human stem and precursor cells in livers of laboratory animals, including the possibility of cell fusion; and ii) critically discusses the phenotype of stem cells after application of various differentiation protocols aimed at generating human hepatocytes. In addition, the necessary criteria needed for defining a true hepatocyte are suggested. Establishing the necessary properties for stem cell-derived hepatocytes is timely and reasonable, and thus avoids further misleading semantic confusion. Finally, it is essential to understand that the definition of a bona fide hepatocyte should not be limited to qualitative assays, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, but has to include a quantitative analysis of enzymatic activities, which allows direct comparison with primary hepatocytes. Although the stem cell-derived-hepatocyte

  1. Comparison of the biological features between human fetal hepatocyte and immortalized L-02 hepatocyte in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Weiwei; Teng Gaojun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibilities of the potential donors in liver cell transplantation using the human fetal hepatocytes and immortalized L-02 hepatocytes by comparing their biological features. Methods: Human fetal hepatocytes were isolated from aborted fetal livers (gestational ages from 14 w to 24 w) by an improved two-stage perfusion method and cultured in a conditioned medium without any growth factors. α-fetal protein (AFP) and albumin (ALB) were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and cytokeratin-19 (CK-19 ) was identified by cellular immunochemistry study. Immortalized L-02 hepatocytes were cultured in the same condition and the characteristic proteins were detected by the same methods. Results: The viability of human fetal hepatocytes was approximately 95% using the perfusion method, and the maximum survival time of the cultured hepatocytes was 3 weeks. The expression of AFP, ALB, and CK19 was detected at the same time, especially during Day 3 to Day 7 in the culture. By comparison, the proliferation ability of L-02 hepatocyte was greater, although with a lower level of ALB secretion. The expression of AFP and CK19 was not detected. Furthermore, during the long culture, L-02 hepatocytes may undergo a morphologic change and fail to express ALB. Conclusion: Human fetal hepatocyte may be a practical donor for hepatocyte transplantation with its high-level protein expression and potential bi-differentiation ability. In view of the absent expression of ALB and the morphologic change in culture, although with better proliferation, L-02 hepatocyte seems not useful for hepatocyte transplantation

  2. Susceptibility of Duck and Turkey to servere hypercapnic hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  4. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three studies on pig-duck-fish-azolla integration were conducted simultaneously in La Union, Philippines. Growth performance of pigs and ducks as affected by different levels of azolla meal in their feed, and that of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under varying stocking rates are presented and discussed.

  5. Assessing genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Nigerian duck populations were assessed. A total of 591 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 87 indigenous ducks from two populations in Nigeria were analyzed. Seven haplotypes and 70 polymorphic sites were ...

  6. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  7. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  8. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Yun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest ( p ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.

  10. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Huairan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Jiang, Yanyu; Xu, Qianqian; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating diseases to the poultry industry. The causative agents of ND are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which are members of the genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are generally considered potential reservoirs of NDV and may show few or no clinical signs when infected with viruses that are obviously virulent in chickens. However, ND outbreaks in domestic waterfowl have been frequently reported in many countries in the past decade. In this study, 18 NDV strains isolated from domestic ducks in southern and eastern China, between 2005 and 2013, were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and they exhibited genome sizes of 15,186 nucleotides (nt), 15,192 nt, and 15,198 nt, which follow the "rule of six" that is required for the replication of NDV strains. Based on the cleavage site of the F protein and pathogenicity tests in chickens, 17 of our NDV isolates were categorized as lentogenic viruses, and one was characterized as a velogenic virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the F gene and the complete genome sequences showed that there are at least four genotypes of NDV circulating in domestic ducks; GD1, AH224, and AH209 belong to genotypes VIId, Ib, and II of class II NDVs, respectively, and the remaining 15 isolates belong to genotype 1b of class I NDVs. Cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition tests demonstrated that the antigenic relatedness between NDV strains may be associated with their genotypes, rather than their hosts. These results suggest that though those NDV isolates were from duck, they still don't form a phylogenetic group because they came from the same species; however, they may play an important role in promoting the evolution of NDVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Observations on the distribution and control of Salmonella in commercial duck hatcheries in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, F; Birch, C; Davies, R H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection causes a significant number of cases of gastroenteritis and more serious illnesses in people in the UK and EU. The serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most frequently associated with foodborne illness in Europe. Whilst control programmes exist to monitor these serovars in the chicken and turkey sectors, no regulatory programme is currently in place for the duck sector. A voluntary industry scheme (Duck Assurance Scheme) was launched in the UK in 2010. Hatcheries act as focal points of Salmonella contamination, in particular if Salmonella-contaminated eggs from positive breeding farms enter the hatchery. Five duck hatcheries were visited in this study and four were positive for Salmonella. S. Typhimurium DT8 and S. Indiana were isolated from hatchery 1 and S. Typhimurium DT41 and S. Senftenberg were isolated from hatchery 3. S. Kottbus, S. Bovismorbificans and S. Senftenberg were isolated from hatchery 2 and S. Kedougou was isolated from hatchery 4. Advice on the control/elimination of Salmonella was provided at each visit and a longitudinal study was undertaken to monitor its effectiveness. Extensive sampling was carried out in the hatcheries visited and the tray wash area and waste/external areas had the highest probability of being contaminated. The hatcher area was also found to be a primary focus of contamination. Improvements of farm and hatchery biosecurity standards have resulted in a reduction of hatchery contamination in this study and in previous investigations. Hatcheries 1 and 5 were cleared of Salmonella, demonstrating that elimination of Salmonella contamination from duck hatcheries is achievable.

  12. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  13. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Challis, Benjamin; Shannon, Nicholas; Hoare, Matthew; Heaney, Judith; Alexander, Graeme J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance

  14. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinthan, Aloysious [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Challis, Benjamin [Institute of Metabolic Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shannon, Nicholas [Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hoare, Matthew [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Heaney, Judith [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Foundation for Liver Research, Institute of Hepatology, London (United Kingdom); Alexander, Graeme J.M., E-mail: gja1000@doctors.org.uk [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance.

  15. Enzymatic treatment of duck hepatitis B virus: Topology of the surface proteins for virions and noninfectious subviral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, Claudia; Matschl, Urte; Bruns, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The large surface antigen L of duck hepatitis B virus exhibits a mixed topology with the preS domains of the protein alternatively exposed to the particles' interior or exterior. After separating virions from subviral particles (SVPs), we compared their L topologies and showed that both particle types exhibit the same amount of L with the following differences: 1-preS of intact virions was enzymatically digested with chymotrypsin, whereas in SVPs only half of preS was accessible, 2-phosphorylation of L at S118 was completely removed by phosphatase treatment only in virions, 3-iodine-125 labeling disclosed a higher ratio of exposed preS to S domains in virions compared to SVPs. These data point towards different surface architectures of virions and SVPs. Because the preS domain acts in binding to a cellular receptor of hepatocytes, our findings implicate the exclusion of SVPs as competitors for the receptor binding and entry of virions

  16. Suboptimal protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam in ducks vaccinated with commercial poultry vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric; Davis, C Todd; Donis, Ruben; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Hoang Dang; Do, Hoa Thi; Inui, Ken; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2013-10-09

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries including Vietnam, and play a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) [FAO]. In this study, we examined the protective efficacy in ducks of two commercial H5N1 vaccines widely used in Vietnam; Re-1 containing A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 hemagglutinin (HA) clade 0 antigens, and Re-5 containing A/duck/Anhui/1/2006 HA clade 2.3.4 antigens. Ducks received two doses of either vaccine at 7 and at 14 or 21 days of age followed by challenge at 30 days of age with viruses belonging to the HA clades 1.1, 2.3.4.3, 2.3.2.1.A and 2.3.2.1.B isolated between 2008 and 2011 in Vietnam. Ducks vaccinated with the Re-1 vaccine were protected after infection with the two H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in 2008 (HA clades 1.1 and 2.3.4.3) showing no mortality and limited virus shedding. The Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines conferred 90-100% protection against mortality after challenge with the 2010 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2.1.A); but vaccinated ducks shed virus for more than 7 days after challenge. Similarly, the Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines only showed partial protection against the 2011 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2.1.A and 2.3.2.1.B), with a high proportion of vaccinated ducks shedding virus for more than 10 days. Furthermore, 50% mortality was observed in ducks vaccinated with Re-1 and challenged with the 2.3.2.1.B virus. The HA proteins of the 2011 challenge viruses had the greatest number of amino acid differences from the two vaccines as compared to the viruses from 2008 and 2009, which correlates with the lesser protection observed with these viruses. These studies demonstrate the suboptimal protection conferred by the Re-1 and Re-5 commercial vaccines in ducks against H5N1 HPAI clade 2.3.2.1 viruses, and underscore the importance of monitoring vaccine efficacy in the control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  18. Acquisition of lipid metabolic capability in hepatocyte-like cells directly induced from mouse fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka eMiura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the numbers of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH have increased worldwide. NAFLD and NASH are known as risk factors for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because many factors can promote the progression of NAFLD and NASH, the treatment of these patients involves various strategies. Thus, it is desired that drugs for patients with NAFLD and NASH should be developed more easily and rapidly using cultures of primary hepatocytes. However, it is difficult to use hepatocytes as a tool for drug screening, because these cells cannot be functionally maintained in culture. Thus, in this study, we sought to examine whether induced hepatocyte-like (iHep cells, which were directly induced from mouse dermal fibroblasts by infection with a retrovirus expressing Hnf4α and Foxa3, possess the potential for lipid metabolism, similar to hepatocytes. Our data showed that iHep cells were capable of synthesizing lipids from a cis-unsaturated fatty acid, a trans-unsaturated fatty acid, and a saturated fatty acid, accumulating the synthesized lipids in cellular vesicles, and secreting the lipids into the culture medium. Moreover, the lipid synthesis in iHep cells was significantly inhibited in cultures with lipid metabolism improvers. These results demonstrate that iHep cells could be useful not only for screening of drugs for patients with NAFLD and NASH, but also for elucidation of the mechanisms underlying hereditary lipid metabolism disorders, as an alternative to hepatocytes.

  19. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  20. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of Goose parvovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Palya , Vilmos; Zolnai , Anna; Benyeda , Zsofia; Kovács , Edit; Kardi , Veronika; Mató , Tamás

    2009-01-01

    Abstract From early `70s till now numerous cases of ?short beak and dwarfism syndrome? have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. The syndrome was suggested to be caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not been reproduced by experimental infection so far. The aim of the present study was to characterize the vi...

  1. Multiple losses of flight and recent speciation in steamer ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Tara L.; Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Steamer ducks (Tachyeres) comprise four species, three of which are flightless. The flightless species are believed to have diverged from a flying common ancestor during the Late Pleistocene; however, their taxonomy remains contentious. Of particular interest is the previously unstudied population of flying steamer ducks in the Falkland Islands. We present the first genetic data from this insular population, and illustrate that the flying and flightless steamer ducks on the Falkland Islands are genetically indistinguishable, in contrast to their traditional classification as separate species. The three species that reside in continental South America form a genetically distinct lineage from the Falkland Island ducks. The Falkland steamer ducks diverged from their continental relatives 2.2–0.6 million years ago, coincident with a probable land bridge connecting the Falkland Islands to the mainland. The three continental species share a common ancestor approximately 15 000 years ago, possibly owing to isolation during a recent glacial advance. The continental steamer duck species are not reciprocally monophyletic, but show some amount of genetic differentiation between them. Each lineage of Tachyeres represents a different stage between flight and flightlessness. Their phylogenetic relationships suggest multiple losses of flight and/or long-term persistence of mixed-flight capability. As such, steamer ducks may provide a model system to study the evolution of flightlessness. PMID:22319122

  2. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  3. Molting characteristics of crossbreds between Alabio and Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molting is a problem for duck farmers, during which the ducks stop laying eggs. Molting characteristics may be altered through crossing between non-molting to molting ducks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molting characteristics of the crossing between Alabio and Pekin ducks. The materials used were 90 female AP (Alabio males x Pekin females and 90 female PA (Pekin males x Alabio females, 25 female Alabio and 25 female Pekin ducks. The ducks were housed in individual cages at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor. Variables measured were the length of molting and egg production in 30 weeks, data were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by the estimation of the value of heterosis. Result showed that the molting of Pekin ducks was 71.31±9.36 days, it was longer than Alabio, AP or PA ducks, which were respectively 42.44±8.59, 43.63±4.88 and 49.35±4.85 days (P<0.01. Egg production of Pekin duck (56.41±4.59 was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that of Alabio, AP or PA, which were 72.48±3.24, 83.75±1.39 and 76.12±1.68 respectively. The heterosis of molting period of AP was higher than that of PA (-23.29 vs -13.23%. The heterosis of egg production of AP was higher than PA (29.96 vs 18.12%. It is concluded that the AP crossbred could be utilized as the initial population to produce a superior line characterized by high egg production and controllable molting.

  4. Transcriptome of extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes.

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    Felix Royo

    Full Text Available The discovery that the cells communicate through emission of vesicles has opened new opportunities for better understanding of physiological and pathological mechanisms. This discovery also provides a novel source for non-invasive disease biomarker research. Our group has previously reported that hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles with protein content reflecting the cell-type of origin. Here, we show that the extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes also carry RNA. We report the messenger RNA composition of extracellular vesicles released in two non-tumoral hepatic models: primary culture of rat hepatocytes and a progenitor cell line obtained from a mouse foetal liver. We describe different subpopulations of extracellular vesicles with different densities and protein and RNA content. We also show that the RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles released by primary hepatocytes can be transferred to rat liver stellate-like cells and promote their activation. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that liver-damaging drugs galactosamine, acetaminophen, and diclofenac modify the RNA content of these vesicles. To summarize, we show that the extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes contain various RNAs. These vesicles, likely to be involved in the activation of stellate cells, might become a new source for non-invasive identification of the liver toxicity markers.

  5. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

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    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  6. Hepatitis B virus evasion from cGAS sensing in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Eloi R; Yim, Seung-Ae; Heydmann, Laura; El Saghire, Houssein; Bach, Charlotte; Turon-Lagot, Vincent; Mailly, Laurent; Durand, Sarah C; Lucifora, Julie; Durantel, David; Pessaux, Patrick; Manel, Nicolas; Hirsch, Ivan; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Pochet, Nathalie; Schuster, Catherine; Baumert, Thomas F

    2018-04-20

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer worldwide. The mechanisms of viral genome sensing and the evasion of innate immune responses by HBV infection are still poorly understood. Recently, the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was identified as a DNA sensor. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of cGAS in sensing of HBV infection and elucidate the mechanisms of viral evasion. We performed functional studies including loss- and gain-of-function experiments combined with cGAS effector gene expression profiling in an infectious cell culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice. Here we show that cGAS is expressed in the human liver, primary human hepatocytes and human liver chimeric mice. While naked relaxed-circular HBV DNA is sensed in a cGAS-dependent manner in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes, host cell recognition of viral nucleic acids is abolished during HBV infection, suggesting escape from sensing, likely during packaging of the genome into the viral capsid. While the hepatocyte cGAS pathway is functionally active, as shown by reduction of viral cccDNA levels in gain-of-function studies, HBV infection suppressed cGAS expression and function in cell culture models and humanized mice. HBV exploits multiple strategies to evade sensing and antiviral activity of cGAS and its effector pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Protection patterns in duck and chicken after homo- or hetero-subtypic reinfections with H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses: a comparative study.

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    Coralie Chaise

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are circulating continuously in ducks, inducing a mostly asymptomatic infection, while chickens are accidental hosts highly susceptible to respiratory disease. This discrepancy might be due to a different host response to the virus between these two bird species and in particular to a different susceptibility to reinfection. In an attempt to address this question, we analyzed, in ducks and in chickens, the viral load in infected tissues and the humoral immune response after experimental primary and secondary challenge infections with either homologous or heterologous low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV. Following homologous reinfection, ducks were only partially protected against viral shedding in the lower intestine in conjunction with a moderate antibody response, whereas chickens were totally protected against viral shedding in the upper respiratory airways and developed a stronger antibody response. On the contrary, heterologous reinfection was not followed by a reduced viral excretion in the upper airways of chickens, while ducks were still partially protected from intestinal excretion of the virus, with no correlation to the antibody response. Our comparative study provides a comprehensive demonstration of the variation of viral tropism and control of the host humoral response to LPAIV between two different bird species with different degrees of susceptibility to avian influenza.

  8. Identification of alternatively spliced isoforms of interleukin-2/15 receptor β chain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Woo H; Yeo, Jaeseung; Fernandez, Cherry P; Kim, Suk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-12-15

    Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 receptor β (IL-2/15Rβ, CD122) play important roles in signal transduction for biological functions of IL-2 and IL-15. We found that ducks possess three different IL-2/15Rβ transcripts, a conventional form (duIL-2/15Rβ) and two variants. Comparisons between the cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the two variants, duIL-2/15Rβ-d7 and duIL-2/15Rβ-d9, were novel spliced transcripts resulting from skipping exons 7 and 9, respectively. Expression profiles of duIL-2/15Rβ and its isoforms were examined in healthy tissues, concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and in livers and spleens of Riemerella anatipestifer-infected ducks using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Generally, duIL-2/15Rβ-d9 expression was undetectable in healthy tissues, ConA-activated samples, and R. anatipestifer-infected ducks. Expression levels of duIL-2/15Rβ transcript were relatively high to moderate in all healthy tissues tested, while duIL-2/15Rβ-d7 expression was low. Compared to untreated controls, expression levels of duIL-2/15Rβ were elevated in ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes and in livers on day 7 in R. anatipestifer-infected ducks, while duIL-2/15Rβ-d7 expression was unchanged. Additionally, COS-7 cells transfected with duIL-2/15Rβ, duIL-2/15Rβ-d7, or duIL-2/15Rβ-d9 constructs generated 73 kilodalton (kDa), 31kDa, and 40kDa proteins, respectively. This study identified three different IL-2/15Rβ transcripts, including two isoforms generated by alternative splicing and their gene expression patterns in stimulated conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks.

