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Sample records for duck enteritis virus

  1. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  2. Duck Virus Enteritis for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses some of the options for managing the large numbers of waterfowl should there be an outbreak of the Duck Virus Enteritis Disease at the Prime...

  3. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  4. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

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    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  5. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

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    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  6. Bioinformatics Analysis of the Duck Enteritis Virus UL54 Gene

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    Chaoyue Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV UL54 gene, which has been isolated and identified in our lab (GenBank accession NO EU071033, to help deeply research on DEV. DNA sequence analysis showed that the identified ORF which composed of 1377 bp nucleotides encoded 458 amino acids with a predicted Mr. of 51.75 kDa. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL54 gene was highly conserved in Alphaherpesvirinae and was similar to the other herpesviral UL54 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the DEV UL54 gene revealed that DEV had a close evolutionary relationship with Gallid, Herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, Gallid Herpesvirus 3 (GaHV-3, Meleagrid Herpesvirus1 (MeHV-1 and should belong to a single cluster within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily.

  7. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

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    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  8. Live Attenuated Vaccine Based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhong; Ma, Ji; Huang, Kun; Chen, Huanchun; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as 3 days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. PMID:27777571

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of US1 gene in duck enteritis virus%Cloning and sequence analysis of US1gene in duck enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; WANG Jun-wei; MA Bo; ZHAO Xiao-yan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a 1,860 bp sequence in IRs region of duck enteritis virus(DEV)was amplified by single oligonucleotide nested PCR with a single primer designed according to partial sequence of USI and then a pair of primers designed according to the 3' UTR of US8 gene and 5'end of the new getting sequence were used to amplify a 2,426 bp sequence toward the TRs region.Sequence analysis revealed that the both sequences contained an identical 990 bp open reading frame of DEV US1 gene.The two ORFs were in opposite transcription orientation.Sequence comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of US1 gene showed relatively high identity to Mardivirus.Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the eleven herpesviruses viruses were classified into three groups, and the duck enteritis virus was most closely related to Mardivirus.

  10. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  11. The vaccine efficacy of recombinant duck enteritis virus expressing secreted E with or without PrM proteins of duck tembusu virus.

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    Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Jinxiong; Jiang, Yongping; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Qimeng; Wu, Li; He, Xijun; Chen, Hualan

    2014-09-15

    A newly emerged tembusu virus that causes egg-drop has been affecting ducks in China since 2010. Currently, no vaccine is available for this disease. A live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine has been used routinely to control lethal DEV in ducks since the 1960s. Here, we constructed two recombinant DEVs by transfecting overlapping fosmid DNAs. One virus, rDEV-TE, expresses the truncated form of the envelope glycoprotein (TE) of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), and the other virus, rDEV-PrM/TE, expresses both the TE and pre-membrane proteins (PrM). Animal study demonstrated that both recombinant viruses induced measurable anti-DTMUV neutralizing antibodies in ducks. After two doses of recombinant virus, rDEV-PrM/TE completely protected ducks from DTMUV challenge, whereas rDEV-TE only conferred partial protection. These results demonstrate that recombinant DEV expressing the TE and pre-membrane proteins is protective and can serve as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  12. Protective effects of recombinant glycoprotein D based prime boost approach against duck enteritis virus in mice model.

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    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Saravanan, R; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-11-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is an acute herpes viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The method of repeated immunization with a live attenuated vaccine has been used for the prevention and control of duck enteritis virus (DEV). However, the incidence of the disease in vaccinated flocks and latency reactivation are the major constraints in the present vaccination programme. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy afforded by intramuscular inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding DEV glycoprotein D (pCDNA-gD) followed by DEV gD expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisia (rgD) was assessed in a murine model. Compared with mice inoculated with DNA (pCDNA-gD) or protein (rgD) only, mice inoculated with the combination of gD DNA and protein had enhanced ELISA antibody titers to DEV and had accelerated clearance of virus following challenge infection. Furthermore, the highest levels of lymphocyte proliferation response, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were induced following priming with the DNA vaccine and boosting with the rgD protein. For instance, the specially designed recombinant DEV vector vaccine would be the best choice to use in ducks. It offers an excellent solution to the low vaccination coverage rate in ducks. We expect that the application of this novel vaccine in the near future will greatly decrease the virus load in the environment and reduce outbreaks of DEV in ducks.

  13. Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-01-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis.

  14. Characterization of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and intracellular localization signals in Duck Enteritis Virus UL54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyue; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-08-01

    Duck Enteritis virus (DEV) UL54 is a homolog of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) trafficking protein ICP27, which plays an essential role in infection. In this study, DEV UL54 shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm was verified with a heterokaryon assay. One predicted nuclear export sequence (NES) (339-348 aa) was shown to be functional and chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent; however, the insensitivity of UL54 to Leptomycin B (LMB) and NES mutation suggests that other mechanisms are responsible for the observed nuclear export. Next, three non-classical nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), referred to as NLS1 (105-122 aa), NLS2 (169-192 aa) and NLS3 (257-274 aa), were identified. Furthermore, a recombinant DEV with the UL54 NLSs deleted (DEV- UL54 mNLSs) was constructed and showed that UL54 NLSs moderately affected DEV growth.

  15. Dynamic changes of apoptosis in duck embryo fibroblasts induced by new type Gosling viral enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun Chen; Anchun Cheng; Mingshu Wang; Xiaoyue Chen

    2008-01-01

    The monolayer duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells were experimentally infected with new type Gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) and the dynamic changes of apoptosis were detected at different time points after NGVEV infection by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI stained fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The result shows that NGVEV can induce infected cells undergoing apoptosis and changing regularly. A series of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes including shrinkage of the cells, chromatin condensation and margination, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies, wereobserved by TEM. The typical ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis. And using flow cytometry analysis of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, the dead, viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells could be analyzed quantitatively.

  16. Egg drop syndrome virus enters duck embryonic fibroblast cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingjing; Tan, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Xu, Jiamin; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-12-02

    Previous studies of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is restricted to serological surveys, disease diagnostics, and complete viral genome analysis. Consequently, the infection characteristics and entry routes of EDSV are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore the entry pathway of EDSV into duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells as well as the infection characteristics and proliferation of EDSV in primary DEF and primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the virus triggered DEF cell membrane invagination as early as 10 min post-infection and that integrated endocytic vesicles formed at 20 min post-infection. The virus yield in EDSV-infected DEF cells treated with chlorpromazine (CPZ), sucrose, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), or NH4Cl was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the mock treatment, CPZ and sucrose greatly inhibited the production of viral progeny in a dose-dependent manner, while MβCD treatment did not result in a significant difference. Furthermore, NH4Cl had a strong inhibitory effect on the production of EDSV progeny. In addition, indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that virus particles clustered on the surface of DEF cells treated with CPZ or sucrose. These results indicate that EDSV enters DEF cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by a pH-dependent step, which is similar to the mechanism of entry of human adenovirus types 2 and 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

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    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  18. Expression and characterization of duck enteritis virus gI gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background At present, alphaherpesviruses gI gene and its encoding protein have been extensively studied. It is likely that gI protein and its homolog play similar roles in virions direct cell-to-cell spread of alphaherpesviruses. But, little is known about the characteristics of DEV gI gene. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV gI protein. Results The special 1221-bp fragment containing complete open reading frame(ORF) of duck enteritis virus(DEV) gI gene was extracted from plasmid pMD18-T-gI, and then cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+), resulting in pET-32a(+)-gI. After being confirmed by PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing, pET-32a(+)-gI was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) competent cells for overexpression. DEV gI gene was successfully expressed by the addition of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG). SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI molecular weight was about 61 kDa. Subsequently, the expressed product was applied to generate specific antibody against gI protein. The specificity of the rabbit immuneserum was confirmed by its ability to react with the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI. In addition, real time-PCR was used to determine the the levels of the mRNA transcripts of gI gene, the results showed that the DEV gI gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of infection. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence(IIF) was established to study the gI protein expression and localization in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs), the results confirmed that the protein was expressed and located in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, intensively. Conclusions The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector of DEV gI gene was constructed successfully. The gI protein was successfully expressed by E.coli BL21(DE3) and maintained its antigenicity very well. The basic information of the transcription and intracellular localization of gI gene

  19. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

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    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  20. Characterization of codon usage bias in the dUTPase gene of duck enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lichan Zhao; Anchun Cheng; Mingshu Wang; Guiping Yuan; Mingsheng Cai

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the codon usage bias in the newly discovered dUTPase gene(Assigned Accession No.:DQ4861491 of the duck enteritis virus(DEV)and the dUTPase gene of 32 reference herpesviruses was performed.The results indicated that the DEV dUT-Pase gene encodes a protein of 477 amino acids,which includes five conserved motifs with a 3-1-2-4-5 arrangement.The codon adap-tation index(CAI),effective number of codons(ENC),and GC3s values indicated synonymous codon usage bias in the dUTPase gene of herpesviruses,and this synonymous bias was correlated with host evolution.The codon usage pattens of the DEV dUTPase gene were phylogenetically conserved and similar to that of the dUTPase genes of the avian alphaherpesvirus.Although codon usage in each micro-orgamsm was different,there were no strain-specific differences among them.Sixty-one codons in the predicted polypeptide.with a strong bias towards A and T at the third codon position,were used.Comparison of the codon usage in the dUTPase gene of different organisms revealed that there were 19 codons showing distinct codon usage differences between the DEV and Escherichia coli dUTPase genes;16 between the DEV and yeast dUTPase genes;and 15 between the DEV and human dUTPase genes.Analysis of variance(ANOVA) showed significant differences between the DEV and yeast dUTPase genes(r=0.536,P<0.01).The extent of codon usage bias in the DEV dUTPase gene was highly correlated with the gene expression level,therefore the results may provide usefu information for gene classification and functional studies.

  1. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus

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    Zhang Shunchuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Duck virus enteritis (DVE is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans, which has produced significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl. With the purpose of decreasing economic losses in the commercial duck industry, studying the unknown glycoprotein K (gK of DEV may be a new method for preferably preventing and curing this disease. So this is the first time to product and purify the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody. Through the western blot and ELISA assay, the truncated glycoprotein K (tgK has good antigenicity, also the antibody possesses high specificity and affinity. Meanwhile the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody has the potential to produce subunit vaccines and the functions of neutralizing DEV and anti-DEV infection because of its neutralization titer. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy using the purified rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody as diagnostic antibody was susceptive to detect a small quantity of antigen in tissues or cells. This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks.

  2. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

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    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Results: Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076 showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. Conclusion: The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  3. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India.

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    Mandal, Partha Sarathi; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada; Mondal, Samiran; Jana, Chandrakanta; Patra, Nimai Chandra; Hansda, Rabindra Nath

    2017-03-01

    The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP) infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell) embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076) showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  4. Expression and characterization of the UL31 protein from duck enteritis virus

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    Zhu Dekang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. Results The entire ORF of the UL31 was cloned into pET 32a (+ prokaryotic expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 competent cells were transformed with the construct followed by the induction of protein expression by the addition of IPTG. Band corresponding to the predicted sizes (55 kDa was produced on the SDS-PAGE. Over expressed 6×His-UL31 fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The DEV UL31 gene product has been identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified protein. A protein of approximate 35 kDa that reacted with the antiserum was detected in immunoblots of DEV-infected cellular lysates, suggesting that the 35 kDa protein was the primary translation product of the UL31 gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the UL31 gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of replication. Subsequently, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was widespread speckled structures in the nuclei of infected cells. Western blotting of purified virion preparations showed that UL31 was a component of intracellular virions but was absent from mature extracellular virions. Finally, an Immunofluorescence assay was established to study the distribution of the UL31 antigen in tissues of artificially DEV infected ducks. The results showed that the UL31 antigen was primarily located in the cells of digestive organs and immunological organs. Conclusion In this work, we present the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. The results indicate that DEV UL31 shares many similarities with its HSV or PRV homolog UL31 and suggest that functional cross-complementation is possible between members of the

  5. Enteric viruses

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    Characteristic clinical signs associated with viral enteritis in young poultry include diarrhea, anorexia, litter eating, ruffled feathers, and poor growth. Intestines may have lesions; intestines are typically dilated and are filled with fluid and gaseous contents. The sequela to clinical disease...

  6. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium delivering DNA vaccine encoding duck enteritis virus UL24 induced systemic and mucosal immune responses and conferred good protection against challenge

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    Yu Xia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orally delivered DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV were developed using live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (SL7207 as a carrier and Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB as a mucosal adjuvant. DNA vaccine plasmids pVAX-UL24 and pVAX-LTB-UL24 were constructed and transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 resulting SL7207 (pVAX-UL24 and SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 respectively. After ducklings were orally inoculated with SL7207 (pVAX-UL24 or SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24, the anti-DEV mucosal and systemic immune responses were recorded. To identify the optimum dose that confers maximum protection, we used different doses of the candidate vaccine SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 during oral immunization. The strongest mucosal and systemic immune responses developed in the SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 (1011 CFU immunized group. Accordingly, oral immunization of ducklings with SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 showed superior efficacy of protection (60-80% against a lethal DEV challenge (1000 LD50, compared with the limited survival rate (40% of ducklings immunized with SL7207 (pVAX-UL24. Our study suggests that the SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 can be a candidate DEV vaccine.

  7. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partha Sarathi Mandal; Sunit Kumar Mukhopadhayay; Saktipada Pradhan; Samiran Mondal; Chandrakanta Jana; Nimai Chandra Patra; Rabindra Nath Hansda

    2017-01-01

    ...) infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  8. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10(2) copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  10. 鸭肠炎病毒强毒参考株在感染鸭体内的动态分布研究%Dynamic Distribution of Duck Enteritis Virus Standard Challenge Strain in Experimentally Infected Ducklings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文晶亮; 李俊平; 李启红; 李岭; 孙淼; 李慧姣; 杨承槐; 夏业才

    2014-01-01

    为研究鸭肠炎病毒( DEV)强毒株在感染鸭体内的动态分布规律,根据DEV的gD基因序列设计检测引物RT-gDF和RT-gDR,建立了特异性强、敏感性高、重复性好的检测DEV的SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光定量PCR方法。应用已建立的方法,对DEV强毒参考株感染鸭的组织脏器进行了定量检测。结果显示,接种后6 h即可在所有受检组织中检测到DEV DNA,随着病程发展, DNA拷贝数持续升高,直至接种5 d后感染鸭全部死亡。其中结肠病毒DNA拷贝数为最高,达到1013.26 copies/g,法氏囊、肝脏和盲肠次之,约1012 copies/g。证实了DEV强毒对感染鸭的免疫器官、神经组织和消化系统均具有广泛的嗜性。%To explore the dynamic distribution of duck enteritis virus challenge standard strain ( DEV CSC ) in experimentally infected ducklings, the specific primers ( RT-gDF and RT-gDR) were designed according to the gene DEV gD, and the SYBR GreenⅠreal-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for virulent strain with satisfaction of specificity, sensibility and repeatability was established. Copies of DEV DNA were quantified in the collected tissues by the fluorescent quantitative PCR method. In result, DEV CSC DNA were firstly detected in all the samples at six hours after inoculation and the DNA copies subsequently continued to rise till the death of all the ducklings infected with DEV CSC virulent strain five days after inoculation. The DNA copies of DEV CSC strain in colon(1013.26 copies/g) of dead ducklings was highest, and then came to bursa of Fabricius, caecum and liver, about 1012 copies/g. The results above comfirmed that the virulent strain CSC had broad tissue tropism on immune organs, nerve tissue and digestive system of infected ducks.

  11. Prokaryotic Expression and the Antiserum Preparation of Duck Enteritis Virus US10 Gene%鸭肠炎病毒US10基因的原核表达及抗血清的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董井泉; 母晓宇; 马波; 王君伟

    2013-01-01

    The US10 gene was expressed in pET-32a( + )/Rosetta(DE3) pLys system using the DNA of Duck enteritis virus (DEV) C-KCE as temple, US10 gene ORF was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then the recombinant protein of US 10 gene induction with IPTG by SDS - PAGE analysis showed that the object protein is mainly expressed as inclusion bodies. Using the Ni-NTA Purification System, the recombinant protein immunized to rabbits was purified to make the antiserum. The titer of the antiserum tested by agar diffusion reaction was 1:4. The titer of the antiserum tested by ELISA was 1:102 400. The prepared antiserum has a high specificity with the western-blot analysis, and the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test proved that the antiserum could react with DEV US10 encoded product, which lays a foundation for further research on molecular structure and function.%以鸭肠炎病毒(DEV) C-KCE株基因组DNA为模板,PCR扩增获得US10基因.构建了其原核表达载体pET-32a-US10,经1.0 mmol/L IPTG诱导,目的蛋白在Rosetta(DE3) pLys宿主菌中获得了表达.SDS-PAGE 电泳结果显示目的蛋白以包涵体形式表达,与预期大小相符.利用亲和层析法纯化目的蛋白,以纯化的蛋白为免疫原制备其抗血清,琼脂扩散法测得抗体效价为1:4,间接ELISA法测定抗体效价为1∶102 400.间接免疫荧光试验证实制备的抗血清可特异性识别鸭肠炎病毒的US10基因编码产物.

  12. Evidence of possible vertical transmission of Tembusu virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiuli; Chen, Hao; Ti, Jinfeng; Yang, Guoping; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yunjian; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-09-30

    In 2013, Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection was successively observed on several breeding duck farms in Shandong province, China. Affected ducks showed consistently acute anorexia, diarrhea and egg production drop. 125 hatching eggs produced by TMUV infected breeding ducks from four duck farms were collected. Among them, 35 hatching eggs were selected randomly from all before incubation for vitelline membrane samples collection. The rest of 90 hatching eggs were incubated routinely. As a result, 16 hatching eggs were found non-embryonated, 28 duck embryos died during incubation and 46 newly hatched ducklings were obtained. Vitelline membranes of non-embryonated hatching eggs, vitelline membrane, brain or liver samples of dead embryos and brain samples of newly hatched ducklings were collected for virus detection. Samples collected from one egg, embryo or duckling were treated as one. Consequently, 18 of 35 (51.43%) hatching eggs, 2 of 16 (12.50%) non-embryonated duck eggs, 17 of 28 (60.71%) dead duck embryos and 5 of 46 (10.87%) newly hatched ducklings were detected positive for TMUV using NS3-based RT-PCR. Overall, 42 of 125 (33.6%) eggs were positive for TMUV. A virus strain, designated as TMUV-SDDE, was isolated from one of these dead duck embryos which were detected TMUV positive. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that E gene of TMUV-SDDE virus was closely related to other TMUV strains isolated in China during 2010-2013. Pathogenicity studies showed that TMUV-SDDE strain was virulent to ducklings. This is the first report that TMUV is isolated from duck embryos. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of TMUV from breeding ducks to ducklings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  14. Enteric viruses in molluscan shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Rosanna; Macaluso, Alessia; Lanni, Luigi; Saccares, Stefano; Di Giamberardino, Fabiola; Cencioni, Barbara; Petrinca, Anna Rita; Divizia, Maurizio

    2007-10-01

    One hundred and thirty-seven bivalves were collected for environmental monitoring and the market; all the samples were analysed by RT-PCR test. Bacteriological counts meeting the European Union shellfish criteria were reached by 69.5% of all the samples, whereas the overall positive values for enteric virus presence were: 25.5%, 18.2%, 8.0% and 2.1% for Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Enteroviruses, Norovirus, respectively. Mussels appear to be the most contaminated bivalves, with 64.8% of positive samples, 55.7% and 22.7% respectively for clams and oysters, whereas in the bivalves collected for human consumption 50.7% were enteric virus positive, as compared to 56.4% of the samples collected for growing-area classification. The overall positive sample was 54.0%.

  15. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  16. Pathogenicity and genetic characterization of a duck Tembusu virus associated with egg-dropping in Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Qin; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Zhan-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-02

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has spread to the major duck-farming region in China, causing acute egg-production drop in Chinese duck population. In this study, we characterized a DTMUV strain (named GD2014) isolated from an egg-production drop duck farm in Guangdong province, South China. The virus was pathogenic to Muscovy duck embryos and caused severe egg production drop for laying Muscovy ducks. The genome sequence of GD2014 shared 97-99% homologies with other waterfowl-origin Tembusu viruses, and shared 89% identities with MM1775 strain isolated from mosquito. Phylogenetic analysis of entire open reading frame (ORF), E gene and NS5 gene indicated that GD2014 belonged to Ntaya group. These results have implications for understanding the orgin, emergence and pathogenicity of DTMUV as well as for the development of vaccines and diagnostics based on epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation of a Duck Influenza A Virus in Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Shinya, Kyoko; Takada, Ayato; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Le, Quynh Mai; Ebina, Masahito; Kasai, Noriyuki; Kida, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Taisuke; Rivailler, Pierre; Chen, Li Mei; Donis, Ruben O.

    2012-01-01

    Quail are thought to serve as intermediate hosts of influenza A viruses between aquatic birds and terrestrial birds, such as chickens, due to their high susceptibility to aquatic-bird viruses, which then adapt to replicate efficiently in their new hosts. However, does replication of aquatic-bird influenza viruses in quail similarly result in their efficient replication in humans? Using sialic acid-galactose linkage-specific lectins, we found both avian (sialic acid-α2-3-galactose [Siaα2-3Gal] linkages on sialyloligosaccharides)- and human (Siaα2-6Gal)-type receptors on the tracheal cells of quail, consistent with previous reports. We also passaged a duck H3N2 virus in quail 19 times. Sequence analysis revealed that eight mutations accumulated in hemagglutinin (HA) during these passages. Interestingly, many of the altered HA amino acids found in the adapted virus are present in human seasonal viruses, but not in duck viruses. We also found that stepwise stalk deletion of neuraminidase occurred during passages, resulting in reduced neuraminidase function. Despite some hemagglutinin mutations near the receptor binding pocket, appreciable changes in receptor specificity were not detected. However, reverse-genetics-generated viruses that possessed the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of the quail-passaged virus replicated significantly better than the virus possessing the parent HA and neuraminidase in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas no significant difference in replication between the two viruses was observed in duck cells. Further, the quail-passaged but not the original duck virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells. These data indicate that quail can serve as intermediate hosts for aquatic-bird influenza viruses to be transmitted to humans. PMID:22090115

  18. Adaptation of a duck influenza A virus in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Shinya, Kyoko; Takada, Ayato; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Le, Quynh Mai; Ebina, Masahito; Kasai, Noriyuki; Kida, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Taisuke; Rivailler, Pierre; Chen, Li Mei; Donis, Ruben O; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Quail are thought to serve as intermediate hosts of influenza A viruses between aquatic birds and terrestrial birds, such as chickens, due to their high susceptibility to aquatic-bird viruses, which then adapt to replicate efficiently in their new hosts. However, does replication of aquatic-bird influenza viruses in quail similarly result in their efficient replication in humans? Using sialic acid-galactose linkage-specific lectins, we found both avian (sialic acid-α2-3-galactose [Siaα2-3Gal] linkages on sialyloligosaccharides)--and human (Siaα2-6Gal)-type receptors on the tracheal cells of quail, consistent with previous reports. We also passaged a duck H3N2 virus in quail 19 times. Sequence analysis revealed that eight mutations accumulated in hemagglutinin (HA) during these passages. Interestingly, many of the altered HA amino acids found in the adapted virus are present in human seasonal viruses, but not in duck viruses. We also found that stepwise stalk deletion of neuraminidase occurred during passages, resulting in reduced neuraminidase function. Despite some hemagglutinin mutations near the receptor binding pocket, appreciable changes in receptor specificity were not detected. However, reverse-genetics-generated viruses that possessed the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of the quail-passaged virus replicated significantly better than the virus possessing the parent HA and neuraminidase in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas no significant difference in replication between the two viruses was observed in duck cells. Further, the quail-passaged but not the original duck virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells. These data indicate that quail can serve as intermediate hosts for aquatic-bird influenza viruses to be transmitted to humans.

  19. Molecular characterization of Duck Plague virus isolated from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mostakin Ahamed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Duck plague (DP is the most feared duck disease in the world. For isolation, identification, molecular detection and characterization of DP virus (DPV, a total of 94 samples were collected from commercial farms (n=6 and households (n=13 from Rajshahi (n=37, Netrokona (n=35 and Mymensingh (n=22 districts of Bangladesh. The samples were processed and inoculated into 11-13 days old embryonated duck eggs for virus propagation. Virus was identified using agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIT and passive hemagglutination (PHA test, and was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting DNA polymerase and gC genes, followed by sequencing. Pathogenicity tests were performed using duck embryos, ducklings and ducks. Among the 94 samples, 17 isolates were confirmed as DPV by PCR amplification of partial DNA polymerase (446-bp and gC genes (78-bp, respectively. One of the isolates (Anatid herpes 1 BAU DMH was sequenced and found to be closely related with a Chinese variant of DPV (GenBank: JQ647509.1. Thus, we assume that both Bangladeshi and Chinese isolates of DPV may have a common ancestor. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 296-303

  20. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  1. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Duck Hepatitis B Virus Isolated from Hubei Brown Ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Quan; ZHANG Xiaoyong; LEI Yangchang; ZHANG Zhengmao; Mengji Lu; YANG Dongliang

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genome structure of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) isolated from Hubei brown ducks. The natural carrier rate of DHBV in adult ducks from Hubei area was investigated and the DHBV DNA-positive serum screened out. The complete genome of a DHBV strain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into T vector and sequenced. The results showed that the carrier rate of DHBV in Hubei brown ducks was 10 %.This strain (GenBank accession number DQ276978) had a genome of 3024 nucleotides with three overlapping open reading frames encoding the surface, core and polymerase proteins respectively. Comparison of the strain with 17 DHBV strains registered in GenBank revealed a homology from 89.3 % to 93.5 % at the nucleotide level. The sequences of the structural and functional domains of these proteins were highly conserved. The strain was found to share more signature amino acids in the polymerase genes with the "Chinese" DHBV strains than those of the "Western" country strains.This finding was also corroborated by a phylogenetic tree analysis. Therefore, the DQ276978 might belong to a subtype of the Chinese DHBV strains.

  3. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  4. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  5. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-11-10

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  6. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV, dengue virus (DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  7. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... have developed mink enteritis following inoculation with virulent mink enteritis virus. Each...

  8. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  9. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  10. Differential gene expression analysis of in vitro duck hepatitis B virus infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Aneesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human hepatitis B virus (HBV, a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. Findings A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, α-enolase, Acid α-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. Conclusions The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.

  11. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  12. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingliang; Li, Shuang; Hu, Xudong; Yu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongyue; Liu, Peipei; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Guozhong; Hu, Xueying; Liu, Di; Li, Xiaoxia; Su, Wenliang; Lu, Hao; Mok, Ngai Shing; Wang, Peiyi; Wang, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F

    2011-03-24

    Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  13. Diffferential innate responses of chickens and ducks to low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Post, J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Vervelde, L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ducks and chickens are hosts of avian influenza virus, each with distinctive responses to infection. To understand these differences, we characterized the innate immune response to low pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N1 infection in chickens and ducks. Viral RNA was detected in the lungs of ch

  14. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  15. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  16. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Naveen K; Wang, Feng-bin; Zou, Xingfu; Wahl, Lindi M

    2012-01-01

    Baiyangdian (BYD) virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0) = 21) indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average) for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  17. Proteomic analysis of primary duck hepatocytes infected with duck hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Tianlun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major cause of liver infection in human. Because of the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for supporting HBV infection efficiently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus infection remain incompletely understood. Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro. In this report, we explored global changes in cellular protein expression in DHBV infected PDHs by two-dimension gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results The effects of hepadnavirus infection on hepatocytes were investigated in DHBV infected PDHs by the 2-DE analysis. Proteomic profile of PDHs infected with DHBV were analyzed at 24, 72 and 120 h post-infection by comparing with uninfected PDHs, and 75 differentially expressed protein spots were revealed by 2-DE analysis. Among the selected protein spots, 51 spots were identified corresponding to 42 proteins by MS/MS analysis; most of them were matched to orthologous proteins of Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos or other avian species, including alpha-enolase, lamin A, aconitase 2, cofilin-2 and annexin A2, etc. The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed. Conclusions Differentially expressed proteins of DHBV infected PDHs revealed by 2-DE, are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress responses and cytoskeleton processes etc, providing the insight to understanding of interactions between hepadnavirus and hepatocytes and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus pathogenesis.

  18. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  19. Epidemiology of egg drop syndrome virus in ducks from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, C-K; Choi, K-S; Jang, H-K

    2013-07-01

    Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is an important pathogen of poultry that decreases egg production in chickens and causes respiratory disease in goslings. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 139 domestic Pekin ducks, 416 one-day-old Pekin ducklings, and 75 wild ducks (67 mallards and 8 pintails) to survey their exposure to EDSV. A total of 123 of 139 sera (88.5%) from Pekin ducks, 396 of the ducklings (95.2%), and 16 of 67 mallards (23.9%) were positive. Field cases of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks were investigated. Six cases from domestic Pekin ducks were identified by PCR detection and were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial hexon and full fiber genes showed that the D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 strains among 6 isolates belonged to different clusters compared with other known strains including the 127 strain. We assessed cell growth efficiency by hemagglutination (HA) titers and cytopathic effects in duck embryo liver cells and chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells to investigate host adaptation. The D11-JW-017 strain propagated more in chicken embryo liver than the D11-JW-012 strain and the field isolate from chickens. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks in South Korea and provide information on EDSV from ducks that showed variable adaptability in chickens.

  20. Effect of immunosuppression on newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy W; Nyaga, Phillip N; Bebora, Lilly C; Mbuthia, Paul G; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks from all groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P < 0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.

  1. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zeng

    Full Text Available To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  2. Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Huang

    Full Text Available Wild birds, including waterfowl such as ducks, are reservoir hosts of influenza A viruses. Despite the increased number of avian influenza virus (AIV genome sequences available, our understanding of AIV genetic structure and transmission through space and time in waterfowl in North America is still limited. In particular, AIVs in ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 109 AIV genome sequences from ducks in the Atlantic flyway to determine their genetic structure and to document the extent of gene flow in the context of sequences from other locations and other avian and mammalian host groups. The analyses included 25 AIVs from ducks from Newfoundland, Canada, from 2008-2011 and 84 available reference duck AIVs from the Atlantic flyway from 2006-2011. A vast diversity of viral genes and genomes was identified in the 109 viruses. The genetic structure differed amongst the 8 viral segments with predominant single lineages found for the PB2, PB1 and M segments, increased diversity found for the PA, NP and NS segments (2, 3 and 3 lineages, respectively, and the highest diversity found for the HA and NA segments (12 and 9 lineages, respectively. Identification of inter-hemispheric transmissions was rare with only 2% of the genes of Eurasian origin. Virus transmission between ducks and other bird groups was investigated, with 57.3% of the genes having highly similar (≥99% nucleotide identity genes detected in birds other than ducks. Transmission between North American flyways has been frequent and 75.8% of the genes were highly similar to genes found in other North American flyways. However, the duck AIV genes did display spatial distribution bias, which was demonstrated by the different population sizes of specific viral genes in one or two neighbouring flyways compared to more distant flyways.

  3. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses...

  4. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  5. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  6. An infectious full-length cDNA clone of duck Tembusu virus, a newly emerging flavivirus causing duck egg drop syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Yongyue; Wang, Shuxia; Sun, Haigang; Su, Wenliang; He, Weiyong; Han, Bo; Su, Jingliang

    2013-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogenic flavivirus that causes severe egg drop and encephalitis in Chinese ducks and geese. It has been found to be most closely related to the mosquito-origin Tembusu virus and chicken Sitiawan virus reported in Malaysia. However, the ecological characteristics and the pathogenesis of duck TMUV are largely unknown. We report the construction of full-length cDNA clone of duck TMUV strain JXSP. The virus genome was reverse transcribed, amplified as seven overlapping fragments and successively ligated into the low copy number vector pWSK29 under the control of a T7 promoter. Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the transcribed RNA from the full-length cDNA clone resulted in production of highly infectious progeny virus. In vitro growth characteristics in BHK-21 cells and virulence in ducklings and BALB/c mice were similar for the rescued and parental viruses. This stable infectious cDNA clone will be a valuable tool for studying the genetic determinants of duck TMUV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  8. Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish: Limitations of Surrogate Viruses and Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic....

  9. Tropism and infectivity of duck-derived egg drop syndrome virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) can markedly decrease egg production in laying hens. Duck is the natural host of EDSV. EDSV derived from ducks abrogate egg drop in laying hens. We have previously confirmed that duck-derived EDSVs have a variety of replication activities in chick embryo liver (CEL) cells. However, it is currently unclear whether duck-derived EDSV could display tropism and adaptation in laying hens. This study assessed whether duck-derived EDSV can adapt to laying hens, and estimated the inducing factors. Complete genome sequences of duck-derived EDSVs (D11-JW-012, D11-JW-017, and D11-JW-032 isolates) with various replication efficiency in CEL cells and C10-GY-001 isolate causing disease in laying hens were analyzed to find their differences. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that C10-GY-001, D11-JW-032, and strain 127 virus as vaccine were clustered into the same group, with D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 clustered in another group. Comparison between D11-JW-012 isolate that poorly replicated and D11-JW-017 isolate that replicated well in CEL cells in same cluster revealed six amino acid differences on IVa2, DNA polymerase, endopeptidase, and DNA-binding protein. These amino acids might be key candidates enhancing cellular tropism in chicken. When the pathogenicities of these isolates in laying hens were compared, D11-JW-032 showed severe signs similar to 127 virus, D11-JW-017 showed intermediate signs, while D11-JW-012 showed almost no sign. Eleven amino acids differed between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-017, and 17 amino acids were different between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-012. These results suggest that EDSVs derived from ducks have various pathogenicities in laying hens. Key amino acid candidates might have altered their affinity to tropism of laying hens, causing difference pathogenicities.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  11. Duck hepatitis B virus replication in primary bile duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Culvenor, J G; Angus, P; Smallwood, R; Nicoll, A; Locarnini, S

    2001-08-01

    Primary cultures of intrahepatic bile duct epithelial (IBDE) cells isolated from duckling livers were successfully grown for studies of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The primary IBDE cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry using CAM 5.2, a cytokeratin marker which was shown to react specifically to IBDE cells in duck liver tissue sections and in primary cultures of total duck liver cells. Immunofluorescence assay using anti-duck albumin, a marker for hepatocytes, revealed that these IBDE cultures did not appear to contain hepatocytes. A striking feature of these cultures was the duct-like structures present within each cell colony of multilayered IBDE cells. Normal duck serum in the growth medium was found to be essential for the development of these cells into duct-like structures. When the primary cultures of duck IBDE cells were acutely infected with DHBV, dual-labeled confocal microscopy using a combination of anti-DHBV core proteins and CAM 5.2 or a combination of anti-pre-S1 proteins and CAM 5.2 revealed that the IBDE cell colonies contained DHBV proteins. Immunoblot analysis of these cells showed that the DHBV pre-S1 and core proteins were similar to their counterparts in infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures. Southern blot analysis of infected IBDE preparations using a digoxigenin-labeled positive-sense DHBV riboprobe revealed the presence of hepadnavirus covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, minus-sense single-stranded (SS) DNA, double-stranded linear DNA, and relaxed circular DNA. The presence of minus-sense SS DNA in the acutely infected IBDE cultures is indicative of DHBV reverse transcriptase activity, while the establishment of a pool of viral CCC DNA reveals the ability of these cells to maintain persistent infection. Taken collectively, the results from this study demonstrated that primary duck IBDE cells supported hepadnavirus replication as shown by the de novo synthesis of DHBV proteins and DNA replicative intermediates.

  12. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2017-08-16

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...

  14. 鸭新城疫病毒和鸭圆环病毒二重PCR检测方法的建立%Development of a Duplex PCR Assay for Detection of Duck Newcastle Disease Virus and Duck Circovirus in Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宗丽; 谢芝勋; 谢丽基; 刘加波; 谢志勤; 邓显文; 范晴

    2012-01-01

    According to the sequences of duck NDV F gene and DuCV V1/rep gene in GenBank, two pairs of specific primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized, and then a duplex PCR assay was developed for detection of Newcastle disease virus and circovirus in ducks. All samples containing Newcastle disease virus and circovirus could be amplified into two specific bands, 493 bp for duck Newcastle disease virus and 218 bp for duck circovirus by this duplex PCR, but no specific bands of the same sizes were amplified from other duck pathogens, such as Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck plague virus, duck hepatitis virus, gosling plague virus, duck H9 subtype avian influenza virus, Riemerella anatipestifer, E.coli, avian Pasteurella multocida. As little as 40 fg of duck NDV and 20 fg ofDuCV DNA could be detected.%本研究根据GenBank中鸭新城疫病毒(NDV)的F基因和鸭圆环病毒(DuCV)的V1/rep基因的保守序列,各设计一对特异性引物,并对二重PCR的扩增条件进行优化,建立了鸭NDV和DuCV的二重PCR检测方法。对混合样品进行扩增,得到2条大小为493bp(鸭NDV)和218bp(DuCV)的特异性条带,与预扩增片段相符。而对番鸭细小病毒、鸭瘟病毒、鸭肝炎病毒、鸭源小鹅瘟病毒、鸭H9亚型流感病毒、鸭疫里氏杆菌、大肠杆菌、禽多杀性巴氏杆菌等病原检测,结果为阴性。该方法的敏感性试验表明,鸭NDV的核酸最小量为40fg,DuCV为20龟。

  15. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  16. The pathogenesis of low pathogenicity H7 avian influenza viruses in chickens, ducks and turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Conrad R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza (AI viruses infect numerous avian species, and low pathogenicity (LP AI viruses of the H7 subtype are typically reported to produce mild or subclinical infections in both wild aquatic birds and domestic poultry. However relatively little work has been done to compare LPAI viruses from different avian species for their ability to cause disease in domestic poultry under the same conditions. In this study twelve H7 LPAI virus isolates from North America were each evaluated for their comparative pathogenesis in chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Results All 12 isolates were able to infect all three species at a dose of 106 50% egg infectious doses based on seroconversion, although not all animals seroconverted with each isolate-species combination. The severity of disease varied among isolate and species combinations, but there was a consistent trend for clinical disease to be most severe in turkeys where all 12 isolates induced disease, and mortality was observed in turkeys exposed to 9 of the 12 viruses. Turkeys also shed virus by the oral and cloacal routes at significantly higher titers than either ducks or chickens at numerous time points. Only 3 isolates induced observable clinical disease in ducks and only 6 isolates induced disease in chickens, which was generally very mild and did not result in mortality. Full genome sequence was completed for all 12 isolates and some isolates did have features consistent with adaptation to poultry (e.g. NA stalk deletions, however none of these features correlated with disease severity. Conclusions The data suggests that turkeys may be more susceptible to clinical disease from the H7 LPAI viruses included in this study than either chickens or ducks. However the severity of disease and degree of virus shed was not clearly correlated with any isolate or group of isolates, but relied on specific species and isolate combinations.

  17. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-09-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses.

  18. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains.

  19. First finding of subgroup-E avian leukosis virus from wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan; Liu, Lanlan; Zeng, Xiangwei

    2014-10-10

    To analyze the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALV-E) in wild ducks in China, we collected 276 wild ducks, including 12 species, from four provinces of China. The PCR detection for ALV-E identified four samples as positive samples and the detection rate was 1.45%. The env sequences of ALV-E were cloned and sequenced. In gp85, genes of the four ALV-E strains showed a high homology (98.1-99.5%) with ev-1, ev-3, and SD0501 and more than 90% homology with other subgroup-A and subgroup-B avian leukosis viruses. However, they showed a slightly lower identity with subgroup-J (NX0101 and HPRS103), from 47.5 to 48.1%. Simultaneously, a further comparison with ALV-E representative isolates indicated that the amino acid substitutions of the four wild duck strains were distributed throughout the gp85. In total, these results suggested that the subgroup-E avian leukosis virus has been found in wild ducks in China.

  20. Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Mark W; Suarez, David L; Hilt, Deborah; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Woolcock, Peter; Cardona, Carol

    2010-03-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza H6N2 viruses were biologically characterized by infecting chickens and ducks in order to compare adaptation of these viruses in these species. We examined the clinical signs, virus shedding, and immune response to infection in 4-wk-old white leghorn chickens and in 2-wk-old Pekin ducks. Five H6N2 viruses isolated between 2000 and 2004 from chickens in California, and one H6N2 virus isolated from chickens in New York in 1998, were given intrachoanally at a dose of 1 x 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose per bird. Oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 4, and 7 days postinoculation (PI) and tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for presence of virus. Serum was collected at 7, 14, and 21 days PI and examined for avian influenza virus antibodies by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing. Virus shedding for all of the viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal swabs from chickens at 2 and 4 days PI, but only three of the five viruses were detected at 7 days PI. Only two viruses were detected in the cloacal swabs from the chickens. Virus shedding for four of the five viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal cavity of the ducks, and fecal shedding was detected for three of the viruses (including the virus not shed by the oral-pharyngeal route) in ducks at 4 and 7 days PI. All other fecal swabs from the ducks were negative. Fewer ducks shed virus compared to chickens. Both the chickens and the ducks developed antibodies, as evidenced by HI and ELISA titers. The data indicate that the H6N2 viruses can infect both chickens and ducks, but based on the number of birds shedding virus and on histopathology, the viruses appear to be more adapted to chickens. Virus shedding, which could go unnoticed in the absence of clinical signs in commercial chickens, can lead to transmission of the virus among poultry. However, the viruses isolated in 2004 did

  1. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIA, HONGYU; LIU, CHANGHONG; YANG, YING; ZHU, HAIHONG; CHEN, FENG; LIU, JIHONG; ZHOU, LINFU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (P<0.05). The cytoplasmic DHBV-DNA content of the cells treated with mimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, the DHBV-DNA content of the nuclear fractions following the intracellular expression of mimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro. PMID:26640539

  2. New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    7, was identified. The HA gene showed great. sequence similarity to the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) A/Chicken/ftaly/312/97 (H5N2); however, the cleavage site sequence between HA1 and HA2 had a motif typical for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). The full-length NA......During the past years increasing incidences of influenza A zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza A Viruses. We present here a convenient one-step RT-PCR method that will amplify full...... sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netheriancts/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs Of influenza-like illness 2-3 clays following the killing of the ducks...

  3. Characterization of Recombinant H9N2 Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Ducks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangjian; Wang, Renjie; Xuan, Fujun; Daszak, Peter; Anthony, Simon J.; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Libiao; He, Guimei

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIV). During active influenza surveillance in Poyang Lake of southeast China, we isolated and characterized eleven H9N2 viruses from two species of wild ducks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven isolates were almost identical with 99.3% to 100% nucleotide homology in their entire genome, and they all closely related in whole eight genes (95.6-99.4% homology) to human H9N2 isolates (HK/33982/2009) and clustered in the same sublineage. The isolates belonged to triple reassortant H9N2 genotype viruses containing Ck/Bei-like NA genes, Y439-like PA genes and six other G1-like genes. We also found that the subtype of virus replicated efficiently in the lungs and tracheas of BALB/c mice and caused mortality in 20-40% of infected groups after 3-6 days, which indicates that the subtype of virus is capable of establishing lethal mammalian infections. However, whether or not the virus has features transmittable from wild ducks to humans is not known. This study showed that the subtype of virus was detected for the first time in wild birds, and also suggested that wild birds may carry the virus for a long time and spread it over long distances along migratory routes, so more attention should be paid to the continued surveillance of wild birds. PMID:23830774

  4. [Research on the gene structure of duck hepatitis B virus and its encoding proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) belongs to the Avihepadnavirus genus of the Hepadnaviridae, and it not only has the same replication pattern, but also has the similar genomic and antigenic structures to Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The genome of DHBV is a partially double-stranded closed circular DNA. The genome consists of three distinct open reading frames (ORFs): ORF-PreS/S, ORF-PreC/C and ORF-P, which all locate on the negative DNA strand and encode four separate proteins. The ORF-PreS/S encodes envelope proteins L and S, and the ORF-PreC/C and ORF-P encode capsid proteins C and polymerase proteins P, respectively. The characteristics of genome structure,viral proteins features and functions were described in this review in order to provide useful information for the further study of DHBV and the duck model infected by DHBV.

