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Sample records for duchesnea phenolic fraction

  1. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

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    Mingzhi Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchesnea indica (D. indica is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionated over a macroporous resin column, then identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS (ion trap MS. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in D. indica, of which 21 compounds were identified for the first time. These 27 phenolic compounds encompassing four phenolic groups, including ellagitannins, ellagic acid and ellagic acid glycosides, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonols, were then successfully quantified using peak areas against those of the corresponding standards with good linearity (R2 > 0.998 in the range of the tested concentrations. As a result, the contents of individual phenolic compounds varied from 6.69 mg per 100 g dry weight (DW for ellagic acid to 71.36 mg per 100 g DW for brevifolin carboxylate. Not only did this study provide the first phenolic profiling of D. indica, but both the qualitative identification and the subsequent quantitative analysis of 27 phenolic compounds from D. indica should provide a good basis for future exploration of this valuable medicinal plant.

  2. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  3. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. Both Phenolic and Non-phenolic Green Tea Fractions Inhibit Migration of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ean-Jeong; Wu, Ching-Fen; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Ikhlas A; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF), a non-phenolic fraction (NPF), which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL), and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer. Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples toward human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro . The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy. PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 μg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC 50 on AML12: 0.024 μg/mL, IC 50 on HepG2: 2.103 μg/mL). We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement, and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of distinct

  5. Primer registro de Coccidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea sobre Duchesnea indica (Rosaceae “frutilla silvestre” en Tucumán, Argentina

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    Patri GONZÁLEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el primer registro de la Argentina y el mundo del Coccidae Saissetia coffeae (Walker sobre Duchesnea indica (Andrews Focke, frutilla silvestre relacionada con frutilla cultivada (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

  6. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

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    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  7. Fractionation of Buckwheat Seed Phenolics and Analysis of Their Antioxidant Activity

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    Karamać Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fractions of phenolic compounds were obtained from the extract of common buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with methanol as a mobile phase. The total phenolics content ranged from 19.8±1.5 (fraction I to 164±2.2 mg (+-catechin eq/g (fraction IV. The profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the fractions were analysed using RP-HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was tested as ABTS⋅+ and DPPH⋅ scavenging activity and capability to reduce the Fe(III/2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl-s-triazine complex to the ferrous form. Results were expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, IC50 and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction IV that was predominated by flavones. TEAC, IC50 and FRAP values were: 1.47±0.01 mmol Trolox eq/g, 0.058±0.003 mg/assay and 2.18±0.05 mmol Fe(II/g, respectively. Rutin constituted 77.7% of the compounds identified in fraction III. The antiradical activity and reducing capability of this fraction were lower compared to fraction IV, but significantly higher than in fractions I and II. The main phenolic compounds of fractions I and II were phenolic acids (caffeic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and p-coumaric. The antioxidant activity of fraction V was similar to that of fraction III.

  8. Deuterium isotope fractionation between ortho-alkyl substituted phenols and t-butylthiol in oxygen bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, A.; Jelenska-Kazimierczuk, M.; Szydlowski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Equilibrium isotope effect in the exchange reaction of deuterium between phenol(P), 2-isopropyl phenol (IPP), 2,6-diisopropyl phenol (DIPP), 2,6-diterbutyl phenol (DTBP) and tertbutylthiol (TBT) has been studied in 296 K. The fractionation factors (α) have been measured in cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride solutions and in a few oxygen bases: acetone, 1,4-dioxane, ethyl formate, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofurane, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide. Using chemical shifts of phenol OH protons, the thermodynamic parameters of complex formation with the oxygen bases have been determined. The experimental data show that lnα correlates with the formation enthalpy of the phenol-oxygen base complex in DIPP-TBT-base system but there is no simple correlation in IPP-TBT-base system. Furthermore, it was found that in DTBT-TBT-base system lnα depends linearly on the basicity of the solvent (DN parameters). On the other hand, lnα correlates with acidic parameters of the solvents (AN) in IPP-TBT-base and P-TBT-base systems. All above correlations are explained by taking into account two competition processes: self association of phenol molecules and their solvation by oxygen bases. (author)

  9. Theoretical evaluation of isotopic fractionation factors in oxidation reactions of benzene, phenol and chlorophenols.

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    Adamczyk, Paweł; Paneth, Piotr

    2011-09-01

    We have studied theoretically the rate determining steps of reactions of benzene with permanganate, perchlorate, ozone and dioxygen in the gas phase and aqueous solution as well as phenol and dichlorophenol in protonated and unprotonated forms in aqueous solution. Kinetic isotope effects were then calculated for all carbon atoms and based on their values isotopic fractionation factors corresponding to compound specific isotopic analysis have been evaluated. The influence of the oxidant, substituents, environment and protonation on the isotopic fractionation factors has been analyzed.

  10. Phenolic Composition and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Free and Bound Phenolic Fractions from a Peruvian Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Accession.