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    Shin-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus (APMV serotypes 1-9 have been isolated from many different avian species. APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. Very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other APMV serotypes. Here, this was evaluated for prototypes strains of APMV serotypes 2-9 in cell culture and in chickens and ducks. In cell culture, only APMV-1, -3 and -5 induced syncytium formation. In chicken DF1 cells, APMV-3 replicated with an efficiency approaching that of APMV-1, while APMV-2 and -5 replicated to lower, intermediate titers and the others were much lower. Mean death time (MDT assay in chicken eggs and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test in 1-day-old SPF chicks demonstrated that APMV types 2-9 were avirulent. Evaluation of replication in primary neuronal cells in vitro as well as in the brains of 1-day-old chicks showed that, among types 2-9, only APMV-3 was neurotropic, although this virus was not neurovirulent. Following intranasal infection of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, replication of APMV types 2-9 was mostly restricted to the respiratory tract, although APMV-3 was neuroinvasive and neurotropic (but not neurovirulent and also was found in the spleen. Experimental intranasal infection of 3-week-old mallard ducks with the APMVs did not produce any clinical signs (even for APMV-1 and exhibited restricted viral replication of the APMVs (including APMV-1 to the upper respiratory tract regardless of their isolation source, indicating avirulence of APMV types 1-9 in mallard ducks. The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes.

  10. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  11. Renal medullary AA amyloidosis, hepatocyte dissociation and multinucleated hepatocytes in a 14-year-old free-ranging lioness (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old lioness, originating from Etosha in Namibia, and a member of a pride in Pilanesberg National Park since translocation in 1994, was euthanased due to fight-related vertebral fracture and spinal injury, incurred approximately 6-8 weeks previously. Blood specimens collected at the time of death showed mild anaemia and a leukogram reflecting stress and chronic infection. Necropsy conducted within 2 hours of death was on a dehydrated, emaciated animal with hindquarter wasting and chronic traumatic friction injuries from dragging her hindlegs. There was cellulitis in the region of bite-wounds adjacent to the thoraco-lumbar vertebral fracture, at which site there was spinal cord compression, and there was marked intestinal helminthiasis. The outer renal medullae appeared pale and waxy and the liver was macroscopically unremarkable. Histopathology and electron microscopy of the kidneys revealed multifocal to coalescing deposits of proximal medullary interstitial amyloid, which fluoresced strongly with thioflavine T, and was sensitive to potassium permanganate treatment prior to Congo Red staining, thus indicating inflammatory (AA origin. There was diffuse hepatocyte dissociation, as well as numerous binucleated and scattered multinucleated (up to 8 nuclei/cell hepatocytes, with swollen hepatocyte mitochondria, in liver examined light microscopically. Ultrastructurally, the mono-, bi- and multinucleated hepatocytes contained multifocal irregular membrane-bound accumulations of finely-granular, amorphous material both intra-cytoplasmically and intra-nuclearly, as well as evidence of irreversible mitochondrial injury. The incidence and relevance in cats and other species of amyloidosis, particularly with renal medullary distribution, as well as of hepatocyte dissociation and multinucleation, as reported in selected literature, is briefly overviewed and their occurrence in this lioness is discussed.

  12. Long-term culture and expansion of primary human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, G.; Bomze, D.; Heinz, S.; Ramachandran, S.D.; Noerenberg, A.; Cohen, M.; Shibolet, O.; Sklan, E.; Braspenning, J.C.; Nahmias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes have a critical role in metabolism, but their study is limited by the inability to expand primary hepatocytes in vitro while maintaining proliferative capacity and metabolic function. Here we describe the oncostatin M (OSM)-dependent expansion of primary human hepatocytes by low

  13. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  14. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  15. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shunchuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Duck virus enteritis (DVE is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans, which has produced significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl. With the purpose of decreasing economic losses in the commercial duck industry, studying the unknown glycoprotein K (gK of DEV may be a new method for preferably preventing and curing this disease. So this is the first time to product and purify the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody. Through the western blot and ELISA assay, the truncated glycoprotein K (tgK has good antigenicity, also the antibody possesses high specificity and affinity. Meanwhile the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody has the potential to produce subunit vaccines and the functions of neutralizing DEV and anti-DEV infection because of its neutralization titer. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy using the purified rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody as diagnostic antibody was susceptive to detect a small quantity of antigen in tissues or cells. This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks.

  16. Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip test based on the recombinant UL51 protein for detecting antibody against duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV infection causes substantial economic losses to the worldwide duck-producing areas. The monitoring of DEV-specific antibodies is a key to evaluate the effect of DEV vaccine and develop rational immunization programs. Thus, in this study, an immunochromatographic strip (ICS test was developed for detecting DEV serum antibodies. Results The ICS test is based on membrane chromatography, and uses both the purified recombinant UL51 protein conjugated with colloidal gold and goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with colloidal gold as tracers, the purified recombinant UL51 protein as the capture reagent at the test line, and rabbit IgG as the capture reagent at the control line. The specificity of the ICS was evaluated by sera against DEV, Duck hepatitis virus (DHV, Riemerella anatipestifer (RA, Duck E. coli, Muscovy duck parvovirus (MPV, or Duck Influenza viruses (DIV. Only sera against DEV showed the strong positive results. In order to determine the sensitivity of the ICS, anti-DEV serum diluted serially was tested, and the minimum detection limit of 1:128 was obtained. The ICS components, which are provided in a sealed package, require no refrigeration and are stable for 12 months. To evaluate the effect of the ICS, 110 duck serum samples collected from several non-immune duck flocks were simultaneously tested by the ICS test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and neutralization test (NT. The results showed that the sensitivity of the ICS test was almost consistent with ELISA and much higher than NT, has low cost, and is rapid (15 min and easy to perform with no requirement of specialized equipment, reagent or technicians. Conclusions In this work, we successfully developed a simple and rapid ICS test for detecting DEV serum antibodies for the first time. The ICS test was high specific and sensitive for the rapid detection of anti-DEV antibodies, and has great potential to be used for the serological

  17. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Riemerella anatipestifer from ducks in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Soman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to isolate and characterize Riemerella anatipestifer organisms from disease outbreaks in ducks in Kerala. Materials and Methods: Ducklings, suspected of Riemerella infection, were sacrificed and subjected to post-mortem examination. Heart blood smears and impression smears from liver and spleen were examined for the presence of pathogenic organisms. Heart blood, lung, liver, and spleen collected aseptically from the birds were subjected to isolation trials in brain heart infusion agar and 10% bovine blood agar. The isolates were characterized based on morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests, and their identity were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR amplified DNA was sequenced. The antibiotic sensitivity testing of the isolates were carried out using six antibiotics viz ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, and gentamicin. Results: Colonies suggestive of Riemerella organisms could be isolated on blood agar. Biochemical characterization and PCR confirmed the identity of isolates as R. anatipestifer. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 99% homology to the R. anatipestifer sequences in the NCBI. The antibiogram revealed that the organisms were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the PCR assay can facilitate fast and proper identification of R. anatipestifer infection in ducks. The assay can also differentiate between R. anatipestifer and Pasteurella multocida and can replace the traditional methods of differentiation which are cumbersome and time-consuming.

  18. Identification of antigenic domains in the non-structural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Li, Ming; Yan, Bing; Shao, Shu-Li; Fan, Xing-Dong; Wang, Jia; Wang, Dan-Na

    2016-08-01

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection is widespread in many Muscovy-duck-farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. By means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot, antigenic domains on the non-structural protein (NSP) of MDPV were identified for the first time. On the Western blot, the fragments NS(481-510), NS (501-530), NS (521-550), NS (541-570), NS (561-590), NS (581-610) and NS (601-627) were positive (the numbers in parentheses indicate the location of amino acids), and other fragments were negative. These seven fragments were also reactive in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). We therefore conclude that a linear antigenic domain of the NSP is located at its C-terminal end (amino acid residues 481-627). These results may facilitate future investigations into the function of NSP of MDPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of MDPV infection.

  19. Observations on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Callaby, Rebecca; Davies, Rob

    2017-04-01

    In the European Union, statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, 14 Salmonella-positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study, and faecal samples were those more frequently positive (62% of faecal samples were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (P cleaning and disinfection programme used, there was a statistically significant (P cleaning and disinfection (41.1%) and after cleaning and disinfection (3.1%). After restocking, the number of Salmonella-positive samples increased significantly (P disinfection programme 1 was used were 5.34 times less likely to have samples positive for Salmonella after cleaning and disinfection than farms which implemented programme 2. Formaldehyde acts effectively against Salmonella even in the presence of some residual organic matter. Limited residual contamination on farms after cleaning and disinfection represents a risk of infection for young ducklings, and thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should be implemented to reduce the carry-over of infection between flocks.

  20. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress

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    Mayra Domínguez-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system.

  1. MORPHOLOGY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP REGION USING PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS IN MAGELANG DUCK AND OTHER NATIVE DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purwantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversityof Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelangduck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck in Indonesia. Bloodsample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristicsof body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed usingCompletely Randomized Design with 11 plumage colors as treatments. PCR technique was administeredto amplify fragments in mtDNA D-loop region and PCR products were digested with endonucleaserestriction enzyme AluI and HaeIII. The result showed that morphology diversity of Magelang duck wasstatistically affected by different plumage colors. PCR-RFLP analysis using AluI and HaeIII restrictionenzyme resulted in six combinations of restriction fragment pattern shown in six haplotypes (A, B, C, D,E and F. Haplotype difference showed genetic diversity in the population of Magelang duck and theother native ducks. In conclusion, the different plumage colors affected morphology diversity ofMagelang duck. Genetic diversity of Indonesian native duck population could be identified by usingPCR-RFLP analysis on mtDNA D-loop region.

  2. Cross-sectional serosurvey of avian influenza antibodies presence in domestic ducks of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Manandhar, S; Ivanek, R

    2014-09-01

    Kathmandu, Nepal has been classified as a high-risk area for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) by the Nepali Government. While ducks have an important role in the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV), including HPAI, seroprevalence of antibodies to AIV in domestic ducks of Kathmandu has never been assessed. The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of seroconversion to AIV in domestic ducks in major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and (ii) to assess the effect of age, sex, presence of swine and the number of ducks on the farm on the carriage of antibodies to AIV in these ducks. From April through July of 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 310 ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu were sampled. The estimated prevalence of AIV antibodies was 27.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24.6-29.5]. Of 62 enrolled farms, 42% had at least one seropositive duck. Half of the enrolled farms also kept pigs of which 52% had at least one seropositive duck. Bivariate analysis indicated association between ducks' seroconversion to AIV and their age, sex and farm size. However, the final multivariable model, after controlling for clustering of ducks within farms, identified age as the only significant risk factor. Based on this model, ducks older than 1 year of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to ducks ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and identify a high-risk group that can be targeted in surveillance activities. Future studies should be conducted to differentiate the subtypes of AIV present among domestic ducks in Kathmandu, with particular interest in the presence of HPAI viruses. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  4. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  5. Swelling of rat hepatocytes stimulates glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, A.; Hue, L.; Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Plomp, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    In hepatocytes from fasted rats, several amino acids are known to stimulate glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. The hypothesis that an increase in cell volume resulting from amino acid uptake may be involved in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis is supported by the following

  6. Nonbreeding duck use at Central Flyway National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  7. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  8. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

  9. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human α 1 -antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the α 1 antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes

  10. Interleukin 6 regulates metallothionein gene expression and zinc metabolism in hepatocyte monolayer cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.J.; Cousins, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Attention has focused on the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) as a major mediator of acute-phase protein synthesis in hepatocytes in response to infection and tissue injury. The authors have evaluated the effects of IL-6 and IL-1α as well as extracellular zinc and glucocorticoid hormone on metal-lothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation in rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures. Further, they have evaluated the teleological basis for cytokine mediation by examining cyto-protection from CCl 4 -induced damage. Incubation of hepatocytes with IL-6 led to concentration-dependent and time-dependent increases in metallothionein-1 and -2 mRNA and metallothionein protein. The level of each was increased within 3 hr after the addition of IL-6 at 10 ng/ml. Maximal increases the metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein were achieved after 12 hr and 36 hr, respectively. Concomitant with the up-regulation of metallothionein gene expression, IL-6 also increased cellular zinc. Responses to IL-6 required the synthetic glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone and were optimized by increased extracellular zinc. Thus, IL-6 is a major cytokine mediator of metallothionein gene expression and zinc metabolism in hepatocytes and provides cytoprotection from CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity via a mode consistent with dependence upon increased cellular metallothionein synthesis and zinc accumulation

  11. Cloning, characterization and expression of Peking duck fatty acid synthase during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We have successfully cloned and characterized Peking duck FAS. FAS was induced during adipocyte differentiation and by oleic acid treatment. These findings suggest that Peking duck FAS plays a similar role to mammalian FAS during adipocyte differentiation.

  12. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...... ducks were evaluated. Information was collected from the farmers through a questionnaire. All the farmers of Sundargonj Upazila used mixed feed compund, but in Netrokona only 14% of farmers fed mixed feed to their ducks. The rest was either paddy or wheat alone or a mixture of both. Deshi (local) ducks...... were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...

  13. Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State | Saka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State. ... The marketing survey involved 50 duck traders selected from Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso. Majority (72%) of the marketers procured ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  14. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  15. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  16. Ultrasonic Technique for Predicting Grittiness of Salted Duck Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erawan, S.; Budiastra, I. W.; Subrata, I. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    Grittiness of egg yolk is a major factor in consumer acceptance of salted duck egg product. Commonly, the grittiness level is determined by the destructive method. Salted egg industries need a grading system that can judge the grittiness accurately and nondestructively. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for determining grittiness of salted duck eggs nondestructively based on ultrasonic method. This study used 100 samples of salted duck eggs with 7,10,14 and 21 days of salting age. Velocity and attenuation were measured by an ultrasonic system at frequency 50 kHz, followed by physicochemical properties measurement (hardness of egg yolks and salt content), and organoleptic test. Ultrasonic wave velocity in salted duck eggs ranged from 620.6 m/s to 1334.6 m/s, while the coefficient of attenuation value ranged from – 0.76 dB/m to -0.51 dB/m. Yolk hardness was 2.68 N at 7 days to 5.54 N at 21 days of salting age. Salt content was 1.81 % at 7 days to 5.71 % at 21 days of salting age. Highest scores of organoleptic tests on salted duck eggs were 4.23 and 4.18 for 10 and 14 days of salting age, respectively. Discriminant function using ultrasonic velocity variables in minor and major diameter could predict grittiness with 95 % accuracy.

  17. Late Holocene extinction of Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an endemic, possibly flightless, New Zealand duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an extinct, possibly flightless New Zealand endemic, was widely distributed and apparently abundant immediately before human settlement of New Zealand, but its bones have rarely been identified in archaeological sites. Its extinction has been variously attributed to habitat changes, predation by the introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), and human predation. Discriminating between possible causes of its extinction hinges on determining the relative timing of phases of the extinction process and the arrival of rats and humans. Methodological problems of determining the time of extinction of fossil species are reviewed. Bayesian statistical analysis of a series of accelerator mass spectrometry 14 C ages on gelatin from Finsch's duck bones from non-cultural deposits suggests that the species began to decline before widespread Polynesian settlement and that it was much reduced in range and numbers by the time extensive human predation and habitat alteration began. Possible causes of its extinction after Polynesian settlement are discussed. (author). 90 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx Protein Activates AKT To Simultaneously Regulate HBV Replication and Hepatocyte Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx is a multifunctional protein encoded by the HBV genome; HBx stimulates HBV replication and is thought to play an important role in the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBx can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway in some cell lines; however, whether HBx regulates PI3K/AKT signaling in normal hepatocytes has not been evaluated. In studies described here, we assessed HBx activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in an ex vivo model of cultured primary hepatocytes and determined how this HBx activity affects HBV replication. We report that HBx activates AKT in primary hepatocytes and that the activation of AKT decreases HBV replication and HBV mRNA and core protein levels. We show that the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a target of HBx-regulated AKT, and we link HNF4α to HBx-regulated AKT modulation of HBV transcription and replication. Although we and others have shown that HBx stimulates and is likely required for HBV replication, we now report that HBx also activates signals that can diminish the overall level of HBV replication. While this may seem counterintuitive, we show that an important effect of HBx activation of AKT is inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, our studies suggest that HBx balances HBV replication and cell survival by stimulating signaling pathways that enhance hepatocyte survival at the expense of higher levels of HBV replication. IMPORTANCE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common cause of the development of liver cancer. Regulation of cell signaling pathways by the HBV HBx protein is thought to influence the development of HBV-associated liver cancer. HBx stimulates, and may be essential for, HBV replication. We show that HBx activates AKT in hepatocytes to reduce HBV replication. While this seems contradictory to an

  19. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells into low immunogenic hepatocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinjun; Ren, Hongying; Li, Xiyuan; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Gong, Wei; Liu, Yongjun; Pang, Tianxiang; Han, Zhong Chao

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) isolated from several human tissues have been known to differentiate into the hepatic lineage in vitro, but the immunogenicity of the differentiated hepatocyte-like cells (DHC) has not been reported. Umbilical cord (UC) MSC are thought to be an attractive cell source for cell therapy because of their young age and low infection rate compared with adult tissue MSC. Hepatic differentiation of UC-MSC was induced with a 2-step protocol. The expressions of hepatic markers were detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Albumin production and urea secretion were measured by ELISA and colorimetric assay respectively. The immunosuppressive properties of DHC was detected by mixed lymphocyte culture. After incubation with specific growth factors, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), UC MSC exhibited a high hepatic differentiation ability in an adherent culture condition. The differentiated UC MSC showed hepatocyte-like morphology and expressed several liver-specific markers at gene and protein levels. Furthermore, the DHC exhibited hepatocyte-specific functions, including albumin secretion, low-density lipoprotein uptake and urea production. More importantly, DHC did not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II antigen and were not able to induce lymphocyte proliferation in mixed lymphocyte culture, as undifferentiated UC MSC did. Our results indicate that UC MSC are able to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells that still retain their low immunogenicity in vitro. More importantly, DHC incorporated into the parenchyma of liver when transplanted into mice with CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Therefore, DHC may be an ideal source for cell therapy of liver diseases.