  5. Duck egg drop syndrome virus: an emerging Tembusu-related flavivirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, PeiPei; Lu, Hao; Li, Shuang; Wu, Ying; Gao, George Fu; Su, JingLiang

    2013-08-01

    Duck egg drop syndrome virus (DEDSV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus isolated from ducks in China. DEDSV infection mainly results in severe egg drop syndrome in domestic poultry, which leads to huge economic losses. Thus, the discovery of ways and means to combat DEDSV is urgent. Since 2010, a remarkable amount of progress concerning DEDSV research has been achieved. Here, we review current knowledge on the epidemiology, symptomatology, and pathology of DEDSV. A detailed dissection of the viral genome and polyprotein sequences, comparative analysis of viral antigenicity and the corresponding potential immunity against the virus are also summarized. Current findings indicate that DEDSV should be a distinct species from Tembusu virus. Moreover, the adaption of DEDSV in wildlife and its high homology to pathogenic flaviviruses (e.g., West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and dengue virus), illustrate its reemergence and potential to become a zoonotic pathogen that should not be overlooked. Detailed insight into the antigenicity and corresponding immunity against the virus is of clear significance for the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs specific for DEDSV.

  6. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Huairan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Jiang, Yanyu; Xu, Qianqian; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating diseases to the poultry industry. The causative agents of ND are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which are members of the genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are generally considered potential reservoirs of NDV and may show few or no clinical signs when infected with viruses that are obviously virulent in chickens. However, ND outbreaks in domestic waterfowl have been frequently reported in many countries in the past decade. In this study, 18 NDV strains isolated from domestic ducks in southern and eastern China, between 2005 and 2013, were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and they exhibited genome sizes of 15,186 nucleotides (nt), 15,192 nt, and 15,198 nt, which follow the "rule of six" that is required for the replication of NDV strains. Based on the cleavage site of the F protein and pathogenicity tests in chickens, 17 of our NDV isolates were categorized as lentogenic viruses, and one was characterized as a velogenic virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the F gene and the complete genome sequences showed that there are at least four genotypes of NDV circulating in domestic ducks; GD1, AH224, and AH209 belong to genotypes VIId, Ib, and II of class II NDVs, respectively, and the remaining 15 isolates belong to genotype 1b of class I NDVs. Cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition tests demonstrated that the antigenic relatedness between NDV strains may be associated with their genotypes, rather than their hosts. These results suggest that though those NDV isolates were from duck, they still don't form a phylogenetic group because they came from the same species; however, they may play an important role in promoting the evolution of NDVs.

  7. Pathogenicity of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in the 2010-2011 winter in Japan to mandarin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Kosuke; Usui, Tatsufumi; Uno, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in wild birds in Japan from 2010-2011. Forty out of 63 deceased wild birds belonged to the order Anseriformes, and mandarin duck was one of the dominant species. To estimate the risk of mandarin ducks as a source of virus infection in the environment, we examined the pathogenicity of a causal H5N1 HPAI virus to mandarin ducks. About half of the mandarin ducks died by inoculation with 10(7.0)TCID50 of A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M807-1/2011 (H5N1). Viruses were mainly recovered from the trachea of the ducks sacrificed at three days post inoculation (d.p.i.). Viruses were recovered from the laryngopharyngeal swabs of the observation group until 5 d.p.i. In ducks that died at the late phase of infection, viruses were detected in the systemic organs, such as lung, kidney and colon. Together, these results showed that the H5N1 HPAI viruses, which belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 and are mainly circulating in East Asia, were lethal to mandarin ducks, indicating that mandarin ducks have the potential to disseminate the virus to other bird species. Therefore, wild birds should be kept out of poultry farms to prevent HPAI outbreaks in the future.

  8. Host cell apoptosis induced by infection with duck swollen head hemorrhagic disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanfeng Li; Xiaoyue Chen; Anchun Cheng; Mingshu Wang; Chanjuan Shen; Na Zhang; Yi Zhou; Dekang Zhu; Qihui Luo; Renyong Jia

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the host cell apoptosis in the tissues of Peking ducks infected with duck swollen head hemorrhagic dis-ease virus (DSHDV).The dynamic changes associated with apoptosis occurring in the internal tissues were evaluated at different time points postinoculation (PI) by performing hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining,followed by light microscopy,terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay,and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results showed that DSHDV infection could induce apoptosis in host cells,including those of the bursa of Fabricius (BF),thymus,spleen,liver,intestinal tract,kidney,and esophagus.The apoptotic index (AI) values increased with time from 2 to 72 h PI,and the highest values were recorded at 72 h PI.Further,cell death due to classic necrosis was observed in the dying or deceased ducks after 72 h PI.In conclusion,host cell apoptosis can be induced by DSHDV and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of duck viral swollen head hemorrhagic disease (DVSHD).

  9. Uptake of duck hepatitis B virus into hepatocytes occurs by endocytosis but does not require passage of the virus through an acidic intracellular compartment.

    OpenAIRE

    Köck, J; Borst, E M; Schlicht, H J

    1996-01-01

    The infectious entry pathway of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) was investigated with primary duck hepatocytes. Virus uptake was measured by a selective PCR technique which allows for the detection of a successful infection without the need for viral replication or gene expression. To test whether DHBV uptake occurs by endocytosis, the effects of energy depletion were analyzed. The requirement for an acidic intracellular pH was tested with the lysosomotropic agent ammonium chloride. The data sh...

  10. Study of influenza A virus in wild boars living in a major duck wintering site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Grandhomme, Viviane; Simon, Gaëlle; Herve, Séverine; Blanchon, Thomas; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; van der Werf, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    Wild birds, which are reservoirs of influenza viruses, are believed to be the original source of new influenza viruses-including highly pathogenic ones-that can be transmitted to domestic animals as well as humans and represent a potential epizootic and/or pandemic threat. Despite increasing knowledge on influenza A virus dynamics in wild birds, the viral circulation in wild boars remains largely unknown. This is of particular interest since pigs can be infected with both human and avian viruses; upon co-infection, they can act as a mixing vessel through reassortment, a mechanism that resulted in the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 virus in 2009. The Camargue (Southern France) appears as an ideal study area to investigate inter-species transmission of influenza A viruses from wild birds and possibly humans to wild boars. Indeed, the important local wild boar population shares wetland use with humans and the largest concentration of wintering ducks in France, that are both susceptible to infection by influenza A viruses. Additionally, wild boars occasionally prey on ducks. We conducted a virological and serological survey on wild boars in the Camargue (Southern France) between September 2009 and November 2010. No influenza A virus was detected in the collected nasal swabs (n=315) and no influenza specific antibodies were observed in the serological samples (n=20). As the study was mainly focused on viral excretion, which is limited in time, we cannot exclude that low or occasional influenza A virus circulation took place during the study period. Although, wild boars did not seem to be a key element in the dynamics of influenza A virus circulation in the Camargue, wild boar influenza A virus infections should be more widely studied to determine if the pattern observed here represents the normal situation or an exceptional one.

  11. Phytocompounds for the control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-02-01

    Plant extracts and associated polyphenols are known for their varied health benefits that include antioxidant effects and antimicrobial properties. The increasing consumer demand for cost-effective and natural alternatives to chemically-synthesized antimicrobials and therapeutics that are also sustainable makes the field of phytochemical research rather intriguing and challenging. Human enteric viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide as significant causes of human disease in adults and children, alike. In the absence of available vaccines for the human noroviruses, plant extracts are gaining popularity for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Research on plant extracts (particularly polyphenols derived from fruits) for human enteric virus control will be briefly summarized in this article.

  12. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A. [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel [Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Jilbert, Allison R., E-mail: allison.jilbert@adelaide.edu.au [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.

  13. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment.

  14. Enteric viruses in turkey flocks: a historic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Alavarez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, diagnostic techniques and viral agents involved in enteric diseases affecting turkeys are described. Data from field observations and laboratory researches have been reported in turkey flocks for over 70 years, and several viruses have been identified. After a period of 30 years of inoculation experiments and neutralization studies, adequate visualization of the viruses was achieved using electronic microscopy. During the following years, several studies were then conducted to isolate and classify those viruses using cell-culture, embryo-propagation, serological tests, genome electropherotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of double-stranded RNA viruses, and recently, nucleic acid studies. Thus, since the 1990s, the nucleic-acid technology has focused on genomic surveys and on the detection of specific segments of the genome of each virus using the polymerase-chain reaction, resulting in several prevalence studies and phylogenetic analyses of different isolates and proper classification of the viruses.

  15. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport due to their closer morphological and biological properties compared to FIB. Based on a meta-analysis of published data, we summarize con...

  16. Seroepidemiological Evidence for the Presence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Ducks, Chickens, and Pigs, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of various animals, such as: ducks, chickens and pigs in households increases the potential risks of zoonosis from animal to human. One of the diseases is Japanese encephalitis (JE.  The seroepidemiological studies on the presence JE among animals especially those raised in household is very important for emerging and reemerging disease control program. Ducks, chickens and pigs have long been considered as carrier and even the amplifier hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV replication. The presence of the animal hosts and mosquitoes as vector could result in transmission of the JEV to humans. Methods: A seroepidemiological study of the presence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was conducted by collecting sera and detecting the antibody against JEV in ducks, chickens and pigs in Bali. As pig is the amplifying animal of JEV, comparison JEV antibody between ducks reared in households with pig nearby and with no pig were also determined the presence of antibody against JEV was examined by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.  The serum samples with over cut off value (COV of optical density were considered as those containing Ab against JEV. Results: Antibody against JEV was demonstrated in ducks (20.6%, chickens (36.7% and pigs (32.2% evaluated in this study. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the prevalence of antibody against JEV in ducks kept closely with pigs compared to the antibody in the ducks reared without pigs around. Conclusion: This study convinced that antibody against JEV is found in ducks, chickens and pigs in Bali. Indicating that these animals was infected or previously infected by the virus.

  17. Low-pathogenic influenza A viruses in North American diving ducks contribute to the emergence of a novel highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N8) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ramey, Andrew M.; Bowman, Andrew S; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Killian, Mary Lea; Krauss, Scott; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Reeves, Andrew B.; Webby, Richard J.; Stallknecht, David E.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Introductions of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced the genomes of 441 wild-bird origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. The results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity. Preceding the outbreak, an isolate with six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NA, and NS) sharing >99% sequence identity with those of H7N8 turkey isolates was recovered from a diving duck sampled in Kentucky, USA. H4N8 IAVs from other diving ducks possessed five H7N8-like gene segments (PB2, PB1, NA, MP, and NS; >98% sequence identity). Our findings suggest that viral gene constellations circulating among diving ducks can contribute to the emergence of IAVs that affect poultry. Therefore, diving ducks may serve an important and understudied role in the maintenance, diversification, and transmission of IAVs in the wild-bird reservoir.

  18. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3’-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5’. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China. PMID:27391305

  19. New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragstad, K; Jørgensen, P H; Handberg, K J; Mellergaard, S; Corbet, S; Fomsgaard, A

    2005-05-01

    During the past years increasing incidences of influenza A zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza A viruses. We present here a convenient one-step RT-PCR method that will amplify full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) directly from clinical samples and from all known subtypes of influenza A. We applied the method on samples collected in September 2003 from a Danish flock of mallards with general health problems and by this a previously undescribed influenza A subtype combination, H5N7, was identified. The HA gene showed great sequence similarity to the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) A/Chicken/Italy/312/97 (H5N2); however, the cleavage site sequence between HA1 and HA2 had a motif typical for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). The full-length NA sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netherlands/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs of influenza-like illness 2-3 days following the killing of the ducks, but no evidence of influence infections was detected. To our knowledge this is the first report of an H5N7 influenza A virus.

  20. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  1. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wang

    Full Text Available One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV, designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261, was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  2. Experimental infection of mandarin duck with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8 and H5N1) viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Joojin; Jang, Il; Bae, You-Chan; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues. Viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected ducks than in H5N1-infected ducks. Recovery of all viruses from control duck in contact with infected ducks indicated that the highly pathogenic H5 viruses spread horizontally through contact. Taken together, these results suggest that H5N8 viruses spread efficiently in mandarin ducks. Further studies of pathogenicity in wild birds are required to examine possible long-distance dissemination via migration routes.

  3. Identification of a Bovine Enteric Calicivirus, Kırklareli Virus, Distantly Related to Neboviruses, in Calves with Enteritis in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Feray; Karayel, İlke; Catella, Cristiana; Bodnar, Livia; Lanave, Gianvito; Bányai, Krisztián; Di Martino, Barbara; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-01-01

    A calicivirus was detected in neonatal calves with enteritis in Kırklareli, Thrace, Turkey. In the full-length genome, Kırklareli virus was related (48% nucleotide identity) to bovine enteric caliciviruses (Nebovirus genus). The virus was also detected in a herd in Ankara, Central Anatolia, but not in other Turkish prefectures. PMID:26292294

  4. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  5. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  6. Low-Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses in North American Diving Ducks Contribute to the Emergence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H7N8) Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ramey, Andrew M; Bowman, Andrew S; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Killian, Mary L; Krauss, Scott; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Reeves, Andrew B; Webby, Richard J; Stallknecht, David E; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-05-01

    Introductions of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced the genomes of 441 wild-bird origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. The results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity. Preceding the outbreak, an isolate with six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NA, and NS) sharing >99% sequence identity with those of H7N8 turkey isolates was recovered from a diving duck sampled in Kentucky, USA. H4N8 IAVs from other diving ducks possessed five H7N8-like gene segments (PB2, PB1, NA, MP, and NS; >98% sequence identity). Our findings suggest that viral gene constellations circulating among diving ducks can contribute to the emergence of IAVs that affect poultry. Therefore, diving ducks may serve an important and understudied role in the maintenance, diversification, and transmission of IAVs in the wild-bird reservoir.IMPORTANCE In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused a disease outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the origin of this virus, we sequenced and analyzed 441 wild-bird origin influenza virus strains isolated from wild birds inhabiting North America. We found that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity. Our results suggest that viral gene constellations circulating among diving ducks can contribute to the emergence of IAVs that affect poultry. Therefore

  7. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Newcastle Disease Virus infection study on duck and chicken in Subang district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprizal Panus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR matrix (M showed 19/67 (28.3% cloacal and 8/67 (11.9% pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9% of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7% shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12% birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2. Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains.

  9. Differences between influenza virus receptors on target cells of duck and chicken and receptor specificity of the 1997 H5N1 chicken and human influenza viruses from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, A S; Tuzikov, A B; Bovin, N V; Yamnikova, S S; Lvov, D K; Webster, R G; Matrosovich, M N

    2003-01-01

    To study whether influenza virus receptors in chickens differ from those in other species, we compared the binding of lectins and influenza viruses with known receptor specificity to cell membranes and gangliosides from epithelial tissues of ducks, chickens, and African green monkeys. We found that chicken cells contained Neu5Ac alpha(2-6)Gal-terminated receptors recognized by Sambucus nigra lectin and by human viruses. This finding explains how some recent H9N2 viruses replicate in chickens despite their human virus-like receptor specificity. Duck virus bound to gangliosides with short sugar chains that were abundant in duck intestine. Human and chicken viruses did not bind to these gangliosides and bound more strongly than duck virus to gangliosides with long sugar chains that were found in chicken intestinal and monkey lung tissues. Chicken and duck viruses also differed by their ability to recognize the structure of the third sugar moiety in Sia2-3Gal-terminated receptors. Chicken viruses preferentially bound to Neu5Ac alpha(2-3)Gal beta(1-4)GlcNAc-containing synthetic sialylglycopolymer, whereas duck viruses displayed a higher affinity for Neu5Ac alpha(2-3)Gal beta(1-3)GalNAc-containing polymer. Our data indicate that sialyloligosaccharide receptors in different avian species are not identical and provide a potential explanation for the differences between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins of duck and chicken viruses.

  10. Susceptibility of Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) and mallard ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) to experimental infections by different genotypes of H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    exposed to infection with H5N1. To do this, an experimental study on infections with different genotypes of H5N1 in mallards and Muscovy ducks have been conducted, where it was found that the mortality of the inoculated Muscovy ducks was at least 80%, regardless of the virus strain employed. In contrast......, the mortality of the mallards ranged from nil to 100%, which suggests that Muscovy ducks are more susceptible to HPAIV H5N1 infection in terms of disease development and mortality. It was also found that higher virus titers developed in vital organs of Muscovy ducks compared to mallards, particularly...... in the brain. Due to their high susceptibility, it is unlikely that Muscovy ducks act as a silent reservoir. The virus strains used in this study, to a certain degree, differed in their virulence properties to the bird species in question....

  11. Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

    2008-02-01

    Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens but not ducks is associated with elevated host immune and pro-inflammatory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Tellabati, Meenu; Sebastian, Sujith; Londt, Brandon Z; Jansen, Christine; Vervelde, Lonneke; Brookes, Sharon M; Brown, Ian H; Dunham, Stephen P; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infec

  13. Enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001149.htm Enteritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine. Causes Enteritis ...

  14. Cloning of Thymidine Kinase Gene of Duck Plague Virus Using Degenerate PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xian-jie; WANG Jun-wei

    2005-01-01

    The DNA of duck plague virus (DPV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene was cloned and sequenced from a vaccine virus in the study. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers for the consensus site of herpesvirus UL24, TK, and glycoprotein H(gH) gene were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify DNA product with 3 741-base-pairs (bp) in size. DNA sequence analysis revealed a 1 077-base-pairs (bp) open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 amino acid polypeptide homologous to herpesvirus TK proteins. The predicted TK protein shared 31.2, 41.3, 35.7, 37.4, and 28.4% identity with herpes simplex virus typel, equine herpesvirus type 4, Marek's disease virus 2, herpesvirus turkey, and infectious laryngotracheitis virus, respectively. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of other herpesvirus TK proteins showed that these proteins were not conserved on the whole, otherwise the portion of the TK proteins corresponding to the nucleotide binding domain and the nucleoside binding site were highly conserved among herpesvirus. Comparison with the amino acid sequences of the conserved nucleotide and nucleoside binding domains of other eleven herpesvirus TK proteins to the predicted DPV peptide confirmed its identity as the DPV TK protein.

  15. African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G Sánchez

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV, which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V, and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na(+/H(+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved.

  16. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  17. Antiviral effects of PNA in duck hepatitis B virus infection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-yan CHEN; An-chun CHENG; Ming-shu WANG; Da-wei XU; Wen ZENG; Zhan LI

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the efficacy of antiviral treatment with PNA for the duck model of HBV (DHBV)-infected ducks. PNA is a 2-amine-9-(2,3-dideoxy-2,3-dihydro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-6-methoxy-9H-purine. Methods: The Sichuan Mallard ducklings in the hepatitis B virus model were treated with PNA, a new antiviral agent.DHBV DNA from the blood serum and liver tissues were measured at 0,5,and 10 d during the treatment and at 3 d withdrawal by real-time PCR. The duck hepatitis B surface antigen (DHBsAg) in the liver cells was observed by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pathological changes in the liver tissues were also observed. Control group Ⅰ was administered with distilled water and control group Ⅱ was administered with 3-thiacytidine. Treatment group Ⅰ was administered with PNA at a dose of 40 mg/kg and treatment group Ⅱ was administered perorally (po) with PNA at a dose of 80 mg/kg. Treatment group Ⅲ was administered with PNA at a dose of 20 mg/kg and treatment group Ⅳ was intravenously administered with PNA at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Each group contained 15 ducklings. Results: PNA can significantly lower the DHBV replication levels in serum and liver. Compared with control group Ⅱ, there were no significant differences in inhibiting efficacy in treatment groups Ⅰ and Ⅲ (P>0.05) and there were significant differences in inhibiting efficacy in treatment groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ (P<0.05). Interestingly, significant differences were observed at 3 d withdrawal. The DHBV replication levels in each group slightly increased at 3 d withdrawal, but rebounded slightly in the PNA treatment groups than in control group Ⅱ (P<0.05). The DHBV replication levels in the treatment groups were lower than in control group Ⅰ. The DHBV replication levels in sera had a positive relationship with that in the liver, but the DHBV replication levels in the liver was lower than that in sera. Pathological changes in the treatment groups were obviously improved and the changes were associated

  18. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza H5N2 Viruses with Intra- and Inter-Duck Variations in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yao-Tsun; Ko, Hui-Ying; Lee, Chang-Chun David; Lai, Ching-Yu; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Yang, Chinglai; Wang, Won-Bo; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    .... Two duck influenza H5N2 viruses, DV518 and DV413, isolated through virological surveillance at a live-poultry market in Taiwan, showed phylogenetic relatedness but exhibited different replication...

  19. Fluorogenic Detection of Duck Tembusu Virus( DTMUV ) by Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification(LAMP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Lin; Wang; Bin; Zhang; Wei; Zhang; Xiumei

    2014-01-01

    This study was to develop an efficient and simple method for the detection of duck Tembusu virus( DTMUV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification( LAMP). Six pairs of LAMP primers were designed according to the conserved region of the DTMUV E gene sequence in Gen Bank,which were then used for the optimization of various reaction components and reaction system of specific LAMP for DTMUV. Further the fluorescent reagent SYBR Green I and a certain proportion of calcium and manganese ion were used to determin the color development of products for visible analysis instead of agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the sensitivity SYBR Green I as the fluorescent reagent was 10 copies viruses per μL,which is 100 times higher than normal PCR method,while the detection limit of combined use of calcium and manganese ion was 1 000 copies viruses per μL. Although the sensitivity of mixture of calcium and manganese ion is lower than SYBR Green I,it can avoid the aerosol contamination. The fluorogenic analysis-based LAMP system established in our study has a high sensitivity and avoid the cross contamination,which is of huge potential in research institutions,grass-roots laboratories and field testing and can provide effective means to completely curb the occurrence and spreading of DTMUV.

  20. Cloning and Sequence of Glycoprotein H Gene of Duck Plague Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xian-jie; WANG Jun-wei; MA Bo

    2006-01-01

    The glycoprotein H (gH) gene homologue of duck plague virus (DPV) was cloned by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. It was located immediately downstream from the thymidine kinase gene (TK). In addition,the 3'-end of the gene homologue to herpesvirus UL21 was located downstream from the gH gene. DPV gH gene open reading frame (ORF) was 2 505 bp in length and its primary translation product was a polypeptide of 834 amino acids long.It possessed several characteristics of membrane glycoproteins, including an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence,an external domain containing eight putative N-linked glycosylation sites, a C-terminal transmembrane domain, and a charged cytoplasmic tail. Comparison with other herpesvirus revealed identities of 20.2, 25.1, 23.0, 23.0, 26.5 and 26.0% with the gH counterparts of the human herpesvirus virus 1 (HSV1), equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV4), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), pseudorabies virus (PRV), gallid herpesvirus 2 (GHV2) and gallid herpesvirus 3 (GHV3), respectively.

  1. Evidence that the RNAseH activity of the duck hepatitis B virus is unable to act on exogenous substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis John E

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase can synthesize DNA on its native RNA template within viral cores but it is usually unable to synthesize DNA employing exogenous nucleic acids as a template. The mechanism of this template commitment is unknown. Here we provide evidence that the RNAseH activity of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase may also be unable to act on exogenous substrates. Results RNAseH assays were performed under a wide variety of conditions employing substrate RNAs of Duck Hepatitis B Virus sequence annealed to complementary DNA oligonucleotides and permeabilized intracellular viral core particles. Temperature, pH, cation type, salt concentration, substrate concentration, and the sequences of the cleavage sites were varied, and the effects of ATP and dNTPs on RNAseH activity were examined. duck hepatitis B virus RNAseH activity was not detected under any of these conditions, although E. coli or Avian Myeloblastosis Virus RNAseH activity could be detected under all conditions. Access of the RNA substrate to the enzyme within the viral cores was confirmed. Conclusions These results imply that the RNAseH activity of the DHBV reverse transcriptase may not be able to degrade exogenous RNA:DNA heteroduplexes, although it can degrade heteroduplexes of the same sequence generated during reverse transcription of the endogenous RNA template. Therefore, the RNAseH activity appears to be "substrate committed" in a manner similar to the template commitment observed for the DNA polymerase activity.

  2. Type III interferon gene expression in response to influenza virus infection in chicken and duck embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zou, Tingting; Hu, Xiaotong; Jin, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) comprise a group of newly identified antiviral cytokines that are functionally similar to type I IFNs and elicit first-line antiviral responses. Recently, type III IFNs were identified in several species; however, little information is available about type III IFNs in ducks. We compared the expression of type III IFNs and their receptor in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) in response to influenza virus infection. The results showed that the expression of type III IFNs was upregulated in both DEFs and CEFs following infection with H1N1 influenza virus or treatment with poly (I:C), and expression levels were significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs (IL-28Rα) was also upregulated following infection with H1N1 virus or treatment with poly (I:C) and was significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs occurred from 8 hpi and remained at similar levels until 36 hpi in CEFs, but the expression level was elevated from 36 hpi in DEFs. These findings revealed the existence of distinct expression patterns for type III IFNs in chickens and ducks in response to influenza virus infection. The provided data are fundamentally useful in furthering our understanding of type III IFNs and innate antiviral responses in different species.

  3. Ultraviolet devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses in estuarine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W F; Hamblet, F E; Benton, W H; Akin, E W

    1970-05-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses suspended in estuarine water was determined. The surviving fractions of each virus were calculated and then plotted against the UV exposure time for purposes of comparison. Analytical assessment of the survival data for each virus consisted of least squares regression analysis for determination of intercepts and slope functions. All data were examined for statistical significance. When the slope function of each virus was compared against the slope function of poliovirus type 1, the analytical findings indicated that poliovirus types 2 and 3, echovirus types 1 and 11, and coxsackievirus A-9 exhibited similar devitalization characteristics in that no statistically significant difference was found (P > 0.05). Conversely, the devitalization characteristics of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 were dissimilar from those of poliovirus type 1 in that a statistically significant difference was found between the slope functions (P < 0.05). This observed difference in devitalization of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 was attributed primarily to the frequency distribution of single and aggregate virions, the geometric configuration, the size of the aggregates, and the severity of aggregation. The devitalization curve of coxsackievirus B-1 was characteristic of a retardant die-away curve. The devitalization curve of reovirus type 1 was characteristic of a multihittype curve. The calculated devitalization half-life values for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3; echovirus types 1 and 11; coxsackievirus types A-9 and B-1; and reovirus type 1 were 2.8, 3.1, 2.7, 2.8, 3.2, 3.1, 4.0, 4.0 sec, respectively. These basic data should facilitate an operative extrapolation of the findings to the applied situation. It was concluded that UV can be highly effective and provide a reliable safety factor in treating estuarine water.

  4. Experimentally infected domestic ducks show efficient transmission of Indonesian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, but lack persistent viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Bingham, John; Nuradji, Harimurti; Lowther, Sue; Payne, Jean; Harper, Jenni; Junaidi, Akhmad; Middleton, Deborah; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Ducks are important maintenance hosts for avian influenza, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. A previous study indicated that persistence of H5N1 viruses in ducks after the development of humoral immunity may drive viral evolution following immune selection. As H5N1 HPAI is endemic in Indonesia, this mechanism may be important in understanding H5N1 evolution in that region. To determine the capability of domestic ducks to maintain prolonged shedding of Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 virus, two groups of Pekin ducks were inoculated through the eyes, nostrils and oropharynx and viral shedding and transmission investigated. Inoculated ducks (n = 15), which were mostly asymptomatic, shed infectious virus from the oral route from 1 to 8 days post inoculation, and from the cloacal route from 2-8 dpi. Viral ribonucleic acid was detected from 1-15 days post inoculation from the oral route and 1-24 days post inoculation from the cloacal route (cycle threshold Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus does not persist in individual ducks after acute infection.

  5. Comparison of methods for evaluating the thermal stability of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Sabastine E; Gibson, Kristen E

    2015-03-01

    Human enteric viruses have been identified as one of the predominant causative agents of food-borne illnesses in developed countries, and it is estimated that human norovirus accounts for a majority of these illnesses each year. Not all of these viruses can be cultured and hence relatively little is known about their pathogenesis and physicochemical properties. To overcome this, researchers have utilized different virus surrogates for the study of non-cultivable human enteric viruses. In this review, we discuss various methods utilized for the evaluation of the thermal stability of human enteric viruses, compare the results of these methods, and examine how researchers may move toward a single standard approach (i.e., temperatures, virus concentrations, volume/weight of matrices, etc.) for determining thermal inactivation profiles of human enteric viruses and their surrogates. Based on our review, we found that temperature, time of exposure, type of matrix, analysis type, type of heat application, and the concentration and volume of virus used in the experiments were highly variable across virus surrogates even for the same surrogates. Because of these differences-along with the inherent limitations of using surrogate viruses-comparison of these methods and how the results may be extrapolated to human enteric viruses is quite challenging. As a result, we discuss how researchers may move toward a single standard approach for determining thermal inactivation profiles of human enteric viruses and their surrogates.

  6. Complete Genomic Sequence of a Chinese Isolate of Duck Hepatitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV-1) ZJ-V isolate was sequenced and determined to be 7 691 nucleotides (nt) in length with a 5'-terminal un-translated region (UTR) of 626 nt and a 3'-terminal UTR of 315 nt (not including the poly(A) tail). One large open reading frame (ORF) was found within the genome (nt 627 to 7 373) coding for a polypeptide of 2 249amino acids. Our data also showed that the poly (A) tail of DHV-1 has at least 22 A's. Sequence comparison revealed significant homology (from 91.9% to 95.7%) between the protein sequences of the virus in the Picornaviridae family, its genome showed some unique characteristics. DHV-1 contains 3copies of the 2A gene and only 1 copy of the 3B gene, and its 3'-NCR is longer than those of other picornaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis to do sequence homology based on the VP1 protein sequences showed that the ZJ-V isolate shares high sequence homology with the reported DHV-1 isolates (from 92.9% to 99.2%), indicating that DHV-1 is genetically stable.

  7. Respiratory disease due to current egg drop syndrome virus in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2013-08-30

    Severe acute respiratory symptoms with coughing, dyspnea, and gasping were reported in two flocks of 9-day-old Pekin ducklings from different provinces. Gross lesions, white exudate and mucous membrane congestion in the trachea as well as blue to purple color changes and sclerosis in lungs were observed. Histological lesions revealed that the trachea and bronchial epithelium were hyperplastic and infiltrated by neutrophil granulocytes. Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) was differentially diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction, and the strains were isolated from tracheas and lungs by inoculation of 10-day-old embryonated duck eggs. The virus isolates were designated strain D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intra-tracheal inoculation of the isolates in 3-day-old ducklings. Although the two isolates produced similar clinical signs, pathological lesions and ciliostasis, the D11-JW-017 strain resulted in more severe clinical signs with progressive symptoms compared to those of D11-JW-012 strain-infected ducklings. We suggest that different EDSV strains with mild or severe to moderate pathogenicity coexist and have potential risks in poultry. Hereby, we report an EDSV infection in ducklings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An experimental study of the pathogenicity of a duck hepatitis A virus genotype C isolate in specific pathogen free ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanrong; Pi, JinKui; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Yang, Falong

    2012-12-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C), recognized recently, is one of the pathogens causing fatal duck viral hepatitis in ducklings, especially in Asia. To demonstrate the pathogenesis of the DHAV-C isolate, 3-day-old specific pathogen free ducklings were inoculated subcutaneously with a DHAV-C isolate and the clinical signs were observed. Virus distribution, histological and apoptotic morphological changes of various tissues were examined at different times post inoculation. The serial, characteristic changes included haemorrhage and swelling of the liver. Apoptotic cells and virus antigen staining were found in all of the tissues examined. Where more virus antigen staining was detected, there were more severe histopathological and apoptotic changes. The amount of virus antigen and the histological and apoptotic morphological changes agreed with each other and became increasingly severe with length of time after infection. Apoptotic cells were ubiquitously distributed, especially among lymphocytes, macrophages and monocytes in immune organs such as the bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen, and in liver, kidney and cerebral cells. Necrosis was also observed within 72 h post inoculation in all organs examined, except the cerebrum, and was characterized by cell swelling and collapsed plasma membrane. These results suggest that the recent outbreak of disease caused by DHAV-C virus is pantropic, causing apoptosis and necrosis of different organs. The apoptosis and necrosis caused by the DHAV-C field strain in this study is associated with pathogenesis and DHAV-C-induced lesions.

  9. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium.

  10. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A; Mason, William S; Litwin, Samuel; Jilbert, Allison R

    2013-11-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10(5)-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis.

  11. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Henning, Joerg; Wong, Frank; Selleck, Paul; Junaidi, Akhmad; Bingham, John; Daniels, Peter; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-07

    Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are

  12. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Akhmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. Results All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1, clade 2.1.3 (80, and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3 that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. Conclusions The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to

  13. Virus rejection with two model human enteric viruses in membrane bioreactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) with gravity drain was tested for virus rejection with two coliphages, T4 and f2, which were used as surrogates for human enteric viruses. Virus rejection was investigated by PVDF and PP membrane modules, with the pore sizes of 0.22 and 0.1 μm, respectively. In tap water system, 2.1 lg rejection of coliphage T4 could be achieved by PVDF membrane compared with complete rejection by PP membrane, while for coliphage f2 with smaller diameter, 0.3―0.5 lg rejection of the influent virus was removed by the two membranes. In domestic wastewater system, cake layer and gel layer on the membrane surface changed the cut-off size of the membrane so that there was no significant difference between PP and PVDF for each coliphage. The removal ratios of coliphage T4 and f2 in the MBR were more than 5.5 and 3.0 lg, respectively. Compared with 5.5 lg removal for virus T4 in the MBR system, only 2.1 lg (96.8%―99.9%) removal rate was observed in the conventional activated sludge system with the influent virus concentration fluctuating from 1830 to 57000 PFU/mL. Only 0.8%―22% virus removal was the effect of adsorption to activated sludge, which showed a decreasing tendency with the retention time, while 75%―98% was the effect of virus inactivation by microbial activity. It indicated that the major mechanism of virus removal was not the transfer of viruses from the water phase to the sludge phase but inactivation in the biological treatment process.

  14. Virus rejection with two model human enteric viruses in membrane bioreactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiang; LIU JunXin

    2007-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) with gravity drain was tested for virus rejection with two coliphages, T4 and f2, which were used as surrogates for human enteric viruses. Virus rejection was investigated by PVDF and PP membrane modules, with the pore sizes of 0.22 and 0.1 μm, respectively. In tap water system, 2.1 lg rejection of coliphage T4 could be achieved by PVDF membrane compared with complete rejection by PP membrane, while for coliphage f2 with smaller diameter, 0.3-0.5 lg rejection of the influent virus was removed by the two membranes. In domestic wastewater system, cake layer and gel layer on the membrane surface changed the cut-off size of the membrane so that there was no significant difference between PP and PVDF for each coliphage. The removal ratios of coliphage T4 and f2 in the MBR were more than 5.5 and 3.0 lg, respectively. Compared with 5.5 lg removal for virus T4 in the MBR system, only 2.1 lg (96.8%-99.9%) removal rate was observed in the conventional activated sludge system with the influent virus concentration fluctuating from 1830 to 57000 PFU/mL. Only 0.8 %-22 % virus removal was the effect of adsorption to activated sludge, which showed a decreasing tendency with the retention time, while 75%-98% was the effect of virus inactivation by microbial activity. It indicated that the major mechanism of virus removal was not the transfer of viruses from the water phase to the sludge phase but inactivation in the biological treatment process.

  15. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  16. Some clinical and hematological features of virus enteritis of mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H A

    1969-04-01

    Twenty-six, ten-week-old mink were infected by force feeding by pipette 2 ml of a tissue suspension containing a Wisconsin strain of mink enteritis virus. Four days later, diarrhea and partial or complete loss of appetite developed simultaneously in all of the animals. Squinting and occasional vomiting were also observed. By the sixth day after inoculation, all of the mink were anorectic and weak. Anorexia persisted for 48 to 96 hours. Diarrhea and vomiting continued until the eighth to ninth day after exposure. For the first two days after the appearance of diarrhea, the feces contained large quantities of mucus and intestinal casts were seen frequently in the droppings. Thereafter, the feces consisted mostly of yellowish green, watery fluid and contained no casts. Some of the animals died on the eighth day after infection. Those which survived were severely dehydrated and debilitated, but resumed eating and achieved complete clinical recovery within the next five to six days.Leukopenia, i.e., total leukocyte count of less than 5,000 cells per mm(3) of blood, was found in seven of nine mink examined during the height of the disease. Leukopenic animals were deficient in both lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  17. Therapeutic effect of Styela plicata on duck hepatitis B virus in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; WANG Rui; YAN Hui; ZENG Fan-lin; WAN Xin-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiviral activity of the alcohol extract of Styela plicata on DHBV (duck hepatitis B virus) in vivo. Methods:Guangzhou-Sheldrake ducklings congenitally infected with DHBV were assigned to receive the alcohol extract of Styela plicata or lamivudine for 30 consecutive days.The DHBV DNA of sera was detected by RT-PCR, and the histological analysis of duckling liver was evaluated. Results:Thirty days after therapy, histological analysis of duckling liver showed that the ducklings receiving the alcohol extract of Styela plicata or lamivudine exhibited catabatic status in the degree of liver cell degeneration and inflammation compared with the ducklings receiving normal diet. DHBV DNA of sera from alcohol extract of Styela plicata-treated ducklings and lamivudine-treated ducklings all produced significantly lower levels compared with ducklings receiving normal diet (P<0.01). Although these treatment groups all exhibited a rebound phenomenon 10 d after withdrawal of medication, they still exhibited a significant lower level of serum DHBV DNA compared with the control group responded to normal diet (P<0. 05, P<0.01). Conclusion:Styela plicata may be an effective antiviral medicine in treating chronic hepatitis B. The data of this experiment will be valuable in studying the therapeutic role and the potential therapeutic mechanism of Styela plicata.

  18. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  19. Establishment and assessment of two methods for quantitative detection of serum duck hepatitis B virus DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Xi Chen; Ai-Long Huang; Zhen-Yuan Qi; Shu-Hua Guo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish and assess the methods for quantitative detection of serum duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) DNA by quantitative membrane hybridization using DHBV DNA probe labeled directly with alkaline phosphatase and fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR).METHODS: Probes of DHBV DNA labeled directly with alkaline phosphatase and chemiluminescent substrate CDP-star were used in this assay. DHBV DNA was detected by autoradiography,and then scanned by DNA dot-blot. In addition, three primers derived from DHBV DNA S gene were designed. Semi-nested primer was labeled by AmpliSensor. Standard curve of the positive standards of DHBV DNA was established after asymmetric preamplification, semi-nested amplification and on-line detection. Results from 100 samples detected separately by alkaline phosphatase direct-labeled DHBV DNA probe with dot-blot hybridization and digoxigeninlabeled DHBV DNA probe hybridization. Seventy samples of duck serum were tested by fluorescent qPCR and digoxigeninlabeled DHBV DNA probe in dot-blot hybridization assay and the correlation of results was analysed.RESULTS: Sensitivity of alkaline phosphatase direct-labeled DHBV DNA probe was 10 pg. The coincidence was 100%compared with digoxigenin-labeled DHBV DNA probe assay.After 30 cycles, amplification products showed two bands of about 180 bp and 70 bp by 20 g/L agarose gel electrophoresis.Concentration of amplification products was in direct proportion to the initial concentration of positive standards. The detection index was in direct proportion to the quantity of amplification products accumulated in the current cycle.The initial concentration of positive standards was in inverse proportion to the number of cycles needed for enough quantities of amplification products. Correlation coefficientof the results was (0.97, P<0.01) between fluorescent qPCRand dot-blot hybridization.CONCLUSION: Alkaline phosphatase direct-labeled DHBV DNA probe in dot-blot hybridization and fluorescent qPCR can be

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  2. A serological survey of antibodies to H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses amongst the duck-related workers in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available The continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in birds and the subsequent infections in humans pose an ongoing pandemic threat. It has been proposed that poultry workers are at higher risk of exposure to HPAI or LPAI viruses and subsequently infection due to their repeated exposure to chickens or domestic waterfowl. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 viruses amongst duck-related workers in Beijing, China and the risk factors associated with seropositivity. In March, 2011, 1741 participants were recruited from (1 commercial duck-breeding farms; (2 private duck-breeding farms; and (3 duck-slaughtering farms. Local villagers who bred ducks in their backyards were also recruited. A survey was administered by face-to-face interview, and blood samples were collected from subjects for antibody testing against H5, H7 and H9 viruses. We found that none of the subjects were seropositive for either H5 or H7 viruses, and only 0.7% (12/1741 had antibody against H9. A statistically significant difference in H9 antibody seroprevalence existed between the various categories of workers (P = 0.005, with the highest figures recorded amongst the villagers (1.7%. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity toinfection with H9 virus included less frequent disinfection of worksite (OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.07-24.58]; P = 0.041; ≤ twice monthly versus>twice monthly and handling ducks with wounds on hands (OR, 4.13 [95% CI, 1.26-13.57]; P = 0.019. Whilst the risk of infection with H5, H7 and H9 viruses appears to be low among duck-related workers in Beijing, China, ongoing monitoring of infection with the H9 virus is still warranted, especially amongst villagers who breed backyard ducks to monitor for any changes.

  3. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Scott A; Thackray, Larissa B; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew D; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C; Permar, Sallie R; Schmitz, Joern E; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M; Veazey, Ronald S; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2012-10-12

    Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence by using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis.

  4. Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins, upregulated by duck hepatitis virus, with antibacterial and antiviral activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deying; Lin, Lijuan; Zhang, Kexin; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shengwang

    2011-10-01

    Three novel Anas platyrhynchos avian β-defensins (Apl_AvBDs), Apl_AvBD4, 7 and 12, were identified successfully and characterized in tissues from Peking ducks in the present study. The cDNA fragment of Apl_AvBD4 contained 171 bp, and encoded 56 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequences of Apl_AvBD7 and 12 contained 204 bp and 198 bp open reading frames, which encoded 67 and 65 amino acids, respectively. Both recombinant and synthetic forms of the three Apl_AvBDs showed antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria investigated, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Salmonella choleraesuis. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all the three Apl_AvBDs decreased significantly in 150 mM NaCl. Significant antiviral activity of the three Apl_AvBDs was shown against duck hepatitis virus (DHV). However, none of the Apl_AvBDs showed significant hemolytic activity. Additionally, the expressions of the three Apl_AvBDs in response to DHV infection was highly variable, and significant upregulation of Apl_AvBD7 in liver was found in response to infection at different time points. Expression of Apl_AvBD4 in thymus, and of Apl_AvBD7 in bone marrow was induced in a time-dependent fashion by DHV infection. In contrast, expression of Apl_AvBD12 was found to be significantly decreased, and was hard to detect in cecal tonsil, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of ducks at some time points after DHV infection. The present results demonstrate that Apl_AvBDs play vital roles in the immune response of ducks against bacterial and viral pathogens.

  5. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactio...

  6. Surveillance of enteric viruses and coliphages in a tropical urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeinejad, S; Vergara, G G R V; Woo, C H; Lim, T T; Sobsey, M D; Gin, K Y H

    2014-07-01

    An assessment of the occurrence and concentration of enteric viruses and coliphages was carried out in highly urbanized catchment waters in the tropical city-state of Singapore. Target enteric viruses in this study were noroviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses and rotaviruses. In total, 65 water samples were collected from canals and the reservoir of the Marina catchment on a monthly basis over a period of a year. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and single agar layer plaque assay (SAL) were used to enumerate target enteric viruses and coliphages in water samples, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen were noroviruses, detected in 37 samples (57%), particularly norovirus genogroup II (48%), with a mean concentration of 3.7 × 10(2) gene copies per liter. Rotavirus was the second most prevalent virus (40%) with a mean concentration of 2.5 × 10(2) GC/L. The mean concentrations of somatic and male-specific coliphages were 2.2 × 10(2) and 1.1 × 10(2) PFU/100 ml, respectively. The occurrence and concentration of each target virus and the ratio of somatic to male-specific coliphages varied at different sampling sites in the catchment. For sampling sites with higher frequency of occurrence and concentration of viruses, the ratio of somatic to male-specific coliphages was generally much lower than other sampling sites with lower incidences of enteric viruses. Overall, higher statistical correlation was observed between target enteric viruses than between enteric viruses and coliphages. However, male-specific coliphages were positively correlated with norovirus concentrations. A multi-level integrated surveillance system, which comprises the monitoring of bacterial indicators, coliphages and selected enteric viruses, could help to meet recreational and surface water quality criteria in a complex urbanized catchment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Characterization and SYBR Green Ⅰ-Based Quantitative PCR for Duck Hepatitis Virus Type 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yu-jun; ZHANG Gui-hong; XU Xiao-qin; CHEN Jian-hong; LIAO Ming

    2008-01-01

    To determine the genomic sequence of a duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) strain,real-time quantitative polyrnerase chain reaction (RTQ-PCR) assay based on SYBR Green Ⅰ technology was developed to target 3D gene of DHV-1.Comparative sequence analysis showed that the genome has a typical picornarivus genetic organization,and strain DHV-1 R genetic organaiztion is 5' untranslated region (UTR)-VPO-VP3-VP1-2A1-2A2-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C-3D-3' UTR,DHV-1 R has close relationship with Parechovirus,and has 95.1-99.1% nucleotide sequence identity with other DHV-1 strains.Based on the DHV-1 sequences in GenBank,three pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify DHV-1 using real-time PCR.The results showed that real-time PCR Tm value is 85.6℃ and the real-time PCR provides a broad dynamic range,detecting from 102 to 109 copies of DHV-1 cDNA per reaction.No cross-reactions were found in specimens containing DPV,AIV and NDV.It is concluded that DHV-1 belongs to a new group of the family Picornaviridae that may form a separate genus most closely related to the genus Parechovirus.All results showed that the real-time PCR has high sensitivity and specificity to detect DHV-1 using SYBR Green Ⅰ dissociation curve analysis,isolates can be distinguished by their melting temperature.These methods are rapid,sensitive,and reliable,and can be readily adapted for detection of DHV-1 from other clinical samples.