  20. An outbreak of salmonellosis associated with duck prosciutto at a Northern Territory restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Anthony Dk; Morton, Claire N; Heath, Joshua Ni; Lim, Justin A; Schiek, Anninka I; Davis, Stephanie; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2017-03-31

    In June 2015, an outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among people who had eaten at a restaurant in Darwin, Northern Territory over 2 consecutive nights. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of diners who ate at the restaurant on 19 and 20 June 2015. Diners were telephoned and a questionnaire recorded symptoms and menu items consumed. An outbreak case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium PT9 (STm9) or a clinically compatible illness after eating at the restaurant. Environmental health officers inspected the premises and collected food samples. We contacted 79/83 of the cohort (response rate 95%); 21 were cases (attack rate 27%), and 9 had laboratory confirmed STm9 infection. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (100%), abdominal pain (95%), fever (95%) and nausea (95%). Fifteen people sought medical attention and 7 presented to hospital. The outbreak was most likely caused by consumption of duck prosciutto, which was consumed by all cases (OR 18.6, CI 3.0-∞, P restaurant used inappropriate methodology for curing the duck prosciutto. Restaurants should consider purchasing pre-made cured meats, or if preparing them on site, ensure that they adhere to safe methods of production.

  1. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of [ 125 I]iodo-LDL and [ 125 I]iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. [ 125 I]Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas [ 125 I]iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues

  2. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  3. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  4. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  5. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  6. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  7. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Akhmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. Results All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1, clade 2.1.3 (80, and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3 that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. Conclusions The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to

  8. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Henning, Joerg; Wong, Frank; Selleck, Paul; Junaidi, Akhmad; Bingham, John; Daniels, Peter; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-07

    Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are

  9. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  10. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of [5- 3 H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes

  11. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  12. Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. The rescued virus exhibited pathogenicity in Muscovy ducklings similar to that of its parental strain, as evaluated based on the mortality rate. The results demonstrate that plasmid transfection in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs is a convenient and efficacious method for rescue of infectious MDPV in comparison to transfection of primary cells, which is somewhat time-consuming and laborious.

  13. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  14. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M P; Albano, E; Bianchi, F B

    2000-04-01

    Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack. The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum. Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes. AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.

  15. The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  16. Fish and harlequin ducks compete on breeding streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBourdais, S.V.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Esler, D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated interactions among harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus ( L., 1758)), fish, and their shared aquatic insect prey. We measured flow variability, benthic aquatic prey abundance, fish presence, and breeding density of harlequins on eight rivers in the Southern Coast Mountain Range

  17. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the... refuges where admission is charged. Duck Stamps and products that bear stamp images are also popular... fee the State will charge for issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State...

  18. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64% to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05. The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  19. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  20. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  1. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  2. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl in 2010 in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jeong Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  3. Immortalized human hepatocytes as a tool for the study of hepatocytic (de-)differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, IJ; Moshage, H; Roelofsen, H; Muller, M; Heymans, HSA; Ruiters, M; Kuipers, F

    Primary human hepatocytes were immortalized by stable transfection with a recombinant plasmid containing the early region of simian virus (SV) 40. The cells were cultured in serum-free, hormonally defined medium during the immortalization procedure. Foci of dividing cells were seen after 3 months.

  4. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45 and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45 were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05. Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  5. Evaluation of duck efficiency as a biocontrol agent on weed density and diversity in rice-duck farming (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of ducks number on weeds diversity and density in paddy fields, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resource University during growing season of 2011-2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main factors were duck number at three levels (consisting of control, 400 and 800 ducks.ha-1 and sub plots were three contrast cultivars (including Tarom as a traditional, and Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars. Results of ANOVA showed highly significant differences between ducks, cultivars and ducks × cultivar interaction in terms of weeds density including nutsedge (Cyperus spp. L., common Water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., duckweed (Lemna minor L., azolla (Azolla pinata R.Br. and paddy yield. Accordingly, the lowest weed density and diversity were recorded at 800 and 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Among rice cultivars Tarom and Ghaem had the minimum and the maximum weeds density and diversity. The highest nutsedge density (67 plant.m-2 was related to Ghaem cultivar in control (without duck plots as much as 97% higher than 800 ducks.ha-1. Maximum paddy yield was observed in 800 ducks.ha-1 in Shirodi (5.3 t.ha-1, Ghaem (4.3 t.ha-1 and Tarom (3.6 t.ha-1 as much as 23, 7 and 20% higher than those cultivars in 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Finally, in the current research conditions using 800 ducks.ha-1and Tarom cultivar resulted the best performance because of the lowest weed diversity and density as compared to other treatments.

  6. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  7. Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniakowski Grzegorz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterfowl parvoviruses cause serious loss in geese and ducks production. Goose parvovirus (GPV is infectious for geese and ducks while Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV infects Muscovy ducks only. So far, for these viruses' sensitive detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP were applied. However, there was no molecular biology method for both waterfowl parvoviruses detection and quantification which could unify the laboratory procedures. The level of GPV and MDPV replication and distribution plays a significant role in the parvoviral infection progress and is strictly correlated to clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, experiments conducted previously on GPV distribution in geese, performed as animal trial, did not involve epidemiological data from the disease field cases. The study on the correlation between age, clinical symptoms and viral DNA copy number may be benefitable in understanding the GPV and MDPV infection. Such data may also aid in determination of the stage and severity of the infection with parvoviruses. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time PCR for parallel detection of GPV and MDPV in geese and Muscovy ducks and to determine the correlation between the age of the infected birds, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number for the estimation of the disease stage or severity. Results In order to develop quantitative real-time PCR the viral material was collected from 13 farms of geese and 3 farms of Muscovy ducks. The designed primers and Taqman probe for real-time PCR were complementary to GPV and MDPV inverted terminal repeats region. The pITR plasmid was constructed, purified and used to prepare dilutions for standard curve preparation and DNA quantification. The applied method detected both GPV and MDPV in all the examined samples extracted from the heart and liver of the infected birds. The conducted correlation tests have shown relationship

  8. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  9. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: a disease connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J; Palm, Eric C; Takekawa, John Y; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  10. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  11. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  12. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  13. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Immune response in domestic ducks following intradermal delivery of inactivated vaccine against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus adjuvanted with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Gomis, Susantha; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Ducks are a natural reservoir for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which produces a range of clinical outcomes from asymptomatic infections to severe disease with mortality. Vaccination against HPAI is one of the few methods available for controlling avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in domestic ducks; therefore, it is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy against HPAI in domestic ducks. However, few studies have focused on enhancing the immune response by testing alternative administration routes and adjuvants. While attempting to maximize the efficacy of a vaccine, it is important to select an appropriate vaccine delivery route and adjuvant to elicit an enhanced immune response. Although several studies have indicated that the vaccination of ducks against HPAI viruses has offered protection against lethal virus challenge, the immunogenicity of the vaccine still requires improvement. In this study, we characterized the immune response following a novel vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAI virus in domestic ducks. Our novel intradermal delivery system and the application of the cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant allowed us to obtain information regarding the sustained vaccine immunity. Compared with the intramuscular route of vaccination, the intradermal route resulted in higher antibody titer as well as lower antibody deviation following secondary vaccination. In addition, the use of a CpG-ODN adjuvant had a dose-sparing effect on antibody titer. Furthermore, when a high dose of antigen was used, the CpG-ODN-adjuvanted vaccine maintained a high mean antibody titer. This data demonstrates that intradermal immunization combined with administration of CpG-ODN as an adjuvant may be a promising strategy for improving vaccine efficacy in domestic ducks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scintigraphic evidence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henne-Bruns, D.; Kremer, B.; Gramminger, K.; Broelsch, C.

    1986-01-01

    In rats suffering from hepatic enzymatic deficiency transplanted hepatocytes could be evidenced scintigraphically in liver, spleen and granulomas. In pigs, however, it is very difficult to demonstrate transplanted hepatocytes by scintiscanning because of the thickness of the tissues and the high background radiation in large animals

  17. Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikkβ confers growth advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Katherine S.; Maeda, Shin; He, Guobin; Karin, Michael; Leffert, Hyam L.

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking hepatocyte IKKβ (Ikkβ Δhep ) are defective in TNFα-activation of hepatocellular transcription factor NF-κB, and highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity. Following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure, Ikkβ Δhep mice develop more hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than control mice due partly to enhanced DEN-induced hepatocyte death. Here we show that Ikkβ Δhep hepatocytes display growth advantages over normal hepatocytes consisting of precocious PCNA and cyclin D1 expression during liver regeneration (shortened hepatocyte G 0 → G 1 transitions), and enhanced recovery efficiency, cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation after plating. Ex vivo deletion of Ikkβ also accelerates hepatocyte growth. Ikkβ Δhep hepatocyte proliferative responses show heightened sensitivity to TGFα and TNFα, and heightened expression of fibronectin, collagens I/III, nidogen, β-actin and integrin β1 mRNAs. These findings suggest that altered mitogen signaling and expression of extracellular matrix and its associated components underlie growth advantages. Increased HCC development in Ikkβ Δhep mice may also be caused by growth advantages of surviving Ikkβ-deleted hepatocytes.

  18. Cell swelling and glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes from fasted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, L. A.; Jumelle-Laclau, M. N.; van Woerkom, G. M.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Meijer, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Cell swelling is known to increase net glycogen production from glucose in hepatocytes from fasted rats by activating glycogen synthase. Since both active glycogen synthase and phosphorylase are present in hepatocytes, suppression of flux through phosphorylase may also contribute to the net increase

  19. Adenoviral-mediated correction of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency in murine fibroblasts and human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korson Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA, a common organic aciduria, is caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial localized, 5'deoxyadenosylcobalamin dependent enzyme, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT. Liver transplantation in the absence of gross hepatic dysfunction provides supportive therapy and metabolic stability in severely affected patients, which invites the concept of using cell and gene delivery as future treatments for this condition. Methods To assess the effectiveness of gene delivery to restore the defective metabolism in this disorder, adenoviral correction experiments were performed using murine Mut embryonic fibroblasts and primary human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficient hepatocytes derived from a patient who harbored two early truncating mutations, E224X and R228X, in the MUT gene. Enzymatic and expression studies were used to assess the extent of functional correction. Results Primary hepatocytes, isolated from the native liver after removal subsequent to a combined liver-kidney transplantation procedure, or Mut murine fibroblasts were infected with a second generation recombinant adenoviral vector that expressed the murine methylmalonyl-CoA mutase as well as eGFP from distinct promoters. After transduction, [1-14C] propionate macromolecular incorporation studies and Western analysis demonstrated complete correction of the enzymatic defect in both cell types. Viral reconstitution of enzymatic expression in the human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficient hepatocytes exceeded that seen in fibroblasts or control hepatocytes. Conclusion These experiments provide proof of principle for viral correction in methylmalonic acidemia and suggest that hepatocyte-directed gene delivery will be an effective therapeutic treatment strategy in both murine models and in human patients. Primary hepatocytes from a liver that was unsuitable for transplantation provided an important resource for these studies.

  20. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  1. Ketose induced respiratory inhibition in isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, P; Carrascosa, J M; Núñez de Castro, I

    1987-06-01

    The addition of 10 mM fructose or 10 mM tagatose to a suspension of hepatocytes caused respiratory inhibition, whereas no change in oxygen uptake was observed following the addition of glucose. However, incubations in the presence of fructose showed a high, aerobic glycolytic activity. Tagatose is phosphorylated to tagatose 1-phosphate but is not further metabolized by cell free liver extract. Moreover, the addition of fructose to glucagon treated cells also caused the Crabtree-like effect. The concentration of adenine nucleotides and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments during incubation (time 30 min) was determined by the digitonin fractionation procedure. In the presence of 10 mM fructose or tagatose, the total adenine nucleotide pools decreased by 40%; however, glucose produced no change. The addition of ketoses diminished the asymmetric distribution of extramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)e ratio and intramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)i ratio. At the same time the total mitochondrial Pi fell from 17 mM to 6-7 mM. The mitochondrial membrane potential (-161 mV) in the presence of fructose showed no changes during the 30 min experimental period. An increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio was observed. These results suggest that in hepatocytes the inhibition of respiration is not necessarily linked with the enhanced aerobic glycolysis, by competition for common substrates.

  2. Insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, J.; Trankina, M.; Noel, R.; Ward, W.

    1990-01-01

    This project was designed to determine whether neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has a significant effect upon the pathways of ligand endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The pathways studied include receptor-mediated endocytosis and fluid-phase endocytosis. Neomycin causes a dose-dependent acceleration of 125 I-insulin internalization. Since fluid-phase endocytosis can also be a significant factor in 125 I-insulin internalization, lucifer yellow (LY), a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis, was incorporated into an assay similar to the 125 I-insulin internalization procedure. In the presence of 5 mM neomycin, a significant increase in LY uptake was evident at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml of LY. At 0.8 mg/ml, a decrease in LY uptake was observed. The increased rate of 125 I-insulin internalization in the presence of neomycin was intriguing. Since one action of neomycin is to inhibit phosphoinositidase C, it suggests that the phosphotidylinositol cycle may be involved in ligand internalization by hepatocytes. At low insulin concentrations, receptor-mediated uptake predominates. Fluid-phase uptake can become an important uptake route as insulin concentrations are increased. Since neomycin stimulates fluid-phase endocytosis, it must also be taken into account when measuring ligand internalization

  3. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan) by morphological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    B Brahmantiyo; L.H Prasetyo; A.R Setioko; R.H Mulyono

    2003-01-01

    A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsu...

  4. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  5. Maternal transfer of dechloranes and their distribution among tissues in contaminated ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Fan; Yu, Lian-Lian; Li, Long; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xing-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The tissue concentrations of dechlorane plus and its analogues were determined in ducks collected from several e-waste recycling villages of Taizhou, China. Compared with the published literature, the relatively high concentrations of these compounds were detected in ducks, indicating serious DP contamination. Since both the duck meat and eggs were important components for diet, this result reminded us of keeping a watchful eye on human dietary exposure to DP and its analogues in this study area. The wet-weight concentrations of DP and its analogues were significantly related to tissue lipid content (p ducks. On the basis of lipid adjustment, the significantly lower levels in brain than those in liver and blood, displayed the occurrence of liver sequestration and blood-brain barrier to DP and its analogues in the duck (p ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa; Peterson, Darrell L.; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection. - Highlights: • The expression and subcellular distribution of Foxp3, is modulated by PMA and preS1/2. • PMA and preS1/2 increase Foxp3 expression on HepG2. • PMA and preS1/2 induce foxp3 enrichment at mitochondrial, microsomal and nuclear compartments. • Results suggest a non-canonical function of Foxp3 or a mitochondrial transcriptional activity.

  7. Activation-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Foxp3 in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Joselyn; Teran-Angel, Guillermo; Barbosa, Luisa [Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Peterson, Darrell L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Berrueta, Lisbeth, E-mail: lberruet@ula.ve [Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Salmen, Siham, E-mail: sihamsa@ula.ve [Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3 is considered to be the master regulator for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). Recently Foxp3, has been detected in extra lymphoid tissue, and in hepatocytes and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its role has not been defined. Since it is expected that there is a relationship between protein localization, activity and cellular function, the aim of this study was to explore the subcellular localization of Foxp3 in resting and stimulated human hepatocytes. Foxp3 expression was measured by flow cytometry, subcellular fractioning, and immunofluorescence, and this data was used to track the shuttling of Foxp3 in different subcellular compartments in hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line), stimulated by using the PKC activators (PMA), core and preS1/2 antigen from hepatitis B virus (HBV). Our data shows that besides the nuclear location, mitochondrial translocation was detected after stimulation with PMA and at to a lesser extent, with preS1/2. In addition, Foxp3 is localizes at outer mitochondrial membrane. These results suggest a non-canonical role of Foxp3 in the mitochondrial compartment in human hepatocytes, and opens a new field about their role in liver damages during HBV infection. - Highlights: • The expression and subcellular distribution of Foxp3, is modulated by PMA and preS1/2. • PMA and preS1/2 increase Foxp3 expression on HepG2. • PMA and preS1/2 induce foxp3 enrichment at mitochondrial, microsomal and nuclear compartments. • Results suggest a non-canonical function of Foxp3 or a mitochondrial transcriptional activity.

  8. Phosphorylation of Icariin Can Alleviate the Oxidative Stress Caused by the Duck Hepatitis Virus A through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The duck virus hepatitis (DVH caused by the duck hepatitis virus A (DHAV has produced extensive economic losses to the duck industry. The currently licensed commercial vaccine has shown some defects and does not completely prevent the DVH. Accordingly, a new alternative treatment for this disease is urgently needed. Previous studies have shown that icariin (ICA and its phosphorylated derivative (pICA possessed good anti-DHAV effects through direct and indirect antiviral pathways, such as antioxidative stress. But the antioxidant activity showed some differences between ICA and pICA. The aim of this study is to prove that ICA and pICA attenuate oxidative stress caused by DHAV in vitro and in vivo, and to investigate their mechanism of action to explain their differences in antioxidant activities. In vivo, the dynamic deaths, oxidative evaluation indexes and hepatic pathological change scores were detected. When was added the hinokitiol which showed the pro-oxidative effect as an intervention method, pICA still possessed more treatment effect than ICA. The strong correlation between mortality and oxidative stress proves that ICA and pICA alleviate oxidative stress caused by DHAV. This was also demonstrated by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an intervention method in vitro. pICA can be more effective than ICA to improve duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs viability and reduce the virulence of DHAV. The strong correlation between TCID50 and oxidative stress demonstrates that ICA and pICA can achieve anti-DHAV effects by inhibiting oxidative stress. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px of ICA and pICA showed significant difference. pICA could significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of p38, extra cellular signal regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, which were related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling pathways. Ultimately, compared to ICA, pICA exhibited more

  9. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  10. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  11. Food use and nutrition of black ducks nesting in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Owen, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on 32 adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) collected during the nesting seasons of 1974-76, the proportion of macro invertebrates (as aggregate [average] percent of dry weight) in the diet of males, egg-laying females, and postlaying females was 60, 75, and 55%, respectivey. Sample sizes were small, and the differences associated with sex and reproductive condition were not signficant. Molluscs, Isopods, ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, and coleopteran, trichopteran, and dipteran larvae contributed 74% of the dry weight and 64% of the gross energy ingested. Data from proximate analyses of 9 invertebrate and 9 plant foods were combined with food habits data to estimate the nutrients available to breeding hens. We concluded that females with access to an adequate amount of natural food including invertebrates and the seeds and tubers of aquatic plants would obtain sufficient minerals, protein, and energy for reproduction. Food quality does not appear to limit the density of black ducks nesting in Maine.