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of gE protein of Duck plague virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Renyong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gE protein of duck plague virus is the important membrane glycoprotein, its protein characterization has not been reported. In this study, we expressed and presented the characterization of the DPV gE product. Results According to the sequence of the gE gene, a pair of primers were designed, and the DNA product with 1490bp in size was amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR product was cloned into pMD18-T vector, and subcloned into pET32a(+, generating the recombinant plasmid pET32a/DPV-gE. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the fusion pET32a/DPV-gE protein was highly expressed after induction by 0.2 mM IPTG at 30°C for 4.5 h in Rosseta host cells. Over expressed 6×His-gE fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography, and used to immunize the rabbits for the preparation of polyclonal antibody. The result of the intracellular localization revealed that the gE protein was appeared to be in the cytoplasm region. The real time PCR, RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting revealed that the gE gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DPV-infected cells. Conclusions In this work, the DPV gE protein was successfully expressed in a prokaryotic expression system, and we presented the basic properties of the DPV gE product for the first time. These properties of the gE protein provided a prerequisite for further functional analysis of this gene.

  9. Replication of hepatitis B virus in primary duck hepatocytes transfected with linear viral DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Qing Yao; Wei-Ping Zhou; Hong Ren; Qi Liu; Shu-Hua Guo; Ding-Feng Zhang; Ni Tang; Ai-Long Huang; Xiao-Yi Zou; Jiang-Feng Xiao; Yun Luo; Da-Zhi Zhang; Bo Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression and replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs).METHODS: Complete HBV genome was transfected into PDHs by electroporation (transfected group, 1.19×1012copies of linear HBV DNA/1×107 PDHs). After 1-5 d of transfection, HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and lysate of PDHs were measured with the IMX System.Meanwhile, replicative intermediates of HBV DNA were analyzed by Southern blotting and Dot blotting. PDHs electroporated were used as control group.RESULTS: HBsAg in the hepatocyte lysates of transfected group was 15.24 (1 d), 14.55 (3 d) and 5.13 (5 d; P/N values, positive≥2.1) respectively. HBeAg was negative (<2.1). Both HBsAg and HBeAg were negative in the supernatant of transfected group. Dot blotting revealed that HBV DNA was strongly positive in the transfected group and negative in the control group. Southern blot analysis of intracellular total DNA indicated that there were relaxed circular (rc DNA), covalently closed circular (ccc DNA), and single-stranded (ss DNA) HBV DNA replicative intermediates in the transfected group, there was no integrated HBV DNA in the cellular genome. These parameters were negative in control group.CONCLUSION: Expression and replication of HBV genes can occur in hepatocytes from non-mammalian species.HBV replication has no critical species-specificity, and yet hepatic-specific regulating factors in hepatocytes may be essential for viral replication.

  10. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  11. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  12. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guyader, Francoise S.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid...

  13. Development and field application of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, L V; Park, M-J; Kye, S-J; Kim, J-Y; Lee, H-S; Choi, K-S

    2013-08-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) using a baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen (rNDV-N) and an rNDV-N-specific monoclonal antibody (5B3) was developed for the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. The specificity and sensitivity of the C-ELISA was found to be 98.4 and 98.9%, respectively, for chickens, and 98.2 and 97.9% for ducks. However, the C-ELISA showed weak cross-reaction with hyperimmune antisera to some other avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In all experimentally vaccinated chickens, seroconversion rates at 7 d postinoculation were 100 and 40% when measured by C-ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI), respectively. In field trials, the C-ELISA showed positive results in 98.9% of HI-positive sera and 40.8% of HI-negative sera from NDV-vaccinated chickens (n = 705). In domestic ducks (n = 158) from NDV-positive duck farms (n = 8), the positive rates according to C-ELISA were significantly higher than those according to the HI test. At the same time, 98.1% of ducks (n = 209) from NDV-negative duck farms (n = 11) were also negative by C-ELISA. Our results indicate that C-ELISA could be a useful alternative to HI testing for detecting NDV antibodies in different avian species such as chickens and ducks.

  14. Evaluation of avian influenza virus isolated from ducks as a potential live vaccine candidate against novel H7N9 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Liu, Hua-Lei; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-11-12

    Recent outbreaks of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus in humans in China raise pandemic concerns and underscore an urgent need to develop effective vaccines. Theoretically, live influenza vaccines are of multiple advantages over traditional inactivated influenza vaccines to be used in a pandemic, because they can be produced rapidly, safely, and inexpensively. However, studies on live vaccines against the novel H7N9 virus are limited. In this study, we evaluated a potential live influenza vaccine candidate using an H7N3 avian influenza virus isolated from ducks with controls of two recombinant viruses generated through reverse genetics. The potential candidate could be produced efficiently using chicken embryonated eggs, and is homogenous to the novel H7N9 virus in their viral hemagglutinin genes. The potential candidate is likely low pathogenic to birds and mammals, and likely sensitive to oseltamivir and amantadine, as suggested by its genomic sequences. Its low pathogenicity was further supported through inoculation in mice, chicken embryonated eggs and chickens. Specific antibodies elicited in mice were detectable at least during the period between day 14 and day 56 after intranasal administration of the candidate for one time. Titers of the specific antibodies increased significantly with a boost intranasal administration or a higher inoculation dose. The induced specific antibodies were of substantial cross-reactivity with the novel H7N9 virus. These primary but promising evaluation data suggest that the duck influenza virus could be used as a potential live vaccine candidate, favorably through a prime-boost route, to mitigate the severity of the possible pandemic caused by the newly emerging H7N9 virus, and is valuable to be further evaluated.

  15. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Lars Erik; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were...

  16. Apparent lack of effect of vaccination against mink enteritis virus (MEV). A challenge study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1988-01-01

    The mink enteritis virus part of a triple vaccine was tested in mink. No raise in antibody response was measured after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of groups of vaccinated or not-vaccinated animals revealed no differences in virus excretion or antibody response in the different animals....

  17. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  18. Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provides lack of evidence for epidemiological peak of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wasley, Jeff; Esler, Daniel N.; Stalknecht, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provided no evidence for an epidemiologic peak of infection. Isolates were recovered, however, that provide information on viral diversity and dispersal that may not be realized through sampling efforts focused on other avian taxa.

  19. Different routes of inoculation impact infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection in chickens and domestic ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y K; Swayne, D E

    2010-12-01

    The H5N1 type A influenza viruses classified as Qinghai-like virus (clade 2.2) are a unique lineage of type A influenza viruses with the capacity to produce significant disease and mortality in gallinaceous and anseriform birds, including domestic and wild ducks. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis of chickens and domestic ducks to A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/224/05 (H5N1) high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus when administered through respiratory or alimentary routes of exposure. The chickens and ducks were more susceptible to the H5N1 HPAI virus, as evidenced by low infectious and lethal viral doses, when exposed by intranasal as compared to alimentary routes of inoculation (intragastric or oral-fed infected chicken meat). In the alimentary exposure pathogenesis study, pathologic changes included hemorrhage, necrosis, and inflammation in association with virus detection. These changes were generally observed in most of the visceral organs of chickens, between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (DPI), and are similar to lesions and virus localization seen in birds in natural cases or in experimental studies using the intranasal route. Alimentary exposure to the virus caused systemic infection in the ducks, characterized by moderate lymphocytic encephalitis, necrotized hepatitis, and pancreatitis with a corresponding demonstration of virus within the lesions. In both chickens and ducks with alimentary exposure, lesions, virus, or both were first demonstrated in the upper alimentary tract on 1 DPI, suggesting that the alimentary tract was the initial site affected upon consumption of infected meat or on gavage of virus in liquid medium. However, as demonstrated in the infectivity study in chickens, alimentary infection required higher exposure doses to produce infection as compared to intranasal exposure in chickens. These data suggest that upper respiratory exposure to H5N1 HPAI virus in birds is more likely to result in

  20. Detection and characterization of enteric viruses in flood water from the 2011 thai flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaosuwankul, Nathamon; Thippornchai, Narin; Yamashita, Akifumi; Vargas, Ronald E Morales; Tunyong, Witawat; Mahakunkijchareon, Yuvadee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan

    2013-01-01

    Severe flooding, which is associated with numerous outbreaks of a wide range of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by enteric viruses, occurred in all areas of Thailand in 2011. To determine the prevalence of five human enteric viruses, namely enterovirus, rotavirus (RV), norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis E virus, in the flood water, 100 water samples were collected from flood-damaged areas in central Thailand. Viral RNA was extracted from concentrated samples and analyzed by RT-PCR and sequencing. NV was the most commonly detected pathogen in the tested samples (14%). RV and HAV were detected in 9% and 7% of samples, respectively. This study is the first to detect enteric viral genes in flood water in Thailand. Furthermore, it is the first to detect an NV gene in any type of environmental water in Thailand. These results provide useful information for estimating the risk of flood waterborne viral infection.

  1. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry.

  2. Adhesion of human pathogenic enteric viruses and surrogate viruses to inert and vegetal food surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboosere, Nathalie; Pinon, Anthony; Caudrelier, Yvette; Delobel, Alexandre; Merle, Ghislaine; Perelle, Sylvie; Temmam, Sarah; Loutreul, Julie; Morin, Thierry; Estienney, Marie; Belliot, Gael; Pothier, Pierre; Gantzer, Christophe; Vialette, Michèle

    2012-10-01

    Enteric viruses, particularly human Noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are key food-borne pathogens. The attachment of these pathogens to foodstuff and food-contact surfaces is an important mechanism in the human contamination process. Studies were done to investigate the nature of the physicochemical forces, such as hydrophobic and electrostatic ones, involved in the interaction virus/matrix but, at this day, only few data are available concerning surface properties of viruses and prediction of the adhesion capacity of one specific virus onto matrices is still very difficult. The purpose of this study was to propose a reference system, including a representative virus surrogate, able to predict as close as possible behaviour of pathogenic viruses in term of adhesion on inert (stainless steel and polypropylene) and food surfaces (lettuce leaves, strawberries and raspberries). The adhesion of human pathogenic enteric viruses, cultivable strain of HAV and non-cultivable strains of human NoV (genogroups I and II), have been quantified and compared to these of human enteric viruses surrogates, included the MNV-1 and three F-specific RNA bacteriophages (MS2, GA and Qβ). A standardized approach was developed to assess and quantify viral adhesion on tested matrices after a contact time with each virus using real-time RT-PCR. Methods used for virus recovery were in accordance with the CEN recommendations, including a bovine Enterovirus type 1 as control to monitor the efficiency of the extraction process and amplification procedure from directly extracted or eluted samples. The adhesion of human pathogenic viruses, ranging from 0.1 to 2%, could be comparable for all matrices studied, except for NoV GII on soft fruits. Adhesion percentages obtained for the studied surrogate virus and phages were shown to be comparable to those of HAV and NoV on inert and lettuce surfaces. The MNV-1 appeared as the best candidate to simulate adhesion phenomena of all human

  3. Adsorption characteristics of an enteric virus-binding protein to norovirus, rotavirus and poliovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai Takahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water contamination with human enteric viruses has posed human health risks all over the world. Reasonable and facile methodologies for recovering and quantifying infectious enteric viruses in environmental samples are needed to address the issues of waterborne viral infectious diseases. In this study, a bacterial protein that has a binding capability with several enteric viruses is discovered, and its binding characteristics were investigated for utilizing it as a viral adsorbent in virus recovery and detection technologies. Results A gene of an enteric virus-binding protein (EVBP, derived from a monomer of a bacterial chaperon protein GroEL, was successfully acquired from a genomic DNA library of activated sludge microorganisms with nested PCR. Equilibrium dissociation constants between EVBP and norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs of genotypes GI.7 and GII.4, estimated with quartz crystal microbalance method, were 240 and 210 nM, respectively. These values of equilibrium dissociation constant imply that the binding affinity between EVBP and NoVLPs is 1 to 3-log weaker than that in general antigen-antibody interactions, but about 2-log stronger than that in weak specific interactions of proteins with cations and organic polymers. The adsorptions of EVBP to norovirus, group A rotavirus and poliovirus type 1 were found to be significant in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, the binding of native GroEL tetradecamer to viral particles was weaker than that of EVBP, presumably because of a steric hindrance. The small molecule of EVBP could have an advantage in the access to the surface of viral particles with rugged structure. Conclusions EVBP that has a broad binding spectrum to enteric viruses was newly discovered. The broad binding characteristic of EVBP would allow us to utilize it as a novel adsorbent for detecting diverse enteric viruses in clinical and environmental samples.

  4. [Prokaryotic expression of vp3 gene of Muscovy duck parvovirus, and its antiserum preparation for detection of virus multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Zhu, Yumin; Dong, Shijuan; Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    New epidemic broke out in recent year which was suspected to be caused by variant Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). For this reason, new MDPV detection methods are needed for the new virus strains. In this study, a pair of primers were designed according to the full-length genome of MDPV strain SAAS-SHNH, which were identified in 2012, and were used to amplify the vp3 gene of MDPV by polymerase chain reaction. After being sequenced, the vp3 gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector PET28a. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 and induced with IPTG. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed the MDPV vp3 gene was successfully expressed. After being purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography system, the recombinant protein was used as antigen to immunize rabbits to obtain antiserum. Western blotting analysis showed that the acquired antiserum could react specifically with VP3 protein of J3D6 strain and MDPV vaccine strain. The antiserum could also be used for detection of cultured MDPV from primary duck embryo fibroblasts by immune fluorescence assay (IFA). It could be concluded that the VP3 protein and its antibody prepared in the research could be used for detection of VP3 antiserum and antigen respectively.

  5. Restriction enzyme analysis of Indian isolates of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus recovered from chicken, duck and quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, N; Kataria, J M; Koti, M; Dhama, K; Dash, B B

    2004-07-01

    Egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS-76) is caused by a haemagglutinating adenovirus belonging to group III of the genus Aviadenovirus in the family Adenoviridae. All isolates are serologically identical, but have been divided into three groups based on restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis. In this study the viral DNA of various Indian EDS-76 viral isolates (CEDS-A, CEDS-B, EDS-M, EDS-ML, EDS-1/AD/86, EDS-KC and QEDS) obtained from different avian species and different geographical regions were digested with restriction endonucleases viz., EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII and PstI. The results showed that one Indian isolate obtained from duck (DEDS-KC) was different from all other chicken and quail counterparts. All other isolates were identical to the reference viral strain BC-14, which belong to group I of EDS-76 viruses. The duck isolate EDS-KC could not be placed in any of the three groups reported earlier.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of the shrew enteric virome reveals novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ueno, Keisuke; Ishii, Akihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Shrews are small insectivorous mammals that are distributed worldwide. Similar to rodents, shrews live on the ground and are commonly found near human residences. In this study, we investigated the enteric virome of wild shrews in the genus Crocidura using a sequence-independent viral metagenomics approach. A large portion of the shrew enteric virome was composed of insect viruses, whilst novel viruses including cyclovirus, picornavirus and picorna-like virus were also identified. Several cycloviruses, including variants of human cycloviruses detected in cerebrospinal fluid and stools, were detected in wild shrews at a high prevalence rate. The identified picornavirus was distantly related to human parechovirus, inferring the presence of a new genus in this family. The identified picorna-like viruses were characterized as different species of calhevirus 1, which was discovered previously in human stools. Complete or nearly complete genome sequences of these novel viruses were determined in this study and then were subjected to further genetic characterization. Our study provides an initial view of the diversity and distinctiveness of the shrew enteric virome and highlights unique novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

  7. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  8. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/ Mexico/2007 is atypical.

  9. Development of a Duplex RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Duck Hepatitis Virus Type I and Muscovy Duck Parvovirus%鸭I型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒二重RT-PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽基; 谢芝勋; 刘加波; 庞耀珊; 邓显文; 谢志勤; 范晴

    2012-01-01

      根据基因库中鸭I型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的基因序列,分别设计了两对特异性引物,通过对二重RT-PCR扩增条件的优化,研究建立了可同时鉴别检测鸭I型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的二重RT-PCR方法.该方法对同一样品中的鸭I型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒模板进行扩增,结果均同时得到2条大小与实验设计相符的202 bp(鸭I型肝炎病毒)和474 bp(番鸭细小病毒)的特异性扩增条带,对鸭圆环病毒、鹅细小病毒、鸭副黏病毒、鸭瘟病毒和禽流感病毒等病原体的检测全为阴性.敏感性试验结果表明,该技术最低能检测到100 fg的鸭I型肝炎病毒RNA和番鸭细小病毒DNA.研究建立的鸭I型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的二重RT-PCR方法,具有快速、敏感、特异、定量和重复性好等优点,可用于临床上鸭I型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒感染的检测.%  A duplex reverse polymerase chain reaction assay(duplex RT-PCR)was developed and optimized to simultaneously detect duck hepatitis virus Type I and Muscovy duck parvovirus in one reaction.Two pairs of specific primers were designed according to the conserved regions on the sequences of duck hepatitis virus Type I and Muscovy duck parvovirus in GenBank.It was shown that samples containg duck hepatitis virus Type I and Muscovy duck parvovirus could be amplified into the specific bands,202 bp for duck hepatitis virus Type I and 474 bp for Muscovy duck parvovirus by this duplex PCR,but no specific bands of the same sizes were amplified from duck circovirus, gosling plague virus,duck paramyxovirus,duck plague virus and avian influenza virus.As little as 100 fg of duck hepatitis virus Type I RNA and Muscovy duck parvovirus DNA could be detected.This duplex RT-PCR assay was a quick,sensitive,and specific test for detection of duck hepatitis virus Type I and Muscovy duck parvovirus,and could be useful for the control of these viruses in

  10. Identification of a conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope in the VP1 proteins of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Zhou, Guomei; Xin, Yinghao; Chen, Junhao; Lin, Shaoli; Tian, Ye; Xie, Zhijing; Jiang, Shijin

    2015-11-18

    Duck virus hepatitis (DVH), mainly caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), is a severe disease threaten to duck industry and has worldwide distribution. As the major structural protein, the VP1 protein of DHAV is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4F8 against the intact DHAV-1 particles was used to identify the possible epitope in the three serotypes of DHAV. The mAb 4F8 had weak neutralizing activities to both DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and reacted with the conserved linear B-cell epitopes of (75)GEIILT(80) in DHAV-1 VP1 and (75)GEVILT(80) in DHAV-3 VP1 protein, respectively, while not with DHAV-2 VP1. This was the first report about identification of the common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, which will facilitate understanding of the antigenic structure of VP1 and the serologic diagnosis of DHAV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal Inactivation of Foodborne Enteric Viruses and Their Viral Surrogates in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hayriye; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-08-01

    Foodborne viruses, in particular human norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are the most common causes of food-associated infections and foodborne illness outbreaks around the world. Since it is currently not possible to cultivate human noroviruses and the wild-type strain of hepatitis A virus in vitro, the use of a variety of viral surrogates is essential to determine appropriate thermal processing conditions to reduce the risk associated with their contamination of food. Therefore, the objectives of this review are to (i) present pertinent characteristics of enteric foodborne viruses and their viral surrogates, (ii) discuss the viral surrogates currently used in thermal inactivation studies and their significance and value, (iii) summarize available data on thermal inactivation kinetics of enteric viruses, (iv) discuss factors affecting the efficacy of thermal treatment, (v) discuss suggested mechanisms of thermal inactivation, and (vi) provide insights on foodborne enteric viruses and viral surrogates for future studies and industrial applications. The overall goal of this review is to contribute to the development of appropriate thermal processing protocols to ensure safe food for human consumption.

  12. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in

  13. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in hospitals

  14. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  15. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Wilcox

    Full Text Available Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV from July-October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1% of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9% of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 AIV subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. Ten hemagglutinin (HA subtypes were detected each year (i.e., H1, 3-8, and 10-12 during 2007; H1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008. All neuraminidase (NA subtypes were detected during each year of the study. Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. Predominant subtypes during 2007 (comprising ≥5% of subtype diversity included H1N1, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H10N7, and H11N9. Predominant subtypes during 2008 included H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7. Additionally, within each HA subtype, the same predominant HA/NA subtype combinations were detected each year and included H1N1, H3N8, H4N6, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N9. The H2N3 and H12N5 viruses also predominated within the H2 and H12 subtypes, respectively, but only were detected during a single year (H2 and H12 viruses were not detected during 2007 and 2008, respectively. Mallards were the predominant species sampled (63.7% of the total, and 531 AIV were isolated from this species (80.5% of the total isolates. Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity.

  16. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Richards, Kevin D; Spencer, Susan K

    2010-10-15

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways.

  17. 鸭Ⅰ型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒二重荧光定量RT-PCR方法的建立%Development of duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of duck hepatitis virus type Ⅰ and muscovy duck parvovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽基; 谢芝勋; 邓显文; 谢志勤; 庞耀珊; 范晴; 刘加波

    2013-01-01

    A duplex real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (drRT-PCR) assay was developed and optimized to simultaneously detect duck hepatitis virus type Ⅰ and muscovy duck parvovirus in one reaction.Two sets of specific oligonucleotide primers for duck hepatitis virus type Ⅰ and muscovy duck parvovirus,along with two TaqMan probes specific for each virus were used in the assay.This drRT-PCR assay was found to be specific and to be able to detect and differentiate duck hepatitis virus type Ⅰ and muscovy duck parvovirus,and no positive results were observed when nucleic acid from duck circovirus,gosling plague virus,duck parvovirus,duck plague virus and avian influenza virus were used as drRT-PCR templates.The sensitivity of this drRT-PCR assay was 200 template copies for duck hepatitis virus type Ⅰ and muscovy duck parvovirus.This drRT-PCR assay is a quick,sensitive,and specific test for detection of duck hepatitis virus type Ⅰ and muscovy duck parvovirus,and will be useful for the control of these viruses in ducks.%根据基因库中鸭Ⅰ型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的基因序列,设计2对特异性引物和2条用不同荧光基团标记的TaqMan探针.对反应条件和试剂浓度进行优化,建立能够同时检测鸭Ⅰ型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的二重荧光定量RT-PCR方法.该方法敏感性好,对鸭Ⅰ型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的检测敏感性均达到200个模板拷贝数;该方法特异性强,对鸭圆环病毒、鹅细小病毒、鸭副黏病毒、鸭瘟病毒和禽流感病毒等病原体的检测全为阴性.本研究建立的鸭Ⅰ型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒的二重荧光定量RT-PCR方法,具有快速、敏感、特异、定量和重复性好等优点,可用于临床上鸭Ⅰ型肝炎病毒和番鸭细小病毒感染的检测.

  18. The role of hexon in egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) inducing apoptosis in duck embryo fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuefeng; Xu, Jiamin; Wang, Zugui; Wang, Xueping; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-07-17

    Although extensive efforts have been made to understand adenovirus infection in human cells, little is known for egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) infection in the avian-derived cells. In this study, the effects of EDSV infection as well as the possible role hexon protein, the main building block of the EDSV capsid, on apoptosis induction in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells was examined. Flow cytometry analysis and TUNEL assay revealed that EDSV infection induced significant apoptosis in DEF cells compared with mock infected cells. Interestingly, the increase of the apoptosis rate detected in EDSV infected DEF cells were accompanied by an increased virus load in cells in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, a time-dependent decrease in hexon protein expression levels in hexon transfected DEF cells in parallel with a gradual decrease in TUNEL-labeling cells was also observed in the current study. In addition, caspase activity detection and western blot analysis indicates that either EDSV infection or EDSV hexon transfection both induced apoptosis of DEF cells via activating both the exogenous and the mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Simultaneous investigation of influenza and enteric viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting in general practice for acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are not an uncommon manifestation of an influenza virus infection. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting their general practitioner for uncomplicated acute diarrhea (AD and the proportion of concurrent infections by enteric and influenza viruses. Method A case-control study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Stool specimens were collected and tested for influenza viruses A (seasonal A/H3N2 and pandemic A/H1N1 and B, and for four enteric viruses (astrovirus, group A rotavirus, human enteric adenovirus, norovirus of genogroups I – NoVGI - and genogroup II - NoVGII. Results General practitioners enrolled 138 cases and 93 controls. Of the 138 stool specimens collected, 92 (66.7% were positive for at least one of the four enteric viruses analysed and 10 (7.2% tested positive for one influenza virus. None of these 10 influenza positive patients reported respiratory symptoms. In five influenza-positive patients (3.6%, we also detected one enteric virus, with 4 of them being positive for influenza B (2 had co-detection with NoVGI, 1 with NoVGII, and 1 with astrovirus. None of the 93 controls tested positive for one of the enteric and/or other influenza viruses we investigated. Conclusions In this study we showed that the simultaneous detection of influenza and enteric viruses is not a rare event. We have also reported, for the first time in general practice, the presence of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting for uncomplicated AD. A simultaneous investigation of enteric and influenza viruses in patients complaining of gastrointestinal symptoms could be useful for future studies to better identify the agents responsible for AD.

  20. Assessment of a Flavone-Polysaccharide Based Prescription for Treating Duck Virus Hepatitis.

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    Hongxu Du

    Full Text Available Because polysaccharide and flavone ingredients display good antiviral activity, we developed a flavone/polysaccharide-containing prescription that would be effective against duck viral hepatitis (DVH and investigated its hepatoprotective effects. Flavones were derived from Hypericum japonicum (HJF (entire herb of Hypericum japonicum Thunb and Salvia plebeia (SPF (entire herb of Salvia plebeia R. Br., and polysaccharides were derived from Radix Rehmanniae Recens (RRRP (dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. This prescription combination was based on the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment in traditional Chinese veterinary medicine. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using the three single ingredients compared to the combined HRS prescription to determine their anti-duck hepatitis A viral (anti-DHAV activity. The results showed that all experimental conditions displayed anti-DHAV activity, but the HRS prescription presented the best effect. To further investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the HRS prescription on DHAV-induced hepatic injury, we tested the mortality rate, the hepatic pathological severity score, plasma biochemical indexes of hepatic function, blood DHAV gene expression levels and peroxidation damage evaluation indexes and then analyzed correlations among these indexes. The results demonstrated that the HRS prescription significantly decreased the mortality rate, reduced the severity of hepatic injury, decreased the hepatic pathological severity score, depressed blood DHAV gene expression levels, and returned the indexes of hepatic function and peroxidation almost to a normal level. These results indicate that the HRS prescription confers an outstanding hepatoprotective effect, and we expect that it will be developed into a new candidate anti-DHAV drug.

  1. The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Prado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods used to recover the viruses from these matrices. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (AdV, rotavirus species A (RVA, norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII and the hepatitis A virus (HAV from biosolid samples at a large urban wastewater treatment plant in Brazil after they had been treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for spiking experiments to compare the detection limits of feasible methods, such as beef extract elution and ultracentrifugation. Tests were performed to detect the inhibition levels and the bacteriophage PP7 was used as an internal control. The results showed that the inhibitors affected the efficiency of the PCR reaction and that beef extract elution is a suitable method for detecting enteric viruses, mainly AdV from biosolid samples. All of the viral groups were detected in the biosolid samples: AdV (90%, RVA, NoV GII (45% and HAV (18%, indicating the viruses' resistance to the anaerobic treatment process. This is the first study in Brazil to detect the presence of RVA, AdV, NoV GII and HAV in anaerobically digested sludge, highlighting the importance of adequate waste management.

  2. The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Tatiana; Guilayn, Wilma de Carvalho Pereira Bonet; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods) used to recover the viruses from these matrices. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (AdV), rotavirus species A (RVA), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) from biosolid samples at a large urban wastewater treatment plant in Brazil after they had been treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for spiking experiments to compare the detection limits of feasible methods, such as beef extract elution and ultracentrifugation. Tests were performed to detect the inhibition levels and the bacteriophage PP7 was used as an internal control. The results showed that the inhibitors affected the efficiency of the PCR reaction and that beef extract elution is a suitable method for detecting enteric viruses, mainly AdV from biosolid samples. All of the viral groups were detected in the biosolid samples: AdV (90%), RVA, NoV GII (45%) and HAV (18%), indicating the viruses' resistance to the anaerobic treatment process. This is the first study in Brazil to detect the presence of RVA, AdV, NoV GII and HAV in anaerobically digested sludge, highlighting the importance of adequate waste management. PMID:23440119

  3. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl in 2010 in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jeong Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  4. Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-04-23

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  5. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Youn-Jeong Lee; Jae-Hong Kim; Hee-Soo Lee; Kwang-Il Kim; Byung Min Song; Woo-Jin Jeon; Kang-Seuk Choi; Hyun-Mi Kang; Jun-Gu Choi

    2013-01-01

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the high...

  6. Detection, differentiation, and VP1 sequencing of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and type 3 by a 1-step duplex reverse-transcription PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X J; Cheng, A C; Wang, M S; Jia, R Y; Zhu, D K; Chen, S; Liu, M F; Liu, F; Chen, X Y

    2014-09-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is an infectious pathogen causing fatal duck viral hepatitis in ducklings. Although both the inactivated vaccines and live attenuated vaccines have been used to protect ducklings, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 still cause significant serious damage to the duck industry in China and South Korea. For rapid detection, differentiation, and epidemic investigation of DHAV in China, a genotype-specific 1-step duplex reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay was established in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of the developed RT-PCR assay was evaluated with nucleic acids extracted from 2 DHAV reference strains, and 9 other infectious viruses and bacteria. The genotype-specific primers amplified different size DNA fragments encompassing the complete VP1 gene of the DHAV-1 or DHAV-3. The assay detected the liver samples collected from experimentally infected ducklings and dead ducklings collected from different regions of China. Sequence analysis of these DNA fragments indicated that VP1 sequences of DHAV-1 can be used to distinguish wild type and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences indicated that the developed RT-PCR assay can be used for epidemic investigation of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. The developed RT-PCR assay can be used as a specific molecular tool for simultaneous detection, differentiation, and sequencing the VP1 gene of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, which can be used for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Isolation and analysis of muscovy duck hepatitis virus%雏番鸭病毒性肝炎病毒的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阿娥; 庄培德

    2015-01-01

    Two virus isolates were isolated from dead ducks in Luojiang county. The iso1ated virus caused death of chicken embryos, and was specifically neutralized by anti-duck hepatitis virus type I hyper immune serum. The isolates were passed in chicken embryos and the titers were 10-6.32 ELD50/0.2 mL to 10-5.49ELD50/0.2 mL. Typical clinical signs and pathological changes such as opisthotonos and hepatic hemorrhage were observed when the isolates were inoculated to muscovy ducklings, resulting in 80% to 70% mortality. The resu1ts confirmed that the isolated virus were a duck hepatitis virus serotype I (DHV-I).%从洛江区临床发病鸭分离到2株病毒,2株分离病毒能够致死鸡胚,能被Ⅰ型鸭病毒性肝炎标准强毒高免血清特异性中和。分离毒株在鸡胚上传代培养,并测定ELD50分别为10-6.32/0.2 mL、10-5.49/0.2 mL;经动物回归试验,对1日龄雏番鸭的致死率分别为80%和70%,雏番鸭出现明显的角弓反张姿态,剖检可见肝脏出血斑、出血点,为鸭病毒性肝炎的典型症状,表明分离到的病毒为Ⅰ型鸭病毒性肝炎病毒(DHV-I)。

  8. The Potential of Duck Hepatitis Virus (DHV-1) Stimulating the Body Weight Gain and the Effects of Silymarin on It in Duckling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-min; WANG Bing-yun; CHEN Jian-hong; WANG Jun; JI Hui-qin; YUAN Sheng; HUANG De-chun; LI Kang-lin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of duck hepatitis virus-1 (DHV-1) on the body weight gain in duck and the effects of silymarin on it in vivo, 100 10-d-old ducks, both male and female, were collected to be subjected to the test. The experiments were conducted in 8 groups: in group 1-3, the animals were inoculated with 1:105 diluted duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) infected allantoic fluid and given 0, 30, and 50 mg kg-1 BW d-1 silymarin orally, respectively. In group 4-6, the animals were inoculated with 1:5×105 diluted DHV-1 infected allantoie fluid and given 0, 10, and 30 mg kg-1 BW d-1 silymarin orally, respectively. In group 7, the animals were given 10 mg kg-1 BW d-1 silymarin only. Group 8 was the control one treated by injecting sterillized saline into the leg muscles. All the silymarin was given from 0 to 4 d after inoculation of the virus. By the 5th d after inoculation, the vein blood was drawn from the dorsal foot vein and the plasma samples were collected and stored at -20℃. The body weight gain (BWG) was measured from 0 to 10 d after inoculation. The plasma IGF-I, T3, and T4 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). At the virus dose of 1:5×105 diluted virus infected allantoic fluid, the inoculation of the virus enhanced the BWG significantly compared with that of the control (P< 0.01), while 10-50 mg kg-1 BW d-1 silymarin could counteract the effects of the virus on the BWG dose-dependently. The plasma IGF-I levels showed no correlation with the BWG, but the T3 levels showed a same tropism with the body weight gain. The present results indicated that sublethal DHV-1 enhanced the body weight gain of ducklings significantly, and the silymarin could counteract this effect in vivo.

  9. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafissatou Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263 and without (n = 50 diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%, adenovirus (31.2% and genogroup II norovirus (18.2% were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively. Sapovirus (10.3%, astrovirus (4.9%, genogroup I norovirus (2.7% and Aichivirus A (0.8% were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%, and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%. Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5% predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7% was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C. Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Duck Tembusu Virus from Guangxi%4株广西鸭源坦布苏病毒分离及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 谢芝勋; 谢丽基; 刘加波; 范晴; 庞耀珊; 罗思思; 邓显文; 谢志勤

    2013-01-01

    Four isolates of Duck Tambusu Virus were obtained from SPF chicken embryo and healthy duck embryo by allantoic cavity inoculation. Follicular theca and oviduct of the ducks were collected under aseptic condition,then injected to SPF chicken embryoes and healthy duck embryo by allantoic cavity inoculation. Allantoic fluid was collected from embryoes died after 24 h. After 4 passages,the isolates caused embryoes deaths between 90 and 110 h. Allantoic fluid were PCR positive for Duck Tambusu Virus and negative for other viruses causing egg drop of ducks. Partial E gene of the isolates was amplified, then analyzed and compared with the Tambusu Virus sequences,revealing that there was 99.2%~99.9%nucleotide identity among the 4 isolates,and they had 95.8%~97.64% similarity with other Tambusu Virus isolates from China,86.4%~87.6% with sitiawan and MM1775 from Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 4 isolates were located in an independant sub-branch,suggesting that Duck Tambusu Virus isolates in Guangxi were different from the isolates from other area of China to some extent.%  本实验经尿囊腔接种方式从 SPF 鸡胚和健康鸭胚分离到4株广西鸭源坦布苏病毒。采集4羽病鸭的卵泡膜和输卵管无菌处理后接种 SPF 鸡胚和健康鸭胚。收获24 h 后死亡的鸡胚和鸭胚的尿囊液。所分离到的病毒经传4代后,鸡胚和鸭胚的死亡时间集中在90~110 h 之间。根据 GENBANK 已有的坦布苏病毒序列设计一对特异性引物,结果收获的尿囊液 RT-PCR 产物能扩增出特异性片段,并且排除其他引起鸭产蛋下降的病毒。参照文献用另外一对引物扩增出坦布苏病毒的部分 E 基因序列,比对分析后,这4株鸭源坦布苏病毒之间的核苷酸相似性为99.2%~99.9%,与中国其他坦布苏病毒分离株的相似性介于95.8%~97.64%,与马来西亚分离株 sitiawan 株和 MM1775株相似性介于86.4%~87.6%。绘制系统进化树发现,这4

  11. Abundance and Distribution of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Coastal and Estuarine Sediments-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Francis; Gwyther, Ceri L; Farkas, Kata; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian; Brett, Howard; Jones, Davey L; McDonald, James E; Malham, Shelagh K

    2016-01-01

    The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbor significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g., human cell culture) are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g., norovirus). The release of particle-bound bacteria and viruses into the water column during sediment resuspension also represents a risk to water quality. In conclusion, our poor process level understanding of viral/bacterial-sediment interactions combined with methodological challenges is limiting the accurate source apportionment and quantitative microbial risk assessment for

  12. Assessment of the efficacy of membrane filtration processes to remove human enteric viruses and the suitability of bacteriophages and a plant virus as surrogates for those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Murai, K

    2017-02-24

    Here, we evaluated the efficacy of direct microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) to remove three representative human enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus [AdV] type 40, coxsackievirus [CV] B5, and hepatitis A virus [HAV] IB), and one surrogate of human caliciviruses (i.e., murine norovirus [MNV] type 1). Eight different MF membranes and three different UF membranes were used. We also examined the ability of coagulation pretreatment with high-basicity polyaluminum chloride (PACl) to enhance virus removal by MF. The removal ratios of two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) and a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) were compared with the removal ratios of the human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of these viruses to be used as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The virus removal ratios obtained with direct MF with membranes with nominal pore sizes of 0.1-0.22 μm differed, depending on the membrane used; adsorptive interactions, particularly hydrophobic interactions between virus particles and the membrane surface, were dominant factors for virus removal. In contrast, direct UF with membranes with nominal molecular weight cutoffs of 1-100 kDa effectively removed viruses through size exclusion, and >4-log10 removal was achieved when a membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 1 kDa was used. At pH 7 and 8, in-line coagulation-MF with nonsulfated high-basicity PACls containing Al30 species had generally a better virus removal (i.e., >4-log10 virus removal) than the other aluminum-based coagulants, except for φX174. For all of the filtration processes, the removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV were comparable and strongly correlated with each other. The removal ratios of MS2 and PMMoV were comparable or smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, and were strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. The removal ratios obtained with coagulation-MF for φX174 were markedly smaller than

  13. Duck hepatitis B virus expresses a regulatory HBx-like protein from a hidden open reading frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Netter, H J; Hildt, E; Schuster, R; Schaefer, S; Hsu, Y C; Rang, A; Will, H

    2001-01-01

    Duck hepatitis B viruses (DHBV), unlike mammalian hepadnaviruses, are thought to lack X genes, which encode transcription-regulatory proteins believed to contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. A lack of association of chronic DHBV infection with hepatocellular carcinoma development supports this belief. Here, we demonstrate that DHBV genomes have a hidden open reading frame from which a transcription-regulatory protein, designated DHBx, is expressed both in vitro and in vivo. We show that DHBx enhances neither viral protein expression, intracellular DNA synthesis, nor virion production when assayed in the full-length genome context in LMH cells. However, similar to mammalian hepadnavirus X proteins, DHBx activates cellular and viral promoters via the Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and localizes primarily in the cytoplasm. The functional similarities as well as the weak sequence homologies of DHBx and the X proteins of mammalian hepadnaviruses strongly suggest a common ancestry of ortho- and avihepadnavirus X genes. In addition, our data disclose similar intracellular localization and transcription regulatory functions of the corresponding proteins, raise new questions as to their presumed role in hepatocarcinogenesis, and imply unique opportunities for deciphering of their still-enigmatic in vivo functions.

  14. Newcastle disease virus infection in chicken embryonic fibroblasts but not duck embryonic fibroblasts is associated with elevated host innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Feng, Minsha; Zhao, Xiaqiong; Dai, Xu; Xiang, Bin; Gao, Pei; Li, Yulian; Li, Yanling; Ren, Tao

    2016-03-15

    Chickens and ducks are major hosts of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with distinct responses to infection. However, whereas ducks are generally asymptomatic or exhibit only mild symptoms following NDV infection and are thus regarded as potential long-term reservoirs of the virus, chickens exhibit severe clinical lesions, transient infections and even death due to NDV infection. These differences may in part result from the host innate immune response to NDV infection. To better understand the host innate immune response to NDV infection in avian species, by using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method we examined the messenger RNA expression levels of immune-related genes in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) when infected with NDV of different pathogenicities. Gene expression profiles showed that the expression of IL-1beta, TNF-α-like factor (LITAF) and interferon (IFN)-beta was upregulated in both CEFs and DEFs infected with SS-10 and NH-10 viruses or treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], as well as that expression levels were greater in CEFs than in DEFs. The expression of TLR3, TLR7, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, MHC-I and MHC-II, except for IL-8, were also greater in CEFs than in DEFs in response to infection to both viruses or treatment with poly(I:C). However, unlike moderate virulent NH-10, highly virulent SS-10 induced greater pattern recognition receptors and cytokines, except for IFNs, in CEFs and DEFs. Results show distinct expression patterns of cytokines, Toll-like receptors and IFNs associated with inflammatory immune responses to NDV between species and by virulence.

  15. Enteric virus infection risk from intrusion of sewage into a drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, P F M; Xu, M; Fleming, K K; Yang, J; Moe, C L; Lechevallier, M W

    2010-11-15

    Contaminants from the soil surrounding drinking water distribution systems are thought to not enter the drinking water when sufficient internal pressure is maintained. Pressure transients may cause short intervals of negative pressure, and the soil near drinking water pipes often contains fecal material due to the proximity of sewage lines, so that a pressure event may cause intrusion of pathogens. This paper presents a risk model for predicting intrusion and dilution of viruses and their transport to consumers. Random entry and dilution of virus was simulated by embedding the hydraulic model into a Monte Carlo simulation. Special attention was given to adjusting for the coincidence of virus presence and use of tap water, as independently occurring short-term events within the longer interval that the virus is predicted to travel in any branch of the distribution system. The probability that a consumer drinks water contaminated with virus is small, but when this happens the virus concentration tends to be high and the risk of infection may be considerable. The spatial distribution of infection risk is highly heterogeneous. The presence of a chlorine residual reduces the infection risk.

  16. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P

    1981-01-01

    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not substantially affect the rate of accumulation. An increase in temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C increased the rates of both uptake and removal. Poliovirus survived up to 6 days in crabs at a temperature of 15 degrees C and a salinity of 10 g/kg. When contaminated crabs were boiled, 99.9% of poliovirus 1, simian rotavirus SA11, and a natural isolate of echovirus 1 were inactivated within 8 min. These data demonstrate that viruses in crabs should not pose a serious health hazard if recommended cooking procedures are used. PMID:6261683

  17. Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanuwan, C; Takizawa, S; Oguma, K; Katayama, H; Yunika, A; Ohgaki, S

    2006-01-01

    Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters.

  18. Evidence of expanded host range and mammalian-associated genetic changes in a duck H9N2 influenza virus following adaptation in quail and chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jaber Hossain

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to circulate worldwide; in Asia, H9N2 viruses have caused disease outbreaks and established lineages in land-based poultry. Some H9N2 strains are considered potentially pandemic because they have infected humans causing mild respiratory disease. In addition, some of these H9N2 strains replicate efficiently in mice without prior adaptation suggesting that H9N2 strains are expanding their host range. In order to understand the molecular basis of the interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses, we adapted in the laboratory a wildtype duck H9N2 virus, influenza A/duck/Hong Kong/702/79 (WT702 virus, in quail and chickens through serial lung passages. We carried out comparative analysis of the replication and transmission in quail and chickens of WT702 and the viruses obtained after 23 serial passages in quail (QA23 followed by 10 serial passages in chickens (QA23CkA10. Although the WT702 virus can replicate and transmit in quail, it replicates poorly and does not transmit in chickens. In contrast, the QA23CkA10 virus was very efficient at replicating and transmitting in quail and chickens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the QA23 and QA23CkA10 viruses compared to the WT702 virus indicated several nucleotide substitutions resulting in amino acid changes within the surface and internal proteins. In addition, a 21-amino acid deletion was found in the stalk of the NA protein of the QA23 virus and was maintained without further modification in the QA23CkA10 adapted virus. More importantly, both the QA23 and the QA23CkA10 viruses, unlike the WT702 virus, were able to readily infect mice, produce a large-plaque phenotype, showed faster replication kinetics in tissue culture, and resulted in the quick selection of the K627 amino acid mammalian-associated signature in PB2. These results are in agreement with the notion that adaptation of H9 viruses to land-based birds can lead to strains with expanded host range.

  19. 鸭肝炎病毒GD株的分离与RT-PCR鉴定分析%Isolation and Identification Analysis of Duck Hepatitis Virus GD Strain by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昌力; 魏春娅; 张超轶; 袁镜乐; 刘志彬; 张桂红

    2012-01-01

    In order to complete a duck hepatitis virus (DHV) stain's isolation and sero-genotyping research, the suspected DHV liver from died duckling in Guangdong province was selected as sample, and then was carried on regression analysis, ELD50 determination and duck embryo neutralization test after viral isolation, duck embryo inoculation and purification. The results showed that the serotype of the duck hepatitis virus was type Ⅰ. According to RT-PCR detect and sequence analysis, it was also identified as genetype Ⅰ of DHV. Named the isolated virus strain as GD.%本研究分离了1株鸭肝炎病毒(duck hepatitis virus,DHV),并对其进行了分型研究.取广东某鸭场疑似DHV致死8日龄雏鸭肝脏,肝脏组织处理后经鸭胚接种分离纯化病毒.分离毒株经动物回归试验、ELD5o测定、中和试验等确定为血清Ⅰ型DHV,同时通过RT-PCR检测及序列分析,从基因分型角度也验证分离毒株为DHV-Ⅰ,并将该分离毒命名为GD株.

  20. Genomic and antigenic characterization of the newly emerging Chinese duck egg-drop syndrome flavivirus: genomic comparison with Tembusu and Sitiawan viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peipei; Lu, Hao; Li, Shuang; Moureau, Gregory; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Yongyue; Zhang, Lijiao; Jiang, Tao; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Gould, Ernest A; Su, Jingliang; Gao, George F

    2012-10-01

    Duck egg-drop syndrome virus (DEDSV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus causing avian diseases in China. The infection occurs in laying ducks characterized by a severe drop in egg production with a fatality rate of 5-15 %. The virus was found to be most closely related to Tembusu virus (TMUV), an isolate from mosquitoes in South-east Asia. Here, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length genomes of seven DEDSV strains, including the 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions (NCRs). We also report for the first time the ORF sequences of TMUV and Sitiawan virus (STWV), another closely related flavivirus isolated from diseased chickens. We analysed the phylogenetic and antigenic relationships of DEDSV in relation to the Asian viruses TMUV and STWV, and other representative flaviviruses. Our results confirm the close relationship between DEDSV and TMUV/STWV and we discuss their probable evolutionary origins. We have also characterized the cleavage sites, potential glycosylation sites and unique motifs/modules of these viruses. Additionally, conserved sequences in both 5'- and 3'-NCRs were identified and the predicted secondary structures of the terminal sequences were studied. Antigenic cross-reactivity comparisons of DEDSV with related pathogenic flaviviruses identified a surprisingly close relationship with dengue virus (DENV) and raised the question of whether or not DEDSV may have a potential infectious threat to man. Importantly, DEDSV can be efficiently recognized by a broadly cross-reactive flavivirus mAb, 2A10G6, derived against DENV. The significance of these studies is discussed in the context of the emergence, evolution, epidemiology, antigenicity and pathogenicity of the newly emergent DEDSV.

  1. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the "workhorse" of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease.

  2. Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Duck River flows 290 miles through several major ecoregions before entering the impounded main stem Tennessee River at Sycamore Landing, Tennessee, adjacent to...

  3. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  4. Genetic Variation of the VP1 Gene of the Virulent Duck Hepatitis A Virus Type 1 (DHAV-1) Isolates in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiming Gao; Junhao Chen; Xingkui Si; Zhijing Xie; Yanli Zhu; Xingxiao Zhang; Shujing Wang; Shijin Jiang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of the variation of virulence and the external capsid proteins of the pandemic duck hepatitis A virus type 1(DHAV-1) isolates,the virulence,cross neutralization assays and the complete sequence of the virion protein 1(VP1) gene of nine virulent DHAV-1 strains,which were isolated from infected ducklings with clinical symptoms in Shandong province of China in 2007-2008,were tested.The fifth generation duck embryo allantoic liquids of the 9 isolates were tested on 12-day-old duck embryos and on 7-day-old ducklings for the median embryonal lethal doses(ELD50s) and the median lethal doses(LD50s),respectively.The results showed that the ELD5s of embryonic duck eggs of the 9 DHAV-1 isolates were between 1.9 × 106/mL to 1.44 × 107/mL,while the LD50s were 2.39 × 105/mL to 6.15 × 106/mL.Cross-neutralization tests revealed that the 9 DHAV-1 isolates were completely neutralized by the standard serum and the hyperimmune sera against the 9 DHAV-1 isolates,respectively.Compared with other virulent,moderate virulent,attenuated vaccine and mild strains,the VP1 genes of the 9 strains shared 89.8%-99.7% similarity at the nucleotide level and 92.4%-99.6% at amino acid level with other DHAV-1 strains.There were three hypervariable regions at the C-terminus(as 158-160,180-193 and 205-219) and other variable points in VPI protein,but which didn't cause virulence of DHAV-1 change.

  5. Detection of apoptosis induced by new type gosling viral enteritis virus in vitro through fluorescein annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun Chen; An-Chun Cheng; Ming-Shu Wang; Xi Peng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenesis of new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) and the relationship between NGVEV and host cells.METHODS: The apoptosis of duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) induced by NGVEV was investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and fluorescence microscope after the cells were stained with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI).RESULTS: By staining cells with a combination of fluorescein annexin V-FITC and PI, it is possible to distinguish and quantitatively analyze non-apoptotic cells (Annexin V-FITC negative/PI negative), early apoptotic cells (Annexin V-FITC positive/PI negative),late apoptotic/necrotic cells (Annexin V-FITC positive/PI positive) and dead cells (Annexin V-FITC negative/PI positive) through flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with the incubation time and reached a maximum at 120 h after infection, while the percentage of nonapoptotic cells decreased.CONCLUSION: NGVEV can induce the infected DEF cells to undergo apoptosis and the apoptosis occurs prior to necrosis.

  6. Effect of 2-(a Hydroxybenzyl) Benzimidazole on Teschen Disease Virus, Pig Enteric Viruses, and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kidney Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D; Bachrach, H L

    1964-07-01

    The synthetic compound, 2-((a) hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole (HBB) partially inhibited the cytopathogenicity and multiplication of Teschen disease virus (TDV) and 6 enteric-cytopathogenic porcine orphan (ECPO) viruses in swine cells but not of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in bovine kidney cells. For FMDV, there appeared to be a slight enhancement in virus yield and in cytopathic effect when HBB was present. The inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect and reproduction of TDV and ECPO viruses was related to the concentration of HBB. At the inhibitory level, the compound did not cause any changes in the microscopic structure of pig kidney or bovine kidney cells. The suppression of TDV multiplication was reversed when HBB was removed. The compound did not inactivate TDV or FMDV.

  7. Real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the diagnosis of hemorrhagic enteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yuhao; Xu, Chenggang; Qin, Jianru; Hao, Jianyong; Feng, Min; Tan, Liqiang; Jia, Weixin; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Suspected cases of hemorrhagic enteritis associated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) are becoming more frequent among yellow chickens in the Guangdong Province of China. In this study, we have developed a one-step, ecumenical, real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay for the rapid diagnosis of HEV. The RealAmp assay was performed at 63°C and reduced the assay time to 15min, using a simple and portable device, the ESE-Quant Tube Scanner. The detection limit of DNA was 1fg/μl, and the detection was specific only to HEV. We also used nested PCR to evaluate the application of the RealAmp assay. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 100%. Our data indicated that the RealAmp assay provides a sensitive, specific, and user-friendly diagnostic tool for the identification and quantification of HEV for field diagnosis and in laboratory research.

  8. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Nancy Y; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Rahman, Masmudur M; Barrett, John W; McFadden, Grant

    2010-06-05

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1--low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2--the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3--knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  9. Molecular Evolution and Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein VP1 of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses: Implications for Antigenic Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuli; Sheng, Zizhang; Huang, Bing; Qi, Lihong; Li, Yufeng; Yu, Kexiang; Liu, Cunxia; Qin, Zhuoming; Wang, Dan; Song, Minxun; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, is the major cause of outbreaks with high mortality rates in young ducklings. It has three distinctive serotypes and among them, serotypes 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) were recognized in China. To investigate evolutionary and antigenic properties of the major capsid protein VP1 of these two serotypes, a primary target of neutralizing antibodies, we determined the VP1 coding sequences of 19 DHAV-1 (spanning 2000-2012) and 11 DHAV-3 isolates (spanning 2008-2014) associated with disease outbreaks. By bioinformatics analysis of VP1 sequences of these isolates and other DHAV strains reported previously, we demonstrated that DHAV-1 viruses evolved into two genetic lineages, while DHAV-3 viruses exhibited three distinct lineages. The rate of nucleotide substitution for DHAV-1 VP1 genes was estimated to be 5.57 x 10(-4) per site per year, which was about one-third times slower than that for DHAV-3 VP1 genes. The population dynamics analysis showed an upward trend for infection of DHAV-1 viruses over time with little change observed for DHAV-3 viruses. Antigenic study of representative DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains covering all observed major lineages revealed no detectable changes in viral neutralization properties within the serotype, despite the lack of cross-neutralization between serotypes 1 and 3 strains. Structural analysis identified VP1 mutations in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viruses that underpin the observed antigenic phenotypes. Results of our experiments described here shall give novel insights into evolution and antigenicity of duck picornaviruses.

  10. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since o...

  11. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.

  12. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E;

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...... parvoviruses is discussed....... important implications for the pathogenesis of MEV-induced disease. The data presented on MEV are correlated with earlier results on the other mink parvovirus, Aleutian mink disease parvovirus, and a possible explanation for the remarkable differences in pathogenesis of disease caused by these two...

  13. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyader, Françoise S; Schultz, Anna-Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa; Croci, Luciana; Maunula, Leena; Duizer, Erwin; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Suffredini, Elizabetha; van der Poel, Wim M M; Reymundo, Rosanna; Koopmans, Marion

    2004-10-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid extractions were done at the same time in the same laboratory to reduce assay-to-assay variability. Results showed that the two critical steps are the washing step and removal of inhibitors. The more reliable methods (sensitivity, simplicity, low cost) included an elution/concentration step and a commercial kit. Such development of sensitive methods for viral detection in foods other than shellfish is important to improve food safety.

  14. Abundance and Distribution of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Coastal and Estuarine Sediments—a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Francis; Gwyther, Ceri L.; Farkas, Kata; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian; Brett, Howard; Jones, Davey L.; McDonald, James E.; Malham, Shelagh K.

    2016-01-01

    The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbor significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically <10%), our inability to distinguish between infective and damaged (non-infective) viral particles, aggregation of viral particles, and inhibition during qPCR. This suggests that the true viral titre in sediments may be being vastly underestimated. In turn, this is limiting our ability to understand the fate and transport of viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g., human cell culture) are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g., norovirus). The release of particle-bound bacteria and

  15. Abundance and distribution of enteric bacteria and viruses in coastal and estuarine sediments – a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hassard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The long term survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbour significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically <10%, our inability to distinguish between infective and damaged (non-infective viral particles, aggregation of viral particles, and inhibition during qPCR. This suggests that the true viral titre in sediments may be being vastly underestimated. In turn, this is limiting our ability to understand the fate and transport of viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g. human cell culture are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g. norovirus. The release of particle

  16. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Russell, Robin E; Franson, J Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J; Allen, R Bradford; Nashold, Sean W; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  17. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  18. Characterization of a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus isolated from a migratory duck flying from Siberia in Hokkaido, Japan, in October 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds has spread to more than 60 countries in Eurasia and Africa. It is concerned that HPAIVs may be perpetuated in the lakes in Siberia where migratory water birds nest in summer. To monitor whether HPAIVs circulate in migratory water birds, intensive surveillance of avian influenza has been performed in Mongolia and Japan in autumn each year. Until 2008, there had not been any H5N1 viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in Siberia. In autumn 2009, A/mallard/Hokkaido/24/09 (H5N1 (Mal/Hok/24/09 was isolated from a fecal sample of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos that flew from Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate was assessed for pathogenicity in chickens, domestic ducks, and quails and analyzed antigenically and phylogenetically. Results No clinical signs were observed in chickens inoculated intravenously with Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1. There was no viral replication in chickens inoculated intranasally with the isolate. None of the domestic ducks and quails inoculated intranasally with the isolate showed any clinical signs. There were no multiple basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA of the isolate. Each gene of Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is phylogenetically closely related to that of influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in autumn. Additionally, the antigenicity of the HA of the isolate was similar to that of the viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido that flew from their northern territory in autumn and different from those of HPAIVs isolated from birds found dead in China, Mongolia, and Japan on the way back to their northern territory in spring. Conclusion Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is a non-pathogenic avian influenza virus for chickens, domestic ducks, and quails, and is antigenically and genetically

  19. Isolation and genomic sequence analysis of Duck Tembusu virus%一株鸭坦布苏病毒的分离鉴定及全基因组序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜旺; 张玥; 刘晓丽; 李云霞; 韩宗玺; 邵昱昊; 孔宪刚

    2013-01-01

    During investigations into the outbreak of duck viral infection in 2010 in China,with a severe drop in egg production,a flavivirus was isolated from the affected ducks from Shandong Province.It was characterized as a Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV).In this study,we obtained a complete genome sequence of DTMUV named Du/CH/LSD/110128.Du/CH/LSD/110128 strain contains a single open reading frame(ORF)encoding a polyprotein is comprised of 3 426 amino acids.The different genomic regions of Du/CH/LSD/110128 strain were also compared with those of flaviviruses including Yellow fever virus,Dengue virus,Ilheus virus,West Nile virus,Bagaza virus and other Tembusu viruses.Du/CH/LSD/110128 strain demonstrated the higher similarity to Bagaza virus.The result of entire ORF scanning shows that Du/CH/LSD/110128 was characterized as a new duck Tembusu virus.%2010年我国爆发了使蛋鸭产蛋量急剧下降、由一种鸭黄病毒引起的疾病,通过对来自山东某发病鸭场的病料进行分离,得到实验室分离株Du/CH/LSD/110128.对其进行全基因组序列测定分析,确定该株病毒全基因组含有一个开放阅读框,编码一个由3 426个氨基酸组成的多聚蛋白.将试验测得株Du/CH/LSD/110128株与黄热病毒(Yellow fever virus)、登革热病毒(Dengue virus)、伊利乌斯脑炎病毒(Ilheus virus)、西尼罗病毒(West Nile virus)、巴格扎病毒(Bagaza virus)和其他一些已公布序列的坦布苏病毒进行核酸同源性比较和遗传进化树分析,发现Du/CH/LSD/110128株与巴格扎病毒亲缘关系较近但介于病毒种的水平上,与其他株坦布苏病毒核酸同源性在87%以上,可以确定Du/CH/LSD/110128株属于新型鸭坦布苏病毒(Duck Tembusu virus).

  20. Vulnerability of drinking-water wells in La Crosse, Wisconsin, to enteric-virus contamination from surface water contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, M. A.; Haas, N.L.; Hunt, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Human enteric viruses can contaminate municipal drinking-water wells, but few studies have examined the routes by which viruses enter these wells. In the present study, the objective was to monitor the municipal wells of La Crosse, Wisconsin, for enteric viruses and determine whether the amount of Mississippi River water infiltrating the wells was related to the frequency of virus detection. From March 2001 to February 2002, one river water site and four wells predicted by hydrogeological modeling to have variable degrees of surface water contributions were sampled monthly for enteric viruses, microbial indicators of sanitary quality, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. 18O/ 16O and 2H/1H ratios were used to determine the level of surface water contributions. All samples were collected prior to chlorination at the wellhead. By reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 24 of 48 municipal well water samples (50%) were positive for enteric viruses, including enteroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and noroviruses. Of 12 river water samples, 10 (83%) were virus positive by RT-PCR. Viable enteroviruses were not detected by cell culture in the well samples, although three well samples were positive for culturable HAV. Enteroviruses detected in the wells by RT-PCR were identified as several serotypes of echoviruses and group A and group B coxsackieviruses. None of the well water samples was positive for indicators of sanitary quality, namely male-specific and somatic coliphages, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and fecal enterococci. Contrary to expectations, viruses were found in all wells regardless of the level of surface water contributions. This result suggests that there were other unidentified sources, in addition to surface water, responsible for the contamination.

  1. Pathogenicity and transmission of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) in domestic waterfowl (Pekin ducks and Chinese geese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic ducks and geese are common backyard poultry in many countries, frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, which are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and have played a key role in the spread of Asian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In late 2014, a reassor...

  2. Identification and Sequence Analysis of Tembusu Virus Isolated from White-feather Mule Ducks%白羽半番肉鸭坦布苏病毒的分离鉴定及结构蛋白基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅光华; 陈红梅; 黄瑜; 万春和; 傅秋玲; 程龙飞; 施少华; 林芳; 林建生

    2012-01-01

    A viral isolate (named as ZZ40) was abtained from liver of white-feather mule ducks with irregular hemorrhagic hepatitis, and were identified as duck tembus virus (DTMUV) by RT-PCR. The virus was specifically neutralized by anti-DTMUV hyperimmune serum. Gene fregments were abtained by using three sets of primers aimed at viral structural genes, and shared no less than 99.1% nucleotide sequence identity with those of avian tembus viruses isolated recently, and no more than 88. 6% with that of Mosquito-borne tembus virus MM-1775 strain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ZZ40 strain clustal into the same clade with those duck viruses isolated recently. These results indicated that the white-feather mule ducks in this case was infected with duck tembusu virus, which has no abviously variation in antigenicity compared with those of the early isolates of duck tembusu virus from egg-laying duck.%自肝脏表现不规则出血的白羽半番肉鸭脏器中分离获得1株病毒(命名为ZZ40株),经(RT-) PCR检测为鸭坦布苏病毒,可被鸭坦布苏病毒高免阳性血清特异性中和.应用鸭坦布苏病毒特异性引物从该株病毒基因组中成功获得结构蛋白基因片段,该片段与近年来我国分离的禽源坦布苏病毒株核酸序列同源性均在99.1%以上,而与蚊媒源坦布苏病毒MM-1775株同源性仅为88.6%;分子进化分析表明该株病毒与BYD-1等近年来的鸭坦布苏病毒分离株共处于一个进化分支.以上结果表明,我国白羽半番肉鸭存在坦布苏病毒感染,且该分离毒株的抗原性与我国早期分离于种(蛋)鸭的坦布苏病毒差异不明显.

  3. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P vaccine could be detected in samples collected from multiple tissues at different time points, indicting minimal levels of viral replication. In conclusion, although a minor effect on survival was observed, this study demonstrates

  4. Series of surveys for enteric viruses and indicator organisms in Tokyo Bay after an event of combined sewer overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, H; Okuma, K; Furumai, H; Ohgaki, S

    2004-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) have been recognised as one of the serious sources of pollution to the water environment during rain events, although field surveys to investigate the effect of their magnitude and duration on receiving waters have been very limited. The fates of enteric viruses (norovirus G1, G2, enteroviruses) and coliforms were determined in the wastewater treatment plant on a fine day and on a rainy day. Not all microorganisms were reduced in the primary treatment, but were reduced in the secondary treatment. Occurrences of enteric viruses and levels of coliforms were surveyed in the receiving coastal area after a CSO event, with the profiles of the enteric viruses in the coastal seawater being almost at the same positive ratio for 4 d after the CSO event.

  5. Role of position 627 of PB2 and the multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin in the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens and ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel A Schat

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in domestic and free-living birds with transmission to humans resulting in 59% mortality amongst 564 cases. The mutation of the amino acid at position 627 of the viral polymerase basic-2 protein (PB2 from glutamic acid (E in avian isolates to lysine (K in human isolates is frequently found, but it is not known if this change affects the fitness and pathogenicity of the virus in birds. We show here that horizontal transmission of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 (VN/1203 virus in chickens and ducks was not affected by the change of K to E at PB2-627. All chickens died between 21 to 48 hours post infection (pi, while 70% of the ducks survived infection. Virus replication was detected in chickens within 12 hours pi and reached peak titers in spleen, lung and brain between 18 to 24 hours for both viruses. Viral antigen in chickens was predominantly in the endothelium, while in ducks it was present in multiple cell types, including neurons, myocardium, skeletal muscle and connective tissues. Virus replicated to a high titer in chicken thrombocytes and caused upregulation of TLR3 and several cell adhesion molecules, which may explain the rapid virus dissemination and location of viral antigen in endothelium. Virus replication in ducks reached peak values between 2 and 4 days pi in spleen, lung and brain tissues and in contrast to infection in chickens, thrombocytes were not involved. In addition, infection of chickens with low pathogenic VN/1203 caused neuropathology, with E at position PB2-627 causing significantly higher infection rates than K, indicating that it enhances virulence in chickens.

  6. Effect of green tea extract on enteric viruses and its application as natural sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, W; Falcó, I; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the effect of green tea extract (GTE) was assessed against murine norovirus (MNV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at different temperatures, exposure times and pH conditions. Initially, GTE at 0.5 and 5 mg/ml were individually mixed with each virus at 5 log TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 37 °C at different pHs (from 5.5 to 8.5). GTE affected both viruses depending on pH with higher reductions observed in alkaline conditions. Secondly, different concentrations of GTE (0.5 and 5 mg/ml) were mixed with viral suspensions and incubated for 2 or 16 h at 4, 25 and 37 °C at pH 7.2. A concentration-, temperature- and exposure time-dependent response was showed by GTE in suspension tests, where complete inactivation was achieved after overnight exposure at 37 °C for both viruses and also at 25 °C for HAV. In addition, antiviral effect of GTE proved efficient in the surface disinfection tests since 1.5 log reduction and complete inactivation were recorded for MNV and HAV on stainless steel and glass surfaces treated with 10 mg/ml GTE for 30 min, analyzed in accordance with ISO 13697:2001. GTE was also evaluated as a natural disinfectant of produce, showing 10 mg/ml GTE reduced MNV and HAV titers in lettuce and spinach by more than 1.5 log after 30 min treatment. The results show a potential of GTE as natural disinfectant able to limit enteric viral (cross-)contaminations conveyed by food and food-contact surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultraviolet Devitalization of Eight Selected Enteric Viruses in Estuarine Water 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William F.; Hamblet, Frederick E.; Benton, William H.; Akin, Elmer W.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the devitalization of eight selected enteric viruses suspended in estuarine water was determined. The surviving fractions of each virus were calculated and then plotted against the UV exposure time for purposes of comparison. Analytical assessment of the survival data for each virus consisted of least squares regression analysis for determination of intercepts and slope functions. All data were examined for statistical significance. When the slope function of each virus was compared against the slope function of poliovirus type 1, the analytical findings indicated that poliovirus types 2 and 3, echovirus types 1 and 11, and coxsackievirus A-9 exhibited similar devitalization characteristics in that no statistically significant difference was found (P > 0.05). Conversely, the devitalization characteristics of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 were dissimilar from those of poliovirus type 1 in that a statistically significant difference was found between the slope functions (P < 0.05). This observed difference in devitalization of coxsackievirus B-1 and reovirus type 1 was attributed primarily to the frequency distribution of single and aggregate virions, the geometric configuration, the size of the aggregates, and the severity of aggregation. The devitalization curve of coxsackievirus B-1 was characteristic of a retardant die-away curve. The devitalization curve of reovirus type 1 was characteristic of a multihittype curve. The calculated devitalization half-life values for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3; echovirus types 1 and 11; coxsackievirus types A-9 and B-1; and reovirus type 1 were 2.8, 3.1, 2.7, 2.8, 3.2, 3.1, 4.0, 4.0 sec, respectively. These basic data should facilitate an operative extrapolation of the findings to the applied situation. It was concluded that UV can be highly effective and provide a reliable safety factor in treating estuarine water. Images PMID:4316273

  8. Molecular Characterization of a Bovine Enteric Calicivirus: Relationship to the Norwalk-Like Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. L.; Lambden, P. R.; Günther, H.; Otto, P.; Elschner, M.; Clarke, I. N.

    1999-01-01

    Jena virus (JV) is a noncultivatable bovine enteric calicivirus associated with diarrhea in calves and was first described in Jena, Germany. The virus was serially passaged 11 times in colostrum-deprived newborn calves and caused diarrheal disease symptoms at each passage. The complete JV genome sequence was determined by using cDNA made from partially purified virus obtained from a single stool sample. JV has a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome which is 7,338 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. JV genome organization is similar to that of the human Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), with three separate open reading frames (ORFs) and a 24-nucleotide sequence motif located at the 5′ terminus of the genome and at the start of ORF 2. The polyprotein (ORF 1) consists of 1,680 amino acids and has the characteristic 2C helicase, 3C protease, and 3D RNA polymerase motifs also found in the NLVs. However, comparison of the N-terminal 100 amino acids of the JV polyprotein with those of the group 1 and group 2 NLVs showed a considerable divergence in sequence. The capsid protein (ORF 2) at 519 amino acids is smaller than that of all other caliciviruses. JV ORF 2 was translated in vitro to produce a 55-kDa protein that reacted with postinfection serum but not preinfection serum. Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase sequences indicate that within the Caliciviridae JV is most closely related to the group 1 NLVs. PMID:9847396

  9. White spot syndrome virus enters crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiajun; Li, Fang; Wu, Junjun; Yang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of aquacultured shrimp. However, the mechanism of its entry remains poorly understood. In this study, by analyzing the internalization of WSSV using crayfish hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells, we showed that WSSV virions were engulfed by cell membrane invaginations sharing the features of clathrin-coated pits and then internalized into coated cytoplasmic vesicles. Further investigation indicated that WSSV internalization was significantly inhibited by chlorpromazine (CPZ) but not genistein. The internalized virions were colocalized with endogenous clathrin as well as transferrin which undergoes clathrin-dependent uptake. Preventing endosome acidification by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or chloroquine (CQ) dramatically reduced WSSV entry as well. Moreover, disturbance of dynamin activity or depletion of membrane cholesterol also blocked WSSV uptake. These data indicate that WSSV enters crayfish HPT cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a pH-dependent manner, and membrane cholesterol as well as dynamin is critical for efficient viral entry.

  10. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks.

  11. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Susanne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p p p p p p 

  12. Three-dimensional structure of a protozoal double-stranded RNA virus that infects the enteric pathogen Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Mandy E W; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N; Cardone, Giovanni; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S

    2015-01-15

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Totiviridae members to a group of recently discovered metazoan viruses that includes penaeid shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Moreover, GLV is the only known protozoal dsRNA virus that can transmit efficiently by extracellular means, also like IMNV. In this study, we used transmission electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral image reconstruction to examine the GLV virion at an estimated resolution of 6.0 Å. Its outermost diameter is 485 Å, making it the largest totivirus capsid analyzed to date. Structural comparisons of GLV and other totiviruses highlighted a related "T=2" capsid organization and a conserved helix-rich fold in the capsid subunits. In agreement with its unique capacity as a protozoal dsRNA virus to survive and transmit through extracellular environments, GLV was found to be more thermoresistant than Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1, but no specific protein machinery to mediate cell entry, such as the fiber complexes in IMNV, could be localized. These and other structural and biochemical findings provide a basis for future work to dissect the cell entry mechanism of GLV into a "primitive" (early-branching) eukaryotic host and an important enteric pathogen of humans. Numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella enterica, and Vibrio cholerae, are infected with lysogenic bacteriophages that contribute significantly to bacterial virulence. In line with this phenomenon, several pathogenic protozoa, including Giardia lamblia

  13. Ducks Overboard!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Ingrid; Sheffield, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The authors open this article with a description of an incident that happened in 1992, when 28,800 rubber bath toys (i.e., ducks, frogs, turtles, and beavers) fell off a cargo ship in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. In 2009, these rubber bath toys were still washing ashore on beaches all around the world. This science instruction can be used with…

  14. Quantitative real-time PCR of enteric viruses in influent and effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Giuseppina; Pourshaban, Manoochehr; Iaconelli, Marcello; Muscillo, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of enteric viruses in wastewater, the efficacy of wastewater treatments in eliminating such viruses, and potential health risks from their release into the environment or by recycling of treated wastewaters, are very important issues in environmental microbiology. In this study we performed a quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis of enteric viruses on samples of influents and effluents from 5 wastewater treatment plants in and around Rome. Three epidemiologically important, waterborne enteric viruses were analyzed: adenoviruses, enteroviruses and noroviruses (GI and GII) and compared to classical bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. The concentration of adenoviruses was the highest, in both raw and treated waters. Mean values in influents were ranked as follows: adenovirus > norovirus GI > norovirus GII > enterovirus. In effluents, the ranking was: adenovirus > norovirus GI > enterovirus > norovirus GII. Removal efficiencies ranged from 35% (enterovirus) to 78% (norovirus GI), while removal efficiency for bacterial indicators was up to 99%. Since molecular quantification does not necessarily indicate an actual threat to human health, we proceeded to evaluate the infectivity of enterovirus particles in treated effluents through integrated cell culture and real-time PCR. Infectivity assays detected live virions in treated water, pointing to potential public health risks through the release of these viruses into the environment. A better understanding of viral presence and resistance to sewage purification processes have the potential of contributing to the effective management of risks linked to the recycling of treated wastewater, and its discharge into the environment.

  15. Ⅰ型雏鸭肝炎病毒侵染后鸭组织中ALB基因表达的分析%Analysis of Gene Expression of ALB in Duck Tissues Infected Duck Hepatitis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀; 段修军; 陈国宏; 毕瑜林; 徐琪; 赵文明; 张扬; 陈昌义; 陈阳; 黄正洋; 甄霆

    2012-01-01

    检测Ⅰ型雏鸭肝炎病毒侵染后ALB基因mRNA以及ALB蛋白分别在肝脏、脾脏、肺脏、肾脏、大脑、小脑、腿肌和胸腺等组织中的相对表达量和含量并分析其意义.分别利用实时荧光定量RT-PCR技术和ELISA法检测ALB基因在易感组、抗病组和对照组各组织中mRNA的表达量以及ALB蛋白含量.总体而言,除腿肌外,ALB基因mRNA在易感组中的表达量极显著低于对照组和抗病组(P<0.01),抗病组显著或极显著低于对照组(P<0.01或P<0.05);各处理组间,肝、小脑和胸腺中ALB蛋白含量与ALB基因mRNA相对表达量规律一致,在其他组织中,各处理组间ALB蛋白含量差异均不显著(P>0.05).RT-PCR与ELISA的结果比较可见,两者在肝脏、胸腺、小脑等与雏鸭肝炎病直接相关的指示性组织中表现一致.本试验研究结果,进一步揭示了ALB基因为Ⅰ型雏鸭肝炎病的抗性基因,与前期抑制性消减杂交法得到的结果一致,其表达量的变化可以作为区分易感鸭和抗病鸭的标志.%This research tried to detect the relative expression level of mRNA and protein of ALB gene in livers, pancreases, lungs, kidneys, cerebra, cerebella, leg muscles and thymuses infected by duckling hepatitis virus (DHV-1). The expression level of ALB gene and the content of ALB protein of control group, susceptible group and resistant group were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA techniques. Generally speaking, except in leg muscles, the expression level of ALB gene's mRNA in susceptible group was highly significantly less than those in control group and resistant group (P 0. 05). It was showed that the results of RT-PCR and ELISA techniques had the same results in the indicative tissues directly connecting with duck hepatitis such as livers, thymuses, cerebella, etc. This research gets the same results as those using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and makes a further step to reveal that ALB

  16. Quantification of enteric viruses, pathogen indicators, and Salmonella bacteria in class B anaerobically digested biosolids by culture and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-10-01

    The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 10(4) MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.

  17. In vitro and in vivo characterization of chimeric duck Tembusu virus based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Jiang; Liu, Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a newly identified flavivirus, has rapidly spread to China, Malaysia and Thailand. The potential threats to public health have been well-highlighted; however its virulence and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, by using reverse genetics, a recombinant chimeric DTMUV based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 was obtained by substituting the corresponding prM and E genes (named ChinDTMUV). In vitro characterization demonstrated that ChinDTMUV replicated efficiently in mammalian cells with small-plaque phenotype in comparison with its parental viruses. Mouse tests showed ChinDTMUV exhibited avirulent phenotype in terms of neuroinvasiveness, while it retained neurovirulence from its parental virus DTMUV. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDTMUV was evidenced to elicit robust IgG and neutralizing antibody responses in mice. Overall, we successfully developed a viable chimeric DTMUV, and these results provide a useful platform for further investigation of the pathogenesis of DTMUV and development of a live attenuated DTMUV vaccine candidate.

  18. MHC class I molecules are enriched in caveolae but do not enter with simian virus 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1998-06-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) binds to MHC class I molecules anywhere on the cell surface and then enters through caveolae. The fate of class I molecules after SV40 binding is not known. Sensitivity of 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules to papain cleavage was used to distinguish internalized class I molecules from class I molecules remaining at the cell surface. Whereas the caveolae-enriched membrane microdomain was found to also be enriched for class I molecules, no internalized papain-resistant 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules could be detected at any time in either control cells or in cells preadsorbed with saturating amounts of SV40. Instead, 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules, as well as preadsorbed 125I-labelled anti-class I antibodies, accumulated in the medium, coincident with the turnover of class I molecules at the cell surface. The class I heavy chains that accumulated in the medium were truncated and their release was specifically prevented by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. Thus, whereas class I molecules mediate SV40 binding, they do not appear to mediate SV40 entry.

  19. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazari-Hiriart Marisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  20. 血清3型鸭甲型肝炎病毒阳性血清的制备%Preparation of Positive Serum against Serum Type 3 Duck Hepatitis A Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆歌; 肖爱芳; 李晶梅; 祝春花; 李建; 朱薇; 廖园园; 漆世华; 谢红玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a positive serum for the differential diagnosis of duck hepatitis A virus, SPF chickens were inoculated with serum type 3 duck hepatitis vaccine, and a series of tests have been done for the serum acquired form those immune SPF chickens, including sterility test, mycoplasma test, specific test, and neutralization titer test. The results showed that the antiserum was specific for the serum type 3 duck hepatitis A virus, without 13 types of avian common exogenous virus antibody, and free of bacterial and mycoplasma contamination, the neutralization titer was as high as 10-2.8 . The research provided material for serological identification and related research of duck hepatitis A virus.%通过使用血清3型鸭甲型肝炎疫苗免疫SP F鸡,制备了一批血清3型鸭甲型肝炎诊断用阳性血清,并对其进行了无菌、支原体和特异性检验以及中和效价测定。结果表明,该血清无菌检验合格,无支原体污染,特异性良好,无禽类常见13种外源病毒抗体,血清中和效价为10-2.8。本研究为鸭甲型肝炎病毒血清学鉴定及相关研究提供了重要的物质基础。

  1. Stable non-synonymous substitutions on NS gene (NS1 and NS2 proteins) of Qinghai lake H5N1 influenza virus (Clade 2.2) after successive passages in Muscovy ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; F.

    2009-01-01

    Although worldwide concern has been raised since the large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds at Qinghai Lake,China in 2005,the factors responsible for the ability to kill waterfowl remain unclear. The why and how questions of the H5N1 virus species-jump into its reservoir host need to be answered. In this report we test the pathogenicity and adaptation of Qinghai Lake (Clade 2.2) isolate to Muscovy ducks for further understanding of this virus. The isolate was highly pathogenic in ducks and retained its high pathogenicity even after 20 generations of passage in ducks. During the process of serial passages,only the NS gene developed non-synonymous substitutions,which caused two mutations in NS1 protein (Val23Ala and Leu207Pro) and one in NS2 (Phe55Leu). These mutations persisted immutably through all subsequent passages and the pathogenicity remained high,implying that highly pathogenic H5N1 virus remains stable in aquatic birds through oral transmission. Although the exact functions of these mutations are not known,our results provide an important foundation for further understanding the characteristics of the Qinghai Lake isolates.

  2. Stable non-synonymous substitutions on NS gene (NS1 and NS2 proteins) of Qinghai lake H5N1 influenza virus (Clade 2.2) after successive passages in Muscovy ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG XiaoHui; HUANG Yu; XIAO HaiXia; LIU Di; GAO George F.

    2009-01-01

    Although worldwide concern has been raised since the large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds at Qinghai Lake, China in 2005, the factors responsible for the ability to kill watertowl remain unclear. The why and how questions of the H5N1 virus species-jump into its reservoir host need to be answered. In this report we test the pathogenicity and adaptation of Qinghai Lake (Clade 2.2) isolate to Muscovy ducks for further understanding of this virus. The isolate was highly pathogenic in ducks and retained its high pathogenicity even after 20 generations of passage in ducks. During the process of serial passages, only the NS gene developed non-synonymous substitutions, which caused two mutations in NSl protein (Va123Ala and Leu207Pro) and one in NS2 (Phe55Leu). These mutations persisted immutably through all subsequent passages and the pathogenicity remained high, implying that highly pathogenic H5N1 virus remains stable in aquatic birds through oral transmission. Although the exact functions of these mutations are not known, our results provide an important foundation for further understanding the characteristics of the Qinghai Lake isolates.

  3. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the prevalence of enteric viruses in the final effluents of two peri-urban wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onele Gcilitshana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of enteric viruses in the final effluents of two peri-urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Amathole District Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from September 2012 to August 2013. Methods: Water samples were collected monthly from the final effluents of the selected WWTPs (WWTP-K and WWTP-R located in Komga and East London, respectively in Amathole District Municipality for a period of 12 months between September 2012 and August 2013. RTPCR was used for the detection of adenoviruses (AdV, rotaviruses and hepatitis A virus while conventional PCR was used to delineate all detected viruses into their serotypes using specific primer sets. Results: None of the viruses were detected in samples from WWTP-R. In effluent samples from WWTP-K, rotaviruses were detected in 58% (7/12 of the samples in concentrations ranging from 1.7 × 104 to 2.3 × 106 genome copies/L while AdV and hepatitis A virus were detected in 17% (2/12 of the samples in concentrations ranging from 4.5 × 10 to 2.8 × 102 and 2.3 × 10 to 7.1 × 10 genome copies/L, respectively. Molecular characterization of AdV positive samples showed the presence of species B, species C and species F (AdV41 from the May and June 2013 samples. Conclusions: Detection of enteric viruses in final effluents reflects the inability of WWTPs to completely remove viruses from final effluents and the likelihood of contaminating receiving watersheds with potentially virulent viral particles, which may pose a serious health risk to people directly utilizing such water either for consumption or full contact purposes.

  5. Assessment and Evaluation of an Integrated Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Sewage Treatment System for the Removal of Enteric Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Senousy, Waled Morsy; Abou-Elela, Sohair Imam

    2017-02-14

    The capability of a cost-effective and a small size decentralized pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to remove enteric viruses such as rotavirus, norovirus genogroup I (GGI), norovirus genogroup II (GGII), Hepatitis E virus (HEV), and adenovirus was studied. This pilot plant is an integrated hybrid anaerobic/aerobic setup which consisted of anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), biological aerated filter (BAF), and inclined plate settler (IPS). Both the UASB and BAF are packed with a non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF). Results indicated that the overall log10 reductions of enteric viruses' genome copies through the whole system were 3.1 ± 1, 3.3 ± 0.5, and 2.6 ± 0.9 log10 for rotavirus, norovirus GGI, and adenovirus, respectively. Reduction efficiency for both norovirus GGII and HEV after the different treatment steps could not be calculated because there were no significant numbers of positive samples for both viruses. The overall reduction of rotavirus infectious units through the whole system was 2.2 ± 0.8 log10 reduction which is very close to the overall log10 reduction of adenovirus infectious units through the whole system which was 2.1 ± 0.8 log10 reduction. There was no considerable difference in the removal efficiency for different rotavirus G and P types. Adenovirus 41 was the only type detected in the all positive samples. Although the pilot WWTP investigated is cost effective, has a small footprint, does not need a long distance network pipes, and easy to operate, its efficiency to remove enteric viruses is comparable with the conventional centralized WWTPs.

  6. Duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in North American Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Leibovitz, L.; Herman, C.M.; Walker, J.W.

    1968-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the status of DVE among wild waterfowl in North America and describes some of the characteristic lesions associated with this disease. The paper also mentions some of the work which has been undertaken to learn more about the status of DVE in North America.

  7. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-01-01

    To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  8. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  9. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G

    2017-03-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  10. Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kenneth R; Borchardt, Mark A; Gotkowitz, Madeline; Spencer, Susan K; Zhu, Jun; Hunt, Randall J

    2013-05-07

    Until recently, few water utilities or researchers were aware of possible virus presence in deep aquifers and wells. During 2008 and 2009 we collected a time series of virus samples from six deep municipal water-supply wells. The wells range in depth from approximately 220 to 300 m and draw water from a sandstone aquifer. Three of these wells draw water from beneath a regional aquitard, and three draw water from both above and below the aquitard. We also sampled a local lake and untreated sewage as potential virus sources. Viruses were detected up to 61% of the time in each well sampled, and many groundwater samples were positive for virus infectivity. Lake samples contained viruses over 75% of the time. Virus concentrations and serotypes observed varied markedly with time in all samples. Sewage samples were all extremely high in virus concentration. Virus serotypes detected in sewage and groundwater were temporally correlated, suggesting very rapid virus transport, on the order of weeks, from the source(s) to wells. Adenovirus and enterovirus levels in the wells were associated with precipitation events. The most likely source of the viruses in the wells was leakage of untreated sewage from sanitary sewer pipes.

  11. Savory and Crisp Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A force-fed duck (fat and tender), cloves, cinnamon, dried tangerine peel, spice, soy sauce, cooking wine. Directions: 1. Clean the duck, take out the internal organs. 2. Soak the duck in a marinade of cloves, cinnamon, dried tangerine and spice, then add soy sauce and cooking wine to the marinade and let stand for three hours.

  12. Establishment of indirect ELISA for Type I duck hepatitis virus%I型鸭肝炎病毒间接ELISA方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤萍; 高骏; 胡建华; 王胜昌; 高诚

    2011-01-01

    采用I型鸭肝炎病毒通过SPF鸡胚进行病毒培养和增殖,反复冻融后离心- 0.22 μm滤膜过滤-差速离心-蔗糖密度梯度离心法纯化后作为ELISA包被抗原,建立了鸭病毒性肝炎-I型病毒全病毒间接ELISA诊断方法.试验表明:此方法具有敏感性高、特异性好的优点,为快速诊断鸭病毒性肝炎-I型病毒感染提供了一条方便的途径.%Type I duck hepatitis virus(DHV-I) was proliferated with SPF chick embryos through the chick embryo allantoic sac inoculation. After multiple freeze-thaw cycles the collection of proliferated embryo allantoic fluid was purified through 0.22μm membrane filtration,differential centrifuga-tion and sucrose density gradient centrifugation(SDGC) ,and then used as the ELISA coating antigen. And thus an indirect ELISA for DHV-I was established. The comparative tests showed that this method has high sensitivity and good specificity and offers a convenient way to rapidly detect DHV-I infection.

  13. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt;

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  14. Report on waterborne diseases: The polymerase chain reaction for the identification of enteric viruses in water; Rapporto sulle malattie infettive di origine idricamerizzazione a catena per l`identificazione dei virus enterici nell`acqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscillo, M.; La Rosa, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1995-12-01

    A variety of human infectious diseases are associated with the pollution of water by enteric viruses. The epidemiological data on cases associated with drinking and recreational water show Norwalk, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus and enteroviruses as the etiological agents. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is certainly the most reliable technique available for the rapid identification of these viruses in water samples.