  12. Expression and characterization of the UL31 protein from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dekang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. Results The entire ORF of the UL31 was cloned into pET 32a (+ prokaryotic expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 competent cells were transformed with the construct followed by the induction of protein expression by the addition of IPTG. Band corresponding to the predicted sizes (55 kDa was produced on the SDS-PAGE. Over expressed 6×His-UL31 fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The DEV UL31 gene product has been identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified protein. A protein of approximate 35 kDa that reacted with the antiserum was detected in immunoblots of DEV-infected cellular lysates, suggesting that the 35 kDa protein was the primary translation product of the UL31 gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the UL31 gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of replication. Subsequently, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was widespread speckled structures in the nuclei of infected cells. Western blotting of purified virion preparations showed that UL31 was a component of intracellular virions but was absent from mature extracellular virions. Finally, an Immunofluorescence assay was established to study the distribution of the UL31 antigen in tissues of artificially DEV infected ducks. The results showed that the UL31 antigen was primarily located in the cells of digestive organs and immunological organs. Conclusion In this work, we present the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. The results indicate that DEV UL31 shares many similarities with its HSV or PRV homolog UL31 and suggest that functional cross-complementation is possible between members of the

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor profile with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A EL-Attar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The multifunctional hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is the ligand of c-Met receptor; it plays important role in mammary differentiation. HGF-Met signaling is a critical downstream function of c-Src-Stat3 pathway in mammalian tumorigenesis. Aim: Evaluation of tissue c-Met receptor hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR and serum level of HGF in female breast ductal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight premenopausal females were divided as 30 control females subdivided into: [Group 1] 15 healthy volunteer females and [Group 2] five with fibrocystic disease and 10 having fibroadenoma of the breast and patients group [Group 3] consisted of 38 female patients with breast ductal carcinoma. Thorough clinical examination, preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology, estimation of fasting serum glucose, urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels, alanine aminotransferase activities, C-reactive protein, HGF level, before surgery and histopathological examination of the breast masses, and immunohistochemical detection of HGFR were done. Results and Conclusions: Significant increase in serum HGF levels were found in patients with breast cancer as compared with controls. Significant increase was also seen in patients with breast cancer with and without lymph node metastasis when each subgroup was compared with controls. Serum level of HGF is an independent prognostic indicator of breast cancer. Fibrocystic disease of the breast showed weak HGFR expression, while in normal tissue, HGFR was scanty; meanwhile, breast invasive ductal carcinoma showed homogenous strong reaction to HGFR. HGF is only one of a number of key factors involved in breast cancer and preoperative high serum HGF levels and malignancy occur usually together.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  15. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  16. Effect of Vaccination with Irradiated Tachyzoites on Histopathological Changes and DNA Damage in Hepatocytes of Experimental Toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; Hafez, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Current strategies for the control of toxoplasmosis are based on chemotherapy, however successful vaccine has also been demonstrated. The present study aims to assess the effect of the vaccination with radiation-attenuated tachyzoites in challenged mice regarding histopathological alteration and DNA damage of hepatocytes. Sixty mice were equally divided as follow: Group I left as a normal control group II was infected with 2x10 3 RH virulent tachyzoite s (infected control). Groups III and IV were subdivided into two subgroups a and b where subgroups III a and IV a were vaccinate d with 2.47 mw-min/cm 2 UV and 0.3 KGy gamma radiation – attenuate d tachyzoites respectively without challenge (as vaccine control). Subgroups III b and IV b were vaccinate d with UV and gamma radiation - attenuated tachyzoites and challenged after three weeks with 2x10 3 RH virulent tachyzoites. Livers were examined for histopathological changes and DNA comet assay. It was observed that acute infection with Toxoplasma tachyzoites produced toxic effects which lead to severe damage in liver tissues and DNA of hepatocytes. Meanwhile, the protective effect of UV or gamma radiation-attenuated tachyzoites vaccine resulted in the maintenance of normal histopathological characteristics and DNA of hepatocyte s and UV irradiation is better in its protective capacity

  17. Phenotypic and functional analyses show stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells better mimic fetal rather than adult hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Melissa; Withey, Sarah; Harrison, Sean; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Zhang, Fang; Atkinson-Dell, Rebecca; Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Henry, Joanne; Berry, Andrew A; Mohamet, Lisa; Best, Marie; Fenwick, Stephen W; Malik, Hassan; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Chris E; Piper Hanley, Karen; Vallier, Ludovic; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult hepatocytes. Therefore, we generated HLCs from multiple lineages, using two different protocols, for direct comparison with fresh fetal and adult hepatocytes. Protocols were developed for robust differentiation. Multiple transcript, protein and functional analyses compared HLCs to fresh human fetal and adult hepatocytes. HLCs were comparable to those of other laboratories by multiple parameters. Transcriptional changes during differentiation mimicked human embryogenesis and showed more similarity to pericentral than periportal hepatocytes. Unbiased proteomics demonstrated greater proximity to liver than 30 other human organs or tissues. However, by comparison to fresh material, HLC maturity was proven by transcript, protein and function to be fetal-like and short of the adult phenotype. The expression of 81% phase 1 enzymes in HLCs was significantly upregulated and half were statistically not different from fetal hepatocytes. HLCs secreted albumin and metabolized testosterone (CYP3A) and dextrorphan (CYP2D6) like fetal hepatocytes. In seven bespoke tests, devised by principal components analysis to distinguish fetal from adult hepatocytes, HLCs from two different source laboratories consistently demonstrated fetal characteristics. HLCs from different sources are broadly comparable with unbiased proteomic evidence for faithful differentiation down the liver lineage. This current phenotype mimics human fetal rather than adult hepatocytes. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodological approaches to disinfection of human hepatitis B virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, D L; Prince, H N; Thraenhart, O; Muchmore, E; Bonder, E; Pugh, J

    1993-01-01

    Three commercial disinfectants (two quaternary formulations and one phenolic) were tested against human hepatitis B virus (HHBV). The treated virus was assayed for infectivity by the chimpanzee assay and for morphological alteration by the Morphological Alteration and Disintegration Test. The same agents were tested against duck hepatitis B virus in a duck hepatocyte infectivity assay. It is apparent that human and duck hepatitis viruses were relatively susceptible to disinfection, becoming n...

  19. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboubakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV and oral (PO dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β and mean residence time (MRT were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1 was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1. Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el at a significant slower rate (3.94 h in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h. The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.

  20. RNA synthesis in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugassa, E.; Gallo, G.; Voci, A.; Cordone, A.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of hepatocyte monolayers to synthesize RNA was investigated by measuring [3H]orotic acid incorporation into RNA and the total nuclear RNA polymerase activity as a function of the time in culture. The results demonstrate that primary cultures of hepatocytes maintained in a chemically defined serum- and hormone-free medium are able to synthesize RNA actively. This ability increases within the first 2 d of culture, despite the concomitant decrease in [3H]orotic acid uptake, and decreases only after 3 d. Factors such as serum, insulin, and dexamethasone, known to improve maintenance of functional hepatocytes, markedly stimulate the uptake of labeled precursor without apparently affecting the rate of RNA synthesis by cultured cells. It is suggested that the culture of adult rat hepatocytes provides a useful experimental model for the studies of hormonal regulation of transcription in liver

  1. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  2. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M; Albano, E; Bianchi, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack.
METHODS—The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum.
RESULTS—Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS—AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.


Keywords: liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1; autoimmunity; autoimmune hepatitis; hepatitis C virus infection; confocal microscopy PMID:10716687

  3. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  4. Metabolism of para-aminophenol by rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Nikelly, J G; Killmer, L; Tarloff, J B

    2000-08-01

    Autoxidation of para-aminophenol (PAP) has been proposed to account for the selective nephrotoxicity of this compound. However, other studies suggest that hepatic metabolites of PAP rather than the parent compound may be responsible for renal damage. These studies were designed to investigate PAP metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. We synthesized several proposed metabolites for analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry and compared those results with HPLC/mass spectrometric analyses of metabolites found after incubating hepatocytes with PAP. Hepatocytes prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C for 5 h with 2.3 mM PAP under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% O2. Aliquots were withdrawn at 0.1 h of incubation and then hourly through 5 h of incubation. Reactions were terminated by the addition of acetonitrile. Hepatocyte viability was unaltered with PAP present in the incubation medium. We found that hepatocytes converted PAP to two major metabolites (PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates) and several minor metabolites [PAP-O-glucuronide, acetaminophen (APAP), APAP-O-glucuronide, APAP-GSH conjugates, and 4-hydroxyformanilide]. Preincubating hepatoyctes with 1-aminobenzotriazole, an inhibitor of cytochromes P450, did not alter the pattern of PAP metabolism. In conclusion, we found that PAP was metabolized in hepatocytes predominantly to PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates in sufficient quantities to account for the nephrotoxicity of PAP.

  5. Hepatocyte polyploidization and its association with pathophysiological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Jun; Chen, Fei; Lau, Joseph T Y; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2017-05-18

    A characteristic cellular feature of the mammalian liver is the progressive polyploidization of the hepatocytes, where individual cells acquire more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidization results from cytokinesis failure that takes place progressively during the course of postnatal development. The proportion of polyploidy also increases with the aging process or with cellular stress such as surgical resection, toxic stimulation, metabolic overload, or oxidative damage, to involve as much as 90% of the hepatocytes in mice and 40% in humans. Hepatocyte polyploidization is generally considered an indicator of terminal differentiation and cellular senescence, and related to the dysfunction of insulin and p53/p21 signaling pathways. Interestingly, the high prevalence of hepatocyte polyploidization in the aged mouse liver can be reversed when the senescent hepatocytes are serially transplanted into young mouse livers. Here we review the current knowledge on the mechanism of hepatocytes polyploidization during postnatal growth, aging, and liver diseases. The biologic significance of polyploidization in senescent reversal, within the context of new ways to think of liver aging and liver diseases is considered.

  6. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.; Nutt, L.H.; Hobbs, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-[N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl]iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities

  7. alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szelag

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is caused by mushroom species belonging to the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota with the majority of lethal mushroom exposures attributable to Amanita phalloides. High mortality rate in intoxications with these mushrooms is principally a result of the acute liver failure following significant hepatocyte damage due to hepatocellular uptake of amatoxins. A wide variety of amatoxins have been isolated; however, alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA appears to be the primary toxin. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that alpha-AMA does not only cause hepatocyte necrosis, but also may lead to apoptotic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complex hepatocyte apoptosis in alpha-AMA cytotoxicity. All experiments were performed on primary cultured canine hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 12 h with alpha-AMA at a final concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM. Viability test (MTT assay, apoptosis evaluation (TUNEL reaction, detection of DNA laddering and electron microscopy were performed at 6 and 12 h of exposure to alpha-AMA. There was a clear correlation between hepatocyte viability, concentration of alpha-AMA and time of exposure to this toxin. The decline in cultured dog hepatocyte viability during the exposure to alpha-AMA is most likely preceded by enhanced cellular apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that apoptosis might contribute to pathogenesis of the severe liver injury in the course of amanitin intoxication, particularly during the early phase of poisoning.

  8. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  9. Tissue distribution of metals in white-fronted geese and spot-billed ducks from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2013-07-01

    This study presents concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd in livers, kidneys, muscles and bones of white-fronted geese Anser albifrons (geese) and spot-billed ducks Anas poecilorhyncha (ducks). Iron in livers, kidneys and muscles, Zn in muscles, Mn and Cd in every tissue, Cu in livers, muscles and bones and Pb in bones differed between species, and there were significant differences among tissues in both species. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were within the background levels. Lead concentrations in livers of 7 of 14 geese and 7 of 19 ducks and in bones of 4 of 19 ducks exceeded background concentrations for waterfowl (5 μg/g dw for the liver, 10 μg/g dw for the bone). Almost all samples of both species had the background Cd concentrations in the liver (33 of 33 geese and ducks) and kidney (14 geese and 18 ducks). Tissue concentrations of Cd were greater in geese than ducks. In contrast, tissue concentrations of Pb in bones were greater in ducks than in geese. These different trends for Cd and Pb reflect a short and/or long term difference in exposure and degree of accumulation of these metals.

  10. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  12. Effects of ACTH, capture, and short term confinement on glucocorticoid concentrations in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, P.B.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Atkinson, S.; Mashburn, K.L.; Tuomi, P.A.; Esler, Daniel N.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about baseline concentrations of adrenal hormones and hormonal responses to stress in sea ducks, although significant population declines documented in several species suggest that sea ducks are exposed to increased levels of environmental stress. Such declines have been observed in geographically distinct harlequin duck populations. We performed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to evaluate adrenal function and characterize corticosterone concentrations in captive harlequin ducks and investigated the effects of capture, surgery, and short term confinement on corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks. Harlequin ducks responded to the ACTH challenge with an average three-fold increase in serum corticosterone concentration approximately 90 min post injection, and a four- to five-fold increase in fecal glucocorticoid concentration 2 to 4 h post injection. Serum corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks increased within min of capture and elevated levels were found for several hours post capture, indicating that surgery and confinement maintain elevated corticosterone concentrations in this species. Mean corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks held in temporary captivity were similar to the maximum response levels during the ACTH challenge in captive birds. However, large variation among individuals was observed in responses of wild birds, and we found additional evidence suggesting that corticosterone responses varied between hatch year and after hatch year birds.

  13. Epidemiologic Investigation of Riemerella anatipestifer in a Commercial Duck Company by Serotyping and DNA Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial duck company that raises approximately two million Pekin ducks per year experienced an outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer(RA)on nine farms over a one year period. Due to concerns that the bacteria was being spread from farm to farm, an investigation using serotyping and DNA fingerprin...

  14. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  15. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlasher, Emad; Geng, Xiuyu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Xuan; Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Auvergne, Alain; Guerre, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in maize and maize products. Their main toxic effects have been well characterized in poultry, but differences between species have been demonstrated. Ducks appeared very sensitive to toxicity, whereas turkeys are more resistant. At the same time, alterations of sphingolipid metabolism, with an increase of the concentration of the free sphinganine (Sa) in serum and liver, have been demonstrated in the two species, but the link between the toxicity of FBs and Sa accumulation remains difficult to interpret. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects of FBs (10 mg FB1 + FB2/kg body weight) on sphingolipid metabolism in ducks and turkeys. Growth, feed consumption, and serum biochemistry were also investigated to evaluate toxicity. The main results showed that FBs increased Sa concentrations in liver and serum in ducks and turkeys, but these accumulations were not directly correlated with toxicity. Sa accumulation was higher in the livers of turkeys than in ducks, whereas Sa levels were higher in the sera of ducks than in turkeys. Hepatic toxicity was more pronounced in ducks than in turkeys and accompanied a decrease of body weight and an increase of serum biochemistry in ducks but not in turkeys. So, although FBs increase Sa concentration in the livers of both species, this effect is not directly proportional to toxicity. The mechanisms of FB toxicity and/or the mechanisms of protection of ducks and turkeys to the Sa accumulation within the liver remain to be established.

  16. Inositol-P6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamiji Babalola

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of ... dependence profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of both oxy- and ... Key words: 5,5‟-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate), duck, haemoglobin, inositol-P6, sulphydryl group. ... Saigo, 1999), thereby making it possible to detect the.

  17. 78 FR 14413 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... should refer to docket number MARAD-2013-0019. Written comments may be submitted by hand or by mail to... LUCKY DUCK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``The vessel is to be operated as a sailing...

  18. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, which causes an acute, contagious and lethal disease of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. In recent years, two laboratories have reported on the successful construction of DEV infectious clones in viral vectors to express exogenous genes. The clones obtained were either created with deletion of viral genes and based on highly virulent strains or were constructed using a traditional overlapping fosmid DNA system. Here, we report the construction of a full-length infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain that was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Methods A mini-F vector as a BAC that allows the maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli was introduced into the intergenic region between UL15B and UL18 of a DEV vaccine strain by homologous recombination in chicken embryoblasts (CEFs). Then, the full-length DEV clone pDEV-vac was obtained by electroporating circular viral replication intermediates containing the mini-F sequence into E. coli DH10B and identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing. The infectivity of the pDEV-vac was validated by DEV reconstitution from CEFs transfected with pDEV-vac. The reconstructed virus without mini-F vector sequence was also rescued by co-transfecting the Cre recombinase expression plasmid pCAGGS-NLS/Cre and pDEV-vac into CEF cultures. Finally, the in vitro growth properties and immunoprotection capacity in ducks of the reconstructed viruses were also determined and compared with the parental virus. Results The full genome of the DEV vaccine strain was successfully cloned into the BAC, and this BAC clone was infectious. The in vitro growth properties of these reconstructions were very similar to parental DEV, and ducks immunized with these viruses acquired protection against virulent DEV challenge. Conclusions DEV vaccine virus was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome maintaining full

  20. Genetic characterization of natural reassortant H4 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Zhejiang province in China from 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Lu, Xiangyun; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Yao, Hangping; Wu, Nanping

    2015-12-01

    The H4 subtype of the influenza virus was first isolated in 1999 from pigs with pneumonia in Canada. H4 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are able to cross the species barrier to infect humans. In order to better understand the genetic relationships between H4 AIV strains circulating in Eastern China and other AIV strains from Asia, a survey of domestic ducks in live poultry markets was undertaken in Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2014. In this study, 23 H4N2 (n = 14) and H4N6 (n = 9) strains were isolated from domestic ducks, and all eight gene segments of these strains were sequenced and compared to reference AIV strains available in GenBank. The isolated strains clustered primarily within the Eurasian lineage. No mutations associated with adaption to mammalian hosts or drug resistance was observed. The H4 reassortant strains were found to be of low pathogenicity in mice and able to replicate in the lung of the mice without prior adaptation. Continued surveillance is required, given the important role of domestic ducks in reassortment events leading to new AIVs.