  15. Zhangcha Duck (Spiced and Smoked Duck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Preparation: Buy a ready cooked Zhangcha Duck—a kind of duck stewed in sugar, spiced with tea leaves and smoked, which can be bought at the takeout departments of many Chinese restaurants. Bring the duck home and fry in oil until the skin is crisp. Slice thickly and serve with steamed bread, sliced

  16. 鸭肝炎病毒的分离鉴定及其理化和生物学特性初步研究%Isolation and identification of duck hepatitis virus and its physical-chemical and biological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金文; 苗立中; 王艳; 肖跃强; 王金良; 沈志强

    2011-01-01

    通过鸡胚尿囊腔接种,对山东省滨州地区采集的死于疑似鸭病毒性肝炎(DVH)的病鸭肝组织进行病原分离,获得1株病毒.动物试验结果表明,该病毒分离株的致死率高达80%.经过临床症状观察、剖检病理变化、理化特性试验、中和试验、RT-PCR鉴定和动物致病性试验等鉴定为Ⅰ型鸭肝炎病毒(DHV),命名为BZ-Ⅰ株.该研究为有效预防DVH提供了较为有用的试验数据.%A strain of virus was isolated from suspected duck hepatitis virus (DHV) in duckling liver samples through chicken embryo allantoic sac inoculation. The sample was collected from ducklings diagnosed clinically dying from duck virus hepatitis on the duck farm in Binzhou county of Shandong province in China. Animal test indicated that the death rate was 80%. The virus strain was identified as DHV serotype I and named as DHV BZ-I strain by observation of clinical performance and the tests results of pathological examination, physi1cal-chemical characteristics, neutralization, RT-PCR, and animal pathogenicity. This study could provide a useful data for effective prevention of DVH.

  17. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  18. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stevenson, Mark; Yulianto, Didik; Priyono, Walujo; Meers, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period.

  20. Occurrence of human enteric viruses at freshwater beaches during swimming season and its link to water inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-02-15

    Human enteric viruses are significant etiological agents for many recreational waterborne illnesses. The occurrence and density of human enteric viruses such as human adenovirus (HAdV), human enterovirus (HEnV), and human norovirus genogroups I/II (HNoV GI/GII) were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at freshwater beaches along with monitoring fecal indicators and environmental parameters. During the 2009 swimming season, water samples were collected from three inland freshwater beaches in Ohio, USA. Of the total samples, 40% (26/65) and 17% (11/65) were positive for HAdV and HEnV respectively, but HNoV GI/GII were not detected. There was no significant association among the detected human enteric viruses (HAdV and HEnV) and fecal bacteria indicators (Escherichia coli and Bacteroides) by Spearman correlation and principal component analyses. Logistic regression analysis also revealed that the odds of finding HAdV or HEnV was not influenced by levels of fecal bacteria indicators. However, there was a 14-fold increase in the odds of HEnV detection for each 1-log increase in daily water inflow (m(3)/s) into freshwater beach reservoirs (adjusted odds ratio=14.2; 95% confidence interval=1.19-171). In summary, the viral occurrence at the freshwater beaches was not readily explained by the levels of fecal bacteria indicators, but appeared to be more related to water reservoir inflows. These results suggest that hydrological data must be considered in future epidemiology efforts aimed at characterizing beach water safety.

  1. Infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells transmit latent varicella zoster virus infection to the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Wang, Mingli; Chen, Jason J; Gershon, Michael D; Gershon, Anne A

    2014-10-01

    Latent wild-type (WT) and vaccine (vOka) varicella zoster virus (VZV) are found in the human enteric nervous system (ENS). VZV also infects guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro, establishes latency and can be reactivated. We therefore determined whether lymphocytes infected in vitro with VZV secrete infectious virions and can transfer infection in vivo to the ENS of recipient guinea pigs. T lymphocytes (CD3-immunoreactive) were preferentially infected following co-culture of guinea pig or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with VZV-infected HELF. VZV proliferated in the infected T cells and expressed immediate early and late VZV genes. Electron microscopy confirmed that VZV-infected T cells produced encapsulated virions. Extracellular virus, however, was pleomorphic, suggesting degradation occurred prior to release, which was confirmed by the failure of VZV-infected T cells to secrete infectious virions. Intravenous injection of WT- or vOka-infected PBMCs, nevertheless, transmitted VZV to recipient animals (guinea pig > human lymphocytes). Two days post-inoculation, lung and liver, but not gut, contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4, 40, 66 and 67. Twenty-eight days after infection, gut contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4 and 66 but neither DNA nor transcripts could any longer be found in lung or liver. In situ hybridization revealed VZV DNA in enteric neurons, which also expressed ORF63p (but not ORF68p) immunoreactivity. Observations suggest that VZV infects T cells, which can transfer VZV to and establish latency in enteric neurons in vivo. Guinea pigs may be useful for studies of VZV pathogenesis in the ENS.

  2. Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222...

  3. Biophysical properties of a non-cultivable 29-nm enteric virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E L; Martin, M L; Hatch, M H; Gary, G W

    1979-09-01

    A 29 nm non-cultivable virus (NCV) was detected in faecal extracts from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. The NCV had a density of 1.35 g/ml in glycerol-potassium tartrate density gradients and was resistant to degradation by proteolytic enzymes, non-ionic detergents and pH extremes. The surface of these virus particles had knob-like projections which appeared to have a symmetrical arrangement. When heated to 56 degrees C, the virus was completely degraded to soluble components which could not be seen by electron microscopy.

  4. The prevalence of enteric RNA viruses in stools from diarrheic and non-diarrheic people in southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Danielle; Inglis, G Douglas; Boras, Valerie F; Brassard, Julie; Houde, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Southwestern Alberta is a region of Canada that has high rates of enteritis as well as high densities of livestock. The presence of enteric RNA viruses, specifically norovirus (NoV) GI, GII, GIII, GIV; sapovirus (SaV); rotavirus (RV); and astrovirus (AstV), was evaluated in stools from diarrheic (n = 2281) and non-diarrheic (n = 173) people over a 1-year period in 2008 and 2009. Diarrheic individuals lived in rural (46.6 %) and urban (53.4 %) settings and ranged in age from less than 1 month to 102 years, and the highest prevalence of infection in these individuals was in November. In all, viruses were detected in diarrheic stools from 388 individuals (17.0 %). NoV GII was the most frequently detected virus (8.0 %; n = 182) followed by SaV (4.3 %; n = 97), RV (2.0 %; n = 46), AstV (1.8 %; n = 42), NoV GI (0.9 %; n = 20), and NoV GIV (0.1 %; n = 1). Animal NoV GIII was never detected. The prevalence of mixed viral infections in diarrheic individuals was 2.8 % (n = 11). Children from 1 to 5 years of age accounted for the highest prevalence of positive stools, followed by the elderly individuals (≥70 years). Only NoV GII (1.2 %; n = 2) and SaV (1.2 %; n = 2) were detected in stools from non-diarrheic people. Sequence analysis of a subset of stools revealed homology to NoV, SaV and RV sequences from humans but not to strains from non-human animals. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that viruses of animal origin have a significant impact on the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis caused by RNA enteric viruses in people living in southwestern Alberta.

  5. Rapid Detection of Duck Tembusu Virus Antibody by Latex Agglutination Test%乳胶凝集试验方法在检测鸭坦布苏病毒抗体中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万春和; 傅秋玲; 陈珍; 傅光华; 施少华; 程龙飞; 陈红梅; 黄瑜

    2013-01-01

    以经超速和密度梯度离心浓缩纯化的鸭坦布苏病毒抗原进行方阵滴定,筛选出致敏乳胶的最佳条件,并制备成鸭坦布苏病毒乳胶凝集试验(LAT)用抗原,与特异性的鸭坦布苏病毒阳性血清反应出现肉眼可见的凝集颗粒,进而建立检测鸭坦布苏病毒抗体的乳胶凝集试验方法。经试验测定该致敏的抗原与鸭流感病毒阳性血清、鸭副粘病毒阳性血清、鸭肝炎病毒阳性血清、鸭产蛋综合症病毒阳性血清和鸭呼肠孤病毒阳性血清均不出现凝集现象,表明具有良好的特异性。以建立的LAT 方法和间接 ELISA同时分别对80份鸭血清进行检测,结果LAT方法检出阳性58份、阴性22份,而间接 ELISA 方法检出阳性68份、阴性12份,两者阳性符合率达85.3%。以上结果表明,本方法具有简便、快速、特异等优点,可用于临床样品的快速诊断和血清流行病学调查。%Duck tembusu viruses were cultivated and concentrated by ultracentrifugation and density-gradient centrifugation to determine the best suitable conditions for sensitized latex and prepare antigen for the latex agglutination test (LAT) by titration .The agglutination particles could be observed clearly by naked eyes after antigen reaction with positive duck tembusu virus serum .The sensitized antigen had no cross-reaction with avian influenza virus , avian paramyxovirus type 1 , duck hepatitis virus type 1 , egg drop syndrome virus , and duck reovirus .Of 80 duck serums , 58 and 68 were detected to be positive by the established LAT and ELISA , respectively ;the positive rates for both were above 85.3% with no statistical difference .The results revealed that the established LAT was simple ,quick and specific for the rapid diagnose and survey of duck tembusu virus antibody .

  6. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks...

  7. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batch 324NC Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  8. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks...

  9. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batch 324NC Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  10. A single method for recovery and concentration of enteric viruses and bacteria from fresh-cut vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2012-01-03

    Fresh-cut vegetables are prone to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens during growth, harvest, transport and further processing and handling. As most of these products are generally eaten raw or mildly treated, there is an increase in the number of outbreaks caused by viruses and bacteria associated with fresh vegetables. Foodborne pathogens are usually present at very low levels and have to be concentrated (i.e. viruses) or enriched (i.e. bacteria) to enhance their detection. With this aim, a rapid concentration method has been developed for the simultaneous recovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NV), murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for NV, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Initial experiments focused on evaluating the elution conditions suitable for virus release from vegetables. Finally, elution with buffered peptone water (BPW), using a Pulsifier, and concentration by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation were the methods selected for the elution and concentration of both, enteric viruses and bacteria, from three different types of fresh-cut vegetables by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers. The average recoveries from inoculated parsley, spinach and salad, were ca. 9.2%, 43.5%, and 20.7% for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. Detection limits were 132 RT-PCR units (PCRU), 1.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID₅₀), and 6.6 TCID₅₀ for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. This protocol resulted in average recoveries of 57.4%, 64.5% and 64.6% in three vegetables for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella with corresponding detection limits of 10³, 10² and 10³ CFU/g, respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the procedure herein is suitable to recover, detect and quantify enteric viruses and foodborne pathogenic bacteria within 5 h and can be applied for the simultaneous detection of both types of foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut vegetables.

  11. 鸭坦布苏病毒抗体间接ELISA检测方法的建立%Establishment of an indirect ELISA for detection of antibody against duck Tembusu virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬希文; 闫丽萍; 颜丕熙; 李国新; 张七斤; 李泽君

    2011-01-01

    为建立快速检测鸭坦布苏病毒(DTV)的血清学方法,本研究利用纯化的DTV奉贤株(FX2010)作为包被抗原,建立了检测DTV血清抗体的间接ELISA方法,并且对各种检测条件进行了优化.优化后确定的抗原最适包被浓度为1.675 μg/孔,抗原最佳包被条件为37℃放置2h后,4℃下过夜,血清的最佳稀释度为1:200,酶标抗体最适稀释度为1∶2 000.在优化条件下,阴阳性临界值判定标准为0.432.用建立的间接ELISA方法对禽流感病毒、新城疫病毒、网状内皮增生病病毒、I型鸭肝炎病毒、呼肠孤病毒、禽白血病病毒阳性血清进行了检测,均无交叉反应,表明该方法具有良好的特异性.批内和批间重复试验的最大变异系数分别为2.9%和3.9%,显示该方法具有很好的稳定性.用间接ELISA方法对140份疑似鸭坦布苏病血清样品进行检测,有108份样品呈现阳性,而琼扩试验只有32份呈阳性结果,而且用该方法检测的阳性样品包括了琼扩试验的阳性样品,证明该方法具有较高的敏感性和特异性.本研究快速检测DTV抗体间接ELISA的建立为该病的诊断和流行病学调查提供了新的方法.%An indirect ELISA was established for rapid detection of antibodies against duck Tembusu virus (DTV) using purified DTV (FX2010 isolate) as coating antigen. The reaction conditions were optimized, including 1.675 jig/well coating antigen of purified the virus, 1:200 dilution of testing serum and 1 -2 000 dilution of HRP conjugated anti-duck IgG with cut off-value of 0.432 (OD450nm). The specific tests showed that there were no cross-reaction to the anti-sera against avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, duck hepatitis virus-I, reovirus and avian leukemia virus, which indicated that the ELISA was specific to anti-sera against DTV. The intra- and inter-assay demonstrated that the coefficient of maximum variation was 2.9% and 3.9% respectively

  12. Cryptic Protein Priming Sites in Two Different Domains of Duck Hepatitis B Virus Reverse Transcriptase for Initiating DNA Synthesis In Vitro▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, Rajeev K.; Lin, Li; Zhu, Qin; Tian, Fang; Hu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of reverse transcription in hepadnaviruses is accomplished by a unique protein-priming mechanism whereby a specific Y residue in the terminal protein (TP) domain of the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) acts as a primer to initiate DNA synthesis, which is carried out by the RT domain of the same protein. When separate TP and RT domains from the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) RT protein were tested in a trans-complementation assay in vitro, the RT domain could also serve, unexpectedly, as a protein primer for DNA synthesis, as could a TP mutant lacking the authentic primer Y (Y96) residue. Priming at these other, so-called cryptic, priming sites in both the RT and TP domains shared the same requirements as those at Y96. A mini RT protein with both the TP and RT domains linked in cis, as well as the full-length RT protein, could also initiate DNA synthesis using cryptic priming sites. The cryptic priming site(s) in TP was found to be S/T, while those in the RT domain were Y and S/T. As with the authentic TP Y96 priming site, the cryptic priming sites in the TP and RT domains could support DNA polymerization subsequent to the initial covalent linkage of the first nucleotide to the priming amino acid residue. These results provide new insights into the complex mechanisms of protein priming in hepadnaviruses, including the selection of the primer residue and the interactions between the TP and RT domains that is essential for protein priming. PMID:21593164

  13. 鸭瘟强毒株和疫苗株对雏鸭IFN-γ基因表达的影响%Dynamics of IFN-γ mRNA Expression in Ducks Induced by Duck Plague Virus and Attenuated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秀兰; 杨发龙; 李阳友; 马小明; 岳华

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨不同毒力的鸭瘟病毒(DPV)感染对雏鸭INF-γ mRNA表达水平的影响,为DPV的感染与免疫机制提供理论依据.应用实时荧光定量PCR技术,对接种了鸭瘟强毒株和疫苗株的雏鸭肝脏及外周血淋巴细胞(PBL)中IFN-γmRNA的表达水平及鸭瘟病毒(DPV)的荷载量进行动态定量监测.结果表明:①感染鸭瘟强毒后,IFN-γ mRNA在肝脏中的表达没有明显规律,PBL中IFN-γ mRNA表达水平很高,在此期间(1~12 h),病毒DNA量很少.IFN-γ mRNA表达量在6h后大幅下降,直到144 h都非常低,而病毒的载量逐渐增大,至144 h时达到峰值.②接种弱毒疫苗后,肝脏中IFN-γ mRNA表达水平较高且稳定,至12 h达到顶峰,约比对照高出8倍.PBL中IFN-γ mRNA表达量较低且不稳定.弱毒DNA荷载量稳定上升,但载量约比强毒低两个数量级.病毒DNA在PBL检测不到.IFN-γ在抵抗鸭瘟强毒中发挥了重要作用;IFN-γ在肝脏中高水平的表达可能是鸭瘟疫苗的免疫机制之一.%To understand the mechanisms of DPV infection and immunity,the IFN-γ mRNA expression was investigated after infection with virulent and attenuated duck plague virus. The mRNA levels of IFN-γ in liver and PBL were evaluated dynamically after inoculation with virulent and attenuated DPV respectively by real-time PCR. The virus loads were also assessed. Results:①After infection by virulent DPV, IFN-γ mRNA levels in liver didn't show regulatory changes while high level of IFN-γ mRNA levels in PBL and few virus DNA could be detected in the early stage of infection (1-12 h). IFN-γ mRNA expression decreased dramatically after 6 h post infection and persisted in a very low level until death (144 h). Virus load increased gradually and reached peak at 144 h. ②After vaccination with attenuated DPV strain, there were persist and high levels of IFN-γ mRNA expression in liver, reached peak at 12 h (8 times higher than control). While the level-in PBL was

  14. Presence, infectivity, and stability of enteric viruses in seawater: Relationship to marine water quality in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetz, J.J.; Lipp, E.K.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lukasik, J.; Wait, D.; Sobsey, M.D.; Scott, T.M.; Rose, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about the presence of enteric viruses in the surface waters of the Florida Keys prompted analyses of virus stability and persistence in these waters. In an in vitro study we evaluated the survival of poliovirus and stability of viral RNA in filtered natural seawater (FSW), unfiltered natural seawater (USW), artificial seawater (ASW) and DI water. This study compared cell culture infectivity with direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Attenuated poliovirus was seeded in the above water types and incubated in the dark at 22 and 30??C for 60 days. At 22??C, enhanced poliovirus survival and enhanced detection of viral RNA was observed in the seeded DI water control, artificial seawater and FSW samples. Detection of viruses in unfiltered seawater decreased rapidly at both temperatures by both methods of detection, suggesting that in the natural environment detection of enteroviral RNA may indicate a recent contamination event. In addition, in situ sampling in the Florida Keys during the late winter of 2000 revealed the presence of infectious enteroviruses at two sites and no sites exceeded recommended levels of microbial water quality indicators (enterococci or fecal coliform bacteria). ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, W J; van den Berg, H H J L; Rutjes, S A; de Roda Husman, A M

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water in The Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

  16. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of α-DDB-FNC, a novel nucleoside-biphenyldicarboxylate compound in cells and ducks, and its anti-immunological liver injury effect in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Zhao, Xuejie; Zang, Limin; Fang, Xianzhen; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Xiaorui; Wang, Qingduan; Zheng, Liyun; Chang, Junbiao

    2012-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be a major global cause of acute and chronic liver disease with high mortality. Herein, we examined both the anti-HBV and hepatoprotective activity of α-DDB-FNC. In human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15, α-DDB-FNC effectively suppressed the secretion of HBV antigens in a time and dose-dependent manner with 25.11% inhibition on HBeAg and 43.68% on HBsAg at 2.5 μM on day 9. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, α-DDB-FNC (2.5 μM) also reduced HBV DNA level by 77.74% extracellularly and 78.94% intracellularly on day 9. In the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks, after α-DDB-FNC was given once daily for 10 days, the serum and liver DHBV DNA levels were reduced markedly with 96.81% and 97.21% at 10 mgkg(-1) on day 10, respectively. In Con A-induced immunological liver-injury mice, α-DDB-FNC significantly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT, AST, TBiL and liver MDA, NO levels. Furthermore, significant improvement of the liver was observed after α-DDB-FNC treatment both in ducks and mice, as evaluated by the histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that α-DDB-FNC possesses both antiviral activity against HBV and hepatoprotective effect to Con A-induced liver-injury mice.

  17. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  19. Evidence for limited exchange of avian influenza viruses between seaducks and dabbling ducks at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Pearce, John M.; Reeves, A.B.; Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence and sequence data were analyzed for Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) to assess the role of this species in transporting virus genes between continents and maintaining a regional viral reservoir with sympatric northern pintails (Anas acuta). AIV prevalence was 0.2% at Izembek Lagoon and 3.9% at Nelson Lagoon for Steller's eiders and 11.2% for northern pintails at Izembek Lagoon. Phylogenetic analysis of 13 AIVs from Steller's eiders revealed that 4.9% of genes were of Eurasian origin. Seven subtypes were detected, including two also observed in northern pintails. No AIV strains were highly similar (> 99%) at all gene segments between species; however, highly similar individual genes were detected. The proportion of highly similar genes was greater within rather than between species. Steller's eiders likely transport AIV genes between continents through long-distance migratory movements. Differences in AIV prevalence, subtype distribution, and the proportion of highly similar genes suggest limited AIV exchange between Steller's eiders and northern pintails at Alaska Peninsula coastal lagoons during autumn.

  20. 鸭坦布苏病毒E蛋白包被抗原间接ELISA方法的建立%Indirect ELISA based on Protein E from Duck Tembusu Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秋玲; 陈珍; 施少华; 傅光华; 程龙飞; 陈红梅; 万春和; 林建生; 黄瑜

    2015-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) method was developed to detect serum antibodies for duck Tembusu virus (DTV).ELISA plates were coated with the main antigenic determinant of the envelop proteins (E1 protein).The optimized test conditions included:concentration of E1 coating on the ELISA plate of 1. 548 mg · L-1 ,serum sample dilution at 1∶100,and HRP-labeled goat anti-duck IgG dilution at 1∶6 000.The specific tests showed no cross-reactions on anti-sera against the avian influenza virus,Newcastle disease virus,duck hepatitis virus-I,duck hepatitis type 1 virus with pancreatitis,pasteurellosis or riemerella anatipestifer,indicating a high specificity of the ELISA against DTV.The coefficients of variation of the intro- and inter-batch duplicability tests were below 10%.The sensitivity was 1∶3 200.Compared with the indirect ELISA coated with DTV,the coincidence rate of indirect ELISA was 95. 1%.Out of the 237 laying duck serum samples collected from Fujian,194 (i.e.,77. 9% of the total)were found positive on the indirect ELISA.The newly developed indirect ELISA methodology appeared to have desirable specificity,repeatability,as well as sensitivity, and could potentially be applied for routine DTV detection.%以鸭坦布苏病毒E蛋白的主要优势抗原表位区E1蛋白作为包被抗原,建立检测鸭坦布苏病毒中和抗体效价的间接ELISA方法。优化后确定最佳的抗原包被浓度为1.548 mg·L-1,血清的最佳稀释度为1∶100,酶标二抗的稀释度为1∶6000。特异性表明,用建立的ELISA方法对禽流感、新城疫病毒、1型鸭肝炎病毒、胰腺型鸭甲肝病毒、禽霍乱和鸭疫里默氏杆菌的阳性血清进行检测,均未发生交叉反应;批内和批间重复试验的平均变异系数都小于10%;敏感性达1∶3200。该方法与以全病毒为包被抗原的间接ELISA检测结果相关性达到95.1%。利用该方法对237份来自福建省开产麻鸭的

  1. Immunization with a thermostable newcastle disease virus K148/08 strain originated from wild mallard duck confers protection against lethal viscerotropic velogenic newcastle disease virus infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Choi, Soo-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating poultry infections because of its worldwide distribution and accompanying economical threat. In the present study, we characterized the ND virus (NDV) K148/08 strain from wild mallard duck, with regard to safety, thermostability, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy against velogenic ND viral infection. The NDV K148/08 strain offered enhanced immunogenicity and safety relative to commercially available vaccine strains. The NDV K148/08 strain was safe in 1-day-old SPF chicks after vaccination using a coarse or cabinet-type fine sprayer. We demonstrated that the NDV K148/08 strain elicited high levels of antibody responses and provided protective efficacy against lethal NDV challenge. In addition, the thermostability of the NDV K148/08 strain was as high as that of the thermostable V4 strain. Therefore, the NDV K148/08 strain may be useful to ensure NDV vaccine performance and effectiveness in developing countries, especially in remote areas without cold chains.

  2. Use of dual priming oligonucleotide system-based multiplex RT-PCR combined with high performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with acute enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Lu; Wang, Zi-Wei; Qin, Yue; Sun, Chao; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Yuan; Tang, Li-Jie; Li, Yi-Jing; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of human astrovirus, human rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus and enteric adenovirus associated with acute enteritis was developed, based on the specific dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system and the sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The DPO system-based multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) combined with HPLC assay was more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time SYBR Green PCR assay, and showed a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 96%-100%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay indicates its great potential to be a useful tool for the accurate diagnosis of enteric virus infections.

  3. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  4. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  5. 北京市郊区鸭养殖和屠宰人群禽流感暴露及病毒感染情况调查%Exposure to avian influenza virus and the infection status of virus among people breeding or butchering ducks in the suburb of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春娜; 张松建; 刘秀军; 王全意; 杨鹏; 张奕; 李海月; 张莉; 李丽丽; 李超; 杨育松; 陈合

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市郊区鸭养殖和屠宰从业人员的禽流感暴露及病毒感染情况.方法 2011年3-4月对北京市6个区(县)从事鸭养殖和屠宰工作的4类人群(商业化养鸭场从业人员、鸭屠宰场从业人员、个体规模化养鸭者和家庭养鸭者)进行问卷调查和血清禽流感抗体检测,了解人口统计学信息、病死禽暴露及禽流感病毒感染等情况.结果 共调查1741人,其中商业化养鸭场从业人员313人(18.0%),鸭屠宰场从业人员562人(32.3%),个体规模化养鸭者261人(15.0%),家庭养鸭者605人(34.7%).与其他3类人群接触的鸭相比,家庭养鸭者(66.8%)接触的鸭与其他禽类接触的比例最高(P<0.05).家庭养鸭者(35.2%)和鸭屠宰场从业人员(31.3%)接触的鸭没有全部接种过禽流感疫苗的比例高于商业化和个体规模化养鸭者(P<0.05).家庭养鸭者中养殖环境清洗频率>4次/月(8.8%)、消毒频率>12次/年(27.3%)的人员所占比例均最低(P<0.05).家庭养鸭者暴露因素中在手有伤口时徒手接触鸭的人员所占比例最高(34.4%)(P<0.05).病死禽暴露情况中,家庭养鸭者接触病死禽时不采取任何防护措施的人员所占比例最高(70.8%)(P<0.05).1741人中,未发现禽流感病毒H5、H7亚型感染,H9亚型抗体阳性12人(阳性率为0.7%),其中10人为家庭养鸭者(阳性率为1.7%),4类人群中H9亚型抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.699,P<0.05).结论 家庭养鸭者感染禽流感的风险高于其他3类人群(商业化养鸭场从业人员、鸭屠宰场从业人员、个体规模化养鸭者),个体规模化养鸭者和家庭养鸭者接触病死禽时防护较差,应根据各人群特点进行有针对的干预.%Objective To understand the exposure and the infection status of virus among people engaging in breeding or butchering ducks in the suburb of Beijing.Methods People from six districts (Daxing

  6. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  7. Development of Duck Diseases Expert System with Applying Alliance Method at Bali Provincial Livestock Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Gede Hendra Divayana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Farming is one of the activities that have a business opportunity. One is raising ducks. The main results can be obtained from the breeding duck is a duck meat and eggs for consumption and also means praying ceremony in Bali, as well as duck egg shells that can be used for jewelry. Since the outbreak of avian influenza began in 2008, have an impact on consumer demand of ducks decreased and consumers become more careful in choosing and consuming duck. The avian influenza virus not only spread across the country of China, Thailand and Vietnam, but also in Indonesia, Bali is no exception. This is evidenced by the discovery of cases of death due to bird flu virus in some areas in Bali, among others: the regency of Karangasem, Badung, Tabanan, Klungkung and Jembrana. From this, the Bali Provincial Livestock Office took steps to develop an expert system in the detection of diseases ducks. This expert system uses a alliance method is a combination of forward chaining, backward chaining and weighted product to search the physical symptoms and behavioral symptoms duck by the name of a known disease and to determine the percentage of disease attack level in ducks. In this study, the analytical techniques used to analyze the truth is a alliance method of duck disease expert system. Activity data collection and information to support research conducted by, among others, literature studies, interviews, and observations.

  8. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  9. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses and genotyping of rotavirus A, adenovirus and astrovirus among children under 5 years old in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: These findings improve our knowledge of circulating enteric viruses in Gabon. The emergence of unusual G6P[6] strain of rotavirus A, predominant, suggested a particular epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains during the introduction of vaccination in Gabon.

  10. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.;

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  11. Establishment of a SYBR Green Ⅰ-based real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of duck Tembusu virus%鸭坦布苏病毒SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光定量检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万春和; 朱海侠; 施少华; 黄瑜; 程龙飞; 傅光华; 陈红梅

    2013-01-01

    A pair of specific primers targeted to non structure gene 5 (NS5) of duck Tembusu virus was designed and a SYBR Green Ⅰ fluorescent based real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) was developed for the quantization of duck Tembusu virus.The detection limit of RRT-PCR was 2.74 × 102plasmid copies.The melting curve analysis using SYBR Green Ⅰ dye showed one specific peak,a melting temperature (Tm) was (86.23±0.18) ℃,and no primer-dimers peak was observed.No amplification was detected from unrelated virus samples by this method,such as avian influenza virus,duck hepatitis virus type 1,avian paramyxovirus type 1,egg drop syndrome virus,duck reovirus.Fine reproducibility was obtained for detecting plasmid DNA with intra-assay of 0.52%1.48% and inter-assay of 0.71%-2.21%.The real-time PCR method developed in this study will be useful for rapid laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology investigation for duck Tembusu virus.%根据鸭坦布苏病毒(Duck Tembusu virus,DFV) NS5基因序列特征设计引物,建立基于SYBR Green Ⅰ检测模式的实时荧光定量RT-PCR(real-time RT-PCR,RRT-PCR),该方法检测DFV NS5基因2.74×103~2.74×10 7拷贝/μL反应范围内有很好的线性关系.扩增产物的熔解曲线分析只出现1个单特异峰,无引物二聚体,Tm值为(86.23±0.18)℃,对禽流感病毒、鸭肝炎病毒、鸭源禽1型副黏病毒、鸭减蛋综合征病毒、番鸭呼肠孤病毒核酸均无阳性信号扩增,可重复性好,组内变异系数为0.52%~1.48%,组间变异系数0.71%~2.21%.检测速度快,从样本处理到报告结果仅需4h.

  12. 2株H5N1亚型禽流感病毒人工感染鸭的11项血液生化指标测定%Eleven Blood Biochemical Indexes Assay of Ducks Experimentally Infected with Two Avian Influenza Viruses(H5N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶远兰; 周泉鹤; 李玉谷

    2011-01-01

    鸭肌肉接种禽流感病毒A/duck/Guangdong/185/2004(H5N1)和A/duck/Guangdong/221/2004(H5N1)后,血清中的丙氨酸氨基转移酶、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶、碱性磷酸酶、总蛋白、肌酐、总胆固醇、钙和磷明显升高;葡萄糖和甘油三酯明显降低;白蛋白表现为先下降后升高的变化趋势.作者认为,检测这些血液生化指标对于诊断禽流感具有一定的参考价值.%Ducks intramuscularly inoculated with avian influenza virus strains, A/duck/Guangdong/185/2004 (H5N1) and A/duck/Guangdong/221/2004(H5N1), showed that the serum alanine aminotransferase(glutamic-pyruvic transminase), aspartate aminotransferase(glutamic-oxaloacetic transminase), alkaline phosphatase, total protein, creatinine, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly increased; while glucose and triglycerides were obviously decreased; albumin was decreased at first and increased later. We considered that assaying these blood biochemical indexes were useful for diagnosing avian influenza.

  13. 2株H5N1亚型禽流感病毒人工感染鸭的组织病理学观察%Histopathology of Ducks Experimentally Infected with Two Avian Influenza Viruses(H5N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶远兰; 周泉鹤; 李玉谷

    2011-01-01

    鸭经肌肉接种禽流感病毒A/duck/Guangdong/185/2004(H5N1)和A/duck/Guangdong/221/2004(H5N1)后,2周内未见死亡,但具有一些显微和超微病理学变化,主要表现为呼吸道、消化道黏膜受损,心脏、肝脏、肺脏、肾脏、脑等器官一定程度的充血、淤血、出血、水肿及实质细胞变性、坏死和炎症等.%Ducks intramuscularly inoculated with two avian influenza virus isolates, A/duck/Guangdong/221/2004(HSN1)and A/duck/Guangdong/185/2004(H5N1), had micropathological and ultrapathological lessions in some degree in multiple organs, such as the damages of mucous membrane of respiratory and alimentary tract, and hyperemia, congestion, hemorrhage,edema, and cell degeneration, necrosis, inflammation or a combination of these features in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, andencephalon etc, but did not died in two weeks.

  14. Frequency of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus and porcine enteric calicivirus at various stages of pork carcass processing in two pork processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-10-16

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) infections are common in swine and raises concerns about the potential for zoonotic transmission through undercooked meat products. Enteric viruses can potentially contaminate carcasses during meat processing operations. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and control of enteric viruses in the pork processing chain. This study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with HEV, RV and PEC at different stages of the dressing process. A total of 1000 swabs were collected from 2 pork processing plants on 10 separate occasions over the span of a year. The samples were obtained from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 dressing stages (plant A: bleeding, dehairing, pasteurization, and evisceration; plant B: bleeding, skinning, evisceration, and washing) and from meat cuts. Numbers of genome copies (gc) of HEV, RV and PEC were determined by RT-qPCR. RV and PEC were detected in 100%, and 18% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant A and in 98%, and 36% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant B. After evisceration, RV and PEC were detected in 21% and 3% of samples, respectively, for plant A and in 1%, and 0% of samples, respectively for plant B. RV and PEC were detected on 1%, and 5% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant A and on 0%, and 0% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant B. HEV was not detected in any pork carcass or retail pork samples from plants A or B. The frequency of PEC and RV on pork is progressively reduced along the pork processing chain but the viruses were not completely eliminated. The findings suggest that consumers could be at risk when consuming undercooked meat contaminated with pathogenic enteric viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for cats testing positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection in cats entering an animal shelter in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Vigeant, S; Dale, A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To estimate the prevalence of cats testing positive for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigens in domestic cats entering a New Zealand animal shelter, based on a commercial point-of-care ELISA, to identify risk factors associated with cats testing positive, and to compare the results obtained from the ELISA with those obtained using PCR-based testing. METHOD A cross-sectional study was performed on 388 cats entering the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 7 February 2014 and 30 May 2014. Whole blood samples were collected from each cat and tested for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen using a commercial point-of-care ELISA. Information on the signalment and health status of the cat at the time of entry was also recorded. Blood and saliva samples from a subset of cats were tested for FIV and FeLV proviral DNA using a real-time PCR assay. RESULTS Of the 388 cats in the study sample, 146 (37.6%) had been relinquished by owners, 237 (62.4%) were strays, and 5 (1.3%) were of unknown origin. Overall, 53/388 (13.7%) cats tested positive for FIV antibodies and 4/388 (1.0%) were positive for FeLV antigen. Stray cats had a higher FIV seroprevalence than relinquished cats (42/237 (17.8%) vs. 11/146 (7.5%); p=0.008). Of 53 cats that were FIV-seropositive, 51 (96%) tested positive for FIV proviral DNA using PCR testing of blood. Of these 51 cats, 28 (55%) were positive by PCR testing of saliva. Of the four cats that were FeLV antigen-positive by ELISA, two (50%) were positive for FeLV proviral DNA by PCR testing of blood. The odds of a cat being seropositive for FIV were greater for intact compared to desexed cats (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6-7.4) and for male compared to female cats (OR=6.5; 95% CI=3.2-14.0). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The seroprevalence for FIV was 14% among cats entering an animal shelter in Auckland, whereas the prevalence of

  16. Avian influenza epidemiology in semi-intensive free ranging duck flocks of the Moyingyi Wetland in Bago East District, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristalli, Alessandro; Morini, Matteo; Comin, Arianna; Capello, Katia; Sunn, Kyaw; Martini, Marco

    2017-09-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 first entered Myanmar in 2006 in the Mandalay District. Several H5N1 outbreaks followed and the one of Bago East District (2007) required post outbreak surveillance in the at-risk domestic duck population of the Moyingyi Wetland. A field epidemiological study based on a randomised prospective stratified study with five surveys provided the serological evidence that the avian influenza H5 subtype circulates in the domestic duck population and spreads to almost all the newly housed (and negative) flocks in the time span of a seasonal production cycle. Virological investigation was negative. The survival analysis showed that the probability of seroconversion increased rapidly over the study period, without significant difference among different agro-ecosystems. The analysis suggests that viral spread in the new cycle could be limited if control measures were adopted at the time new flocks are housed. The study recommends that future surveillance schemes for ducks are designed in a way to get as much information as possible from serological results which should drive virological sampling to determined farms.

  17. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  18. Alaska duck production surveys: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  19. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  20. Investigation of enteric adenovirus and poliovirus removal by coagulation processes and suitability of bacteriophages MS2 and φX174 as surrogates for those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Marubayashi, T; Murai, K

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the removal of enteric adenovirus (AdV) type 40 and poliovirus (PV) type 1 by coagulation, using water samples from 13 water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The behaviors of two widely accepted enteric virus surrogates, bacteriophages MS2 and φX174, were compared with the behaviors of AdV and PV. Coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) removed AdV and PV from virus-spiked source waters: the infectious AdV and PV removal ratios evaluated by means of a plaque-forming-unit method were 0.1-1.4-log10 and 0.5-2.4-log10, respectively. A nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1) removed infectious AdV and PV more efficiently than did other commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-2.1), alum, and ferric chloride. The MS2 removal ratios tended to be larger than those of AdV and PV, partly because of differences in the hydrophobicities of the virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of PACl; the differences in removal ratios were not due to differences in the surface charges of the virus particles. MS2, which was more hydrophobic than the other viruses, was inactivated during coagulation with PACl. Therefore, MS2 does not appear to be an appropriate surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In contrast, because φX174, like AdV and PV, was not inactivated during coagulation, and because the hydrophobicity of φX174 was similar to or somewhat lower than the hydrophobicities of AdV and PV, the φX174 removal ratios tended to be similar to or somewhat smaller than those of the enteric viruses. Therefore, φX174 is a potential conservative surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In summary, the surface hydrophobicity of virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of the coagulant are probably important determinants of the efficiency of virus removal during coagulation.

  1. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of DHV-1 in Pekin ducks and on the innate immune responses of ducks to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiping; Yu, Shengqing; Duan, Yunbing; Hu, Yue; Qiu, Xvsheng; Tan, Lei; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun; Ding, Chan

    2014-05-01

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) affects 1-week-old but not 3-week-old ducks, and it causes a more severe disease in the younger ducks. These differences may be partially due to the host response to DHV infection. In order to understand this difference, we characterized the pathobiology of and innate immune response to DHV infection in 1-day-old (1D) and 3-week-old (3 W) ducks. Viral RNA was detected in duck livers at 24, 36 and 72 h after inoculation with DHV at a dose of 10(3) LD50. Virus-induced pathology ranged from no clinical signs to severe disease and death, and it was more severe in the 1D ducks. Infection with DHV induced up-regulation of gene expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, TLR3, retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-α, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), interferon-stimulated gene 12 (ISG12), and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like gene (OASL) in the livers of 3 W ducks. Of these, IL-6, OASL and ISG12 mRNA levels were more than 100-fold higher in infected 3 W ducks than in mock-infected ducks of the same age. These genes were induced much less in infected 1D ducklings. We present evidence that a lower level of viral replication in the hepatocytes of 3 W ducks, whose basal level of cytokines is higher than that in 1D ducklings, may be related to the strong innate immunity induced. From our data, we conclude that duck age plays an important role in the pathogenicity of and innate immune responses to DHV.

  2. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Enters Human Keratinocytes by a Nectin-1-Dependent, Rapid Plasma Membrane Fusion Pathway That Functions at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Charlotte L; Elliott, Gillian

    2016-11-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects humans through stratified epithelia that are composed primarily of keratinocytes. The route of HSV-1 entry into keratinocytes has been the subject of limited investigation, but it is proposed to involve pH-dependent endocytosis, requiring the gD-binding receptor nectin-1. Here, we have utilized the nTERT human keratinocyte cell line as a new model for dissecting the mechanism of HSV-1 entry into the host. Although immortalized, these cells nonetheless retain normal growth and differentiation properties of primary cells. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies, we confirm that, despite nTERT cells expressing high levels of the alternative gD receptor HVEM, HSV-1 requires nectin-1, not HVEM, to enter these cells. Strikingly, virus entry into nTERT cells occurred with unusual rapidity, such that maximum penetration was achieved within 5 min. Moreover, HSV-1 was able to enter keratinocytes but not other cell types at temperatures as low as 7°C, conditions where endocytosis was shown to be completely inhibited. Transmission electron microscopy of early entry events at both 37°C and 7°C identified numerous examples of naked virus capsids located immediately beneath the plasma membrane, with no evidence of virions in cytoplasmic vesicles. Taken together, these results imply that HSV-1 uses the nectin-1 receptor to enter human keratinocyte cells via a previously uncharacterized rapid plasma membrane fusion pathway that functions at low temperature. These studies have important implications for current understanding of the relationship between HSV-1 and its relevant in vivo target cell. The gold standard of antiviral treatment for any human virus infection is the prevention of virus entry into the host cell. In the case of HSV-1, primary infection in the human begins in the epidermis of the skin or the oral mucosa, where the virus infects keratinocytes, and it is therefore important to understand the molecular events

  4. Environmental factors and chemical and microbiological water-quality constituents related to the presence of enteric viruses in ground water from small public water supplies in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stopar, Julie; Luzano, Emma J.; Fout, G. Shay

    2004-01-01

    A study of small public ground-water-supply wells that produce water from discontinuous sand and gravel aquifers was done from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan. Samples were collected to determine the occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators of fecal contamination (indicators), determine whether indicators are adequate predictors of the presence of enteric viruses, and determine the factors that affect the presence of enteric viruses. Small systems are those that serve less than 3,300 people. Samples were analyzed for specific enteric viruses by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for culturable viruses by cell culture, and for the indicators total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and F-specific and somatic coliphage. Ancillary environmental and water-quality data were collected or compiled. A total of 169 regular samples and 32 replicate pairs were collected from 38 wells. Replicate pairs were samples collected at the same well on the same date. One well was sampled 6 times, 30 wells were sampled five times, 6 wells were sampled twice, and 1 well was sampled once. By use of RT-PCR, enterovirus was found in four wells (10.5 percent) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in five wells (13.2 percent). In two of these wells, investigators found both enterovirus and HAV, but on different sampling dates. Culturable viruses were found one time in two wells (5.9 percent), and neither of these wells was positive for viruses by use of RT-PCR on any sampling date. If results for all viruses are combined, 9 of the 38 small public-supply wells were positive for enteric viruses (23.7 percent) by either cell culture or RT-PCR. One or more indicators were found in 18 of 38 wells. Total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and F-specific and somatic coliphage were found in 34.2, 10.5, 15.8, 5.9, and 5.9 percent, respectively, of the wells tested. In only 3 out of 18 wells were samples positive for an indicator on

  5. Study on Pathogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Prevalence Strain GX-08 to Chickens and Ducks%新城疫病毒GX-08流行株对鸡和鸭的致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴国; 蔡丽丽; 王俊峰; 王政富; 黄淑坚

    2012-01-01

    选取新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)GX-08株对26日龄雏鸡和20日龄雏番鸭进行人工感染试验,对体外细胞培养物进行致病性试验,并进行病理组织学观察.结果表明,以105,5 EID50的攻毒剂量对26日龄雏鸡和20日龄雏番鸭通过肌注接种,雏鸡的发病率和死亡率分别为100%和100%,雏番鸭的发病率和死亡率分别为70%和70%;通过点眼、滴鼻及口服接种,雏鸡的发病率和死亡率分别为80%和30%,雏番鸭的发病率和死亡率分别为20%和20%.感染鸡消化器官和部分呼吸器官病变严重,表现出典型的嗜内脏型NDV感染的病理变化特点;感染鸭则肝脏、脾脏和胰腺等实质器官病变明显,消化器官和部分呼吸器官病变较轻微.以200 TCID50的剂量对单层鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)和鸭胚成纤维细胞(DEF)接种,结果CEF和DEF均于24 h左右开始出现病变,并分别于96和84 h左右细胞单层完全被破坏.与CEF相比,DEF接种病毒后,细胞坏死、裂解过程迅速,合胞体形成现象显著,合胞体的数量及合胞体平均含有的胞核数较多,病毒接种后培养物上清的HA效价峰值也较高,表明GX-08株均可致CEF和DEF病变,且对DEF有更强的细胞融合能力.%In this study. GX 08 strain was selected to perform virus infection test on 26 d chickens and 20 d tnuscovy ducks at the dose of 105.5 EID50. The morbility and mortality of chickens infected with viruses through intramuscular route were 100% and 100%, 70% and 70% for muscovy ducks. The morbility and mortality of chicken infected with viruses through both oral and oculonasal routes were 80% and 30%, 20% and 20% in muscovy ducks. Pathological changes of digestive tract and some respiratory tract of the infected chicken were severe, which was characterized as the infection of typical visceratonia ND. In comparison with slight pathological changes in digestive tract and some respiratory tract, obvious pathological

  6. Do black ducks and wood ducks habituate to aircraft disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conomy, J.T.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have raised the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We hypothesized that habituation was a possible proximate factor influencing the low proportion of free-ranging ducks reacting to military aircraft activities in a training range in coastal North Carolina during winters 1991 and 1992. To test this hypothesis, we subjected captive, wild-strain American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to actual and simulated activities of jet aircraft. In the first experiment, we placed black ducks in an enclosure near the center of aircraft activities on Piney Island, a military aircraft target range in coastal North Carolina. The proportion of times black ducks reacted (e.g., alert posture, fleeing response) to visual and auditory aircraft activity decreased from 38 to 6% during the first 17 days of confinement. Response rates remained stable at 5.8% thereafter. In the second experiment, black ducks and wood ducks were exposed to 6 different recordings of jet noise. The proportion of times black ducks reacted to noise decreased (P 0.05) in time-activity budgets of black ducks between pre-exposure to noise and 24 hr after first exposure. Unlike black ducks, wood duck responses to jet noise did not decrease uniformly among experimental groups following initial exposure to noise (P = 0.01). We conclude that initial exposure to aircraft noise elicits behavioral responses from black ducks and wood ducks. With continued exposure of aircraft noise, black ducks may become habituated. However, wood ducks did not exhibit the same pattern of response, suggesting that the ability of waterfowl to habituate to aircraft noise may be species specific.