  1. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks

  2. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  3. Role of position 627 of PB2 and the multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin in the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens and ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel A Schat

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in domestic and free-living birds with transmission to humans resulting in 59% mortality amongst 564 cases. The mutation of the amino acid at position 627 of the viral polymerase basic-2 protein (PB2 from glutamic acid (E in avian isolates to lysine (K in human isolates is frequently found, but it is not known if this change affects the fitness and pathogenicity of the virus in birds. We show here that horizontal transmission of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 (VN/1203 virus in chickens and ducks was not affected by the change of K to E at PB2-627. All chickens died between 21 to 48 hours post infection (pi, while 70% of the ducks survived infection. Virus replication was detected in chickens within 12 hours pi and reached peak titers in spleen, lung and brain between 18 to 24 hours for both viruses. Viral antigen in chickens was predominantly in the endothelium, while in ducks it was present in multiple cell types, including neurons, myocardium, skeletal muscle and connective tissues. Virus replicated to a high titer in chicken thrombocytes and caused upregulation of TLR3 and several cell adhesion molecules, which may explain the rapid virus dissemination and location of viral antigen in endothelium. Virus replication in ducks reached peak values between 2 and 4 days pi in spleen, lung and brain tissues and in contrast to infection in chickens, thrombocytes were not involved. In addition, infection of chickens with low pathogenic VN/1203 caused neuropathology, with E at position PB2-627 causing significantly higher infection rates than K, indicating that it enhances virulence in chickens.

  4. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  5. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  6. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: YongsuntR@Corning.com [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Detection of Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Almost All Hepatocytes by Modified PCR-Based In Situ Hybridization▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuriya, Hideko; Inoue, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Funata, Nobuaki; Kaji, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Seishu; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2010-01-01

    Although PCR-based in situ hybridization (PCR-ISH) can be used to determine the distribution and localization of pathogens in tissues, this approach is hampered by its low specificity. Therefore, we used a highly specific and sensitive PCR-ISH method to reveal the lobular distribution and intracellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV in chronic liver disease and to clarify the state of persistent HBV and HCV infection in the liver. HBV genomic DNA was detected in almost all hepatocytes, whereas HBV RNA or protein was differentially distributed only in a subset of the HBV DNA-positive region. Further, HCV genomic RNA was detected in almost all hepatocytes and was localized to the cytoplasm. HCV RNA was also detected in the epithelium of the large bile duct but not in endothelial cells, portal tracts, or sinusoidal lymphocytes. In patients with HBV and HCV coinfection, HCV RNA was localized to the noncancerous tissue, whereas HBV DNA was found only in the cancerous tissue. Using this novel PCR-ISH method, we could visualize the staining pattern of HBV and HCV in liver sections, and we obtained results consistent with those of real-time detection (RTD)-PCR analysis. In conclusion, almost all hepatocytes are infected with HBV or HCV in chronic liver disease; this finding implies that the viruses spreads throughout the liver in the chronic stage. PMID:20739486

  9. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  10. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  11. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  12. Role of macrophages in the immune response to hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgardner, G.L.; Chen, S.; Almond, S.P.; Ascher, N.L.; Payne, W.D.; Matas, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of host macrophages in the development of allospecific cytolytic T cells (allo-CTLs) in response to purified allogeneic MHC Class I+, Class II- hepatocytes in vivo in hepatocyte sponge matrix allografts (HC-SMA). Depletion of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from responder splenocytes in mixed lymphocyte hepatocyte culture (MLHC) inhibits the development of allo-CTLs in response to purified hepatocytes. First the ability of sponge macrophages to function as accessory cells in indirect presentation of hepatocyte Class I antigen was tested in MLHC. We found that addition of irradiated sponge cells (a source of sponge macrophages) restored the development of allo-CTLs in MLHC depleted of responder APCs. Therefore, radioresistant sponge macrophages can function as accessory cells in MLHC. We next employed silica as an immunotherapy targeted against host macrophages and assessed the effect on development of allo-CTLs in HC-SMA. We found that local (intrasponge) silica treatment completely inhibited the development of allo-CTLs in HC-SMA. Combined local and systemic silica treatment resulted in inhibition of allocytotoxicity comparable to local silica treatment alone in the doses tested. We conclude that host macrophages which infiltrate HC-SMA can function as accessory cells in vitro in MLHC and that both infiltrating host macrophages and lymphocytes participate in the development of an alloimmune response to purified hepatocytes in vivo. This interaction may involve indirect antigen presentation of hepatocyte Class I antigen by macrophages to host lymphocytes which accumulate in HC-SMA

  13. Effects of edaravone, a radical scavenger, on hepatocyte transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Ito, Ryoutaro; Murakumo, Akiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hiramatsu, Noriko; Fox, Ira J; Horiguchi, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation (HTx) has yielded significant improvements in liver function and survival in experimentally induced acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic disease. However, transplantation is inefficient, and it is thought that transplanted hepatocytes have a shortened lifespan because of inflammation involving excess nitric oxide (NO). The present study aimed to clarify whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger used to treat ischemic stroke, could reduce ischemic changes in hepatocyte-transplanted livers. Edaravone (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 24 h before HTx to Nagase analbuminemic rats (NARs). Hepatocytes were isolated, and 30 × 10(6) cells were injected in a 1.0-ml volume directly into the spleens of NARs. All experimental groups studied received FK506 to control rejection. Animals in Group A received medium-only; Group B received HTx only; and Group C received HTx and edaravone. Forty-eight hours after transplantation, the hepatocytes from animals were isolated and analyzed for staining with propidium iodide- and annexin-V using flow cytometry. Liver sections were also studied by immunostaining for albumin, and TUNEL. Peripheral blood serum albumin levels were measured on post-transplant days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 using ELISA. The edaravone-treated animals demonstrated an increased number of engrafted donor hepatocytes in the liver. The edaravone-treated liver sections also contained fewer TUNEL-positive cells and animals that received edaravone had higher serum albumin levels post-transplantation. Hepatocytes were also found to have increased in numbers 2 weeks following treatment with edaravone. Edaravone administration during HTx can suppress apoptosis near the transplanted cells, increasing engraftment. These studies indicate its potential usefulness for future clinical application. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Water and nonelectrolyte permeability of isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpini, G.; Garrick, R.A.; Jones, M.J.; Nunes, R.; Tavoloni, N.

    1986-01-01

    We have measured the diffusive permeability coefficients of isolated rat hepatocytes to 3 H 2 O, [ 14 C]urea, [ 14 C]erythritol, [ 14 C]mannitol, [ 3 H]sucrose, and [ 3 H]inulin, employing a technique previously developed for erythrocytes (Redwood et al., J. Gen. Physiol 64:706-729, 1974). Diffusion coefficients for the tracer molecules were measured in packed hepatocytes, supernatant fluid, and intracellular medium (lysed hepatocytes) and were calculated assuming one-dimensional semi-infinite diffusion through a homogeneous medium. By applying the series-parallel pathway model, the following permeability coefficients (10(-5) cm/sec) for the hepatocyte plasma membrane were obtained. 3 H 2 O, 98.6 +/- 18.4; [ 14 C]urea, 18.2 +/- 5.3; [ 14 C]erythritol, 4.8 +/- 1.6; [ 14 C]mannitol, 3.1 +/- 1.4; [ 3 H]sucrose, 0; [ 3 H]inulin, 0. These results indicate that isolated rat hepatocytes are highly permeable to water and polar nonelectrolytes, when compared with other transporting epithelia. This relatively high cellular permeability is consistent with a model in which nonelectrolyte permeation is via an aqueous pathway of equivalent pore diameter of 8-12 A. The finding that [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 14 C]mannitol cross the hepatocyte plasma membrane indicates that these molecules enter the bile canaliculus through the transcellular route. Conversely, the failure of [ 3 H]sucrose and [ 3 H]inulin to permeate the hepatocyte in the isolated condition supports the concept that biliary entry of these large carbohydrates, at least that fraction which cannot be accounted for by a vesicular mechanism, must occur via the transjunctional shunt pathway

  15. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  16. Irradiation studies of mallard duck eggs material containing Mirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.H.; Grodner, R.M.; Graves, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs containing Mirex (dodecachloropentacyclo[5.3.0.0 2 , 6 .0 3 , 9 .0 4 , 8 ]decane) from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos l.), fed diets with the insecticide incorporated at levels of 1 and 100 ppM for 25 weeks, were subjected to ultraviolet (uv) and γ irradiation. Seven derivatives were obtained on photolysis and eight derivatives were obtained from γ irradiation. Irradiation products appeared to be mono and dihydro derivatives of Mirex. Structural assignments for two monohydro derivatives and three dihydro derivatives were made on the basis of retention time and mass spectral data

  17. Two-Dimensional Zymography of Proteases from Steatotic Duck Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Padrón, María Fernanda; Kurz, Liliana; Rémignon, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Protease activity present in liver cells with steatosis can be electrophoretically characterized. Zymographic techniques allow semi-quantitative results, successfully detecting cathepsin and metalloprotease activity using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with gelatin and quantified by densitometry. By using specific inhibitors, the identity of the proteases can be confirmed. 2D zymography allows the determination of both M r. and pI of the metalloprotease and cathepsin activity present in the homogenates. The analysis of liver proteases activities in force fed ducks may elucidate the mechanisms behind steatosis development.

  18. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  19. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  20. Deficiency of G1 regulators P53, P21Cip1 and/or pRb decreases hepatocyte sensitivity to TGFβ cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison David J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGFβ is critical to control hepatocyte proliferation by inducing G1-growth arrest through multiple pathways leading to inhibition of E2F transcription activity. The retinoblastoma protein pRb is a key controller of E2F activity and G1/S transition which can be inhibited in viral hepatitis. It is not known whether the impairment of pRb would alter the growth inhibitory potential of TGFβ in disease. We asked how Rb-deficiency would affect responses to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. Results Primary hepatocytes isolated from Rb-floxed mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing CRE-recombinase to delete the Rb gene. In control cells treatment with TGFβ prevented cells to enter S phase via decreased cMYC activity, activation of P16INK4A and P21Cip and reduction of E2F activity. In Rb-null hepatocytes, cMYC activity decreased slightly but P16INK4A was not activated and the great majority of cells continued cycling. Rb is therefore central to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. However some Rb-null hepatocytes remained sensitive to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. As these hepatocytes expressed very high levels of P21Cip1 and P53 we investigated whether these proteins regulate pRb-independent signaling to cell cycle arrest by evaluating the consequences of disruption of p53 and p21Cip1. Hepatocytes deficient in p53 or p21Cip1 showed diminished growth inhibition by TGFβ. Double deficiency had a similar impact showing that in cells containing functional pRb; P21Cip and P53 work through the same pathway to regulate G1/S in response to TGFβ. In Rb-deficient cells however, p53 but not p21Cip deficiency had an additive effect highlighting a pRb-independent-P53-dependent effector pathway of inhibition of E2F activity. Conclusion The present results show that otherwise genetically normal hepatocytes with disabled p53, p21Cip1 or Rb genes respond less well to the antiproliferative effects of TGFβ. As the function of

  1. Distribution dynamics and functional importance of NHERF1 in regulation of Mrp-2 trafficking in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvar, Serhan; Suda, Jo; Zhu, Lixin; Rockey, Don C

    2014-10-15

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that interacts with receptors and ion transporters in its PDZ domains and with the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins in its COOH terminus. The role of NHERF1 in hepatocyte function remains largely unknown. We examine the distribution and physiological significance of NHERF1 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp-2) in hepatocytes. A WT radixin binding site mutant (F355R) and NHERF1 PDZ1 and PDZ2 domain adenoviral mutant constructs were tagged with yellow fluorescent protein and expressed in polarized hepatocytes to study localization and function of NHERF1. Cellular distribution of NHERF1 and radixin was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. A 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) assay was used to characterize Mrp-2 function. Similar to Mrp-2, WT NHERF1 and the NHERF1 PDZ2 deletion mutant were localized to the canalicular membrane. In contrast, the radixin binding site mutant (F355R) and the NHERF1 PDZ1 deletion mutant, which interacts poorly with Mrp-2, were rarely associated with the canalicular membrane. Knockdown of NHERF1 led to dramatically impaired CMFDA secretory response. Use of CMFDA showed that the NHERF1 PDZ1 and F355R mutants were devoid of a secretory response, while WT NHERF1-infected cells exhibited increased secretion of glutathione-methylfluorescein. The data indicate that NHERF1 interacts with Mrp-2 via the PDZ1 domain of NHERF1 and, furthermore, that NHERF1 is essential for maintaining the localization and function of Mrp-2. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Effects of different wavelengths of light on the biology, behavior, and production of grow-out Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C L; Colton, S; Haas, R; Rice, M; Porter, A; Schenk, A; Meelker, A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that red light conditions may improve growth and decrease aggressive behaviors in chickens and turkeys; however, more recent studies suggest that blue-green light may improve production of broilers over red light. To date, no research has been conducted to examine whether different wavelengths of light have an impact on production in the Pekin duck. To determine this, we raised Pekin ducks under aviary conditions that were similar to standard commercial barns. The ducks were kept in 3 different pens: red light (approximately 625 nm), blue light (approximately 425 nm), and white light. Light sources in each pen were standardized to produce a peak energy at 1.6 × 10³ μM photons/m²/s at the level of the ducks' heads. Ducks were given ad libitum access to water and commercial duck diet, and were housed on pine shavings at a density of 0.43 m²/duck. Ducks were evaluated weekly for BW and condition and a subjective measure of the duck's anxiety levels was determined. We found that ducks housed under blue light had significantly (P study (processing age; 35 d). Unlike ducks housed under red or white light, ducks housed in the blue pen showed a higher level of anxiety; while evaluators were in the pen a majority of them began panting, they were much less inquisitive than other ducks, they took longer to exhibit normal social behavior once evaluation was completed, and they frequently "swarmed" when no people were present. There were no differences in any measurements between the red and white-lighted pens. These data suggest that unlike the chicken, blue lights may be inappropriate for raising Pekin ducks in a commercial setting. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Thinking like a duck: fall lake use and movement patterns of juvenile ring-necked ducks before migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Charlotte L; Fieberg, John; Scharenbroich, Christopher; Herwig, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    The post-fledging period is one of the least studied portions of the annual cycle in waterfowl. Yet, recruitment into the breeding population requires that young birds have sufficient resources to survive this period. We used radio-telemetry and generalized estimating equations to examine support for four hypotheses regarding the drivers of landscape scale habitat use and movements made by juvenile ring-necked ducks between the pre-fledging period and departure for migration. Our response variables included the probability of movement, distances moved, and use of different lake types: brood-rearing lakes, staging lakes, and lakes with low potential for disturbance. Birds increased their use of staging areas and lakes with low potential for disturbance (i.e., without houses or boat accesses, >100 m from roads, or big lakes with areas where birds could sit undisturbed) throughout the fall, but these changes began before the start of the hunting season and their trajectory was not changed by the onset of hunting. Males and females moved similar distances and had similar probabilities of movements each week. However, females were more likely than males to use brood-rearing lakes later in the fall. Our findings suggest juvenile ring-necked ducks require different lake types throughout the fall, and managing solely for breeding habitat will be insufficient for meeting needs during the post-fledging period. Maintaining areas with low potential for disturbance and areas suitable for staging will ensure that ring-necked ducks have access to habitat throughout the fall.

  4. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R

    1986-01-01

    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  5. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  6. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  7. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  8. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  9. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  10. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence of domesticated waterfowl in Central Java: goose and muscovy duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the genetic characterization of domesticated waterfowl (goose and Muscovy duck) in Central Java based on a D-loop mtDNA gene. The D-loop gene was amplified using PCR technique by specific primer and sequenced using dideoxy termination method. Multiple alignments of D-loop gene obtained were 710 nucleotides at position 74 to 783 at the 5’ end (for goose) and 712 nucleotides at position 48 to 759 at the 5’ end (for Muscovy duck). The results of the polymorphism analysis on D-loop sequences of muscovy duck produced 3 haplotypes. In the D-loop gene of goose does not show polymorphism, with substitution at G117A. Phylogenetic trees reconstructions of goose and Muscovy duck, which was collected during this research compared with another species from Anser, Chairina and Anas was generated 2 forms of clusters. The first group consists of all kind of Muscovy duck together with Chairina moschata and Anas, while the second group consists of all geese and Anser cygnoides the other. The determination of Muscovy duck and geese identity can be distinguished from the genetic marker information. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, it can be concluded that the Muscovy duck is closely related to Chairina moschata, while geese is closely related to Anser cygnoides.

  11. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Diving ducks are the most abundant group of waterfowl that overwinter in the open bays and ponds of San Francisco Bay (SFB). Species within this group are primarily benthivores that dive to obtain their macroinvertebrate prey in bottom sediments, although at times they may eat plant matter or forage in the water column. These migratory species include bay ducks (lesser scaup Aythya affinis, greater scaup A. marila, canvasback A. valisineria), sea ducks (surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata and bufflehead Bucephala albeola), and a stiff-tailed duck (ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis). These species vary from largest to smallest body mass: canvasback, greater scaup, surf scoter, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, and bufflehead. Their breeding grounds range from Central Valley grasslands, intermountain wetlands, prairie potholes, boreal forest, and Arctic tundra. Their wintering populations in SFB are most abundant between October and April, and SFB comprises up to 50% of the number counted during midwinter surveys on the lower Pacific coast. Species are found in all SFB regions, but greater scaup and surf scoter are most often seen in subtidal to intertidal waters and are not commonly found in baylands. In contrast, ruddy duck and bufflehead populations are most abundant in baylands, particularly in managed ponds. Canvasbacks are commonly found at estuaries or creek mouths.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Lanlan; Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  13. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-03

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  14. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  15. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  16. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  17. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. A comparison of long bone development in historical and contemporary ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, R C; Applegate, T J; Lilburn, M S; Karcher, D M

    2012-11-01

    The selection for growth and carcass traits in poultry meat species has contributed to increased interest in understanding and characterizing skeletal growth as the birds struggle to balance skeletal development with increased BW and muscle mass. The objective of this study was to compare the physical characteristics and mineralization of the tibia and femur from commercial Pekin ducks representing circa 1993 and 2010 commercial strains. In 1993, the femur and tibia were collected from 8 ducks at 11 ages between 11 and 53 d. A similar study was done in 2010 in which the femur and tibia were collected from 8 ducks at 12 sample ages between 10 and 49 d. All bones were weighed and the length and width at 50% of length were measured. Each bone was subsequently cut into epiphyseal (top 25% of length) and diaphyseal (midregion at 50% of length) sections. Each bone segment was extracted with ether, hot weighed, and ashed. The 2010 contemporary ducks reached market weight faster than the 1993 ducks. Therefore, statistical comparisons were made at common BW as well as at common ages. The mean tibia length of the 2010 duck was 0.75 cm greater (P ducks. The percentage epiphyseal ash in the femur was 10% lower (P ducks but there were no significant differences by 18 d of age. The lower epiphyseal ash values at both younger ages and smaller BW in the 2010 contemporary ducks suggests that it is critical to monitor those factors that influence bone mineralization in contemporary ducklings that can achieve market BW at earlier chronological ages.

  20. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  1. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  2. Ecology of fall-migrating ducks in central Illinois: A radar perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Benjamin J.

    Research from the last two decades has elucidated the importance of migration in the annual cycle of ducks, but many aspects of migration ecology remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of investigating movements that occur over large spatial scales, at substantial heights and at night. Weather surveillance radar (WSR) offers a unique tool for observing movements of birds aloft, but until now has been used primarily to address questions only relevant to broad taxonomic groups. Using thermal infrared imaging, portable radar, and natural history, I ground-truthed WSR echoes originating from a complex of wetlands in the central Illinois River valley to develop a technique for identifying and enumerating ducks as they emigrated from this important stopover area. With this technique, I quantified duck emigrations during 7 falls (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2005-2008). I used WSR-derived estimates of annual turnover in combination with aerial inventory estimates of duck use to estimate the average amount of time ducks spent at my study site during fall (stopover duration). The mean stopover duration estimate of 11 days (SD = 4 days) was much shorter than a historical estimate (28 days) that has been use for regional waterfowl conservation planning. I also regressed average annual stopover duration estimates against an index of annual foraging habitat quality and found a strong, positive relationship (r2 = 0.71), suggesting ducks assessed local habitat conditions and adjusted time spent at the site. Weather influences the timing of migration in many avian taxa, but this relationship is poorly understood for ducks. An evaluation of competing models including 15 years of data indicated following winds aloft, no precipitation, less cloud cover, decreasing temperatures, increasing barometric pressure and date best predicted emigration (R2 = 0.52). Based on this model, the odds of a duck emigration occurring when winds were following and precipitation was absent were 13.2 to

  3. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  4. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR START UP BUSINESS OF BROILER PEKING DUCK FARM WITH ECO-GREEN INTEGRATED

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga N.; Syah T.Y.R.; Erni N.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing number and the rate of Banten population growth from year to year make it as a potential market which is quite large for the development of broiler duck farming business in the future. In this case, intensive system broiler Peking duck farming which is integrated, economic, and eco-green intensive, eco-green commonly utilizes Azolla microphylla and flour of pluchea leaves and other germ plasmas as the feed supplements. As a company in Peking duck farming with Eco Green concept,...

  5. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  6. A refined characterisation of the NeoHepatocyte phenotype necessitates a reappraisal of the transdifferentiation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Paloma; Wundt, Judith; Hutchinson, James A; Brulport, Marc; Jun, Yu; Sotnikova, Anna; Girreser, Ulrich; Braun, Felix; Gövert, Felix; Soria, Bernat; Nüssler, Andreas; Clement, Bernd; Hengstler, Jan G; Fändrich, Fred

    2009-03-01

    Under certain culture conditions human peripheral blood monocytes may be induced to express phenotypic markers of non-haematopoietic lineages, including hepatocyte-defining traits. One such example, the NeoHepatocyte, was previously shown to express a broad panel of hepatocyte-like marker antigens and metabolic activities, both in vitro and following engraftment in the liver of immunodeficient mice. In this report, a refined description of NeoHepatocytes, with regard to their expression of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, morphology, hepatocyte marker expression and cell surface phenotype, is presented in comparison with human macrophages in defined states of activation. Contrary to prior assertions, it would seem more likely that NeoHepatocytes express particular hepatocyte-defining genes during a normal programme of macrophage differentiation rather than undergoing a process of transdifferentiation to become hepatocyte-like cells.

  7. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  8. Alternative Cell Sources to Adult Hepatocytes for Hepatic Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Adult hepatocyte transplantation is limited by scarce availability of suitable donor liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation. New cell-based therapies are being developed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation, to reduce the waiting-list mortality rate, and to obtain more sustained and significant metabolic correction. Fetal livers and unsuitable neonatal livers for organ transplantation have been proposed as potential useful sources of hepatic cells for cell therapy. However, the major challenge is to use alternative cell sources for transplantation that can be derived from reproducible methods. Different types of stem cells with hepatic differentiation potential are eligible for generating large numbers of functional hepatocytes for liver cell therapy to treat degenerative disorders, inborn hepatic metabolic diseases, and organ failure. Clinical trials are designed to fully establish the safety profile of such therapies and to define target patient groups and standardized protocols.

  9. Transcriptional and metabolic flux profiling of triadimefon effects on cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Vidya V.; Ovacik, Meric A.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Roth, Charles M.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.

    2010-01-01

    Conazoles are a class of azole fungicides used to prevent fungal growth in agriculture, for treatment of fungal infections, and are found to be tumorigenic in rats and/or mice. In this study, cultured primary rat hepatocytes were treated to two different concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 mM) of triadimefon, which is a tumorigenic conazole in rat and mouse liver, on a temporal basis with daily media change. Following treatment, cells were harvested for microarray data ranging from 6 to 72 h. Supernatant was collected daily for three days, and the concentrations of various metabolites in the media and supernatant were quantified. Gene expression changes were most significant following exposure to 0.3 mM triadimefon and were characterized mainly by metabolic pathways related to carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Correspondingly, metabolic network flexibility analysis demonstrated a switch from fatty acid synthesis to fatty acid oxidation in cells exposed to triadimefon. It is likely that fatty acid oxidation is active in order to supply energy required for triadimefon detoxification. In 0.15 mM triadimefon treatment, the hepatocytes are able to detoxify the relatively low concentration of triadimefon with less pronounced changes in hepatic metabolism.

  10. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [ 73 As]arsenite (iAs III ; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs III to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs III than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs III was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs III and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to the interspecies differences

  11. Microencapsulation of Hepatocytes and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P H; Montanari, Elisa; Morel, Philippe; Pimenta, Joël; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Wandrey, Christine; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Mahou, Redouan; Bühler, Leo H

    2017-01-01

    Encapsulated hepatocyte transplantation and encapsulated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation are newly developed potential treatments for acute and chronic liver diseases, respectively. Cells are microencapsulated in biocompatible semipermeable alginate-based hydrogels. Microspheres protect cells against antibodies and immune cells, while allowing nutrients, small/medium size proteins and drugs to diffuse inside and outside the polymer matrix. Microencapsulated cells are assessed in vitro and designed for experimental transplantation and for future clinical applications.Here, we describe the protocol for microencapsulation of hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells within hybrid poly(ethylene glycol)-alginate hydrogels.

  12. No evidence for protective erythropoietin alpha signalling in rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frede Stilla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant human erythropoietin alpha (rHu-EPO has been reported to protect the liver of rats and mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, direct protective effects of rHu-EPO on hepatocytes and the responsible signalling pathways have not yet been described. The aim of the present work was to study the protective effect of rHu-EPO on warm hypoxia-reoxygenation and cold-induced injury to hepatocytes and the rHu-EPO-dependent signalling involved. Methods Loss of viability of isolated rat hepatocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation or incubated at 4°C followed by rewarming was determined from released lactate dehydrogenase activity in the absence and presence of rHu-EPO (0.2–100 U/ml. Apoptotic nuclear morphology was assessed by fluorescence microscopy using the nuclear fluorophores H33342 and propidium iodide. Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR, EPO and Bcl-2 mRNAs were quantified by real time PCR. Activation of JAK-2, STAT-3 and STAT-5 in hepatocytes and rat livers perfused in situ was assessed by Western blotting. Results In contrast to previous in vivo studies on ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver, rHu-EPO was without any protective effect on hypoxic injury, hypoxia-reoxygenation injury and cold-induced apoptosis to isolated cultured rat hepatocytes. EPOR mRNA was identified in these cells but specific detection of the EPO receptor protein was not possible due to the lack of antibody specificity. Both, in the cultured rat hepatocytes (10 U/ml for 15 minutes and in the rat liver perfused in situ with rHu-EPO (8.9 U/ml for 15 minutes no evidence for EPO-dependent signalling was found as indicated by missing effects of rHu-EPO on phosphorylation of JAK-2, STAT-3 and STAT-5 and on the induction of Bcl-2 mRNA. Conclusion Together, these results indicate the absence of any protective EPO signalling in rat hepatocytes. This implies that the protection provided by rHu-EPO in vivo against ischemia-reperfusion and

  13. Novel genetic markers of the carbonic anhydrase II gene associated with egg production and reproduction traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-T; Cheng, Y-S; Huang, M-C

    2013-02-01

    In our previous cDNA microarray study, we found that the carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) gene is one of the differentially expressed transcripts in the duck isthmus epithelium during egg formation period. The aim of this study was to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CA2 gene of Tsaiya ducks. The relationship of SNP genotype with egg production and reproduction traits was also investigated. A total of 317 ducks from two lines, a control line with no selection and a selected line, were employed for testing. Three SNPs (C37T, A62G and A65G) in the 3'-untranslated region of the CA2 gene were found. SNP-trait association analysis showed that SNP C37T and A62G were associated with duck egg weight besides fertility. The ducks with the CT and AG genotypes had a 1.46 and 1.62 g/egg lower egg weight as compared with ducks with the CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p ducks with CT and AG genotypes had 5.20% and 4.22% higher fertility than those with CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p duck fertility, and the diplotype H1H4 was dominant for duck fertility. These findings might provide the basis for balanced selection and may be used in marker-assisted selection to improve egg weight and fertility simultaneously in the Tsaiya ducks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Inducibility of carbamoylphosphate synthetase (ammonia) in cultures of embryonic hepatocytes: ontogenesis of the responsiveness to hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Zonneveld, D.; Charles, R.

    1984-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids and cyclic AMP induce carbamoylphosphate synthetase (ammonia) (CPS) in rat hepatocytes. Using an enzyme immunoassay applied to hepatocyte cultures fixed in situ, it has been demonstrated that the capacity of hepatocytes to synthesize CPS in the presence of both hormones is

  16. Billion-scale production of hepatocyte-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Takayama, Kazuo; Sakurai, Fuminori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hepatocyte-like cells have not been fully used in such applications because it is difficult to produce such cells on a large scale. In this study, we tried to establish a method to mass produce hepatocyte-like cells using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture bioreactor called the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). RCCS enabled us to obtain homogenous hepatocyte-like cells on a billion scale (>10 9  cells). The gene expression levels of some hepatocyte markers (alpha-1 antitrypsin, cytochrome (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) were higher in 3D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells than in 2D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells. This result suggests that RCCS could provide more suitable conditions for hepatocyte maturation than the conventional 2D cell culture conditions. In addition, more than 90% of hepatocyte-like cells were positive for albumin and could uptake low-density lipoprotein in the culture medium. We succeeded in the large-scale production of homogenous and functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPS cells. This technology will be useful in drug screening and regenerative medicine, which require enormous numbers of hepatocyte-like cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  10. Hepatitis C Virus Infection Induces Autophagy as a Prosurvival Mechanism to Alleviate Hepatic ER-Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Srikanta; Chava, Srinivas; Aydin, Yucel; Chandra, Partha K.; Ferraris, Pauline; Chen, Weina; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently leads to chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection leads to chronic liver disease and HCC are not well understood. The infection cycle of HCV is initiated by the attachment and entry of virus particles into a hepatocyte. Replication of the HCV genome inside hepatocytes leads to accumulation of large amounts of viral proteins and RNA replication intermediates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in production of thousands of new virus particles. HCV-infected hepatocytes mount a substantial stress response. How the infected hepatocyte integrates the viral-induced stress response with chronic infection is unknown. The unfolded protein response (UPR), an ER-associated cellular transcriptional response, is activated in HCV infected hepatocytes. Over the past several years, research performed by a number of laboratories, including ours, has shown that HCV induced UPR robustly activates autophagy to sustain viral replication in the infected hepatocyte. Induction of the cellular autophagy response is required to improve survival of infected cells by inhibition of cellular apoptosis. The autophagy response also inhibits the cellular innate antiviral program that usually inhibits HCV replication. In this review, we discuss the physiological implications of the HCV-induced chronic ER-stress response in the liver disease progression. PMID:27223299

  11. Genetic diversity and host specificity varies across three genera of blood parasites in ducks of the Pacific Americas Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Smith, Matthew M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Ramey, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Birds of the order Anseriformes, commonly referred to as waterfowl, are frequently infected by Haemosporidia of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon via dipteran vectors. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene from parasites of these genera detected in six species of ducks from Alaska and California, USA to characterize the genetic diversity of Haemosporidia infecting waterfowl at two ends of the Pacific Americas Flyway. In addition, parasite Cytb sequences were compared to those available on a public database to investigate specificity of genetic lineages to hosts of the order Anseriformes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Haemoproteus Cytb sequences was lower than was detected for Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon parasites. Although waterfowl are presumed to be infected by only a single species of Leucocytozoon, L. simondi, diversity indices were highest for haplotypes from this genus and sequences formed five distinct clades separated by genetic distances of 4.9%–7.6%, suggesting potential cryptic speciation. All Haemoproteus andLeucocytozoon haplotypes derived from waterfowl samples formed monophyletic clades in phylogenetic analyses and were unique to the order Anseriformes with few exceptions. In contrast, waterfowl-origin Plasmodium haplotypes were identical or closely related to lineages found in other avian orders. Our results suggest a more generalist strategy for Plasmodiumparasites infecting North American waterfowl as compared to those of the generaHaemoproteus and Leucocytozoon.

  12. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  13. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  14. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  15. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  16. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fa Qiong; Li, Ang; Lan, Jing Jing; Wang, Yue Ming; Yan, Mei Jiao; Lian, Sen Yang; Wu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC) supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated) with ABCG2 (up-regulated) and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  18. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  20. Methylmercury: Second generation reproductive and behavioral effects of mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury (equal to about 0.1 ppm mercury in a natural diet) also were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury beginning at 9 days of age and continuing through their reproductive season. Mercury in the eggs of treated hens averaged 0.86 ppm. Hens fed 0.5 ppm mercury made less efficient use of feed and laid a greater percentage of eggs outside nestboxes compared with controls. Hens fed mercury also produced fewer 1-week-old ducklings than did controls. There were no significant differences between controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury in approach responses to tape-recorded maternal calls, in avoidance of a frightening stimulus, or in open-field behavior. Ducklings from parents fed 0.5 pprn mercury did not grow as fast as did control ducklings.

  1. [Book review] Ducks, geese and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This is the 3rd edition of the classic work "The Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America," which was first published in December 1942.  The original edition was authored by Francis C. Kortright with color plates by T. M. Shortt. An authoritative reference on North American waterfowl for many years, the book had become outdated as a result of major advances in the field of waterfowl biology. The need to update the 1st edition culminated in the publication in 1976 of a 2nd edition authored by Frank Bellrose. Readers interested in comparing features of the 1976 edition with other major recent works on North American waterfowl by P. A. Johnsgard and R. S. Palmer should read Weller (1977, Auk 94: 173).

  2. Radiation-induced PKC signaling system in cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo; Yukawa, Osami

    1998-01-01

    Radiation effects on living organisms are mainly caused through reactive oxygen species (ROS) on living cells. It is known that ROS damages various membranes and the bio membranes play an important role in cellular signal transduction pathways. The effects of radiation on cellular signal transduction pathways in cultured rat hepatocytes have been studied

  3. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two parti...

  4. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione (GSH, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes.

  5. The use of pig hepatocytes for biotransformation and toxicity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were, (1) to investigate the possibility to isolate viable hepatocytes from liver samples of pigs, (2) to study their use for biotransformation and toxicity studies, and (3) to demonstrate the value of this model, in particular in the field of residue

  6. Hepatocytes in the development of liver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Borel Rinkes (Inne)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the development of alternative strategies in the treatment of patients with acute fulminant hepatic failure and inborn errors of metabolism, using hepatocytes as the basis of liver support. When compared with transplantation of the liver as an organ, the

  7. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of amino acids and ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussinger, D.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    With respect to hepatocyte heterogeneity in ammonia and amino acid metabolism, two different patterns of sublobular gene expression are distinguished: 'gradient-type' and 'strict- or compartment-type' zonation. An example for strict-type zonation is the reciprocal distribution of carbamoylphosphate

  8. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  9. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  10. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P ducks compared with broilers (P ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  12. Induction of hepatocyte polyploidization in rats of different age by ionizing radiation of different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'yano, N.Ya.; Malinovskij, O.V.; Khair, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    A decrease in the effectiveness of neutron-irradiation with respect to fusion of nonproliferating hepatocytes of animals with age was shown by the method of flow cytometry. There was an inverse relationship between the effectiveness of induction of non-proliferating hepatocytes fusion and neutron energy. The process of hepatocyte fusion induced by neutrons was inhibited by uranyl acetate. No age-dependent changes were noted in the induction of polyploidization of proliferating hepatocytes by sparsely ionizing radiation. A hypothesis is proposed concerning a membrane nature of the target responsible for hepatocyte polyploidization induced by densely ionizing radiation. (authors). 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Induction of hepatocyte polyploidization in rats of different age by ionizing radiation of different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'yano, N.Ya.; Malinovskij, O.V.; Khair, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    A decrease in the effectiveness of neutron-irradiation with respect to fusion of nonproliferating hepatocytes of animals with age was shown by the method of flow cytometry. There was an inverse relationship between the effectiveness of induction of non-proliferating hepatocytes fusion and neutron energy. The process of hepatocyte fusion induced by neutrons was inhibited by uranyl acetate. No age-dependent changes were noted in the induction of polyploidization of proliferating hepatocytes by sparsely ionizing radiation. A hypothesis is proposed concerning a membrane nature of the target responsible for hepatocyte polyploidization induced by densely ionizing radiation

  14. 3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling. Furthermore, using PPARα agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPARα signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.