  7. Scavenging ducks and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza, Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Joerg; Wibawa, Hendra; Morton, John; Usman, Tri Bhakti; Junaidi, Akhmad; Meers, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007-March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4x more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits, duck was H5 seropositive when all sampled in-contact chickens were seronegative. Subtype H5 virus was detected during 2.5% of duck-flock visits and 1.5% of chicken-flock visits. When deaths from HPAI infection occurred, H5 virus shedding occurred in apparently healthy birds on 68.8% of farms. Of 180 poultry deaths investigated, 43.9% were attributed to H5 virus. These longitudinal study results indicate that ducks are a source of infection for chickens and, potentially, for humans.

  8. Enhanced enteric virus detection in sporadic gastroenteritis using a multi-target real-time PCR panel: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoli L; Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Lee, Bonita E

    2014-09-01

    Viral gastroenteritis causes significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Identifying the etiology of viral gastroenteritis is a challenge as most enteric viruses (EVs) are non-culturable. This study is to develop an EV testing panel using real-time PCR (EVPrtPCR) to simultaneously detect rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, and enteric adenovirus in stool samples. EVPrtPCR using universal amplification conditions was run in a single instrument run. EVPrtPCR was used to test 2,486 sporadic gastroenteritis samples submitted for EV testing using electron microscopy (EM) between July 2008 and July 2009. Retesting spiked negative stool samples and Salmon DNA as internal control were used to evaluate inhibition. EVPrtPCR detected viruses in significantly more samples: 748 (34%) as compared to 94 (3.8%) by EM. EM did not detect any norovirus, sapovirus, and mixed infection, and detected only 39% of rotavirus and 38.2% of enteric adenovirus positive samples. Four samples that tested positive for rotavirus and two for adenovirus and for small-round-structured viruses by EM were negative by EVPrtPCR. Norovirus was the most common virus detected (17.6%) with 92.4% as genogroup II, followed by rotavirus (6.8%), sapovirus (4.2%), astrovirus (2.0%), and enteric adenovirus (1.4%) with 9% samples positive for mixed infection. Overall, EV identification followed a U-shaped age distribution; positive samples were more common in children ≤5 years old and adults >60 years old. Norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus showed winter predominance and rotavirus peaked in the spring. No inhibition was observed. Molecular technology significantly enhanced the identification of EV causing sporadic gastroenteritis in Alberta.

  9. Bioaerosol Dispersion in Relation with Wastewater Reuse for Crop Irrigation. (Experiments to understand emission processes with enteric virus and risks modeling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courault, D.; Girardin, G.; Capowiez, L.; Albert, I.; Krawczyk, C.; Ball, C.; Salemkour, A.; Bon, F.; Perelle, S.; Fraisse, A.; Renault, P.; Amato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bio-aerosols consist of microorganisms or biological particles that become airborne depending on various environmental factors. Recycling of wastewater (WW) for irrigation can cope with the issues of water availability, and it can also threaten Human health if the pathogens present in WW are aerosolized during sprinkling irrigation or wind events. Among the variety of micro-organisms found in WW, enteric viruses can reach significant amounts, because most of the WW treatments are not completely efficient. These viruses are particularly resistant in the environment and responsibles of numerous digestive diseases (gastroenteritis, hepatitis…). Few quantities are enough to make people sick (102 pfu). Several knowledge gaps exist to better estimate the risks for Human exposure, and on the virus transfer from irrigation up to the respiratory track. A research program funded by the French government (INSU), gathering multi disciplinary teams aims at better understanding virus fate in air and health risks from WW reuse. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in order to prioritize the main factors impacting virus aerosolization. Irrigation with water loaded with safe surrogates of Hepatitis A virus (Murine Mengo Virus) was applied on small plots covered by channels in which the wind speed varied. Various situations have been investigated (wet/dry surfaces, strong/mild winds, clean/waste water). Air samples were collected above plots using impingers and filters after irrigation for several days. Viruses were quantified by RT-qPCR. The results showed that impingers were more efficient in airborne virus recovering than filters. Among environmental factors, Wind speed was the main factor explaining virus concentration in the air after irrigation. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach has been chosen to assess the health effects on the population. The main modeling steps will be presented, including a simplified dispersion model coupled with a

  10. Esophagitis and enteritis caused by herpesvirus in pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egobol, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.

  11. Etiological study of enteric viruses and the genetic diversity of norovirus, sapovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus in children with diarrhea in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zengzhi; Kong, Yuanmei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qianqian; Huang, Ailong; Xu, Hongmei

    2013-09-03

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those sapovirus, and astrovirus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or PCR. Partial sequences of norovirus, sapovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were phylogenetically analyzed to determine the genotype. Enteric viruses were detected in 302 of the 500 children who presented with acute diarrhea (277/477; 58.07%) and persistent diarrhea (5/23; 21.74%). In 277 samples from children with acute diarrhea in whom at least one viral agent was found, rotavirus A was the most frequent virus identified (132 cases; 27.67%), followed by norovirus GII in 130 cases (27.25%), adenovirus in 30 cases (6.29%), sapovirus in 9 cases (1.89%) and astrovirus in one case (0.21%). Twenty-two of the norovirus GII-positive cases were randomly selected for genotyping. GII/4 was the predominant strain, followed by GII/6, GII/2, GII/3, and GII/7. Sapovirus was classified into four genotypes: GI/1 was predominant, followed by GI/2, GII/1, and GIV. The predominant adenovirus was type 41. Mixed infections were found in 25 cases, all of which presented with acute diarrhea (25/477; 5.24%). Viruses were positive in 5/23 (21.74%) cases with persistent diarrhea. Neither rotavirus B, rotavirus C, nor norovirus GI were found in any of the samples. Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children <5 years old in Chongqing. Rotavirus A is the most common etiological agent, follow by norovirus.

  12. Genomic and pathogenic analysis of a Muscovy duck parvovirus strain causing short beak and dwarfism syndrome without tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai

    2017-07-12

    In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Differential expression of duck Toll-like receptor 7 (dTLR7 in various organs of indigenous ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gautham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present molecular study was taken up with an aim of investigating the expression profile of duck TLR7 mRNA in various tissues of indigenous ducks of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 ducks which are reared in extensive system have been chosen as research material for the present experiment. Ducks were sacrificed and tissue samples namely lungs, spleen and gastrointestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum were collected in RNA later solution. Total RNA was extracted and converted to cDNA. Gene specific primers were designed and quantitative SYBR Green based Real-time Reverse Transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR was performed to study the gene expression levels. The qRT-PCR data was normalized to β-actin, house keeping gene as endogenous control. Results: Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed higher expression in lungs and spleen, while expression being lower in digestive organs. Among gut associated tissues, ileum showed highest expression followed by caecum. Statistically no significant difference (P<0.05 in TLR7 expression was found between duodenum and jejunum. Conclusion: These findings have indicated that considerable level of dTLR7 is expressed in different tissues of ducks. The results suggest that TLR7 mediated innate immune response mechanism exists in native ducks, to fight against single stranded RNA viruses.

  14. Gourd-Shaped Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: One duck, 125 grams of diced pork and 125 grams of chicken, 50 grams of diced mushroom, 25 grams of shrimp, 100 grams of gingko, soy sauce and sugar, each 150 grams, scallions, ginger, sesame oil, cooking wine, pepper, corn starch and soup-stock.

  15. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of duck plague virus%鸭瘟病毒环介导等温扩增(LAMP)快速检测方法的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 刁有祥; 鞠小军

    2013-01-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive method for detecting duck plague virus(DPV),a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established using three pairs of specific primers. The assay was optimized to amplify DPV DNA by incubation at 63℃ for lh. The results visualized directly or under the UV light with added SYBR Green I dye. The diagnostic method was sensitive and specific, the amplification results of duck hepatitis virus, H9N2 avian influenza virus,duck paramyxovirus and duck avian metapneumovirus were negative, and its lowest detection limit was 0. 245 μg/L,which was 10-fold higher than the conventional PCR. The positive rate of forty duck samples suspected duck plague was 30%. Therefore the LAMP assay developed in this study provided a rapid and practical method for DPV detection.%为建立一种简便、快速、灵敏、特异的鸭瘟病毒(DPV)检测方法,本研究根据GenBank中登录的DPV基因组序列,设计3对特异性的环介导等温扩增(LAMP)引物,经优化反应体系,建立了LAMP快速检测方法.结果表明,LAMP方法能够在63℃恒温下,1h内实现目的核酸的大量扩增.结果判定时只需要在扩增产物中加入SYBRGreen Ⅰ染料,就可以直接在可见光或紫外光下观察颜色变化.该方法敏感性可达0.245 μg/L,比普通PCR灵敏性高10倍;对鸭病毒性肝炎病毒、H9N2亚型禽流感病毒、鸭副黏病毒、鸭源偏肺病毒等的核酸无交叉反应;利用建立的LAMP检测方法对40份临床样品的阳性检出率为30%.该方法简便快捷,省时省力,是一种适用于基层实验室快速、准确检测DPV的方法.

  16. Current Methods for Extraction and Concentration of Enteric Viruses from Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: Towards International Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, L.; Dubois, E.; Cook, N.; Medici, D.; Schultz, A.C.; China, B.; Rutjes, S.A.; Hoorfar, J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Virus-contaminated soft fruits or vegetables are increasingly identified as causes of foodborne viral illness. Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are the most common pathogens in viral infections transmitted by these kinds of foods. To improve microbiological detection and monitoring and to increase

  17. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  18. Current Methods for Extraction and Concentration of Enteric Viruses from Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: Towards International Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, L.; Dubois, E.; Cook, N.; Medici, D.; Schultz, A.C.; China, B.; Rutjes, S.A.; Hoorfar, J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Virus-contaminated soft fruits or vegetables are increasingly identified as causes of foodborne viral illness. Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are the most common pathogens in viral infections transmitted by these kinds of foods. To improve microbiological detection and monitoring and to increase

  19. Current Methods for Extraction and Concentration of Enteric Viruses from Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: Towards International Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croci, L.; Dubois, E.; Cook, N.

    2008-01-01

    Virus-contaminated soft fruits or vegetables are increasingly identified as causes of foodborne viral illness. Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are the most common pathogens in viral infections transmitted by these kinds of foods. To improve microbiological detection and monitoring and to increa...

  20. Emergence of a new lineage of dengue virus type 2 identified in travelers entering Western Australia from Indonesia, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV transmission is ubiquitous throughout the tropics. More than 70% of the current global dengue disease burden is borne by people who live in the Asia-Pacific region. We sequenced the E gene of DENV isolated from travellers entering Western Australia between 2010-2012, most of whom visited Indonesia, and identified a diverse array of DENV1-4, including multiple co-circulating viral lineages. Most viruses were closely related to lineages known to have circulated in Indonesia for some time, indicating that this geographic region serves as a major hub for dengue genetic diversity. Most notably, we identified a new lineage of DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype that emerged in Bali in 2011-2012. The spread of this lineage should clearly be monitored. Surveillance of symptomatic returned travellers provides important and timely information on circulating DENV serotypes and genotypes, and can reveal the herald wave of dengue and other emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Molecular assays for targeting human and bovine enteric viruses in coastal waters and their application for library-independent source tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, T.-T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid population growth and urban development along waterways and coastal areas have led to decreasing water quality. To examine the effects of upstream anthropogenic activities on microbiological water quality, methods for source-specific testing are required. In this study, molecular assays targeting human enteroviruses (HEV), bovine enteroviruses (BEV), and human adenoviruses (HAdV) were developed and used to identify major sources of fecal contamination in the lower Altamaha River, Georgia. Two-liter grab samples were collected monthly from five tidally influenced stations between July and December 2002. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- and nested-PCR. PCR results were confirmed by dot blot hybridization. Eleven and 17 of the 30 surface water samples tested positive for HAdV and HEV, respectively. Two-thirds of the samples tested positive for either HEV or HAdV, and the viruses occurred simultaneously in 26% of samples. BEV were detected in 11 of 30 surface water samples. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of both human and bovine enteric viruses was not significantly related to either fecal coliform or total coliform levels. The presence of these viruses was directly related to dissolved oxygen and streamflow but inversely related to water temperature, rainfall in the 30 days preceding sampling, and chlorophyll-?? concentrations. The stringent host specificity of enteric viruses makes them good library-independent indicators for identification of water pollution sources. Viral pathogen detection by PCR is a highly sensitive and easy-to-use tool for rapid assessment of water quality and fecal contamination when public health risk characterization is not necessary. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPLETE SEQUENCING OF A DUCK HEPATITIS VIRUS TYPE 1 ISOLATE FROM A DUCKLINGWITH ASCITES%Ⅰ型鸭肝炎病毒SH株全基因组序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋翠萍; 仇旭升; 陈鸿军; 于圣青; 丁铲

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolate SH obtained from a duckling with liver ascites was confirmed as duck hepatitis virus type 1(DHV-1) by determination of virus titer,immunological detection and animal experiments.The virus caused 60% mortality and 100% liver lesions when inoculated into one day-old ducklings with 103.41 ELD50/0.2 mL.The virus genome was 7652 nucleotides long(not containing the poly(A) tail) consisting of 5'-and 3'-terminal non-coding regions of 626 and 314 nucleotides.The single open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 2249 amino acids.Comparative genome analysis with other available strains in GenBank indicated that SH strain shared 99.3%~99.7% similarity at the nucleotide level with R85952 and HP-1 strains that were also isolated in China.%本研究从上海市某鸭场发病鸭群中分离到1株DHV-1型强毒株,对其进行毒价测定、琼脂扩散试验和动物回归实验,结果显示:按103.41 ELD50/0.2 mL接种1日龄雏鸭,该毒株对雏鸭有明显的致病性,死亡率为60%,肝脏病变率为100%。经全基因组测序显示:该毒株长度为7652 nt,含626 nt的5'非编码区和314 nt的3'非编码区,编码一个2249 aa大小的多聚蛋白。根据Blast比对发现,该毒株属于经典的DHV-1A群,与韩国经典强毒株R85952(99.7%)和中国分离强毒株HP-1(99.3%)的同源性最高。

  4. Impact of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain on generation and transmission of bioaerosols during simulated slaughter of infected chickens and ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infections with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus occur following exposure to H5N1 virus-infected poultry, often during home slaughter or live-poultry market slaughter processes. Using bioaerosol samplers, we demonstrated that infectious H5N1 airborne particles were produced ...

  5. Cryptosporidium enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000617.htm Cryptosporidium enteritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cryptosporidium enteritis is an infection of the small intestine that ...

  6. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-04-01

    Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

  7. Anti-duck hepatitis B virus effect of lamivudine combined with protocatechuic acid in vivo%拉米夫定与原儿茶酸药物组合体内抗鸭乙肝病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘琪; 王玲; 王俊俊; 陈勇; 韩凤梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-duck hepatitis B virus(DHBV) effect of lamivudine(3TC) combined with protocatechuic acid (PA) in vivo in Pekin-ducks. Methods: Pekin-ducks(l-3 days age)-DHBV infection mode were randomly divided into the mode control group, 3TC-treated group, PA-treated group, and 3TC plus PA treated group. After oral administration by gavage a single dose daily for 10 days, blood samples were collected by leg vein bleeding at 0, 5th-, lOth-day of drug administration and drug withdrawal 3th-day. The contents of DHBV DNA, AST, ALT, ALP, ALB and Tbil in blood serum were determined. And the pathomorphological changes of liver tissue were examined. Results: Compared with the mode control, the contents of DHBV DNA in PA, 3TC and 3TC plus PA(3TC/PA) groups were decreased. Among them, 3TC/PA group showed more powerful inhibitory action, in which the inhibitory effect at drug withdrawal 3th-day still has significant difference to that at pre-drug tratment Meanwhile, the contents of ALT, AST, ALP, ALB and Tbil in 3TC/PA group were also decreased in some extent In addition, the hepatic pathomorphological changes in 3TC group has no significant difference to the mode control, but PA and 3TC/PA treatment improved the hepatic pathomorphology in some extent. Conclusion: The present work indicated that the co-administration of 3TC and PA has more powerful in vivo anti-DHBV effect and hepatoprotective effect than 3TC and PA used alone.%目的:研究拉米夫定( 3TC)联合原儿茶酸(PA)对鸭体内鸭乙肝病毒(DHBV)的抑制作用.方法:感染DHBV的北京雏鸭模型随机分为3TC组,PA组,3TC/PA合用组及模型对照组,每天灌胃给药1次,连续给药10天.分别于给药前、给药第5天、给药第10天及停药后第3天取血,检测血清中DHBV DNA、白蛋白(ALB)和总胆红素( TBil)含量,以及谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性,并对各时间点肝组织进行病理形态学分析.结果:PA、3TC

  8. Modified concentration method for the detection of enteric viruses on fruits and vegetables by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Eric; Agier, Cécilia; Traoré, Ousmane; Hennechart, Catherine; Merle, Ghislaine; Crucière, Catherine; Laveran, Henri

    2002-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables may act as a vehicle of human enteric virus if they are irrigated with sewage-contaminated water or prepared by infected food handlers. An elution-concentration method was modified to efficiently detect, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or by cell culture, contamination by poliovirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Norwalk-like virus (NLV) of various fresh and frozen berries and fresh vegetables. The protocol included washing the fruit or vegetable surface with 100 mM Tris-HCl, 50 mM glycine, and 3% beef extract, pH 9.5 buffer, which favors viral elution from acid-releasing berries, supplemented with 50 mM MgCl2 to reduce the decrease in viral infectivity during the process. The viral concentration method was based on polyethylene glycol precipitation. Copurified RT-PCR inhibitors and cytotoxic compounds were removed from viral concentrates by chloroform-butanol extraction. Viruses from 100 g of vegetal products could be recovered in volumes of 3 to 5 ml. Viral RNAs were isolated by a spin column method before molecular detection or concentrates were filtered (0.22-microm porosity) and inoculated on cell culture for infectious virus detection. About 15% of infectious poliovirus and 20% of infectious HAV were recovered from frozen raspberry surfaces. The percentage of viral RNA recovery was estimated by RT-PCR to be about 13% for NLV, 17% for HAV, and 45 to 100% for poliovirus. By this method, poliovirus and HAV RNA were detected on products inoculated with a titer of about 5 x 10(1) 50% tissue culture infectious dose per 100 g. NLV RNA was detected at an initial inoculum of 1.2 x 10(3) RT-PCR amplifiable units. This method would be useful for the viral analysis of fruits or vegetables during an epidemiological investigation of foodborne diseases.

  9. Different Behavior of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Clay and Sandy Soils after Biofertilization with Swine Digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C.; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2017-01-01

    Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling. PMID:28197137

  10. Enhanced detection of pathogenic enteric viruses in coastal marine environment by concentration using methacrylate monolithic chromatographic supports paired with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Rački, Nejc; Gonçalves, José; Kovač, Katarina; Žnidarič, Magda T; Turk, Valentina; Ravnikar, Maja; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion

    2016-12-01

    Currently, around 50% of the world's population lives in towns and cities within 100 km of the coast. Monitoring of viruses that are frequently present in contaminated coastal environments, such as rotavirus (RoV) and norovirus (NoV), which are also the major cause of human viral gastroenteritis, is essential to ensure the safe use of these water bodies. Since exposure to as few as 10-100 particles of RoV or NoV may induce gastrointestinal disease, there is a need to develop a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method for their detection in coastal water samples. In this study, we evaluate the application of methacrylate monolithic chromatographic columns, commercially available as convective interaction media (CIM(®)), to concentrate pathogenic enteric viruses from saline water samples prior to virus quantification by one-step reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Using RoV and NoV as model enteric viruses, we present our results on the most effective viral concentration conditions from saline water matrices using butyl (C4) hydrophobic interaction monolithic support (CIM(®) C4). C4 monolithic columns exhibit a good capacity to bind both RoV and NoV and both viruses can be eluted in a single step. Our protocol using a 1 ml C4 column enables processing of 400 ml saline water samples in less than 60 min and increases the sensitivity of RoV and NoV detection by approximately 50-fold and 10-fold respectively. The protocol was also scaled up using larger capacity 8 ml C4 columns to process 4000 ml of seawater samples with concentration factors of 300-fold for RoV and 40-fold for NoV, without any significant increase in processing time. Furthermore, C4 monolithic columns were adapted for field use in an on-site application of RoV concentration from seawater samples with performance equivalent to that of the reference laboratory setup. Overall, the results from successful deployment of CIM C4 columns for concentration of rotavirus and norovirus in

  11. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P < 0·05). The adoption of this positive-negative threshold value for this i-ELISA assay resulted in specificity of 98·0%. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Cherry Valley ducks mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS mediated signaling pathway and antiviral activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLRs-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly up-regulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus. Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8 in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What’s more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (duck Tembusu virus, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  13. Establishment of Detecting Tembusu Virus Method from Duck Source Samples Based on Metagenomics%基于宏基因组学的鸭源样本中坦布苏病毒检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 王超; 邓明俊; 郑小龙; 王群; 徐彪

    2016-01-01

    利用二代高通量测序技术建立检测鸭源样品中坦布苏病毒的方法。首先将样品过滤和经核酸酶处理,再利用等温链位移扩增(SPIA)技术快速制备样品总 cDNA,最后经磁珠纯化和文库构建后,通过Ion Torrent 进行高通量测序获得基因组信息。结果显示,通过 SPIA 扩增和核酸文库制备的优化,可从微量病原样本中获得327 pmol/μL 的核酸文库样本。Ion Torrent 测序共获得1725436条 reads,约6.2 M 数据,平均109 bp。数据拼接并 Blast 发现,病原样品的核酸序列可注释鸭坦布苏病毒全部基因组数据,与首次发生在我国的鸭坦布苏病毒 BYD-1株参考序列的同源性为100%。将所测病毒序列与其他5种黄病毒科成员进行同源性比对,发现与近3年发生在我国的鸭坦布苏病毒同源性最高,在98%以上。且 NS 基因进化树分析与鸭坦布苏病毒处于同一分支上,符合鸭坦布苏病毒特征。本研究建立的基于未知病原 SPIA 扩增结合高通量测序检测方法,可同步获知坦布苏病毒基因的核酸信息。%To explore the methods of high-throughput sequencing for Tembusu virus from duck source sam-ples based on metagenomics,first of all,interference was removed through filtering and nucleic acid enzyme treatment.Then,total cDNA was prepared by using isothermal strand-displacement amplification (SPIA) technology.The purification was made by using magnetic beads and the nucleotid library building,the cD-NA amplicons were sequenced by Ion Torrent,and the genome information was acquired.The results showed that 327 pmol/μL nucleic acid library was prepared from pathogenic samples through SPIA and op-timizing preparation of DNA library.1 725 436 reads,about 6.2 M data,were got by Ion Torrent sequen-cing,and average read was 109 bp.The nucleic acid sequence of pathogen samples can note entire genome data by Blast on NCBI with the pathogen analysis software

  14. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batches 651NC and 670NC Summaries.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  15. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batches 651NC and 670NC Summaries.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  16. Epidemiological Investigation and Genome Analysis of Duck Circovirus in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-he Wan; Guang-hua Fu; Shao-hua Shi; Long-fei Cheng; Hong-mei Chen; Chun-xiang Peng; Su Lin; Yu Huang

    2011-01-01

    Duck circovirus(DuCV),a potential immunosuppressive virus,was investigated in Southern China from March 2006 to December 2009 by using a polymerase chain reaction(PCR)based method. In this study,a total of 138 sick or dead duck samples from 18 different farms were examined with an average DuCV infection rate of~35%. It was found that ducks between the ages of 40~60 days were more susceptible to DuCV. There was no evidence showing that the DuCV virus was capable of vertical transmission. Farms with positive PCR results exhibited no regularly apparent clinical abnormalities such as feathering disorders,growth retardation or lower-than-average weight. The complete genomes of 9. strains from Fujian Province and 1 from Zhejiang Province were sequenced and analyzed. The 10 DuCV genomes,compared with others genomes downloaded from GenBank,ranged in size from 1988 to 1996 base pairs,with sequence identities ranging from 83.2% to 99.8%. Phylogenetic analysis based on genome sequences demonstrated that DuCVs can be divided into two distinct genetic genotypes,Group I(the Euro-USA lineage)and Group II(the Taiwan lineage),with approximately 10.0% genetic difference between the two types. Molecular epidemiological data suggest there is no obvious difference among DuCV strains isolated from different geographic locations or different species,including Duck,Muscovy duck,Mule duck,Cheery duck,Mulard duck and Pekin duck.

  17. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus.

  18. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus. PMID:27127336

  19. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  20. Genome Sequencing and Genetic Analysis of H4N8 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Duck%一株鸭源H4N8亚型禽流感病毒的全基因测序及遗传进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晴晴; 李群辉; 朱杰; 钟蕾; 刘晶晶; 顾敏; 王晓泉; 刘文博; 刘秀梵

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] Based on the difference of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. According to the differences in pathogenicity, AIVs can be divided into highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). H4 AIVs are low pathogenic influenza viruses which are generally produced asymptomatic infections in poultry. But H4 AIVs also has potential threats to both poultry and mammals. Strengthening investigation on H4 subtype avian influenza viruses is important for the study of evolution of AIVs. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the molecule characteristics and genetic evolution of H4 subtype avian influenza virus.[Method]One H4N8 subtype avian influenza virus, designated as A/duck/Nanjing/1102/2010 (H4N8) (DK/NJ/1102), was isolated from a live poultry market in eastern China during epidemiological surveillance in 2010. The complete genome sequences of the strain was sequenced and analyzed. The virus was identified by HA/HI test and RT-PCR test. The gene was cloned into pGEM-Teasy vector for sequencing, respectively. BLAST the nucleotide identity in GeneBank. The genome sequences of H4 subtype influenza viruses available in GeneBank and some other reference sequences were downloaded for genetic analysis .[Result]The results showed that the HA gene of DK/NJ/1102 had the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 98.9% with A/duck/Mongolia/274/2007(H4N3), and the amino acid sequence at the cleavage region of the HA gene was “P-E-K-A-S-R-G”, which is typical for low pathogenicity AIVs. NA gene had the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 98.8% with a duck-origin virus A/Duck/Eastern China/n91/2009 (H3N8) isolated from eastern China, whereas PB1, PA and NP genes were all mostly related with H1 subtype avian influenza viruses. The M gene shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identities (over 99

  1. A probe-free four-tube real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of twelve enteric viruses and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Niu, Peihua; Hong, Yanying; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Jingyun; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    We aim to develop a multiplex real-time PCR assay to detect the most common pathogens causing community outbreaks of diarrhea. Four reaction systems of fluorescence dye-based real-time PCR assay were performed to amplify genes of norovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Shigella spp. PCR products of each pathogen were identified by characteristic peaks in melting curves. The assay was able to achieve detection limit of 50 copies/reaction for each individual virus target, and 140-500CFU/mL for each individual bacterium target. A total of 122 clinical specimens from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea were used to evaluate the assay. The clinical sensitivity was very similar to that of reference methods. Norovirus genogroup II revealed the highest detectable rate (45/122, 36.9%). Coinfection was found in 28 out of 122 (23%) clinical specimens. This assay proved to be a cost-effective, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of enteric viruses and bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation modeling of human enteric virus surrogates, MS2, Qβ, and ΦX174, in water using UVC-LEDs, a novel disinfecting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyun; Kim, Soo-Ji; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In order to assure the microbial safety of drinking water, UVC-LED treatment has emerged as a possible technology to replace the use of conventional low pressure (LP) mercury vapor UV lamps. In this investigation, inactivation of Human Enteric Virus (HuEV) surrogates with UVC-LEDs was investigated in a water disinfection system, and kinetic model equations were applied to depict the surviving infectivities of the viruses. MS2, Qβ, and ΦX 174 bacteriophages were inoculated into sterile distilled water (DW) and irradiated with UVC-LED printed circuit boards (PCBs) (266nm and 279nm) or conventional LP lamps. Infectivities of bacteriophages were effectively reduced by up to 7-log after 9mJ/cm(2) treatment for MS2 and Qβ, and 1mJ/cm(2) for ΦX 174. UVC-LEDs showed a superior viral inactivation effect compared to conventional LP lamps at the same dose (1mJ/cm(2)). Non-log linear plot patterns were observed, so that Weibull, Biphasic, Log linear-tail, and Weibull-tail model equations were used to fit the virus survival curves. For MS2 and Qβ, Weibull and Biphasic models fit well with R(2) values approximately equal to 0.97-0.99, and the Weibull-tail equation accurately described survival of ΦX 174. The level of UV-susceptibility among coliphages measured by the inactivation rate constant, k, was statistically different (ΦX 174 (ssDNA)>MS2, Qβ (ssRNA)), and indicated that sensitivity to UV was attributed to viral genetic material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and application of a real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay for detection of duck hepatitis virus type 1%I型鸭肝炎病毒 TaqMan 荧光定量 RT-PCR 方法的建立及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 赵丽丽; 牛银杰; 祝明皓; 刘胜旺; 陈洪岩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a real-time RT-PCR assay ( rRT-PCR) for efficient detection of duck hepatitis virus type 1 ( DHV-I) .Method According to the different gene sequences of DHV-I from different provinces download from NCBI and to find the conserved sequences.One pair of the specific primers and one TaqMan probe were designed. Then reaction parameters were optimized to develop a real-time RT-PCR assay ( rRT-PCR) .Results This developed rRT-PCR assay could detect 20 template copies of RNA, and its sensitivity was higher than that of the conventional RT-PCR. This rRT-PCR assay was found to be specific and able to detect DHV-I, and no positive results were observed when nucleic acid from Muscovy duck parvovirus, goose parvovims, Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus, egg drop syndrome virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, duck Tembusu virus, poultry intestinal arc virus were used as rRT-PCR templates.The results of this developed rRT-PCR assay used for 100 duck clinical samples showed a positive rate of 92%, indicating that DHV exists in duck group of Jiangsu province in China.Conclusion This rRT-PCR assay can be used as a rapid tool for detection of DHV-I.%目的:建立快速诊断I型鸭肝炎病毒的荧光定量RT-PCR方法。方法根据NCBI下载的20个来自我国不同省份的的I型鸭肝炎病毒的基因序列,找出其保守序列,设计合成一对引物和一条TaqMan探针,进行条件优化,检测其特异性,敏感性,稳定性。结果该方法敏感性达20拷贝,比常规PCR敏感性高。其特异性强,对番鸭细小病毒(MDPV),鹅细小病毒(GPV),新城疫病毒(NDV)和禽流感(AIV),鸭减蛋综合征病毒(EDSV),禽网状内皮组织增生症病毒(REV),鸭坦布苏病毒(DTMUV),禽呼肠弧病毒(ARV)8种病毒的检测均为阴性,I型鸭肝炎病毒检测结果为阳性。用建立的方法检测了江苏徐州采集100份样品,阳性率为92%。说明I型鸭

  4. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety.

  5. 鸭细小病毒套式PCR检测方法的建立与应用%Establishment and application of a nested PCR assay for detection of duck parvovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦砚国; 陈浩; 郑肖强; 于相龙; 杨晶; 牛晓宇; 刁有祥

    2016-01-01

    A novel waterfowl parvovirus which caused short bills with protruding tongues and growth retardation in Cherry Valley meat-type ducks in North China was isolated and identified.Till now,there are not any effective methods for detection of duck parvovirus(DPV).Two pairs of specific primers based on VP3 genes of DPV were designed,and a nested PCR assay for DPV detection was established.The results showed that the sensitivity of the nested PCR was 103 times higher than that of general PCR assay and the minimum detectable amount was 100 copies.Duck parvovirus could be well amplified and goose parvovirus,muscovy duck parvovirus,duck enteritis virus and other waterfowl-origin viruses could not be amplified using the nested PCR.Thirty clinical samples from Shandong,Jiangsu and Anhui provinces were detected and 27/30 were determined to be DPV positive.All these data indicated that the nested PCR was a sensitive,specific and rapid diagnosis method for detecting duck parvovirus.%鸭细小病毒是新近发生的引起樱桃谷肉鸭短喙、长舌、发育迟缓的1种新型水禽细小病毒,目前尚无可靠的快速诊断方法.本研究根据鸭细小病毒的VP3基因设计了2对特异性引物,建立了套式PCR检测方法.该方法对鸭细小病毒DNA的最低检出量为100 copies,不能扩增鹅细小病毒、番鸭细小病毒、鸭肠炎病毒等.采用该方法对采自山东、江苏、安徽等地的30份疑似鸭细小病毒感染病料进行检测,结果显示阳性率为27/30(90%),与病毒分离结果符合率为90%;而普通PCR的阳性检出率为8/30(26.7%).上述结果表明,建立的套式PCR方法具有较高的敏感性和特异性,可用于鸭细小病毒的临床诊断和分子流行病学调查.

  6. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  7. Alaska duck production survey - July 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1985. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  8. Wood duck studies : Des Lacs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes wood duck studies on Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge and provides a brief history on the status of wood ducks on the edge of their...

  9. Establishment and Application of Real-time Quantitative PCR to Detect Duck Hepatitis A Virus Serotype 1%血清1型鸭甲型肝炎病毒实时定量P CR检测方法的建立与初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆歌; 谢红玲; 李晶梅; 朱薇; 肖爱芳; 赖志; 薛霜; 高俊锋; 马慧慧; 祝春花

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a real-time quantitative PCR to detect duck hepatitis A virus serotype 1 ( DHAV-1) , a pair of primers and one TaqMan probe were designed and synthesized, according to the 5 ’ untranslated sequences of DHAV-1 published on GenBank, The recombinant plasmid was built as a standard control for the method, the specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were determined, and also preliminarily applicated in the detection of clinical samples. The results showed that the detection assay was specific for DHAV-1, and there was no cross reaction between duck hepatitis A virus serotype 3( DHAV-3) and the other viruses including duck plague virus, Newcastle disease virus, avian influenza virus, duck reovirus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, etc. The method also showed high sensitivity, as low as 10 copies virus could be detected for each reaction, and good reproducibility, there was a coefficient of variations less than 3% for both inter-assay and intra-assay. The detection results of clinical samples were consistent with the sequencing. These results indicated that the developed TaqMan fluorescence quantitative PCR assay had the advantages of good specificity, sensitivity and repeatability;it was useful for the rapid diagnosis and quantification analysis of DHAV-1.%为建立一种可检测血清1型鸭甲型肝炎病毒( DHAV-1)的实时定量PCR方法,根据GenBank中DHAV-15’非编码区的保守区,设计合成1对引物和1条TaqMan探针,以构建的重组质粒作为标准品,绘制标准曲线,并对所建立方法进行了特异性、敏感性和可重复性试验以及临床病料检测初步应用。结果,该方法与血清3型鸭甲型肝炎病毒、鸭瘟病毒、新城疫病毒、禽流感病毒、呼肠孤病毒、传染性支气管炎病毒等无交叉反应性;最低可以检测到10 copies/μL;组内和组间变异系数均小于3%;临床病料的检测结果与测序检测结果一致。

  10. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: qmx@scau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of microbiological contamination and enteric viruses in shallow ground water in Baltimore and Harford counties, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Battigelli, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the shallow aquifer in the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Baltimore and Harford Counties, Maryland. Two hundred sixty-three small public water-supply wells were in operation in these counties during the spring of 2000. Ninety-one of these sites were selected for sampling using a methodology that distributed the samples evenly over the population and the spatial extent of the study area. Each site, and its potential susceptibility to microbiological contamination, was evaluated with regard to hole depth, casing interval, and open interval. Each site was evaluated using characteristics such as on-site geology and on-site land use.Samples were collected by pumping between 200 and 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive cartridge filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect viral ribonucleic acid; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrite, organic nitrogen, total phosphate, ortho-phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potas-sium, chloride, sulfate, iron, acid-neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen.One sample tested positive for the presence of the ribonucleic acid of rotavirus through poly-merase chain-reaction analysis. Twenty-nine per-cent of the samples (26 of 90) had bacterial con-tamination. About 7 percent of the samples (6 of 90) were contaminated with either male-specific coliphage

  12. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  13. Host-mediated selection of influenza virus receptor variants. Sialic acid-alpha 2,6Gal-specific clones of A/duck/Ukraine/1/63 revert to sialic acid-alpha 2,3Gal-specific wild type in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G N; Daniels, R S; Skehel, J J; Wiley, D C; Wang, X F; Higa, H H; Paulson, J C

    1985-06-25

    Human and animal influenza A isolates of the H3 serotype preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal or SA alpha 2,3Gal linkages (where SA represents sialic acid), respectively, on cell-surface sialyloligosaccharides. Previously, we have demonstrated selection of SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific receptor variants of several human viruses which differed from the parent viruses by a single amino acid at residue 226 of the hemagglutinin which is located in the receptor binding pocket (Rogers, G. N., Paulson, J.C., Daniels, R.S., Skehel, J.J., Wilson, I.A., and Wiley, D.C. (1983) Nature 304, 76-78). In this report, the selection in the reverse direction was accomplished starting with a SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific avian virus, A/duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N7), yielding SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific variants that exhibit the receptor binding properties characteristic of the human isolates. Selection was again mediated at residue 226 of the hemagglutinin, in this case changing from Gln in the parent virus to Leu in the variants. Although the SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific avian virus variants were stable to passage in MDCK cells, they exhibited dramatic reversion to the SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific phenotype of the parent virus during a single passage in chicken embryos. This was in contrast to the SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific human virus isolates which were stable to passage in both hosts. The reversion of the avian virus variants in eggs provides compelling evidence for host-mediated selection of influenza virus receptor variants.

  14. IFN-γ increases efficiency of DNA vaccine in protecting ducks against infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Er Long; Li-Na Huang; Zhi-Qiang Qin; Wen-Yi Wang; Di Qu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of DNA vaccines in combination with duck IFN-γ gene on the protection of ducks against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection.METHODS: DuIFN-γ cDNA was cloned and expressed in COS-7 cells, and the antiviral activity of DuIFN-γ was detected and neutralized by specific antibodies. Ducks were vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone or coimmunized with plasmid expressing DuIFN-γ. DuIFN-γmRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunized ducks was detected by semi-quantitative competitive RT-PCR. Anti-DHBpreS was titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DHBV DNA in sera and liver was detected by Southern blot hybridization, after ducks were challenged with high doses of DHBV.RESULTS: DuIFN-γ expressed by COS-7 was able to protect duck fibroblasts against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in a dose-dependent fashion, and antiDuIFN-γ antibodies neutralized the antiviral effects. DuIFN-γin the supernatant also inhibited the release of DHBV DNA from LMH-D2 cells. When ducks were co-immunized with DNA vaccine expressing DHBpreS/S and DuIFN-γ gene as an adjuvant, the level of DuIFN-γ mRNA in PBMCs was higher than that in ducks vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone. However, the titer of anti-DHBpreS elicited by DHBpreS/S DNA alone was higher than that co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA. After being challenged with DHBV at high doses, the load of DHBV in sera dropped faster, and the amount of total DNA and cccDNA in the liver decreased more significantly in the group of ducks co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA than in other groups.CONCLUSION: DHBV preS/S DNA vaccine can protect ducks against DHBV infection, DuIFN-γ gene as an immune adjuvant enhances its efficacy.

  15. Eosinofil enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjersøe, P; Rasmussen, S N; Hansen, B F

    2000-01-01

    We present a case of eosinophilic enteritis in a 45 year-old male with clinical and radiological signs of stenotic inflammatory ileal disease. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease was considered. He developed small bowel obstruction and sixty cm of obstructed ileum was resected. Histopathological...... examination revealed the diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis primarily localized to the tunica muscularis. One year postoperatively he relapsed and small bowel X-ray demonstrated 1 m narrow and irregular ileum. He was treated with mesalamine, azathioprine, and cromoglicate, went into remission and fares well...

  16. 鸭源新城疫病毒单克隆抗体的研制%Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 徐向明

    2010-01-01

    @@ 新城疫(Newcastle disease,ND)是由新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease、virus,NDV)引起的禽类的一种高度接触性、烈性传染病,给世界养禽业造成严重的经济损失和危害.以往文献报道水禽为NDV的自然贮存宿主,可以感染但不发病[1].然而,1997年以来鹅群出现了新城疫的暴发,造成了很大损失.鸭源新城疫病毒的研究主要是针对基因组和基因型的研究[2],单克隆抗体的研制及其在病原特性上的研究还未见报道.本文应用杂交瘤技术制备鸭源NDV单抗并对其进行特异性分析.

  17. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-zeng Sun

    Full Text Available Mink enteritis virus (MEV is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81 cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 messenger RNA (mRNA coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  18. Use of water-based foam to depopulate ducks and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, E R; Alphin, R L; Dawson, M D; Malone, G W

    2009-05-01

    Current control strategies for avian influenza virus, exotic Newcastle disease, and other highly virulent poultry diseases often include surveillance, quarantine, depopulation, disposal, and disinfection. On-farm depopulation and disposal methods reduce potential movement of virus and improve biosecurity. Water-based foam depopulation was developed as a potential alternative mass emergency poultry depopulation procedure. The use of water-based foam is conditionally approved by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for use with floor-reared birds. This study reports on the use of water-based foam to depopulate other species including call ducks, chukars, Pekin ducks, and Japanese quail. Foam caused a rapid onset of airway occlusion. Although all species tested were depopulated with water-based foam, the time to cessation of activity varied by species, with quail being faster than chukars, broilers, and ducks.

  19. Horizontal transmission of attenuated strain A66 of duck hepatitis virus%鸭肝炎病毒A66弱毒株的水平传播感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小飞; 黄显明; 尹秀凤; 陆承平

    2011-01-01

    取10倍免疫剂量的鸭肝炎弱毒活疫苗(A66株),分别经皮下注射和口服途径接种1日龄易感雏鸭20只,5d后每组取出接种鸭10只分别与20只1d龄易感雏鸭共同饲养进行第1代同居感染试验,5d后取第1代同居感染试验鸭10只再与20只1d龄易感雏鸭共同饲养进行第2代同居感染试验,如此进行5次同居感染试验.定时采集各代次同居感染试验鸭的泄殖腔内容物进行PCR检测,测定鸭肝炎病毒A66弱毒株水平感染能力和排毒情况,并通过对各代次同居感染试验鸭的攻毒试验,测定水平感染的免疫保护作用.结果表明:鸭肝炎弱毒活疫苗(A66株)经皮下注射和口服途径接种雏鸭,均可以通过粪便向体外排泄病毒;同居易感雏鸭可接触感染,感染的雏鸭可获得一定的免疫保护作用;但这种同居感染能力随着同居代次的增加而逐渐减弱,至5代时基本终止.试验结果表明A66毒株可引起雏鸭间的水平传播感染,但这种水平传播能力有限,不会引起毒力返强.%Attenuated strain A66 of duck hepatitis virus was inoculated on 20 one-day-old susceptible ducklings by subcutaneous injection and oral administration, respectively. Five days post-inoculation, 10 ducklings from each group were randomly selected, and cohabitated with 20 new one-day-old ducklings. Ten cohabitated ducklings were randomly selected again five days later for the second generation of cohabitation experiment. Such cohabitation experiments were performed 5 times successively. Anal swab samples were collected from each generation of cohabitated animals at designated time, and were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the horizontal infection ability of the attenuated strain A66 and the viral excretion level by the ducklings. Protective immunity was assessed through attacking different generations of ducklings by cohabitation. The results indicated that inoculation of ducklings with the attenuated

  20. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  1. Activation of duck RIG-I by TRIM25 is independent of anchored ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Miranzo-Navarro

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I is a viral RNA sensor crucial in defense against several viruses including measles, influenza A and hepatitis C. RIG-I activates type-I interferon signalling through the adaptor for mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif containing protein 25 (TRIM25, activates human RIG-I through generation of anchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains attached to lysine 172, or alternatively, through the generation of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that interact non-covalently with RIG-I CARD domains. Previously, we identified RIG-I of ducks, of interest because ducks are the host and natural reservoir of influenza viruses, and showed it initiates innate immune signaling leading to production of interferon-beta (IFN-β. We noted that K172 is not conserved in RIG-I of ducks and other avian species, or mouse. Because K172 is important for both mechanisms of activation of human RIG-I, we investigated whether duck RIG-I was activated by TRIM25, and if other residues were the sites for attachment of ubiquitin. Here we show duck RIG-I CARD domains are ubiquitinated for activation, and ubiquitination depends on interaction with TRIM25, as a splice variant that cannot interact with TRIM25 is not ubiquitinated, and cannot be activated. We expressed GST-fusion proteins of duck CARD domains and characterized TRIM25 modifications of CARD domains by mass spectrometry. We identified two sites that are ubiquitinated in duck CARD domains, K167 and K193, and detected K63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Site directed mutagenesis of each site alone, does not alter the ubiquitination profile of the duck CARD domains. However, mutation of both sites resulted in loss of all attached ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. Remarkably, the double mutant duck RIG-I CARD still interacts with TRIM25, and can still be activated. Our results demonstrate that anchored ubiquitin chains are not necessary for

  2. Thermodynamics and NMR studies on Duck, Heron and Human HBV encapsidation signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, F.C.; Ottink, O.M.; Ampt, K.A.; Tessari, M.; Wijmenga, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is initiated by binding of its reverse transcriptase (P) to the apical stem-loop (AL) and primer loop (PL) of epsilon, a highly conserved RNA element at the 5'-end of the RNA pregenome. Mutation studies on duck/heron and human in vitro systems have shown similarit

  3. 番鸭细小病毒与鸭圆环病毒二重PCR方法的建立%Development of a Dduplex PCR Assay for Detection of Muscovy Duck Parvovirus and Duck Circovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽基; 谢芝勋; 刘加波; 庞耀珊; 邓显文; 谢志勤; 范晴

    2012-01-01

      根据基因库中鸭圆环病毒和番鸭细小病毒的基因序列,分别设计了两对特异性引物,通过对二重PCR扩增条件的优化,研究建立了可同时鉴别检测鸭圆环病毒和番鸭细小病毒的二重PCR方法。用该方法对同一样品中鸭圆环病毒和番鸭细小病毒的模板进行PCR扩增,结果均得到了与实验设计相符的351 bp(鸭圆环病毒)和474 bp(番鸭细小病毒)的扩增条带,而对鸭I型肝炎病毒、鹅细小病毒、鸭副黏病毒、鸭瘟病毒和禽流感病毒等病原体的检测全为阴性。敏感性测定结果表明:该二重PCR技术最低能检出100 fg的鸭圆环病毒和番鸭细小病毒DNA模板。研究建立的鸭圆环病毒和番鸭细小病毒的二重PCR方法,具有快速、敏感、特异、定量和重复性好等优点,可用于临床上鸭圆环病毒和番鸭细小病毒感染的检测。%  A duplex transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (duplex PCR) was developed and optimized to simultaneously detect duck circovirus and Muscovy duck parvovirus in one reaction. Two pairs of specific primers were designed according to the conserved regions on the sequences of duck circovirus and Muscovy duck parvovirus in GenBank. It was shown that samples containg duck circovirus and Muscovy duck parvovirus could be amplified into the specific bands,351 bp for duck circovirus and 474 bp for Muscovy duck parvovirus by this duplex PCR,but no specific bands of the same sizes were amplified from duck hepatitis virus type I,gosling plague virus,duck paramyxovirus,duck plague virus and avian influenza virus. As low as 100 fg of duck circovirus and Muscovy duck parvovirus DNA could be detected. This duplex PCR assay is a quick,sensitive,and specific test for detection of duck circovirus and Muscovy duck parvovirus,and will be useful for the control of these viruses in ducks.

  4. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  5. Molecular testing for viral and bacterial enteric pathogens: gold standard for viruses, but don't let culture go just yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Balm, Michelle N D; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary diagnostic microbiology is increasingly adopting molecular methods as front line tests for a variety of samples. This trend holds true for detection of enteric pathogens (EP), where nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for viruses are well established as the gold standard, and an increasing number of commercial multi-target assays are now available for bacteria and parasites. NAAT have significant sensitivity and turnaround time advantages over traditional methods, potentially returning same-day results. Multiplex panels offer an attractive 'one-stop shop' that may provide workflow and cost advantages to laboratories processing large sample volumes. However, there are a number of issues which need consideration. Reflex culture is required for antibiotic susceptibility testing and strain typing when needed for food safety and other epidemiological investigations. Surveillance systems will need to allow for differences in disease incidence due to the enhanced sensitivity of NAAT. Laboratories should be mindful of local epidemiology when selecting which pathogens to include in multiplex panels, and be thoughtful regarding which pathogens will not be detected. Multiplex panels may not be appropriate in certain situations, such as hospital-onset diarrhoea, where Clostridium difficile testing might be all that is required, and laboratories may wish to retain the flexibility to run single tests in such situations. The clinical impact of rapid results is also likely to be relatively minor, as infective diarrhoea is a self-limiting illness in the majority of cases. Laboratories will require strategies to assist users in the interpretation of the results produced by NAAT, particularly where pathogens are detected at low levels with uncertain clinical significance. These caveats aside, faecal NAAT are increasingly being used and introduce a new era of diagnosis of gastrointestinal infection.

  6. DAILY DYNAMICS OF THE ELEMENTS OF MULE DUCKS BEHAVIOR AT A DIFFERENT AGE, BRED IN INTEGRATED FISH PONDS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRIENT REGIMES. I. AT FEEDING WITH BALANCED COMMERCIAL MIXTURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila NIKOLOVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation upon the daily dynamics of the separate elements of mule ducks behavior has been carried out at the Institute of Fisheries and Acuaculture Plovdiv, Bulgaria, applying the schedule of feeding with full-ration factorymade mixtures, at conditions of integrated fish-ducks technology. Ducks used to enter the water for a short time, and the time for swimming reported has been 9.63 min.h-1 while the time spent at rest in the water has not surpassed 2.5 min.h-1. Age differences concerning behavior have been observed. With the advance of the fattening period, in general, the motion activity has decreased, ducks have reacted weaker to forage supply, and the forages have been consumed more actively during the morning hours. The tested technology has ensured good rearing conditions of mule ducks, however, the influence of ducks upon fishpond ecosystem was minimal.

  7. Development and evaluation of a VP3-ELISA for the detection of goose and Muscovy duck parvovirus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Li, Yongfeng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Chunguo; Zhi, Haidong; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Gang; Li, Na; Liu, Shiguo; Xiang, Wenhua; Tong, Guangzhi

    2010-02-01

    The VP3-encoding gene of goose parvovirus (GPV) Ep22 strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The GPV VP3-encoding gene was 1605 bp in length, and it encoded a 534 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 59.9 kDa. The VP3 fusion protein expressed in E. coli was detected by goose and Muscovy duck anti-parvovirus polyclonal sera. In addition, an ELISA (VP3-ELISA) using the VP3 protein as the coating antigen for the detection of antibodies to GPV in geese and antibodies to Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in Muscovy ducks was developed. Compared to the virus neutralization test, the specificity and sensitivity of the VP3-ELISA was 90.2% and 95.2% for goose sera and 91.8% and 96.7% for Muscovy duck sera, respectively. The VP3-ELISA did not react with the anti-sera to other goose or duck pathogens, indicating that this protein is specific for the reorganization of goose or duck anti-parvovirus antibodies. Cross-reactivity between immunoglobulin G antibodies from geese and Muscovy ducks was also tested, and the results reflected the phylogenetic distance between these two birds when using the ELISA. In conclusion, the VP3-ELISA is a sensitive and specific method for detecting antibodies against GPV or MDPV.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing an outbreak of duckling short beak and dwarfism syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Lin, Fengqiang; Wu, Nanyang; Wang, Jinxiang; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shaoying; Yu, Fusong

    2016-09-01

    Many mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks in different duck-producing regions of China have shown signs of an apparently new disease designated "short beak and dwarfism syndrome" (SBDS) since 2015. The disease is characterized by dyspraxia, weight loss, a protruding tongue, and high morbidity and low mortality rates. In order to characterize the etiological agent, a virus designated SBDSV M15 was isolated from allantoic fluid of dead embryos following serial passage in duck embryos. This virus causes a cytopathic effect in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Using monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays, the SBDSV M15 isolate was positive for the antigen of goose parvovirus but not Muscovy duck parvovirus. A 348-bp (2604-2951) VP1gene fragment was amplified, and its sequence indicated that the virus was most closely related to a Hungarian GPV strain that was also isolated from mule ducks with SBDS disease. A similar disease was reproduced by inoculating birds with SBDSV M15. Together, these data indicate that SBDSV M15 is a GPV-related parvovirus causing SBDS disease and that it is divergent from classical GPV isolates.

  9. Cloning and molecular characterization of UL47 gene of duck plague virus%鸭瘟病毒UL47基因克隆及其分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丹丹; 徐志文; 王小玉; 陈孝跃; 程安春; 汪铭书; 沈爱梅; 朱德康; 贾仁勇; 罗启慧; 崔恒敏; 王印

    2011-01-01

    Sequencing a recombinant plasmid selected from DPV CHv strain genomic library constructed in our lab,and we got the UL47 gene by using Blast and ORF Finder on NCBI. DPV UL47 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into pMD18-T vector,and strongly confirmed by PCR amplification, restriction digestion and oligonucleotide probe hybridization. Then the DPV UL47 was analyzed by bioinformatics tools of ProtScale, SignalP3.0, Scansite,TMpred, Prosite,DNAStar and EMBOSS online programs. The results showed that the DPV UL47 gene was composed of 2 367 nucleotides,and encoding a polypeptide of 788 amino acid residues. Moreover, the nucleic acid and amino acid sequence of DPV UL47 had higher homology with its homologous protein of alphaherpesvirus than those of others. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the DPV clusters with some avian herpesviruses such as GaHV-2,GaHV-3,MeHV-1 and MDV-2 in a monophyletic clade are closer than those of other alphaherpesvirus members and as a result it has a close evolutionary relationship with alphaherpesviruses. Besides, condon preference analysis demonstrated that the alternative codons for the same amino acid in UL47 had distinctly different frequency and comparison of the codon usage in the UL47 gene of different organisms revealed that there were 30 codons showing distinct usage differences between DEV and Escherichia coli, equivalently 24 between DEV-to-yeast and DEV-to-human. Therefore, the eukaryotic expression system may be more suitable for the expression of the DEV UL47 gene.%通过测定本实验室构建的鸭瘟病毒(Duck plague virus,DPV)DNA基因文库中重组质粒的DNA序列,结合NCBI的ORF Finder和Blast工具分析得到了该病毒UL47基因的ORF.采用PCR扩增出了UL47基因并将其克隆到pMD18-T载体上,经PCR和酶切鉴定以及进一步的核酸斑点杂交试验证实该基因即为DPV UL47基因.利用生物信息学软件ProtScale、SignalP3.0、Scansite、TMpred、Prosite、DNAStar

  10. Construction of a duck hepatitis B virus YMDD mutant and identification of its resistance phenotype%鸭乙型肝炎病毒YMDD突变株体外耐药模型建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付喜花; 梁蔚芳; 吴小东; 沈国俊; 何海棠; 陈金军; 侯金林

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建鸭乙型肝炎病毒(DHBV)YMDD点突变的复制质粒,研究其在鸡肝癌细胞中的复制及拉米夫定抗性.方法 以广东樱桃谷鸭DHBV分离株为模板,将3631 bp的片段克隆至载体pBluescript Ⅱ KS(+)中,构建含1.2倍病毒全基因的重组质粒,经PCR定点突变获得YMDD突变株.将构建质粒经FuGENETM 6瞬时转染鸡肝癌细胞,分析变异株的复制能力及拉米夫定耐药性.结果 PCR鉴定、酶切鉴定及序列测定均证实成功获得1.2倍DHBV全基因YMDD突变质粒.Southern印迹杂交表明重组质粒转染细胞后可检测到病毒复制中间体;野生株的复制能力是突变株的2.7倍.拉米夫定对变异株的IC50=37.12+8.81 ng/ml,高于野生株的IC50=10.90±4.80 ng/ml.结论 与野生株相比,YMDD突变株质粒体外复制活性减弱,对拉米夫定敏感性下降.%Objective To construct a lamivudine-resistant plasmid containing 1.2 unit genome of duck hepatitis B virus and identify its replication and drug-resistance in avian LMH hepatica cells. Methods The recombinant plasmid PBS-DHBV1.2 was constructed using the 1.2-genome length DHBV DNA sequence from a dimer DHBV genome with pcDNA3.1 as the template. With site-directed mutagenesis, we obtained PBS-DHBV1.2-M512V plasmids with polymerase gene mutation from PBS-DHBV1.2. Two constructed plasmids were transiently transfected into LMH cells using FuGENETM6 transfection reagent and cultured in the medium containing different concentrations of lamivudine. Southern blot hybridization was performed to detect DHBV replication intermediates. Results PCR amplification, restriction digestion and plasmid sequencing all confirmed successful construction of PBS-DHBV1.2-M512V recombinant plasmid. Southern blot analysis identified the presence of all the expected DHBV replication intermediates in LMH cells. The replication capacity of the mutant plasmid was decreased by 2.7 times compared with that of the wild plasmid. The Icso of lamivudine

  11. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  12. Development of Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA for Detection of Duck or Goose Flavivirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Hui-min; LI Xiang-rui; LI Yin; HUANG Xin-mei; HAN Kai-kai; LIU Yu-zhuo; ZHAO Dong-min; ZHANG Jing-feng; LIU Fei; LI Tong-tong; ZHOU Xiao-bo

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of duck or goose flavivirus, polyclonal antibody against the flavivirus strain JS804 in geese and monoclonal antibody against the E protein of flavivirus strain JS804 in geese were used as the capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. The optimal dilution of the capture antibody and detecting antibody capable of detecting the flavivirus strain JS804 in geese were 1:3 200 and 1:160 in the check-board titration, respectively. The reaction time of sample was 1 h, and the optimal working dilution of HRP-labeled goat-anti-mouse IgG was 1:10 000. The positive standard value was 0.247 (OD450 nm). The geese flavivirus could be detected at a minimal concentration of 1.875μg mL-1. The ELISA had no cross-reaction with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Avian influenza virus (AIV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Duck hepatitis virus (DHV), and Gosling plague virus (GPV). Twenty clinical samples were detected by the DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR respectively, with the agreement rate of 75%. The results revealed that the DAS-ELISA possessed favorable specificity and higher sensitivity, indicating a suitable method for rapid detection of the duck or goose flavivirus.

  13. Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the S1 protein of Turkey enteric coronavirus for use as a bivalent vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey enteric coronavirus (TCoV) causes a contagious form of enteritis in turkeys, generally recognized in the field by outward signs including diarrhea and decreased weight gain, resulting in severe economic losses for the poultry industry in the US. To date there is no commercial vaccine availab...

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  15. 中国重点海水浴场中粪肠球菌和主要肠道病毒的调查研究%Investigation of fecal coliform and typical enteric virus in representative beaches of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊景凤; 明红霞; 吴立军; 梁玉波; 李雪

    2011-01-01

    本文调查了中国十大典型海水浴场,旨在监测人类肠道病毒在海水浴场的发生情况,并且找出表面海水中肠道病毒的存在与传统的粪便污染指示物一粪大肠菌群是否存在关系,如果存在,是什么关系。分别采用常规的平板计数法和RT-PCR技术对粪大肠菌群和人类致病性的主要肠道病毒(甲肝病毒、轮状病毒、脊髓灰质炎病毒)进行了检测。结果显示,在20个样品中人类甲肝病毒、轮状病毒、脊髓灰质炎病毒的阳性率分别为5%,40%,40%。有7个海水样品受到粪大肠菌群污染,并且严重超过国家规定的娱乐用水的标准。数据分析表明,在这十大海水浴场中,传统的细菌指示物与几种典型的肠道病毒之间都没有任何相关性。因此,建议当前的娱乐水质标准应该考虑将细菌和病毒学指标同时考虑在内。%Through investigating ten recreational marine beaches in China, we aimed to detect the occurrence of human enteric viruses in coastal bathing beaches and find a correlationship, if any, between the presence of enteric viruses in surface seawater and the concentrations of fecal coliforms, the conventional indicator of fecal pollution. In this study, twenty seawater samples were assayed for fecal coliforms and human pathogenic enteric viruses (hepatitis A viruses, rotaviruses, polioviruses) analysis. Enteric viruses were detected by RT-PCR, in 20 sample sites, 5%, 40%, 40% were positive for the presence of human hepatitis A viruses, rotaviruses, polioviruses, respectively. Seven of 20 sites are suffering from severe fecal contamination, based on traditional plate counts of fecal coliform outnumbering the established thresholds for recreation. Additionally, statistical analysis presented that no correlation was found between bacterial indicators and viruses in surface seawaters. The data confirmed that indicator bacteria in water are not reflective of the

  16. IMMUNOGENICITY OF INACTIVATED H5N1 SUBTYPE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINES IN DUCKS AND GEESE%重组禽流感病毒灭活疫苗(H5N1亚型)对鸭和鹅的免疫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣悦; 程旭; 刘梅; 尤素兰; 刘加圣; 戴亚斌

    2013-01-01

      由H5N1亚型禽流感病毒(Avian influenza virus,AIV)引起的高致病性禽流感(highly pathogenic avian influenza, HPAI)是禽类的一种烈性传染病,疫苗免疫是禽流感防控中的重要环节。本试验采用重组禽流感病毒灭活疫苗(H5N1,Re-5株)和重组禽流感病毒H5亚型二价灭活疫苗(H5N1、Re-5株+Re-4株)进行了鸭和鹅的免疫试验,对免疫鸭和鹅的抗体水平进行了动态监测。试验结果表明,两种疫苗对鸭和鹅均具有良好的免疫效果。基于试验结果提出了鸭和鹅禽流感免疫程序:2 w左右首免,4~5 w时二免,开产前三免,此后每隔4~5个月加强免疫一次。%Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is caused by H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV), and the vaccination plays a key role in prevention and control. In this study, ducks and geese were immunized with either inactivated avian influenza vaccine (H5N1 subtype, Re-5 strain) or bivalent inactivated avian influenza vaccine (H5N1 subtype, Re-5 strain+Re-4 strain) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels were detected. Both vaccines induced strong immune responses in ducks and geese. Based on these results, the proposal for the AIV vaccination program in ducks and geese should include the initial dose at 2-week-old, the second dose at 4-5-week-old, the third dose before the beginning of laying period, and further boosters at every 4-5 month interval.

  17. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glávits, Róbert; Ivanics, Eva; Thuma, Akos; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Samu, Péterné; Ursu, Krisztina; Dencso, László; Dán, Adám

    2011-02-01

    The aetiology of increased mortality observed in two breeder duck flocks (Flock A consisting of 3500 laying ducks and Flock B comprising 4300 laying ducks) during the first egg-laying season was studied. In Flocks A and B, 773 ducks and 715 ducks (18.4% and 16.6%) died within a 24-week and a 20-week period, respectively. Death was preceded by clinical signs including movement difficulties, lack of appetite and depression lasting for 1 to 2 days. Diarrhoea was not observed. On gross pathological examination, the ducks were found to have haemorrhagic to fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, renal degeneration accompanied by fibrosis and mineralization, hepatic and splenic amyloidosis, and swelling of some of the metatarsal and phalangeal joints. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination consistently demonstrated spirochaetes in the mucous membrane of the affected large intestine. On the basis of their cultural and biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis, four out of seven spirochaete strains isolated from the ducks (Flock A) by culture on special media under anaerobic conditions were identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and five out of eight strains (Flock B) were identified as Brachyspira pilosicoli. This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis.

  18. Construction of an infectious plasmid clone of Muscovy duck parvovirus by TA cloning and creation of a partially attenuated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, T-Y; Li, K-P; Ou, S-C; Shien, J-H; Lu, H-M; Chang, P-C

    2015-01-01

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection is a highly contagious and fatal disease of Muscovy ducklings. The infectious clone methodology is a valuable tool to study the pathogenic mechanisms of viruses, but no infectious clone of MDPV is yet available. In this study, a plasmid clone containing the full-length genome of MDPV was constructed using the TA cloning methodology. This MDPV clone was found to be infectious after transfection of primary Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells and passage in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the K75N mutation in the VP1 protein of MDPV resulted in the partial attenuation of the virus. The availability of an MDPV infectious clone can facilitate investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of MDPV and development of vaccines against diseases caused by MDPV.

  19. Trends and factors in human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis C virus testing and infection among injection drug users newly entering methadone maintenance treatment in Guangdong Province, China 2006-2013: a consecutive cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Yu; Zou, Xia; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2017-07-13

    To assess trends and related factors in HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing and infection among injection drug users (IDUs) newly entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Guangdong Province, China. Consecutive cross sectional surveys were conducted in 14 MMT clinics from July 2006 to December 2013 in Guangdong Province, China. IDUs were excluded if they were re-enrolled or referred from other MMT clinics. Trend tests were used to examine HIV and/or HCV testing and infection, sociodemographic characteristics, drug use related behaviours and the past 3 month sexual behaviours on enrolment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of HIV and/or HCV testing and infection. 7539 IDUs with an average age of 35.6±6.2 years were newly enrolled with a history of injection for an average of 11.8±4.9 years. The average frequency of injection before enrolment had been increasing. HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV dual testing increased from 2006 to 2013 (ptrend0.05) until reaching a peak in 2011, excluding the first year. Associating with fellow drug users 1-4 times during the past month, injecting for 15+ years and having multiple sexual partners during the past 3 months predicted higher percentages for HIV and/or HCV testing (ptests (pdrug use and sharing needles or sharing more frequently were major risk factors for HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection (p<0.05). The prevalence of HIV and HCV were high and quite stable among new IDU entrants in MMT. Publicising MMT, routine screening, and behavioural and structural interventions is needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Poly I:C as an Adjuvant for H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccine and Its Mechanism of Action in Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiguo; Lai, Hanzhang; Xu, Jiahua; Huang, Wenke; Liu, Yufu; Zhao, Dawei; Chen, Ruiai

    2017-01-01

    Current commercial H9 avian influenza vaccines cannot provide satisfactory protective immunity against antigenic variant influenza viruses in ducks. Poly I:C, when used as an adjuvant, improves humoral and cellular immunity in many animals but has not been tested in ducks. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of Poly I:C as an adjuvant for an inactivated H9N2 Avian influenza vaccine in ducks. We found that an H9N2 vaccine administered with poly I:C (H9-PIC vaccine) induced a significantly more rapid response with higher anti-influenza antibody titers than those of the vaccine alone (H9 vaccine). Moreover, virus shedding was reduced in ducks immunized with the H9-PIC vaccine after challenge with an H9 subtype antigenic variant viruses. IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and MHC-II mRNA levels were all elevated in ducks receiving the H9-PIC vaccine. In addition, lower expression level of MHC-I may be a reason for inefficient protective ability against heterologous influenza viruses in H9-PIC vaccination of ducks. In conclusion, poly I:C adjuvant enhanced both humoral and cellular immune responses in ducks induced by immunization of inactivated H9N2 vaccine. PMID:28135294

  1. Serological Evidence of Inter-Species Transmission of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Poultry, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ducks and in-contact backyard chickens on 20 smallholder backyard farms in 4 districts of Shiraz, Southwest of Iran, were monitored for antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus using hemagglutinationinhibition (HI test. A total of 200 unvaccinated ducks and backyard chickens were sampled. The mean H I titers and seroprevalence in ducks and backyard chickens were 8.3, 5.7 and 78.4, 62.9%, respectively. Results of this study revealed that the Scavenging ducks are the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses and play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection.

  2. Avian Influenza Surveillance in the Danube Delta Using Sentinel Geese and Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Daniel Narcis; Chereches, Razvan M.; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Valentine, Marissa A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus incursions from migrating birds have occurred multiple times in Romania since 2005. Beginning in September 2008 through April 2013, seasonal sentinel surveillance for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) using domestic geese (Anser cygnoides) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Danube Delta was established by placing 15 geese and 5 ducks at seven sites. Tracheal and cloacal swabs, and sera collections (starting in 2009) were taken monthly. We studied a total of 580 domestic birds and collected 5,520 cloacal and tracheal swabs from each and 2,760 sera samples. All swabs were studied with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for evidence of AIV. Serological samples were studied with hemagglutination inhibition assays against avian H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses. From 2009 to 2013, 47 swab specimens from Cot Candura, Enisala, and Saon screened positive for AIV; further subtyping demonstrated that 14 ducks and 20 geese had cloacal evidence of H5N3 carriage. Correspondingly, 4 to 12 weeks after these molecular detections, sentinel bird sera revealed elevated HI titers against H5 virus antigens. We posit that domestic bird surveillance is an effective method to conduct AIV surveillance among migrating birds in delta areas. PMID:24795823

  3. Newcastle disease in white Pekin ducks: response to experimental vaccination and challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nishizawa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 120 Pekin ducks were distributed at random into four experimental groups, vaccinated or not against Newcastle disease (ND: G1 (Ulster 2C strain, G2 (B1 strain, G3 (LaSota strain, and G4 (nonvaccinated group. At 60 days of age, all groups were challenged with a pathogenic ND virus (NDV suspension, and a group of specific pathogen free (SPF chicks (G5 was also inoculated. Cloacal and tracheal swabs from all birds were collected after six, 14, 20, and 30 days post-challenge for virus isolation. NDV was isolated in 100% of SPF chicks. Pekin ducks from all groups, vaccinated or not, did not show any ND clinical signs, demonstrating that these birds are not susceptible to ND clinical disease. In the control group (G4, the virus was isolated 20 to 30 days after challenge, suggesting their possible NDV carrier state. In the vaccinated groups, no virus was isolated. This demonstrates that vaccination of white Pekin ducks against NDV is important to reduce NDV shedding in the field.

  4. Immuno disc assay for screening duck hepatitis B surface antigen in serum, liver tissue and cultured hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. de Wilde (G.); R.A. Heijtink

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn immuno disc assay (IDA) for semi-quantitative analysis of the surface antigen (DHBsAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is described. Unpurified antigen preparations were adsorbed onto punched-out nitrocellulose membrane discs. Rabbit antiserum raised against serum-derived

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mottled duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, James C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1983-01-01

    The mottled duck is a mallard-like resident species of the Gulf of Mexico coast, from the marshes of Pearl River on the Lou i si ana-Ht ss t ss ipp i border to the Al varado Lagoon near Veracruz, Mexico (Bell rose 1976). The highest densities of nesting mottl ed ducks are found in brackish to fresh coastal marshes (H. Bateman, Louisiana Department of Wildl ife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge; pers , comm.). Mottled ducks also inhabit prairie land near prairie potholes in Texas and flooded rice fields in Texas (Engel ing 1950) and Louisiana (Linscombe 1972).

  6. Propidium Monoazide Integrated with qPCR Enables the Detection and Enumeration of Infectious Enteric RNA and DNA Viruses in Clam and Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M.; Fongaro, Gislaine; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-01-01

    The increase of foodborne viral outbreaks highlights the need for a rapid and sensitive method for the prediction of viral infectivity in food samples. This study assesses the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR methods (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) in the determination of viral infectivity in complex animal-related food matrices. Clam and Spanish fermented sausage (“chorizo”) samples were spiked with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) and mengovirus (vMC0). PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR discriminated infective virus particles, with significant reductions (>2.7 log10 or 99.7%). Additionally, infectious HAdV-2 and vMC0 were quantified by plaque assay (in plaque forming units, PFU), and compared with those in virus genomes copies (GCs) quantified by PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR. A consistent correlation (R2 > 0.92) was showed between PFU and GCs along serial 10-fold dilutions in both DNA and RNA virus and in both food matrices. This study shows the use of PMA coupled to qPCR/RT-qPCR as a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in food samples in comparison to more expensive and time-consuming methods and for those viruses that are not able to grow under available cell culture techniques. PMID:28018329

  7. Propidium Monoazide Integrated with qPCR Enables the Detection and Enumeration of Infectious Enteric RNA and DNA Viruses in Clam and Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M; Fongaro, Gislaine; Barardi, Célia R M; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-01-01

    The increase of foodborne viral outbreaks highlights the need for a rapid and sensitive method for the prediction of viral infectivity in food samples. This study assesses the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR methods (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) in the determination of viral infectivity in complex animal-related food matrices. Clam and Spanish fermented sausage ("chorizo") samples were spiked with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) and mengovirus (vMC0). PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR discriminated infective virus particles, with significant reductions (>2.7 log10 or 99.7%). Additionally, infectious HAdV-2 and vMC0 were quantified by plaque assay (in plaque forming units, PFU), and compared with those in virus genomes copies (GCs) quantified by PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR. A consistent correlation (R(2) > 0.92) was showed between PFU and GCs along serial 10-fold dilutions in both DNA and RNA virus and in both food matrices. This study shows the use of PMA coupled to qPCR/RT-qPCR as a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in food samples in comparison to more expensive and time-consuming methods and for those viruses that are not able to grow under available cell culture techniques.

  8. Propidium monoazide integrated with qPCR enables the detection and enumeration of infectious enteric RNA and DNA viruses in clam and fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso M Quijada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of foodborne viral outbreaks highlights the need for a rapid and sensitive method for the prediction of viral infectivity in food samples. This study assesses the use of propidium monoazide (PMA coupled with real-time PCR methods (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively in the determination of viral infectivity in complex animal-related food matrices. Clam and Spanish fermented sausage (chorizo samples were spiked with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2 and mengovirus (vMC0. PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR discriminated infective virus particles, with significant reductions (>2.7 log10 or 99.7%. Additionally, infectious HAdV-2 and vMC0 were quantified by plaque assay (in plaque forming units, PFU, and compared with those in virus genomes copies (GCs quantified by PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR. A consistent correlation (R2 > 0.92 was showed between PFU and GCs along serial ten-fold dilutions in both DNA and RNA virus and in both food matrices. This study shows the use of PMA coupled to qPCR/RT-qPCR as a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in food samples in comparison to more expensive and time-consuming methods and for those viruses that are not able to grow under available cell culture techniques.

  9. DETECTION OF NOVEL DUCK REOVIRUS USING SYBR GREEN II FLUORESCENT QUANTITATIVE PCR ASSAY%一种新型鸭呼肠孤病毒SYBR Green II荧光定量PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明洋; 戚伟强; 陈宗艳; 朱杰; 吴巧梅; 缪秋红; 李传峰; 吴润; 刘光清

    2016-01-01

    To develop a fast, sensitive, specific SYBR Green II fluorescent quantitative PCR assay for detecting Novel duck reovirus (NDRV) infection, S1 gene was amplified in RT-PCR from the NDRV infected-duck tissues, and cloned into pET-30a vector. The resulting recombinant plasmid was used as the template for making a standard curve. Subsequently, the sensitivity and specificity of the SYBR Green II fluorescent quantitative PCR assay that was developed were determined. The results showed that the NDRV real-time PCR assay had a dynamic range of detection between 101 and 108 copies/μL with a sensitivity of 10 copies/μL. There was no cross reaction with H5 subtype Avian influenza virus, H9 subtype Avian influenza virus, Infectious bronchitis virus, Duck hepatitis virus type C, New castle disease virus, Goose parvovirus and Duck viral enteritis. In conclusion, a SYBR Green II fluorescent quantitative PCR assay has been developed for quantification of NDRV, which can be sued for investigating the pathogenesis of NDRV.%该研究旨在建立一种快速、敏感和特异性检测新型鸭呼肠孤病毒(Novel duck reovirus,NDRV)的荧光定量PCR诊断方法。本实验以感染新型鸭呼肠孤病毒的鸭组织RNA提取物为模板,根据GenBank数据库中呼肠孤病毒S1基因全序列,设计合成了一对特异性引物,PCR扩增基因片段,将其克隆至pET-30a载体,重组质粒测序并进行同源性分析;以阳性质粒为模板,建立SYBR Green II荧光定量PCR检测方法,并进行敏感性和特异性检测。经测序证实扩增片段与预期目的片段相符,所建立的SYBR Green II荧光定量PCR检测S1的反应在101~108 copies/uL之间具有良好的线性关系,反应的检出下限为10 copies/μL,而H5型禽流感病毒、H9型禽流感病毒、鸡传染性支气管炎病毒、C型鸭肝炎病毒、新城疫病毒、鹅细小病毒、鸭瘟病毒等病毒的检测为阴性,表明该方法敏感、特异

  10. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  11. 南方樱桃谷种鸭主要流行疫病的调查及分析%Surveillance and Analysis of Major Epidemics in Cherry Valley Breeding Duck in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅光华; 黄瑜; 陈红梅; 程龙飞; 彭春香; 刘炳煌; 杨德铵; 万春和; 施少华; 傅秋玲; 庄晓东; 林建生; 林芳

    2012-01-01

    为了解樱桃谷种鸭不同生长饲养阶段主要传染病的流行情况,对中国南方地区饲养的不同日龄的樱桃谷种鸭开展了重要病原的感染调查。结果显示,4周龄内的育雏期樱桃谷种鸭主要发生鸭传染性浆膜炎、鸭Ⅰ型病毒性肝炎和鸭大肠杆菌病,5~21周龄的育成期樱桃谷种鸭主要为鸭大肠杆菌、鸭疫里默氏杆菌、鸭圆环病毒感染,鸭霍乱和新城疫也时有发生,产蛋期樱桃谷种鸭主要发生鸭大肠杆菌病,同时还有坦布苏病毒病和鸭圆环病毒感染。可见,近年来中国南方樱桃谷鸭群疫病发生日趋复杂,形势严峻,且不同生长阶段的疫病发生情况不尽相同,为樱桃谷种鸭主要流行疫病的防控提供科学依据。%To investigate the prevalence of major epidemics in cherry valley ducks in southern China,the author detected infectious agents in samples of cherry valley duck in different growth period collected from southern China.The results showed that:the major infectious diseases occurred among brooding cherry valley ducks(1-4-week-old) were mainly duck infectious serositis,duck viral hepatitis type Ⅰ and duck E.coli.Cherry valley ducks during growing-finishing period(5-21-week-old) were mainly infected with duck E.coli,R.anatipestifer and duck circovirus,from which avian Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also isolated occasionally.Cherry valley ducks during laying period were mostly infected with duck E.coli,and also could be infected with duck tembusu virus or duck circovirus.The results indicated that the situation of epidemics in cherry valley duck was becoming increasingly complex and grim,and the infectious agents in different growth stages were not the same.The surveillance of epidemics would be helpful for the prevention and control of diseases in cherry valley duck.

  12. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Duck nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary report of the 1991 duck nest survey at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Key areas of the refuge were nest searched during the period between May 25th and July...

  13. Nowitna NWR duck production survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a duck production survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The survey employed a stratified...

  14. Koyukuk NWR 1985 duck brood survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a duck brood survey that was conducted in the area within the boundaries of the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and the Kaiyuh...

  15. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). ...

  16. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  17. Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Johanna; Toranzos, Gary A

    2003-03-01

    It is known that soil is a recipient of solid wastes able to contain enteric pathogens in high concentrations. Although the role of soil as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in question, recent findings show that soil may have a larger role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously thought. Many of the diseases caused by agents from soil have been well characterized, although enteric diseases and their link to soil have not been so well studied. Gastrointestinal infections are the most common diseases caused by enteric bacteria. Some examples are salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.), cholera ( Vibrio cholerae), dysentery ( Shigella sp.) and other infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia sp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and many other strains. Viruses are the most hazardous and have some of the lowest infectious doses of any of the enteric pathogens. Hepatitis A, hepatitis E, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus types 1 and 2, multiple strains of echoviruses and coxsackievirus are enteric viruses associated with human wastewater. Among the most commonly detected protozoa in sewage are Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This article reviews the existing literature of more than two decades on waste disposal practices that favor the entry of enteric pathogens to soil and the possible consequent role of the soil as a vector and reservoir of enteric pathogens.

  18. Sequencing and Analysis Genome of a Ⅵb Subgenotype of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Semi-Muscovy Duck%基因Ⅵb亚型半番鸭源新城疫病毒基因组测序及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋芳; 孙敏华; 陈少莺; 吕殿红; 董嘉文; 尚毅; 吴玄光; 胡奇林

    2012-01-01

    Based on the genome sequence of newcastle disease virus(NDV) published in GenBank,nine pairs of gene-specific primers were designed to amplify cDNA of FJ-SMD-03 strain isolated from Semi-Muscovy duck in Fuzhou, Fujian ,then sequecing and analysis were performed. The results showed that FJ-SMD-03 was 15 192 nucleotides in length which consisted of six ORFs in the order of 3'leader-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5 'trailer and it had six nucleotides longer than Lasota strain in non-coding region of NP gene. The genome shared the highest similarity of the nucleotide with 1.3, carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/2008, pi-geon/Italy/1166/00, AV324/96 and dove/Italy/2736/00 (94.9% - 98. 5% ), and shared the lowest similarity of the nucleotide with vaccine strain Lasota, Mukteswar and Bl (80. 7% -83. 3% ) , whereas it shared lower similarity of the nucleotide with strain F^Eg and Muscovy duck/China ( Fujian )/FPl/02, Subgenotype Vlld, velogenic, isolated from Muscovy duck in Fujian during 2002 for 82. 5% and 87. 1% respectively. The motif of cleavage site region of F gene was "2 R-R-Q-K-R-F117, which was the sequencesignature of virulent strain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FJ-SMD-03 belonged to subgenotype Vib, Class II , which was the first report of the subgenotype Vib virulent NDV strain isolated from Semi-Muscovy duck. FJ-SMD-03 was closely associated with 1. 3 , carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/2008 and pigeon/Ita-ly/1166/00 and formed a secondary branch in the phylogenetic tree with carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/ 2008,which suggested that FJ-SMD-03,carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/2008 and pigeon/Italy/1166/00 came from the same origin, which might be due to virus carried by pigeons.%根据GenBank上发布的新城疫病毒基因组序列,设计了9对引物,对从福建福州地区发病半番鸭场分离的新城疫病毒FJ-SMD-03株进行了基因组cDNA扩增测序和分析.结果表明:FJ-SMD-03的基因组序列由15 192 nt组成,在NP基因非编码区比Lasota株多了6

  19. Arsenic residue in the products and by-products of chicken and ducks: a possible concern of avian health and environmental hazard to the population in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Samanta, Srikanta; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Arsenicosis caused due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic on chicken and duck in an arsenic endemic zone. The concentration of arsenic was higher in chicken and duck feed and their by-products than that in the respective samples of control area. Arsenic concentration in the eggs of both chicken and duck was higher than that in the respective samples of control area. Thus, we concluded that arsenic enters into food chain through the intake of contaminated eggs. Furthermore, adverse health effect of arsenic on avian population is due to the alteration in haematobiochemical indices.

  20. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  1. The development of a rapid SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR for detection of Duck circovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chunxiang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction assay based on SYBR Green I for detection of a broad range of duck circovirus (DuCV. Align with all DuCV complete genome sequences and other Genus Circovirus download from the GenBank (such as goose circovirus, pigeon circovirus, the primers targets to the replicate gene of DuCV were designed. The detection assay was linear in the range of 1.31 × 102-1.31 × 107 copies/μL. The reaction efficiency of the assay using the slope (the slope was -3.349 and the Y-intercept was 37.01 from the linear equation was estimated to be 0.99 and the correlation coefficient (R2 was 0.993. A series of experiments were carried out to assess the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the assay, following by the low intra-assay and inter-assay CVs for CT values obtained with the standard plasmids. The intra-assay CVs were equal or less than 1.89% and the inter-assay CVs were equal or less than 1.26%. There was no cross-reaction occurred with nucleic acids extracted from RA (Riemerella anatipestifer, E. coli (Escherichia coli, Duck Cholera (Pasteurella multocida, Avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, Duck reovirus, Duck hepatitis A virus as control templates. The nucleic acids extracted from samples of healthy ducks were used as negative controls. The assay was specific and reproducible. The established real time PCR was used to detect 45 DuCV-negative samples, which were tested using conventional PCR under the developed optimal conditions, each 15 for embryonated eggs, non-embryonated budgerigar eggs, newly hatched duck, the mixture of the lung, liver, spleen which were analysis for the presence of DuCV DNA, to conform that whether the DuCV can be transmitted vertically. Meanwhile, no positive result was shown by the real-time PCR method. The SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR can therefore be practically used as an alternative diagnostic tool and

  2. 1988 Duck nesting study: Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer, 1988, we conducted a duck nesting study to determine nest success for ducks at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). We calculated nest...

  3. 水貂肠炎病毒双抗体夹心ELISA检测方法的建立%Establishment of double antibody sandwich ELISA for detection of mink enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建科; 程世鹏; 易立; 杨莘; 罗彬; 许红丽; 闫喜军; 武华

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(DAS-ELISA) for detection of mink enteritis virus(MEV),anti-MEV monoclonal antibody and rabbit anti-MEV polyclonal antibody were used as the capture antibody and detecting antibody,respectively. The optimal dilution of the capture antibody and the detecting antibody capable of detecting MEV antigens were 1: 20 and 1: 3 200 in the check-board titration respectively. Positive samples with MEV,Aleutian mink disease virus and canine distemper virus were examined by the established ELISA respectively. In result,the developed DAS-ELISA had good specificity. A total of 158 samples were tested both by the developed DAS-ELISA and by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). 40 of the tested samples were positive by the developed ADS-ELISA and 44 by PCR. The specificity and sensitivity of the developed DAS-ELISA were 95.6 %and 79.5 %, respectively. The coincidental rate between the developed DAS-ELISA and PCR was 91.1%. These results indicated that the developed DAS-ELISA was suitable for rapid detection and epidemiological investigation of MEV infection in mink.%以抗水貂肠炎病毒(mink enteritis virus,MEV)单克隆抗体为捕获抗体、兔抗MEV多克隆抗体为检测抗体,建立了MEV双抗体夹心ELISA检测方法.该方法用于MEV抗原的检测.经过试验,单克隆抗体的最适稀释度为1:20,兔抗MEV多克隆抗体的最适稀释度为1:3200.用该ELISA方法分别检测MEV、水貂阿留中病痛毒、犬瘟热病毒样品.结果表明,ELISA方法具有良好的特异性.用该ELISA和PCR同时检测158份临床样品,其中ELISA检测40份为阳性,PCR检测44份为阳性,该ELISA的特异性和敏感性分别为95.6%和79.5%,这2种方法的符合率为91.1%.该方法的建立为MEV的检测及水貂病毒性肠炎的流行病学调查提供了工具.

  4. 鸭副黏病毒和鸭圆环病毒二重荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a Duplex Real-time PCR Assay for Detection of Duck Paramyxovirus and Duck Circovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宗丽; 谢芝勋; 谢丽基; 刘加波; 谢志勤; 庞耀珊; 邓显文; 范晴

    2013-01-01

    根据鸭副黏病毒(DPMV)和鸭圆环病毒(DuCV)保守基因序列,设计了2对针对鸭副黏病毒和鸭圆环病毒的特异性引物和2条不同荧光基团标记的TaqMan探针,建立了鸭副黏病毒和鸭圆环病毒的二重荧光定量PCR检测方法.该方法敏感性好,对鸭副黏病毒和鸭圆环病毒的检测敏感性分别达到1 60和140个拷贝数;该方法特异性强,对鸭肝炎病毒、番鸭细小病毒、鸭瘟病毒和H9型禽流感病毒等病原体的检测全为阴性;应用该方法对118份临床病料进行检测,结果检出鸭副黏病毒和鸭圆环病毒阳性感染率分别为0.85%和8.47%,无混合感染.本试验建立的二重荧光定量PCR具有快速、特异、敏感和重复性好等优点,适用于鸭副黏病毒和鸭圆环病毒的快速诊断和监测.%A duplex Real-time polymerase chain reaction(drRT-PCR) assay was developed and optimized to simultaneously detect duck paramyxovirus and duck circovirus in one reaction. Two sets of specific primers for duck paramyxovirus and duck circovirus, along with two TaqMan probes specific for each virus were used in the assay. This drRT-PCR assay was found to be specific and be able to detect and differentiate duck paramyxovirus and duck circovirus, and no positive results were observed, when nucleic acid from duck hepatitis virus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck plague virus and H9 subtype avian influenza virus and so on were used as drRT-PCR templates. The sensitivity of this drRT-PCR assay was 160 and 140 copies for duck paramyxovirus and duck circovirus, respectivly. The drRT-PCR assay was applied to 118 clinical samples detection. Among these samples, duck paramyxovirus positive rate was 0. 85%, duck circovirus positive tate was 8. 47%, no co-infection. This drRT-PCR assay was a quick, sensitive and specific test for detecting duck paramyxovirus and duck circovirus,and would be useful for the control of these viruses in ducks.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Mink Enteritis Virus MEV-ZJ1 Strain%致病性水貂肠炎病毒MEV-ZJ1株的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭斌; 陈微晶; 武华

    2011-01-01

    自临床疑似水貂病毒性肠炎发病貂的粪便中分离出1株病毒,经病毒形态观察、理化特性检测、血清学、聚合酶链式反应(PCR)和动物试验鉴定表明,该分离毒为水貂肠炎病毒(mink enteritis virus,MEV),命名为MEV-ZJ1株.用分离毒接种水貂,试验动物均表现出典型水貂病毒性肠炎临床症状.研究表明,MEV-ZJ1分离株对水貂具有致病性,是1株强毒,为进一步开展该病毒流行病学、致病机理、疫苗免疫与诊断检测的研究奠定了基础.%A virus strain was isolated from feces of a mink suspected MEV infection. It was demonstrated to be MEV by morphology, physical and chemical properties, serum test, PCR and animal test,and it was named MEV-ZJ1. Minks were artificially infected by MEV-ZJ1 developed obvious symptoms of enteritis post-inoculation. The MEV-ZJ1 strain was virulent for minks. The successful isolation of MEV-ZJ1 provided a basis for further search on epidemiology, pathogenesis, vaccination and diagnostic.