  15. Hepatitis A complicated with acute renal failure and high hepatocyte growth factor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Shinji; Shibata, Michihiko; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Hiura, Masaaki; Abe, Shintaro; Harada, Masaru

    2015-08-28

    A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data showed severe liver injury and that the patient was positive for immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies. He was also complicated with severe renal dysfunction and had an extremely high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Therefore, he was diagnosed with severe acute liver failure with acute renal failure (ARF) caused by HAV infection. Prognosis was expected to be poor because of complications by ARF and high serum HGF. However, liver and renal functions both improved rapidly without intensive treatment, and he was subsequently discharged from our hospital on the 21(st) hospital day. Although complication with ARF and high levels of serum HGF are both important factors predicting poor prognosis in acute liver failure patients, the present case achieved a favorable outcome. Endogenous HGF might play an important role as a regenerative effector in injured livers and kidneys.

  16. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protects human hepatocytes against apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilowski, Maren; Kleespies, Axel; Toni, Enrico N. de; Donabauer, Barbara; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hengstler, Jan G.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ALR decreases cytochrome c release from mitochondria. → ALR protects hepatocytes against apoptosis induction by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-β and actinomycin D. → ALR exerts a liver-specific anti-apoptotic effect. → A possible medical usage of ALR regarding protection of liver cells during apoptosis inducing therapies. -- Abstract: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to support liver regeneration and to stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes. However, it is not known if ALR exerts anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocytes and whether this protective effect is cell type specific. This is relevant, because compounds that protect the liver against apoptosis without undesired effects, such as protection of metastatic tumour cells, would be appreciated in several clinical settings. Primary human hepatocytes (phH) and organotypic cancer cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of apoptosis inducers (ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-β, actinomycin D) and cultured with or without recombinant human ALR (rhALR). Apoptosis was evaluated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and by FACS with propidium iodide (PI) staining. ALR significantly decreased apoptosis induced by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-β and actinomycin D. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR was observed in primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells but not in bronchial (BC1), colonic (SW480), gastric (GC1) and pancreatic (L3.6PL) cell lines. Therefore, the hepatotrophic growth factor ALR acts in a liver specific manner with regards to both its mitogenic and its anti-apoptotic effect. Unlike the growth factors HGF and EGF, rhALR acts in a liver specific manner. Therefore, ALR is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a possible hepatoprotective factor in clinical settings.

  17. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protects human hepatocytes against apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilowski, Maren [Liver Regeneration Group, Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Kleespies, Axel [Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Toni, Enrico N. de [Department of Medicine II, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Donabauer, Barbara [Liver Regeneration Group, Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Technical University, Dortmund (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang E., E-mail: wolfgang.thasler@med.uni-muenchen.de [Liver Regeneration Group, Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALR decreases cytochrome c release from mitochondria. {yields} ALR protects hepatocytes against apoptosis induction by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. {yields} ALR exerts a liver-specific anti-apoptotic effect. {yields} A possible medical usage of ALR regarding protection of liver cells during apoptosis inducing therapies. -- Abstract: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to support liver regeneration and to stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes. However, it is not known if ALR exerts anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocytes and whether this protective effect is cell type specific. This is relevant, because compounds that protect the liver against apoptosis without undesired effects, such as protection of metastatic tumour cells, would be appreciated in several clinical settings. Primary human hepatocytes (phH) and organotypic cancer cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of apoptosis inducers (ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta}, actinomycin D) and cultured with or without recombinant human ALR (rhALR). Apoptosis was evaluated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and by FACS with propidium iodide (PI) staining. ALR significantly decreased apoptosis induced by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR was observed in primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells but not in bronchial (BC1), colonic (SW480), gastric (GC1) and pancreatic (L3.6PL) cell lines. Therefore, the hepatotrophic growth factor ALR acts in a liver specific manner with regards to both its mitogenic and its anti-apoptotic effect. Unlike the growth factors HGF and EGF, rhALR acts in a liver specific manner. Therefore, ALR is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a possible hepatoprotective factor in clinical settings.

  18. Detection of Hepatocyte Clones Containing Integrated Hepatitis B Virus DNA Using Inverse Nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Thomas; Jilbert, Allison R

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to ~600,000 deaths per year worldwide. Many of the steps that occur during progression from the normal liver to cirrhosis and/or HCC are unknown. Integration of HBV DNA into random sites in the host cell genome occurs as a by-product of the HBV replication cycle and forms a unique junction between virus and cellular DNA. Analyses of integrated HBV DNA have revealed that HCCs are clonal and imply that they develop from the transformation of hepatocytes, the only liver cell known to be infected by HBV. Integrated HBV DNA has also been shown, at least in some tumors, to cause insertional mutagenesis in cancer driver genes, which may facilitate the development of HCC. Studies of HBV DNA integration in the histologically normal liver have provided additional insight into HBV-associated liver disease, suggesting that hepatocytes with a survival or growth advantage undergo high levels of clonal expansion even in the absence of oncogenic transformation. Here we describe inverse nested PCR (invPCR), a highly sensitive method that allows detection, sequencing, and enumeration of virus-cell DNA junctions formed by the integration of HBV DNA. The invPCR protocol is composed of two major steps: inversion of the virus-cell DNA junction and single-molecule nested PCR. The invPCR method is highly specific and inexpensive and can be tailored to DNA extracted from large or small amounts of liver. This procedure also allows detection of genome-wide random integration of any known DNA sequence and is therefore a useful technique for molecular biology, virology, and genetic research.

  19. Experimental reproduction of beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome by infection in cherry valley ducklings with a novel goose parvovirus-related parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-02-01

    Infection of clinically susceptible ducks, including cherry valley and Muscovy ducks, with a novel goose parvovirus (GPV)-related virus (N-GPV) can result in beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). To obtain new insights into the host range and pathogenic potential of this novel waterfowl parvovirus, cherry valley ducklings (n=20) were experimentally infected with N-GPV strain SDLC01. An equal number of ducklings served as uninfected controls. The appearance of clinical signs, histopathological changes, viral shedding, and seroconversion was monitored for 20 days post-infection. Infection status of all ducks was monitored using indirect ELISA, virus neutralization test, nested PCR, clinical indicators, and microscopic examination. Three ducks developed the typical clinical, gross, and histological changes of BADS. By study day 6, the infected ducks had seroconverted to N-GPV. The antibodies raised were neutralizing against the SDLC01 strain in vitro. Here we successfully developed an experimental infection model for studying the pathogenicity and role of N-GPV in BADS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of curcumin supplementation in monochromatic light on lipid serum profile of sexually mature female Magelang ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kasiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of curcumin supplementation inexpose monochromatic light on serum lipid concentrations of sexually mature female magelang duck. One hundred and ninety two female magelang ducks were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 4×4 factorial arrangement and each experimental unit was repeated 3 times, each with 4 female magelang ducks. The first factor was dose of curcumin supplementation consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0, 9, 18, and 36 mg/duck/day. The second factor was the color of monochromatic light consisted of 4 levels i.e., white, red, green, and blue colors. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The result showed that serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were lower (P<0.05 while high density lipoprotein (HDL were higher (P<0.05 in experimental ducks supplemented with a curcumin dose of 36 mg/duck/day in variety of monochromatic light colors compared to control experimental ducks without curcumin supplementation. The curcumin doses of 18 or 36 mg/duck/day within red, green, or blue light had the potential to modulate lipid metabolism, as indicated by the increased serum concentration of HDL and the decreased serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, and LDL of the experimental female magelang ducks.

  1. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P ducks with the GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P < 0.05) by the polymorphism of the GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  2. Is ability to hepatic steatosis influenced by age at the beginning of the overfeeding period in Muscovy and Pekin ducks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrin, P; Bernadet, M D; Sannier, M; Baéza, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of species (Muscovy and Pekin ducks) and age at the beginning of the overfeeding period on fatty liver production, carcass composition and lipid and moisture content of the liver and breast muscle. We reared four groups of 40 ducks per species for the study, starting at 2-week intervals in order to have four different ages together at the beginning of the overfeeding period (10, 12, 14 and 16 weeks). At the end of the overfeeding period, all ducks were slaughtered. Our results confirmed the high levels of difference in carcass composition and lipid content in the plasma, liver and breast muscle between Muscovy and Pekin ducks at all ages. Pekin ducks were not able to develop a high degree of hepatic steatosis, but had increased lipid storage in peripheral adipose and muscle tissues than Muscovy ducks. However, the fatty liver weight of Pekin ducks increased with age, with lipid deposition in the liver and peripheral tissues. The ability of Muscovy ducks to produce fatty livers remained unchanged with age in line, with lipid deposition in the liver and peripheral tissues. The sites of lipid deposition thus depend on species and not on the physiological maturity of ducks.

  3. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  4. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  5. Risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N8 outbreaks on broiler duck farms in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W-H; An, J-U; Kim, J; Moon, O-K; Bae, S H; Bender, J B; Cho, S

    2018-04-19

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group. Control farms were matched based on farm location and were within a 3-km radius from the case premises. Spatial and environmental factors were characterized by site visit and plotted through a geographic information system (GIS). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess possible risk factors associated with HPAI broiler duck farm infection. Four final variables were identified as risk factors in a final multivariable logistic model: "Farms with ≥7 flocks" (odds ratio [OR] = 6.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-37.04), "Farm owner with ≥15 years of raising poultry career" (OR = 7.91, 95% CI 1.69-37.14), "Presence of any poultry farms located within 500 m of the farm" (OR = 6.30, 95% CI 1.08-36.93) and "Not using a faecal removal service" (OR = 27.78, 95% CI 3.89-198.80). This highlights that the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in South Korea were associated with farm owner education, number of flocks and facilities and farm biosecurity. Awareness of these factors may help to reduce the spread of HPAI H5N8 across broiler duck farms in Korea during epidemics. Greater understanding of the risk factors for H5N8 may improve farm vulnerability to HPAI and other subtypes and help to establish policies to prevent re-occurrence. These findings are relevant to global prevention recommendations and intervention protocols. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-01-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 o C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  7. THE DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS AND SOURCES OF LIPIDS IN DUCK DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Sychov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of digestibility of nutrients in ducklings was performed by use of feed contained the lipids from different levels and sources. Experimental studies were conducted in terms of problem research laboratory of feed additives of National Agriculture University of Ukraine. The material for scientific experiments was the ducklings of cross STAR 53 H.Y. Experiment was carried out by group-analog method. We determined the optimal content of crude fat in fodder of young ducks at the first stage of experiment and the best source of lipids at second stage. We increased the crude fat in duckling feed by the introduction of sunflower oil at first stage. The amount of fat in the duck feed was 5% in control group and this were 3% and 7% in group II and III. The ducks from experimental groups received feed with sunflower oil at the second stage of experiment, the ducks of group II and III obtained feed from soya, rapeseed, and palm fat. Feeding the ducks was done per group twice per day – in morning and evening. It was registered that the feeding of 8-14 days ducks by food with crude fat of 7% plausible increased the digestibility of protein by 3.2%, of fat by 5.1%, and nitrogen-free extractives matters by 2.7%. At the same time the use of feed for 36-42 days ducks with crude fat of 7% allows to get the best results with the more higher level of protein and fat digestibility by 4.9% and 4.8% respectively. The use of feed with the addition of soybean oil for duck feeding have a positive effect towards increasing the level of digestibility of organic matter, protein, fat, and fiber in all the duck age groups. At the same time the use of feed containing palm oil reduces the digestibility of fat by 4,1-6,7%  compared to control group, that obtained feed with sunflower oil . We confirmed the prospect of further research in order to to establish the optimal ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of ducks and to determine their

  8. Nonbreeding Duck Use and Management Contribution Trends for Central Flyway Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  9. Airborne Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus during Processing of Infected Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Balzli, Charles; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Tumpey, Terrence M; Clark, Andrew; Swayne, David E

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals. We did not detect consistent infections in ducks and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected ducks were processed. Our results support the hypothesis that airborne transmission of HPAI viruses can occur among poultry and from poultry to humans during home or live-poultry market slaughter of infected poultry.

  10. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  11. Influence of indoor microbial aerosol on the welfare of meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G L; Wei, L M; Liu, Y Y; Liu, J Y; Wang, Y; Gao, J; Chai, T J; Cai, Y M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of microbial aerosols on ducks' welfare and provide information on which to establish microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Different microbial aerosol concentrations in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, fungi, gram-negative bacteria and an AGI-30 microbial air sampler detected endotoxins. Physiological stress was evaluated in the ducks by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) values in serum. To assess the effects of bioaerosol factors, welfare indicators including fluctuating asymmetry (FA), appearance and gait as well as the Lactobacillus caecal concentration were evaluated. The data showed group D had already reached the highest limit of concentration of airborne aerobic bacteria, airborne fungi, airborne gram-negative bacteria and airborne endotoxin. The ducks in this group had significantly increased serum ACTH values and significantly decreased caecal lactobacilli concentration. Furthermore, appearance and gait scores, wing length and overall FA and caecal Lactobacillus concentration in this group were significantly increased at 6 and 8 weeks of age. In conclusion, high concentrations of microbial aerosol adversely affected the welfare of meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D suggest a preliminary upper limit concentration of bioaerosols in ambient air for healthy meat ducks.

  12. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of ducks accumulating 137Cs on a reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.S.; Dallas, C.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Evans, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals

  13. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  14. The status of sea ducks in the North Pacific Rim: Toward their conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, R. Ian; Brault, Solange; Conant, Bruce; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Vermeer, Kees; McCabe, Richard E.; Wadsworth, Kelly G.

    1994-01-01

    Sea ducks (tribe Mergini after Johnsgard 1960) are the most northerly distributed ducks, and species diversity is greatest in the North Pacific. They exploit a diversity of inshore and offshore marine habitats during the non-breeding season, and their use of habitat during breeding varies from coastal through freshwater wetlands of the tundra and taiga (Figure 1, Appendix 1). Non-breeding cohorts frequent marine habitats most of the year. Sea ducks thus are important indicators of the quality of freshwater and marine ecosystems of northern biomes.Of the 17 species discussed in this manuscript, at least 3 are reported to be declining (Appendix 2). However, the basis for many of those assessments is equivocal because there has been little effort to monitor populations. The efforts to more precisely assess their status point to catastrophic declines (Kertell 1991, Stehn et a 1993). Conservation problems related to sea ducks have a long history throughout the Holarctic. For example, the Labrador duck (Camptorhynchus labradorius) became extinct in 1875. (Phillips 1925); common eiders (Somateria mollissima) declined seriously throughout the northern hemisphere (Townsend 1914, Phillips 1925, Doughty 1979); harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) experienced declines in Iceland and Greenland (Gudmundsson1971, Salomonson 1950), and more recently have been designated endangered in eastern Canada (Committee On the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 1990). In Russia, all species of eider and harlequin ducks have been closed to sport hunting since 1981, and the Chinese mergansers (Mergus squamatus) presently are extremely rare and fully protected, i.e. category one of the red book (Solomonov 1987).

  15. Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: The Relation between Hepatitis B Antigen Expression, Telomere Length, Senescence, Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra M Tachtatzis

    Full Text Available Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection can lead to the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that HBV might accelerate hepatocyte ageing and investigated the effect of HBV on hepatocyte cell cycle state and biological age. We also investigated the relation between inflammation, fibrosis and cell cycle phase.Liver samples from patients with chronic HBV (n = 91, normal liver (n = 55 and regenerating liver (n = 15 were studied. Immunohistochemistry for cell cycle phase markers and HBV antigens was used to determine host cell cycle phase. Hepatocyte-specific telomere length was evaluated by quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (Q-FISH in conjunction with hepatocyte nuclear area and HBV antigen expression. The effects of induced cell cycle arrest and induced cellular senescence on HBV production were assessed in vitro.13.7% hepatocytes in chronic HBV had entered cell cycle, but expression of markers for S, G2 and M phase was low compared with regenerating liver. Hepatocyte p21 expression was increased (10.9% in chronic HBV and correlated with liver fibrosis. Mean telomere length was reduced in chronic HBV compared to normal. However, within HBV-affected livers, hepatocytes expressing HBV antigens had longer telomeres. Telomere length declined and hepatocyte nuclear size increased as HBV core antigen (HBcAg expression shifted from the nucleus to cytoplasm. Nuclear co-expression of HBcAg and p21 was not observed. Cell cycle arrest induced in vitro was associated with increased HBV production, in contrast to in vitro induction of cellular senescence, which had no effect.Chronic HBV infection was associated with hepatocyte G1 cell cycle arrest and accelerated hepatocyte ageing, implying that HBV induced cellular senescence. However, HBV replication was confined to biologically younger hepatocytes. Changes in the cellular location of HBcAg may be related to the onset of cellular senescence.

  16. Liver is the major source of elevated serum lipocalin-2 levels after bacterial infection or partial hepatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Feng, Dechun; Wu, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    cell type responsible for LCN2 production after bacterial infection or PHx, and this response is dependent on IL-6 activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, hepatocyte-derived LCN2 plays an important role in inhibiting bacterial infection and promoting liver regeneration....... or E. coli. These mice also had increased enteric bacterial translocation from the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes and exhibited reduced liver regeneration after PHx. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 stimulated hepatocytes to produce LCN2 in vitro and in vivo. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of the IL...

  17. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes.

  18. Metabolism of six CYP probe substrates in fetal hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Naveed Shaik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P-450 (CYP are the most common drug metabolizing enzymes and are abundantly expressed in liver apart from kidney, lungs, intestine, brain etc. Their expression levels change with physiological conditions and disease states. The expression of these CYPs is less in human foetus and neonates compared to adults, which results in lower clearance of xenobiotics in infants and neonates compared to adults. Hepatocytes are the cells which are largely used to study these CYPs. We have isolated hepatocytes from aborted foetus to study the metabolism of six probe substrates: phenacetin, diclofenac, S-mephenytoin, dextromethorphan, nifedipine and testosterone. The results obtained show the expression of various CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in human foetus and their involvement in metabolism of CYP probe substrates.

  19. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  1. Ultrastructure of hepatocyte nuclei in irradiated, adrenalectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orkisz, S.; Bartel, H.; Kmiec, B. (Military Medical Academy, Lodz (Poland))

    1984-01-01

    A cytochemical study of hepatocyte nuclei of adrenalectomized and irradiated rats was performed. After irradiation alone, the behaviour of the ribonucleoprotein components was studied according to Bernhard. The findings suggest that a delay occurs in the synthesis of preribosomal RNA in the nucleoli and in the transport of messenger RNA to the cytoplasm. The indirect effect of ionizing radiation on nuclear RNA synthesis is assumed to occur through the influence of cortical steroid hormones on the transcription process.