  6. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  7. Leukocyte-derived IFN-α/β and epithelial IFN-λ constitute a compartmentalized mucosal defense system that restricts enteric virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel Mahlakõiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells are a major port of entry for many viruses, but the molecular networks which protect barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. Viral infections induce simultaneous production of type I (IFN-α/β and type III (IFN-λ interferons. All nucleated cells are believed to respond to IFN-α/β, whereas IFN-λ responses are largely confined to epithelial cells. We observed that intestinal epithelial cells, unlike hematopoietic cells of this organ, express only very low levels of functional IFN-α/β receptors. Accordingly, after oral infection of IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice, human reovirus type 3 specifically infected cells in the lamina propria but, strikingly, did not productively replicate in gut epithelial cells. By contrast, reovirus replicated almost exclusively in gut epithelial cells of IFN-λ receptor-deficient mice, suggesting that the gut mucosa is equipped with a compartmentalized IFN system in which epithelial cells mainly respond to IFN-λ that they produce after viral infection, whereas other cells of the gut mostly rely on IFN-α/β for antiviral defense. In suckling mice with IFN-λ receptor deficiency, reovirus replicated in the gut epithelium and additionally infected epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, indicating that infants may use IFN-λ for the control of virus infections in various epithelia-rich tissues. Thus, IFN-λ should be regarded as an autonomous virus defense system of the gut mucosa and other epithelial barriers that may have evolved to avoid unnecessarily frequent triggering of the IFN-α/β system which would induce exacerbated inflammation.

  8. Simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with gastroenteritis by use of a PCR assay: a single real-time multiplex reaction and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yixiang; Fang, Lin; Shi, Xiaolu; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Yinghui; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Chen, Qingliang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Li; Hu, Qinghua

    2014-04-01

    We developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription and multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay that can identify five viruses, including six genogroups, in a single reaction: norovirus genogroups I and II; sapovirus genogroups I, II, IV, and V; human rotavirus A; adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41; and human astrovirus. In comparison to monoplex rtPCR assays, the sensitivities and specificities of the multiplex rtPCR ranged from 75% to 100% and from 99% to 100%, respectively, evaluated on 812 clinical stool specimens.

  9. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and relationship among some Chinese domestic ducks and wild ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Feihuan; ZUO Zhenghong; CHEN Mei; SONG Yueqiang; L(U) Liangju; CHEN Yixin

    2006-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphic(AFLP)technique was used to analyze the genome DNA polymorphism among 8 breeds of domestic ducks and 2 species of wild ducks.Nine of the 17 selected primers pairs gave reproducible polymorphic DNA amplification bands.The amplified bands ranged from 44 to 83 per primer pair.Of the 513 AFLP markers obtained.498 were polymorphic.The proportion of polymorphic loci was 97.1%.The genetic distance(D)and similarity coefficients(GS)were calculated based on the polymorphic data.Between domestic ducks D ranged from 0.331 to 0.589,while between domestic ducks and the wild ducks,it ranged from 0.298 to 0.520(vs.Anas Platyrhynchos)and from 0.316 to 0.522(vs.A.Poecilorhyncha),respectively.The variance analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups of data,which indicated that both mallard and spot-billed ducks made contributions to domestic duck evolution.A dendrogram was constructed according to the D value.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of enteric viruses in shallow ground water and factors affecting well vulnerability to microbiological contamination in Worcester and Wicomico counties, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Klohe, Cheryl A.; Battigelli, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the water-table aquifer in the Coastal Plain in Worcester and Wicomico Counties, Maryland.Two hundred seventy-eight well sites were evaluated with regard to simulated ground-water flow paths, land use, natural soils groups, and well characteristics, such as well depth and well age. Flow and transport simulations of the water-table aquifer indicated that wells screened less than about 50 feet below land surface (shallow wells) were most vulnerable to surface contamination, which in some cases could originate from as far as 2,000 feet upgradient of the well. Animal-feeding and agricultural-storage operations were considered among the most likely sources for viral contamination; therefore, sites close to these activities were considered most vulnerable. Soil groups were evaluated with regard to depth to water and moisture-holding capacity. Wells with shallow depths to water or in very sandy soils were considered more vulnerable to contamination than deep wells (greater than 50 feet) and those completed in finer-grained soils. Older wells and wells where coliform bacteria had been detected in the past were classified as highly vulnerable. On the basis of this evaluation, 27 sites considered to be susceptible were sampled.Samples were collected by pumping up to 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect nonculturable viruses; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci

  11. Identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a genotype XIV Newcastle disease virus from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a m...

  12. E. coli enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000296.htm E. coli enteritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. E. coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from ...

  13. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Vinkler, Michal; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey and enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). The resistance to ALV-J in a great majority of examined galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of NHE1, and genetic polymorphisms around this site predict the susceptibility or resistance of a given species or individual. In this study, we examined the NHE1 polymorphism in domestic chicken breeds and documented quantitative differences in their susceptibility to ALV-J in vitro. In a panel of chicken breeds assembled with the aim to cover the maximum variability encountered in domestic chickens, we found a completely uniform sequence of NHE1 extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) without any source of genetic variation for the selection of ALV-J-resistant poultry. In parallel, we studied the natural polymorphisms of NHE1 in wild ducks and geese because of recent reports on ALV-J positivity in feral Asian species. In anseriform species, we demonstrate a specific and highly conserved critical ECL1 sequence without any homologue of tryptophan 38 in accordance with the resistance of duck cells to prototype ALV-J. Last, we demonstrated that the new Asian strains of ALV-J have not evolved their envelope glycoprotein to the entry the duck cells. Our results contribute substantially to the current discussion of possible heterotransmission of ALV-J and its spill-over into the wild ducks and geese.

  14. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Reinišová

    Full Text Available J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey and enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1. The resistance to ALV-J in a great majority of examined galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of NHE1, and genetic polymorphisms around this site predict the susceptibility or resistance of a given species or individual. In this study, we examined the NHE1 polymorphism in domestic chicken breeds and documented quantitative differences in their susceptibility to ALV-J in vitro. In a panel of chicken breeds assembled with the aim to cover the maximum variability encountered in domestic chickens, we found a completely uniform sequence of NHE1 extracellular loop 1 (ECL1 without any source of genetic variation for the selection of ALV-J-resistant poultry. In parallel, we studied the natural polymorphisms of NHE1 in wild ducks and geese because of recent reports on ALV-J positivity in feral Asian species. In anseriform species, we demonstrate a specific and highly conserved critical ECL1 sequence without any homologue of tryptophan 38 in accordance with the resistance of duck cells to prototype ALV-J. Last, we demonstrated that the new Asian strains of ALV-J have not evolved their envelope glycoprotein to the entry the duck cells. Our results contribute substantially to the current discussion of possible heterotransmission of ALV-J and its spill-over into the wild ducks and geese.

  15. Effect of oral immunization with inactivated avian influenza virus and adjuvant on the antibody secreting cells in duck digestive tract%禽流感灭活抗原与佐剂配合饮水免疫对鸭消化道抗体分泌细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红丽; 康海泓; 杨倩

    2012-01-01

    为探讨鸭源禽流感灭活抗原与佐剂配合饮水免疫雏鸭的效果,应用鸭源禽流感灭活抗原与复合黏膜免疫佐剂( CpG和/或葡萄糖)饮水免疫雏鸭,检测消化道(主要是咽和小肠)抗体分泌细胞的变化.首先分别从鸭的胆汁和血清中粗提免疫球蛋白A(IgA)和IgG,经纯化后制备了兔抗鸭IgA和IgG,然后应用免疫组化技术显示鸭消化道IgA和IgG分泌细胞.试验结果表明:用禽流感灭活抗原配合CpG和/或葡萄糖饮水免疫后3、5和7周,消化道黏膜局部IgA分泌细胞面积均显著或极显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),IgG分泌细胞(除首免后第3和7周小肠外)极显著升高(P<0.01).而单独用禽流感灭活抗原和用葡萄糖配合禽流感灭活抗原饮水免疫对消化道局部免疫水平影响不大.结论:鸭源禽流感灭活抗原配合免疫佐剂饮水免疫能够提高雏鸭消化道局部免疫水平.%In order to evaluate the effects of oral immunization with the inactivated avian influenza virus (iAIV) vaccine with adjuvant on ducklings. The area of IgA and IgG secreting cells in the digestive tract (mainly pharynx and small intestine) were detected after oral immunization with iAIV and adjuvant CpG with or without glucose. First, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG was isolated from duck bile and serum respectively, and rabbit antiserum was isolated from inoculated rabbits by purified IgA and IgG. The antibody secreting cells were showed by SPA-HRP immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that the area of IgA and IgG secreting cells( except for the 3rd and 7th week in small intestine) increased significantly (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01)at the weeks 3rd,5th and 7th after oral immunization with iAIV and adjuvant CpG with/without glucose. No significant changes were found in the ducks immunized with iAIV only or iAIV and glucose. Conclusion;the oral immunization with iAIV together with adjuvants could elict local immune re sponse in the digestive tract

  16. Transmission of avian influenza A viruses among species in an artificial barnyard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna E Achenbach

    Full Text Available Waterfowl and shorebirds harbor and shed all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses and interact in nature with a broad range of other avian and mammalian species to which they might transmit such viruses. Estimating the efficiency and importance of such cross-species transmission using epidemiological approaches is difficult. We therefore addressed this question by studying transmission of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses from infected ducks to other common animals in a quasi-natural laboratory environment designed to mimic a common barnyard. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos recently infected with H5N2 or H7N3 viruses were introduced into a room housing other mallards plus chickens, blackbirds, rats and pigeons, and transmission was assessed by monitoring virus shedding (ducks or seroconversion (other species over the following 4 weeks. Additional animals of each species were directly inoculated with virus to characterize the effect of a known exposure. In both barnyard experiments, virus accumulated to high titers in the shared water pool. The H5N2 virus was transmitted from infected ducks to other ducks and chickens in the room either directly or through environmental contamination, but not to rats or blackbirds. Ducks infected with the H7N2 virus transmitted directly or indirectly to all other species present. Chickens and blackbirds directly inoculated with these viruses shed significant amounts of virus and seroconverted; rats and pigeons developed antiviral antibodies, but, except for one pigeon, failed to shed virus.

  17. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  18. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class I gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG; WEI-JIE LIU; JIA-QIANG WU; MIN-LI XU; ZHENG-JIE KONG; YAN-YAN HUANG; SHAO-HUA YANG

    2017-06-01

    To enrich gene polymorphism ofDuMHCI and provide data for further studies on disease resistance, 14DuMHCI genes from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overallconservation of the 14 alleles could be observed within the sequences, and relative conservation were also displayed in the peptide-binding domain and CD8 interaction sites. Based on full-length amino acid homology, MHC class I fromdifferent duck lines could be divided into 13 gene groups and three novel gene groups existed.Moreover, 14 key variable residues corresponding to gene groups division were exhibited on the homology modelling constructed based on theresolved protein structure of DuMHC I. This study explicit the characteristics of DuMHC I in the two duck lines and could contribute to design effective diagnostics and vaccines for the species against various infections.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis enters a viable but non-cultivable (persistent) state within herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) co-infected host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Srilekha; Vanover, Jennifer; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Whittimore, Judy; Howett, Mary K; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Schoborg, Robert V

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that double infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis occurs in vivo. We hypothesized that co-infection would alter replication of these agents. To test this hypothesis, HeLa cells were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E, followed 24 h later by HSV-2 strain 333. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses indicated that, by 10 h after HSV addition, reticulate bodies (RBs) in co-infected cells were swollen, aberrantly shaped and electron-lucent. In infectious titre assays, HSV-2 co-infection abrogated production of infectious chlamydial progeny. Western blot analyses indicated that accumulation of chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was decreased by HSV co-infection while accumulation of chlamydial heat-shock protein 60-1 (HSP60-1) was increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments indicated that chlamydial genome copy number was unaltered by HSV-2 superinfection. Semi-quantitative, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) experiments demonstrated that levels of chlamydial groEL, ftsK, ftsW, dnaA and unprocessed 16S rRNA transcripts were not changed by HSV-2 super-infection. These data indicate that HSV-2 superinfection drives chlamydia into a viable but non-cultivable state, which is the hallmark of persistence. Because chlamydial HSP60-1 has been associated with immunopathology in vivo, these results also suggest that disease severity might be increased in co-infected individuals.

  20. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days.

  1. Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-11

    envelopes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Semliki Forest vims (SFV) can bind to the hemagglutinin of influenza virus present on the surface of...Sialyloligosaccharides (Paulson et al,1979) Newcastle disease virus Vesicular stomatitis virus Sialyloligosaccharides (Paulson.1979) Phosphatidylserine (Schlegel et...and others Canine coronavirus Enteric infection Feline enteric coronavirus Enteric infection Feline infectious peritonitis virus Respiratory

  2. [Water provisions for Muscovy ducks--behaviour at duck showers and modified plasson drinkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Andreas; Hänsch, Friederike; Hartung, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism are serious problems in keeping Moscovy ducks. Prevention of feather pecking by regularly applied beak and claw trimming are increasingly criticised by the public. The recommendation of the Council of Europe (COE) for the keeping of Muscovy ducks in farming systems calls for environmental enrichment including water for preening and bathing after December 31,2010. A total of 126 female Muscovy ducks (not beak nor claw trimmed) from commercial breeding lines were kept for 63 resp. 70 days in four compartments with 15-16 ducks each during two production cycles. Two pens where equipped either with duck showers or open water facility (modified Plasson drinker). Water provisions were made available for the ducks four hours daily at working days from their fifth week of life until slaughter. Behaviour at the water provision was registered and analysed for the number of ducks being engaged with water (944 hours recordings over 59 days from four pens analysed in five-minute-intervals (11,540 observations). Additionally 858 feather preening bouts (five a day for each compartment) were analysed for the duration of feather preening behaviour at the water provision. From the fifth to the tenth week of life the mean percentage of animals of a pen was significantly higher at the open trough (trough: 8,3% (+/-5,37); shower: 4.9% (+/-6.1), Mann-Whitney p animals observed at both water provisions increased with age. Nonetheless only ten percent of the feather preening behaviour exceeded five minutes. Most animals made use of water in the first hour of the time period when water was provided. In the first weeks of water provision open water troughs were used more often and preening behaviour was longer. When given the choice, younger ducks preferred open drinkers to showers while older ducks showed a higher preference for the duck showers. In future it may be useful to elaborate whether a combination of open water troughs in the first few weeks of the

  3. Diagnostics and intervention strategies for the control and prevention of viral enteric diseases in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent enteric virus surveys have revealed the presence of multiple viruses in turkeys and chickens in the United States, often in samples obtained from the same flock or bird. Complicating the picture considerably is the fact that many of the viruses implicated in enteric disease syndromes are rout...

  4. Pediatric enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, David; Kazmerski, Kimberly; Iyer, Kishore

    2006-01-01

    Common to all pediatric patients receiving enteral nutrition is the inability to consume calories orally. This is often secondary to issues of inadequate weight gain, inadequate growth, prolonged feeding times, weight loss, a decrease in weight/age or weight/height ratios, or a persistent triceps skinfold thickness <5% for age. Enteral nutrition requires enteral access. In the neonatal period the nasoenteric route is usually used. In pediatric patients requiring long-term enteral access, surgically, endoscopically, or radiologically placed percutaneous feeding tubes are common. Jejunal feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients with gastric feeding intolerance or persistent gastroesophageal reflux. Low-profile enteral access devices are preferred by most pediatric patients because of their cosmetic appearance. For most children, a standard pediatric polypeptide enteral formula is well tolerated. There are specialized pediatric enteral formulas available for patients with decreased intestinal length, altered intestinal absorptive capacity, or altered pancreatic function. Weaning patients from tube feeding to oral nutrition is the ultimate nutrition goal. A multidisciplinary approach to patients with short bowel syndrome will maximize the use of enteral nutrition while preserving parenteral nutrition for patients with true enteral nutrition therapy failure.

  5. 密码子优化型鸭甲肝病毒VP1基因在昆虫细胞中的表达%ENHANCED EXPRESSION OF CODON-OPTIMIZED VP1 GENE OF DUCK HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN INSECT CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传峰; 陈宗艳; 孟春春; 梁瑞英; 胡文; 刘光清

    2014-01-01

    为了提高基因A型鸭甲肝病毒(Duck hepatitis A virus,DHAV)VP1基因在昆虫细胞中的表达水平,本研究根据昆虫细胞密码子偏爱性对野生型DHAV VP1(wtVP1)基因进行改造,合成了optiVP1基因,并利用Bac-to-Bac表达系统构建了重组杆状病毒rBacmid-wtVP1和rBacmid-optiVP1,分别转染对数生长期的sf9昆虫细胞表达VP1蛋白。转染72 h后,sf9细胞出现典型的细胞病变(cytopathic effect,CPE), Western-blot和间接免疫荧光法(indirect immunofluorescence assay,IFA)检测结果表明VP1蛋白在重组杆状病毒感染的sf9昆虫细胞中获得了良好表达。用Image J软件对Western-blot扫描的图片进行灰度分析发现, optiVP1基因在昆虫细胞中的表达水平明显高于wtVP1。本研究为进一步研制诊断抗原和新型基因工程疫苗的开发奠定了基础。%The objective of the present study was to enhance expression level of VP1 gene of Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) genotype A in insect cells by manipulating the codon usage bias. The codon usage of wild-type DHAV VP1 (wtVP1) gene was optimized and designated as optiVP1. The recombinant rBacmid-optiVP1 and rBacmid-wtVP1 plasmids were then constructed using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system (BEVS) and then transfected to sf9 insect cells at logarithmic phase for expression of VP1 protein. The typical cytopathic effect was observed in sf9 cells at 72 h post transfection. The expression of VP1 protein in sf9 cells was confirmed in Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The VP1 amounts on Western blotting were measured using the software Image J. The expression level of optiVP1 gene was significantly increased as compared with wtVP1 gene. This study provided a basis for development of diagnostic reagents and genetically engineered novel vaccines for DHAV.

  6. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  7. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ye Zhuang

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV, and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV. The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks.

  8. Molecular characteristic and pathogenicity of Indonesian H5N1 clade 2.3.2 viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmayanti NLPI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of disease in late 2012 in Indonesia caused high duck mortality. The agent of the disease was identified as H5N1 clade 2.3.2. The disease caused economic loss to the Indonesian duck farmer. The clade 2.3.2 of H5N1 virus has not previously been identified, so this study was conducted to characterize 4 of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 viruses by DNA sequencing in eight genes segment virus namely HA, NA, NS, M, PB1, PB2, PA and NP. The pathogenicity test of clade 2.3.2 viruses in ducks was compared to clade 2.1.3 viruses which predominat circulating in Indonesia. Results of phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the four of clade 2.3.2 viruses isolated in 2012 was the new introduced virus from abroad. Further analysis showed eight genes were in one group with the clade 2.3.2 viruses, especially those from VietNam and did not belong to Indonesia viruses group. The pathogenicity test in ducks showed that virus H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and clade 2.1.3 have similar clinical symptoms and pathogenicity and cause death in 75% of ducks on days 3-6 after infection.

  9. Protection level of AI H5N1 vaccine clade 2.1.3 commercial against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus from Ducks to SPF chicken in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriani R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 has infected chickens in farms, causing mortality and a decrease in egg production. Vaccination is one of the strategies to control disease of AI subtype H5N1. AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccine is available commercially. The effectiveness of two vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A and B, and AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo virus SPF chickens was tested in laboratory. Four groups of SPF chickens were used in this study, there were (1 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A, (2 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product B, (3 vaccinated with AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and (4 unvaccinated (as a control. Each vaccinated group consisted of 10 chicken except 8 chicken for control group. SPF chicken were vaccinated with 1 dose of vaccine at 3 weeks olds, and then after 3 weeks post vaccination (at 6 weeks olds. All group of chicken were challenged with 106 EID50 per 0.1 ml via intranasal. The results showed, chicken vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A and B gave 100 and 80% protection respectively, but showed challenged virus shedding, whereas vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 gave 100% protection from mortality and without virus shedding. Vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A was better than vaccine product B, and when chicken vaccinated against H5N1 clade 2.3.2, H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine was the best to be used. In order to protect chicken from AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 in the field, a bivalent vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 subtypes should be developed.

  10. Molecular Characteristics Analysis of D-strain Vaccine Virus of Muscovy Duck-origin Goose Parvovirus NS Protein Epitopes%番鸭小鹅瘟弱毒D株NS蛋白抗原位点特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劭; 程晓霞; 陈少莺; 朱小丽; 陈仕龙; 林锋强; 李兆龙

    2013-01-01

    为获得番鸭小鹅瘟病毒弱毒株(MDGPV-D)非结构蛋白NS基因的相关信息,根据已发表的MDGPV-PT株全基因序列,应用DNAStar分子生物学软件设计1对引物,采用高保真PCR技术扩增MDGPV-D株NS全基因序列.对番鸭小鹅瘟病毒疫苗弱毒D株(MDGPV-D) NS基因进行克隆、测序,并利用生物信息学技术分析MDGPV-D株NS蛋白的同源性、遗传衍化、N-糖基化位点、磷酸化位点、B细胞抗原表位、T细胞抗原表位及其二级结构.结果表明,D株NS全基因大小为1 884 hp,编码627个氨基酸(GenBank登录号:JF926696),与MDPV NS基因的亲缘性最近核苷酸及其推导氨基酸同源性分别为97.9%~98.6%,97.6%~98.2%;MDGPV-D株NS蛋白具有3个潜在的N-糖基化位点和27个磷酸化位点,可能存在11个B细胞抗原表位,13个CD8+ CTL表位,10个CD4+ Th抗原表位;二级结构分析显示,α螺旋和无规则卷曲含量高,分别为40.67%、41.15%,而β转角仅占4.63%.与亲本强毒PT株相比,弱毒D株的NS蛋白存在2个定点突变,分别位于核苷三磷酸区域(第338位氨基酸)与CD4+ Th抗原表位(第225位氨基酸).%To analyze the non-structural protein NS gene of vaccine muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) origin Goose parvovirus (GPV) D strain,a pair of primers were designed by DNAStar software based on the published sequences of MDGPV-PT strain from GenBank.We examed the homology,heredity evolution,N-glycosylation sites,phosphorylation sites,B cell epitopes,T cell epitopes and their secondary structure of NS protein with bioinformatics software.The full length NS gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into pMD18-T vector.Sequencing demonstrated that the NS gene of MDGPV-D strain contained 1 884 bps,encoding 627 amino acids (GenBank number:JF926696).The MDGPV-Dstrain NS gene was highly similar to that of MDPV (nt:97.9%-98.6%,aa:97.6%-98.2%).It was also shown that there were 3 potential N-glycosylation sites and 27phosphorylation

  11. Sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. The etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. Here, we report the application of a molecular screening method that was designed to detect novel viruses from...

  12. Etiological study of duck hemorrhagic diseaseⅢ. Histopathological observation of ducks infected naturally with duck hemorrhagic disease%鸭出血症病原学研究 Ⅲ.鸭出血症自然感染病鸭组织病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑜; 祁保民; 李文杨; 程龙飞; 庄向生

    2001-01-01

    The tissues of the ducks infected naturally with duck hemorrhagicdisease were observed histopathologically. Hemorrhages, cell degeneration, necrocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the liver, kidney, spleen and pancreas. The lymphocytes of white pulps of spleen broke apart and disappeared. The lymphocytes of follicules in bursa decreased conspicuously. The results showed that duck hemorrhagic disease virus(DHDV) caused the decrease of duck immunity and secondary immune defect.%通过对确诊的鸭出血症濒死番鸭组织病理学观察,可见其肝、肾、脾、胰腺等实质器官淤血、出血,细胞变性、坏死,间质中淋巴细胞浸润;脾脏白髓内淋巴细胞崩解、消失,法氏囊滤泡内淋巴细胞明显减少。表明鸭出血症病毒可导致机体广泛性组织损害,尤其以循环系统和淋巴组织受损更为严重,这提示鸭出血症病毒可引起鸭免疫功能低下,出现继发性免疫缺陷。

  13. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  14. Etiological study of enteric viruses and bacteria in adult diarrhea in Chongqing area%重庆地区成人感染性腹泻病原学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄茜; 孙滨; 张再宽; 张秀瑜; 王云英; 黄长武; 陈维贤

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究重庆地区成人感染性腹泻患者的病原学特点.方法 采用MICROSCAN系统进行粪便细菌培养,用ELISA和多重PCR方法进行病毒检测.结果 130例腹泻标本中,检出细菌阳性17例,包括沙门菌属7例,志贺菌属5例,副溶血弧菌3例和嗜水气单胞菌2例.病毒检测中,单重感染30例,双重感染10例,三重感染1例.A组轮状病毒检出率为3.85% (5/130),B轮状病毒检出率为3.85% (5/130),C组轮状病毒检出率为15.4% (20/130),诺如病毒检出率为9.23% (12/130),星状病毒检出率为4.62%(6/130),札如病毒检出率为3.08% (4/130),腺病毒检出率为0.77%(1/130).结论 重庆地区成人腹泻患者中,沙门菌和志贺菌为细菌感染的主要菌种,轮状病毒和诺如病毒为病毒感染的主要病原体.%Objective To study the etiologic characteristics of enteric viruses and bacteria in adult diarrhea in Chongqing area. Methods Bacteria were isolated from feces specimens and indentified by MICROSCAN system. Viruses were detected with ELISA and multiple polymerase chain reactions ( PCR). Results A total of 17 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 130 specimens, including 7 strains of Salmonella, 5 strains of Shigella, 3 strains of vice Hemolysis vibrio and 2 strains of Aeromonas hydrophilia. Among the virus detection results, the positive rates for Rotavirus A, Rotavirus B, Rotavirus C, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Sapporo like virus and Adenovirus were 3. 85% (5/130) , 3. 85% (5/130) , 15.4% (20/130) , 9.23% (12/130), 4.62% (6/130), 3.08% (4/130) and 0. 77% (1/130), respectively. Conclusion The prevalent pathogens for adult diarrhea in Chongqing area are Salmonella, Shigella, Rotavirus and Norovirus.

  15. Injection of duck recombinant follistatin fusion protein into duck muscle tissues stimulates satellite cell proliferation and muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-he; Wang, Ji-wen; Yu, Hai-yue; Zhang, Rong-ping; Chen, Xi; Jin, Hai-bo; Dai, Fei; Li, Liang; Xu, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Follistatin (FST) can inhibit the expression of myostatin, which is a predominant inhibitor of muscle development. The potential application of myostatin-based technology has been prompted in different ways in agriculture. We previously constructed an expression vector of duck FST and isolated the FST fusion protein. After the protein was purified and refolded, it was added to the medium of duck myoblasts cultured in vitro. The results show that the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide value of the myoblasts in the duck FST treatment group is higher than that in the control group, which indicates that the duck FST fusion protein exhibits the biological activities that can accelerate myoblast proliferation. To further investigate the roles of duck FST on muscle development, we injected the protein into the duck muscle tissues in vivo. The results show that both the duck muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the satellite cell activation frequency are influenced more in the FST treatment group than they are in the control group. In addition to these phenomena, expression of MyoD and Myf5 were increased, and the expression of myostatin was decreased. Together, these results suggest the potential for using duck FST fusion protein to inhibit myostatin activity and subsequently to enhance muscle growth in vivo. The mechanism by which FST regulates muscle development in the duck is similar to that in mammals and fishes.

  16. The enteric nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasselli, Valentina; Pachnis, Vassilis; Burns, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of numerous types of neurons, and glial cells, that are distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that extend along the entire...

  17. Chicken interferon alpha pretreatment reduces virus replication of pandemic H1N1 and H5N9 avian influenza viruses in lung cell cultures from different avian species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Haijun; Yang, Hanchun; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2011-01-01

    .... In these studies, we assessed the protective potential of exogenous chicken IFN-α applied to chicken, duck, and turkey primary lung cell cultures prior to infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus...

  18. Health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntunji Abel O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, duck production is in its infancy stage in Nigeria. Ducks are mostly reared extensively and concentrated in the hands of small-holder farmers. A survey on health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks was conducted in three south-west (Oyo, Osun and Lagos and one north central (Niger states in Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 400(100 per state duck farmers and were analysed with descriptive statistics (percentage. Results on management of health-related challenges showed that 51.5% of respondents were practicing self-medication and majority in this category used ethno-veterinary medicines. Other measures adopted were neglect (12.25%, consumption of sick animals (10.50%, veterinary service (10.25%, among others. Reproductive performance estimates showed that about half (52.50% of the respondents indicated 5‒6 (24.75% and 7−8 (27.50% months as sexual maturity age of female ducks while the highest proportion (41.25% indicated 16−20 eggs as clutch size. Hatchability rate was very high; 52% of duck farmers indicated that hatching rate was above 80%. Adoption of improved management systems by duck farmers will be of immense contribution to the health management and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  20. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... to take this opportunity to comment on this IC. We may not conduct or sponsor and a person is not... buy a Federal migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp (Federal Duck Stamp) annually. The stamps... stamp images are also popular collector items. The Electronic Duck Stamp Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-266...

  1. Pearl millet in diets of white Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Rogler, J C; Sullivan, T W

    1994-03-01

    In two 21-d experiments, the performance, nutrient utilization, and carcass composition of ducks fed diets containing pearl millet were compared with those fed diets containing corn. Corn, in diets at two protein levels (22 vs 18% in Experiment 1 and 22 vs 16% in Experiment 2), was replaced by pearl millet either on an equal-weight or isonitrogenous basis. During the first 2 wk of the first experiment, corn diets compared on an isonitrogenous basis were superior (P duck) and feed consumption (965 vs 914 g per duck); but when compared on an equal-weight basis, the millet diets were similar to the corn diets in promoting growth. No significant differences were observed for weight gain, feed consumption, or feed efficiency at the end of 3 wk. Over the 21-d study, the higher protein diets were more efficiently (P ducks fed the corn diets was greater (P growth performance differences across dietary protein levels were similar to those in Experiment 1. However in contrast to Experiment 1, feed consumption was similar for corn and pearl millet diets (776 vs 786 g per duck, respectively), and ducks fed the corn diets gained less (P duck) during the first 2 wk of Experiment 2. Results of the nutrient utilization trial conducted at the end of Experiment 2 revealed that diets containing pearl millet were higher (P ducks.

  2. Influenza A Viruses and Antibody Response in High-Latitude Urban Wintering Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), Alaska, 2012-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains information regarding the sampling of avian influenza viruses from mallard ducks at locations in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska 2012-2015....

  3. Replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus (APMV serotypes 1-9 have been isolated from many different avian species. APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. Very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other APMV serotypes. Here, this was evaluated for prototypes strains of APMV serotypes 2-9 in cell culture and in chickens and ducks. In cell culture, only APMV-1, -3 and -5 induced syncytium formation. In chicken DF1 cells, APMV-3 replicated with an efficiency approaching that of APMV-1, while APMV-2 and -5 replicated to lower, intermediate titers and the others were much lower. Mean death time (MDT assay in chicken eggs and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test in 1-day-old SPF chicks demonstrated that APMV types 2-9 were avirulent. Evaluation of replication in primary neuronal cells in vitro as well as in the brains of 1-day-old chicks showed that, among types 2-9, only APMV-3 was neurotropic, although this virus was not neurovirulent. Following intranasal infection of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, replication of APMV types 2-9 was mostly restricted to the respiratory tract, although APMV-3 was neuroinvasive and neurotropic (but not neurovirulent and also was found in the spleen. Experimental intranasal infection of 3-week-old mallard ducks with the APMVs did not produce any clinical signs (even for APMV-1 and exhibited restricted viral replication of the APMVs (including APMV-1 to the upper respiratory tract regardless of their isolation source, indicating avirulence of APMV types 1-9 in mallard ducks. The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes.

  4. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  5. Muscovy duck reovirus infection rapidly activates host innate immune signaling and induces an effective antiviral immune response involving critical interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilong; Luo, Guifeng; Wang, Quanxi; Wang, Song; Chi, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yifan; Wei, Haitao; Wu, Baocheng; Huang, Shile; Chen, Ji-Long

    2015-02-25

    Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) is a highly pathogenic virus in waterfowl and causes significant economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Because the host innate immunity plays a key role in defending against virus invasion, more and more attentions have been paid to the immune response triggered by viral infection. Here we found that the genomic RNA of MDRV was able to rapidly induce the production of interferons (IFNs) in host. Mechanistically, MDRV infection induced robust expression of IFNs in host mainly through RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, we observed that silencing VISA expression in 293T cells could significantly inhibit the secretion of IFNs. Remarkably, the production of IFNs was reduced by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB or knocking down the expression of IRF-7. Furthermore, our study showed that treatment of 293T cells and Muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts with IFNs markedly impaired MDRV replication, suggesting that these IFNs play an important role in antiviral response during the MDRV infection. Importantly, we also detected the induced expression of RIG-I, MDA5, TLR3 and type I IFN in Muscovy ducks infected with MDRV at different time points post infection. The results from in vivo studies were consistent with those in 293T cells infected with MDRV. Taken together, our findings reveal that the host can resist MDRV invasion by activating innate immune response involving RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways that govern IFN production.

  6. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  7. DNA Vaccine-Generated Duck Polyclonal Antibodies as a Postexposure Prophylactic to Prevent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Rebecca; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Vial, Pablo; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35–40%). Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The natural “despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed) results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU)/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This is the

  8. A new species of duck from Central Colombia A new species of duck from Central Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetmore Alexander

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available For a number of years there has been persistent report of "black ducks" from the mountain lakes of central Colombia, with the supposition on the part of hunters that these were the well-known species of that name of eastern North America. The senior author made some inquiry into the matter especially following a note published in CALDASIA N,o.9, Jan. 6, 1944, p. 407, where Mr. F. C. Lehmann gave a brief summary of what was known of these birds. His account indicates that dark-colored ducks are of common occurrence in various part of Colombia, especially in the Bogotá Savanna where they are called "pico de oro" or "picodioro". He recorded others near Cali in the Cauca Valley where they are known as "pato amarillo". The matter is of especial interest since the black duck of North America, Anas rubripes, while migratory in the northern part of its range is not known to pass south of the southern United states except for two or three casual records from the West Indies. Shortly before this, on September 17, 1943, Brother Nicéforo Maria of the Instituto de La Salle in Bogotá wrote that he has forwarding to the U. S. National Museum as a gift a small collection of birds taken principally by himself for which he desired identifications. When these arrived in due time there was among them a strange duck somewhat resembling Anas spinicauda, but differing in form and especially in much darker color. There was some supposition that it might be a hybrid, but this seemed hardly probable, so that the question of the "black ducks" reported from this area came immediately to mind.For a number of years there has been persistent report of "black ducks" from the mountain lakes of central Colombia, with the supposition on the part of hunters that these were the well-known species of that name of eastern North America. The senior author made some inquiry into the matter especially following a note published in CALDASIA N,o.9, Jan. 6, 1944, p. 407, where Mr. F. C

  9. Modeling of Duck Density and Complex Stocking Time in Rice-Duck Agroecosystems in Terms of Economic and Ecological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahong Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice-duck integrated farming is an effective step under today’s sustainable development background. To make better economic and ecological benefits, a rice-duck agroecosystem is established and kept, in which the paddy field, rice, and the duck mutually promote one another. But the duck density and complex stocking time must be rationally selected. Aiming to attain quantitative assessment and optimal selection of the duck density and complex stocking time in this kind of systems, a methodology based on proposed mathematical models in terms of comparative economic and ecological benefits is addressed. Then the models are solved by a hybrid intelligent algorithm NN-GA that integrates the Neural Networks (NN and Genetic Algorithm (GA, making use of the fitting ability in nonlinear fitness context of Neural Networks and the optimization ability of the Genetic Algorithm. Besides, numerical examples are demonstrated in order to test the proposed models. Results reveal that the methodology is reasonable and feasible.

  10. Infectivity and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus strains of different avian origin and different virulence for mallard ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Cheng, Xu; Shen, Xinyue; Wei, Yuyong; Zhou, Sheng; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Experimental infections of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of different avian origin and different virulence in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were undertaken to evaluate infectivity and pathogenicity of NDV for ducks and the potential role of ducks in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND). Ducklings were experimentally infected with seven NDV strains, and their clinical sign, weight gain, antibody response, virus shedding, and virus distribution in tissues were investigated. The duck origin virulent strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) and the Chinese standard virulent strain F48E8 were highly pathogenic for ducklings. They caused high morbidity and mortality, and they distributed extensively in various tissues of infected ducklings. Other strains, including pigeon origin virulent strain pigeon/Jiangsu/JSP0204/2002 (JSP0204), chicken origin virulent strain chicken/Jiangsu/JSC0804/2008 (JSC0804), goose origin virulent goose/Jiangsu/JSG0210/2002 (JSG0210), and vaccine strains Mukteswar and LaSota had no pathogenicity to ducklings. They produced neither clinical signs of the disease nor adverse effect on growth of infected ducklings, and they persisted in duck bodies for only a short period. Virus shedding was detectable in all infected ducklings, but its period and route varied with the virulence of NDV strains. The results suggest that NDV with high pathogenicity in ducks may arise from the evolution within its corresponding host, further confirming that the ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND.

  11. ENFit Enteral Nutrition Connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth

    2016-12-01

    New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.

  12. Pathogenicity and Transmission of H5 and H7 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Mallards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Shepherd, Eric; DeJesus, Eric; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Stallknecht, David E; Swayne, David E

    2016-11-01

    Wild aquatic birds have been associated with the intercontinental spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD) lineage during 2005, 2010, and 2014, but dispersion by wild waterfowl has not been implicated with spread of other HPAI viruses. To better understand why Gs/GD H5 HPAI viruses infect and transmit more efficiently in waterfowl than other HPAI viruses, groups of mallard ducks were challenged with one of 14 different H5 and H7 HPAI viruses, including a Gs/GD lineage H5N1 (clade 2.2) virus from Mongolia, part of the 2005 dispersion, and the H5N8 and H5N2 index HPAI viruses (clade 2.3.4.4) from the United States, part of the 2014 dispersion. All virus-inoculated ducks and contact exposed ducks became infected and shed moderate to high titers of the viruses, with the exception that mallards were resistant to Ck/Pennsylvania/83 and Ck/Queretaro/95 H5N2 HPAI virus infection. Clinical signs were only observed in ducks challenged with the H5N1 2005 virus, which all died, and with the H5N8 and H5N2 2014 viruses, which had decreased weight gain and fever. These three viruses were also shed in higher titers by the ducks, which could facilitate virus transmission and spread. This study highlights the possible role of wild waterfowl in the spread of HPAI viruses.

  13. 番鸭呼肠孤病毒套式RT-PCR检测方法的建立及应用%Establishment and Application of A Nest RT-PCR Method for Detection of Muscovy Duck Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启强

    2012-01-01

    根据GenBank上发表的鸭呼肠孤病毒基因组序列,利用生物学软件设计合成内外2对引物,建立了检测番鸭呼肠孤病毒(Muscovy duck reovirus,MDRV)的套式RT-PCR检测方法,并运用建立的检测方法对分离病毒与其他禽病病毒进行检测.结果显示,该方法能从MDRV中扩增到与预期大小相符的特异性目的片段,检测灵敏度达到0.1 pg病毒RNA,对禽呼肠孤病毒(avian reovirus,ARV)、鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒(infectious bursal disease virus,IBDV)、番鸭细小病毒(Muscovy duck parvovirus,MDPV)、鹅细小病毒(goose parvovirus,GPV)、鸭病毒性肝炎病毒(duck hepatitis virus,DHV)等病毒样品的扩增结果均为阴性.因此,本研究为番鸭呼肠孤病毒病的快速检测及诊断研究提供参考.%According to the GenBank login duck reovirus genome sequence, using biology software to design and synthesis two pairs of primers, established a nest RT-PCR detection method for the detection of Muscovy duck reovirus(MDRV), and used the detection method of the isolated virus and other poultry virus for application testing. The results showed that the method could amplify specific target fragment from MDRV, sensitivity to 0. 1 pg virus RNA, while other viruses of avian reovirus (ARV) , chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) , Muscovy duck parvovirus(MDPV) , goose parvovirus (GPV) , duck hepatitis virus (DHV) and sample amplification results were negative. Therefore, the research provided a reference for MDRV disease detection and diagnose.

  14. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  15. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  16. A Study on the Duck Hepatitis Epidemic and its Control Situation in Certain Parts of Guangxi%广西部分地区鸭肝炎流行及防治现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许力干; 赵武; 陈泽祥; 吴礼洁; 黄峻

    2002-01-01

    @@ 鸭肝炎(Duck hepatitis,DH)是由鸭肝炎病毒(Duckhepatitis virus,DHV)引起的雏鸭急性高度致死性传染病,以临床病死鸭呈现角弓反张姿势及剖检病变肝肿大与出血为特征.

  17. Cloning,sequencing and phylogenic analysis of duck prion gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qigui; ZHANG Lei; HU Xiaoxiang; FAN Baoliang; LI Ning; LI Hui; WU Changxin

    2004-01-01

    Duck prion gene was cloned and sequenced. Similar to mammalian prion protein (PrP), duck prion is encoded by a single exon of a single copy in genome, which was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. All of the structural features of mammalian PrP were also identified in the duck PrP. Compared with mammalian PrP, it exhibited a 30 % of general similarity. When compared with chicken PrP, it showed a higher homology of 97%. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to trace evolution of prion gene in animals.

  18. AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

    2007-06-01

    1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 gene from duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yang; Tong, Yi Yu; Huang, Zheng Yang; Zhao, Wen Ming; Duan, Xiu Jun; Li, Xiu; Chang, Guo Bin; Chen, Guo Hong

    2014-09-01

    H-ferritin is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and is related to the pathogenesis of malignant diseases. A differential expressed sequence tag of the ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 gene (FTH1) was obtained from our previously constructed suppression subtractive cDNA library from 3-day-old ducklings challenged with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1). The expression and function of FTH1 in immune defense against infection remains largely unknown in ducks. In this study, the full-length duFTH1 cDNA was obtained using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It consisted of 153 basepairs (bp) 5'untranslated region (UTR), 183 bp 3'UTR, and 546 bp open reading frame that encodes a single protein of 181 amino acid residues. duFTH1 shares high similarity with FTH1 genes from other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence possesses the conserved domain of typical ferritin H subunits, including seven metal ligands in the ferroxidase center, one iron binding region signature, and a potential bio-mineralization residue (Thy(29)). Moreover, in agreement with a previously reported ferritin H subunit, we identified an iron response element in the 5'UTR. RT-PCR analyses revealed duFTH1 mRNA is widely expressed in various tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that duFTH1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in the liver after DHV-1 injection or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) treatment, reaching a peak 4 h post-infection, and dropping progressively and returning to normal after 24 h. Our findings suggest that duFTH1 functions as an iron chelating protein subunit in duck and contributes to the innate immune responses against viral infections.

  20. Black Duck Nesting Study at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For decades, the black duck population of North America has steadily declined due to such factors as habitat degradation and competition from the mallard. Beginning...

  1. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the Circumpolar region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper we review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during the last several decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be...

  2. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  3. 1989 duck production study : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a duck production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Nest drag