  2. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung; Choi, Joo-hee [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jieun; Wi, Anjin; Park, Whoashig [Jeollanamdo Forest Resources Research Institute, Naju 520-833 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Ho-jae [College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-hyun, E-mail: parksh@chonnam.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1 plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation.

  3. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung; Choi, Joo-hee; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, Anjin; Park, Whoashig; Han, Ho-jae; Park, Soo-hyun

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1 plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

  4. [Crabtree effect caused by ketoses in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, P; Carrascosa, J M; Núñez de Castro, I

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen uptake and glycolytic activity were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. The addition of fructose or tagatose resulted in a 38% and 31% inhibition of cellular respiration respectively. The addition of 10 mM D-glyceraldehyde caused a slight Crabtree effect. Glucose, L-sorbose, or glycerol failed to modify oxygen consumption. Only incubation in the presence of fructose showed a high aerobic glycolysis measured by lactate production.

  5. Hepatocyte polyploidization and its association with pathophysiological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min-Jun; Chen, Fei; Lau, Joseph T Y; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    A characteristic cellular feature of the mammalian liver is the progressive polyploidization of the hepatocytes, where individual cells acquire more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidization results from cytokinesis failure that takes place progressively during the course of postnatal development. The proportion of polyploidy also increases with the aging process or with cellular stress such as surgical resection, toxic stimulation, metabolic overload, or oxidative damage, to involve as ...

  6. Functional activity of the rats’ hepatocytes under cancerogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivchuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity in rat’s hepatocytes under carcinoma Geuren T8 development as well as after introduction of rhenium compounds and cis-platin were studied. It has been determined that the decrease of enzymatic activity contrary to the control animals has been observed under simultaneous injection of cis-platin and cluster rhenium compounds in a liposome form. That confirms possible hepatoprotective properties of the rhenium compounds.

  7. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  8. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  9. Identification and expression analysis of the interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5 gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5 full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE. Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12. Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1 and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5.

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Interferon-Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) Gene in Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunyu; Su, Yanhui; Liu, Ran; Huang, Zhengyang; Li, Yang; Yu, Qingming; Chang, Guobin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN) dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5) full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE). Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12). Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C) infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5. PMID:25816333

  11. Cholangiocarcinoma in Cirrhosis: Value of Hepatocyte Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Iavarone, Massimo; Galassi, Marzia; Vavassori, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Forzenigo, Laura Virginia; Granito, Alessandro; Salvatore, Veronica; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Golfieri, Rita; Colombo, Massimo; Bolondi, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (ICC) remains elusive at imaging, which is a critical issue in cirrhotic patients in whom a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be established only by imaging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of MRI in the diagnosis of ICC in cirrhosis using 'hepatocyte-specific' Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. Sixteen histologically proven and retrospectively identified ICCs on cirrhosis were investigated with hepatocyte-specific magnetic resonance contrast agents (6 in Bologna with Gd-EOB-DTPA and 10 in Milan with Gd-BOPTA). The control group consisted of 41 consecutively and prospectively collected nodules (31 HCCs) imaged with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Fifteen ICC nodules (94%) displayed hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase, suggesting malignancy. Thirteen cholangiocarcinomas (81%) showed hyperenhancement in the venous phase. Only 2 cholangiocarcinoma nodules showed hypoenhancement in the venous phase, corresponding to washout, in both cases preceded by rim enhancement in arterial phase. All the hepatocarcinomas showed hypointensity in hepatobiliary phase, but was always preceded by hypointensity in the venous phase; arterial rim enhancement was never observed in any hepatocarcinoma or regenerative nodule. MRI with hepatocyte-specific Gd-based contrast agents showed a pattern of malignancy in almost all the ICCs, concurrently avoiding misdiagnosis with hepatocarcinoma. These findings suggest a greater diagnostic capacity for this technique compared with the results of MRI with conventional contrast agents reported in the literature in this setting. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A fast and robust hepatocyte quantification algorithm including vein processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeyer André

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of different types of cells is often needed for analysis of histological images. In our project, we compute the relative number of proliferating hepatocytes for the evaluation of the regeneration process after partial hepatectomy in normal rat livers. Results Our presented automatic approach for hepatocyte (HC quantification is suitable for the analysis of an entire digitized histological section given in form of a series of images. It is the main part of an automatic hepatocyte quantification tool that allows for the computation of the ratio between the number of proliferating HC-nuclei and the total number of all HC-nuclei for a series of images in one processing run. The processing pipeline allows us to obtain desired and valuable results for a wide range of images with different properties without additional parameter adjustment. Comparing the obtained segmentation results with a manually retrieved segmentation mask which is considered to be the ground truth, we achieve results with sensitivity above 90% and false positive fraction below 15%. Conclusions The proposed automatic procedure gives results with high sensitivity and low false positive fraction and can be applied to process entire stained sections.

  13. Adropin induction of lipoprotein lipase expression in tilapia hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Anji; Wu, Keqiang; Liu, Tianqiang; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone adropin plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, biological actions of adropin in non-mammalian species are still lacking. Using tilapia as a model, we examined the role of adropin in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulation in hepatocytes. To this end, the structural identity of tilapia adropin was established by 5'/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The transcripts of tilapia adropin were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with the highest levels in the liver and hypothalamus. The prolonged fasting could elevate tilapia hepatic adropin gene expression, whereas no effect of fasting was observed on hypothalamic adropin gene levels. In primary cultures of tilapia hepatocytes, synthetic adropin was effective in stimulating LPL release, cellular LPL content, and total LPL production. The increase in LPL production also occurred with parallel rises in LPL gene levels. In parallel experiments, adropin could elevate cAMP production and up-regulate protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC activities. Using a pharmacological approach, cAMP/PKA and PLC/inositol trisphosphate (IP3)/PKC cascades were shown to be involved in adropin-stimulated LPL gene expression. Parallel inhibition of p38MAPK and Erk1/2, however, were not effective in these regards. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence that adropin could stimulate LPL gene expression via direct actions in tilapia hepatocytes through the activation of multiple signaling mechanisms. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Homocysteine inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yu

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that levels of homocysteine are elevated in patients with impaired hepatic function, but the precise role of homocysteine in the development of hepatic dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of homocysteine on hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. Our results demonstrated that homocysteine inhibited hepatocyte proliferation by up-regulating protein levels of p53 as well as mRNA and protein levels of p21(Cip1 in primary cultured hepatocytes. Homocysteine induced cell growth arrest in p53-positive hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, but not in p53-null hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep3B. A p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited the expression of p21(Cip1 and attenuated homocysteine-induced cell growth arrest. Homocysteine induced TRB3 expression via endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway, resulting in Akt dephosphorylation. Knock-down of endogenous TRB3 significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of homocysteine on cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of Akt. LiCl reversed homocysteine-mediated cell growth arrest by inhibiting TRB3-mediated Akt dephosphorylation. These results demonstrate that both TRB3 and p21(Cip1 are critical molecules in the homocysteine signaling cascade and provide a mechanistic explanation for impairment of liver regeneration in hyperhomocysteinemia.

  15. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Pducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  16. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  17. Nutritive Value of Fermented Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes Leaf with Aspergillus niger in Tegal Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Mangisah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two steps of experiment were conducted to evaluate the proximate composition and nutritive value of fermented water hyacinth leaf (WHL with Aspergillus niger in Tegal duck. Twenty two heads of eight-week Tegal ducks with an average body weight of 1202.55 + 111.14 g were used in this experiment. There were two treatments namely: non-fermented (NFWH and fermented with Aspergillus niger (FWHAN. Each treatment was replicated 10 times. Data gathered were analyzed using t-student test. The proximate composition between NFWH and FWHAN showed an increase in crude protein/CP (11.44 vs 16.09% and ash (12.76 vs 22.37% but a decrease in crude fiber/CF (21.51 vs 16.62% and nitrogen free extract/NFE (53.20 vs 43.59%. The nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks showed that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger significantly increased CP digestibility, true metabolizable energy (TME and nitrogen retention (NR, but not for CF digestibility. It could be concluded that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger increases the nutrient quality and the nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks in term of CP digestibility, TME and NR. (Animal Production 12(2: 100-104 (2010Key Words: water hyacinth leaf, fermentation, Aspergillus niger, biological value, Tegal ducks

  18. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  19. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  20. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  1. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-09-01

    Rice-duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. The duck's secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice-duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1-2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice-duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  3. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  4. Establishment of an H6N2 Influenza Virus Lineage in Domestic Ducks in Southern China ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Bahl, J.; Fan, X. H.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Cheung, C. L.; Webby, R. J.; Webster, R. G.; Chen, H.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Guan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events between different subtypes of endemic avian influenza viruses have increased the genomic diversity of influenza viruses circulating in poultry in southern China. Gene exchange from the natural gene pool to poultry has contributed to this increase in genetic diversity. However, the role of domestic ducks as an interface between the natural gene pool and terrestrial poultry in the influenza virus ecosystem has not been fully characterized. Here we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed 170 H6 viruses isolated from domestic ducks from 2000 to 2005 in southern China, which contains the largest population of domestic ducks in the world. Three distinct hemagglutinin lineages were identified. Group I contained the majority of isolates with a single internal gene complex and was endemic in domestic ducks in Guangdong from the late 1990s onward. Group II was derived from reassortment events in which the surface genes of group I viruses were replaced with novel H6 and N2 genes. Group III represented H6 viruses that undergo frequent reassortment with multiple virus subtypes from the natural gene pool. Surprisingly, H6 viruses endemic in domestic ducks and terrestrial poultry seldom reassort, but gene exchanges between viruses from domestic ducks and migratory ducks occurred throughout the surveillance period. These findings suggest that domestic ducks in southern China mediate the interaction of viruses between different gene pools and facilitate the generation of novel influenza virus variants circulating in poultry. PMID:20463062

  5. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  6. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  7. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  8. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  9. Feeding ducks, bacterial chemotaxis, and the Gini index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaudecerf, François J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-08-01

    Classic experiments on the distribution of ducks around separated food sources found consistency with the "ideal free" distribution in which the local population is proportional to the local supply rate. Motivated by this experiment and others, we examine the analogous problem in the microbial world: the distribution of chemotactic bacteria around multiple nearby food sources. In contrast to the optimization of uptake rate that may hold at the level of a single cell in a spatially varying nutrient field, nutrient consumption by a population of chemotactic cells will modify the nutrient field, and the uptake rate will generally vary throughout the population. Through a simple model we study the distribution of resource uptake in the presence of chemotaxis, consumption, and diffusion of both bacteria and nutrients. Borrowing from the field of theoretical economics, we explore how the Gini index can be used as a means to quantify the inequalities of uptake. The redistributive effect of chemotaxis can lead to a phenomenon we term "chemotactic levelling," and the influence of these results on population fitness are briefly considered.

  10. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  11. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  12. Dynamics of an HBV/HCV infection model with intracellular delay and cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengqin; Li, Jianquan; Zheng, Chongwu; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A new mathematical model of hepatitis B/C virus (HBV/HCV) infection which incorporates the proliferation of healthy hepatocyte cells and the latent period of infected hepatocyte cells is proposed and studied. The dynamics is analyzed via Pontryagin's method and a newly proposed alternative geometric stability switch criterion. Sharp conditions ensuring stability of the infection persistent equilibrium are derived by applying Pontryagin's method. Using the intracellular delay as the bifurcation parameter and applying an alternative geometric stability switch criterion, we show that the HBV/HCV infection model undergoes stability switches. Furthermore, numerical simulations illustrate that the intracellular delay can induce complex dynamics such as persistence bubbles and chaos.

  13. A serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor blocks hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsume, Asao; Tokunaga, Yuko; Hirata, Yuichi; Munakata, Tsubasa; Saito, Makoto; Hayashi, Hitohisa; Okamoto, Koichi; Ohmori, Yusuke; Kusanagi, Isamu; Fujiwara, Shinya; Tsukuda, Takuo; Aoki, Yuko; Klumpp, Klaus; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; El-Gohary, Ahmed; Sudoh, Masayuki; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-10-01

    Host cell lipid rafts form a scaffold required for replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Serine palmitoyltransferases (SPTs) produce sphingolipids, which are essential components of the lipid rafts that associate with HCV nonstructural proteins. Prevention of the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids by an SPT inhibitor disrupts the HCV replication complex and thereby inhibits HCV replication. We investigated the ability of the SPT inhibitor NA808 to prevent HCV replication in cells and mice. We tested the ability of NA808 to inhibit SPT's enzymatic activity in FLR3-1 replicon cells. We used a replicon system to select for HCV variants that became resistant to NA808 at concentrations 4- to 6-fold the 50% inhibitory concentration, after 14 rounds of cell passage. We assessed the ability of NA808 or telaprevir to inhibit replication of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, and 4a in mice with humanized livers (transplanted with human hepatocytes). NA808 was injected intravenously, with or without pegylated interferon alfa-2a and HCV polymerase and/or protease inhibitors. NA808 prevented HCV replication via noncompetitive inhibition of SPT; no resistance mutations developed. NA808 prevented replication of all HCV genotypes tested in mice with humanized livers. Intravenous NA808 significantly reduced viral load in the mice and had synergistic effects with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and HCV polymerase and protease inhibitors. The SPT inhibitor NA808 prevents replication of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, and 4a in cultured hepatocytes and in mice with humanized livers. It might be developed for treatment of HCV infection or used in combination with pegylated interferon alfa-2a or HCV polymerase or protease inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui; Xu, Yumin; Zhao, Xingli; Cheng, Ping; Cui, Ningxun; Cui, Mingling; Li, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resu...

  15. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resulting in lipid droplets accumulation and ER stress. While these deleterious events induce hepatocyte injury, FOLE at high doses cause only minor ER and mitochondrial damage, which has no effect on hepatic function. SOLE also significantly upregulated glucose-regulated protein 94 mRNA and protein expression. These data indicate that SOLE, but not FOLE, damage the ER and mitochondria, resulting in lipid droplets accumulation and ER stress and, finally, hepatocyte injury. This likely contributes to the differential impacts of SOLE and FOLE on PNALD development and progression.

  16. The Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc in The Diets of Performance in Culled Layer Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was design using a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four treatments. Treatment were diets without Zingiber officinale rosc (A, diets contain 2,91% Zingiber officinale Rosc  (B, diets contain 5,66%. Zingiber officinale Rosc (C, and diets contain 8,26% Zingiber officinale Rosc (D. Each treatment with five replicates, and each replicate consist four culled layer ducks. Variable observed were feed conversation ratio, carcass physical composition, and meat quality. It was concluded that present  Zingiber officinale Rosc in the diets could be improved of performance in culled layer ducks.   Keywords : Zingiber officinale Rosc, Culled layer ducks, and  meat qualit

  17. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, meat quality and tibia development of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya Ru; Zhang, Lu Shuang; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Yang; Li, Fu Huang; Yuan, Jian Min; Xia, Zhao Fei

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of stocking density on performance, meat quality and tibia development in Pekin ducks reared on a plastic wire floor. A total of 372 healthy, 21-day-old, male ducks with similar body weight (BW) were randomly allotted to stocking densities of five (low), eight (medium) and 11 (high) birds/m 2 . Each group had six replicates. Results showed that compared with the low density group, medium and high stocking density caused a decrease in final BW at 42 days old, and in average daily gain, European performance index (p study, the stocking density of male Pekin ducks should be adjusted between five and eight birds/m 2 . © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effect of Gamma Radiation to the Content of Nutrition Duck Egg Environment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation dose of 0.7 kGy to the content of nutrition duck egg environment sample of Turi area, Bantul Yogyakarta has been studied. This research is conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation 0.7 kGy to the nutrition duck egg which stored during 21 days. The grouped of some fresh duck egg sample to become 2 group. First group with 0 kGy (non irradiation) and the second group with 0.7 kGy dose. The irradiation sample was conducted at Kartini reactor Beamport. After the desired dose reached, the duck egg was lifted. Both irradiated and non irradiated duck egg then stored during 21 days. The research design used is Complete Block Random Device (RABL) with pattern factorial and restating as block. First factor : Dose of Irradiation (D) : D 1 = 0 kGy (non irradiation) and D 2 = 0.7 kGy. Second factors : stored time (P) : P 1 = 0 and day of P 2 = 21 days. The analysis of water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat was carried out. The research result shows that the gamma irradiation have no significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat both in white and also duck egg yolk for day of 0 (P> 0.05). For storage during 21 days, gamma radiation have significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein both in white and also duck egg yolk (P 0.05), because the irradiation process do not influence the availability of mineral in egg yolk and also have no significant effect to fat content (P> 0.05), because at the protein have compound which able to kill bacterium, so-called with lysozyme, besides high protein alkalinity which do not advantage growth of bacterium, so that during storage do not happened protein lipolysis by enzyme of lipase yielded by microbe. The effect of gamma radiation to the duck egg which stored during 21 days shows that the water content at white duck egg rising to 1.02 % wb, the protein total decreasing to 0.99 % db, the dissolve protein decreasing to 0

  19. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  20. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in human lung emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Joëlle

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors or their respective receptors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in lung samples from 3 groups of patients: emphysema; smokers without emphysema and non-smokers without emphysema. Methods Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor proteins were analysed by immunoassay and western blot; mRNA expression was measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor mRNA levels were similar in emphysema and non-emphysema patients. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlated negatively with FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio both in emphysema patients and in smokers with or without emphysema. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor protein concentrations were similar in all patients' groups. Conclusion The expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors is preserved in patients with lung emphysema as compared to patients without emphysema. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlates with the severity of airflow obstruction in smokers.

  1. DNA synthesis in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes of intact and hepatectomized young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, A; Inda, A M; Errecalde, A L

    2015-01-01

    DNA synthesis of hepatocytes in two areas of Intact and Hepatectomized young mice liver along a circadian period was studied. DNA synthesis was significantly different at all analyzed time points in Intact and Hepatectomized animals. Differences between periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were found in hepatectomized animals at 04/42 and 08/46 hr of day/hour post-hepatectomy. DNAs peak in periportal hepatocytes regenerating liver occurs 4 hr earlier than in perivenous hepatocytes, probably reflecting their shorter G1 phase. Besides, daily mean values of regenerating livers were higher than those observed in Intact animals, as a consequence of surgical removal.

  2. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayelly López-Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and megamitochondria