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    Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Christopher, Ashish; Sarkar, Dipayan; Shetty, Kalidas; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David

    2017-12-01

    Beneficial effects on overall gut health by phenolic bioactives-rich foods are potentially due to their modulation of probiotic gut bacteria and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Based on this rationale, the effect of the free and bound phenolic fractions from a Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 on probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum and the gastric cancer-related pathogen Helicobacter pylori was evaluated. The free and bound phenolic composition was also determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds (310.04 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, DW) in the free phenolic fraction along with hydroxycinnamic acids such as p-coumaric acid derivatives, followed by caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives. The bound phenolic form had only hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and a ferulic acid derivative with ferulic acid being the major phenolic compound (156.30 mg/100 g DW). These phenolic compounds were compatible with beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as L. helveticus and B. longum as these bacteria were not inhibited by the free and bound phenolic fractions at 10 to 50 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL of sample doses, respectively. However, the pathogenic H. pylori was also not inhibited by both purple corn phenolic forms at same above sample doses. This study provides the preliminary base for the characterization of phenolic compounds of Peruvian purple corn biodiversity and its potential health benefits relevant to improving human gut health. This study provides insights that Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 can be targeted as a potential source of health-relevant phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins along with hydroxycinnamic acids linked to its dietary fiber fraction. Additionally, these phenolic fractions did not affect the gut health associated beneficial bacteria nor the pathogenic

  11. Phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberger, W.

    1942-10-22

    The damand for phenol greatly increased after the development of synthetics. The only source for their production was coal. The amount obtained depended greatly on the temperature at which the coal had been treated. The phenol content of low-temperature carbonization tars was higher than from high-temperature coke ovens and the temperatures used in hydrogenation had been found to be particularly advantageous. The yields, referred to coal, were about forty times as high with pressure hydrogenation as from coke ovens. Calculated to the coal used, 4% to 5% useful phenols were obtained during coal hydrogenation and these consisted of about 20% phenols, 35% cresols, and 45% xylenols. The proportion was similar with brown coal, but the recovery of the pure materials was made more difficult by the presence of other oxygenated substances. The most common method of phenol production from oils and the off-waters was the extraction with sodium hydroxide, followed by setting the phenols free with carbon dioxide. The phenosolvan process (extraction with water and distillation), the tricresyl phosphate process, the Fresol process (with methyl alcohol), and the method of extraction with superheated steam were also discussed. Leuna was the only hydrogenation works that recovered phenols on an industrial scale.

  12. In-vitro Evaluation of Bioactive Fractions of Blueberry Extract for Phenolic-mediated Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhee Kang; Kenneth Racicot; Sarah Pilkenton; Emmanouil Apostolidis

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Blueberry is known to have health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-hyperglycemia effect. In our previous study, blueberry low-molecular weight phenolic compounds were investigated to have potential to prevent type 2 diabetes. To further identify which low molecular weight phenolic compounds were primarily responsible for the observed bioactivity, BAE (Blueberry acetone extract) was fractionated using LH-20 column chromatography with different solvents. For f...

  13. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mena; Martina Cirlini; Michele Tassotti; Kelli A. Herrlinger; Chiara Dall’Asta; Daniele Del Rio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified ...

  14. Effect of the γ-radiation on phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus Mich.

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    Silva, T. M.; Dias, M. D.; Pereira, M. T.; Takahashi, J. A.; Ferraz, V. P.; Piló-Veloso, D.; Alcântara, A. F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Echinodorus macrophyllus Mich. (Chapéu-de-couro) is popularly used as diuretic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-rheumatic agents. Leaves of this species are largely commercialized and show high level of microbiological contamination (bacteria and fungi). This work describes the effect of the 60Co γ-radiation on the phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of E. macrophyllus. trans-Ferulic acid, ( E)-caffeoyltartronic acid, 6- C-(1 -hexitol)-apigenin, and 6- C-(1 -hexitol)-luteolin were isolated by preparative HPLC. HPLC chromatograms showed concentration changes of some phenolic constituents, suggesting the formation of radiolytic products. The phenol fractions were active against Bacillus subitilis and Staphylococcus aureus and showed high antioxidant activity. However, the antibacterial and antioxidant activities reduced when the absorbed dose was increased.

  15. Rheological properties and tunable thermoplasticity of phenolic rich fraction of pyrolysis bio-oil.

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    Sahaf, Amir; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G; Englund, Karl; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G

    2013-04-08

    In this work we report on the preparation, characterization, and properties of a thermally treated lignin-derived, phenolic-rich fraction (PRF) of wood pyrolysis bio-oil obtained by ethyl acetate extraction. The PRF was characterized for viscoelastic and rheological behavior using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and cone and plate rheology. A unique thermoplastic behavior was evidenced. Heat-treated PRFs acquire high modulus but show low temperatures of thermal flow which can be systematically manipulated through the thermal pretreatment. Loss of volatiles, changes in molecular weight, and glass transition temperature (Tg) were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mass spectrometry (MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Underlying mechanisms for the thermal and rheological behavior are discussed with regard to interactions between pyrolytic lignin nanoparticles present in the system and the role of volatile materials on determining the properties of the material resembling in several aspects to colloidal suspension systems. Low thermal flow temperatures and reversible thermal effects can be attributed to association of pyrolytic lignin particles due to intermolecular interactions that are easily ruptured at higher temperatures. The thermoplastic behavior of PRF and its low Tg is of particular interest, as it gives opportunities for application of this fraction in several melt processing and adhesive technologies.

  16. Investigating the use of phenolic rich fraction of pyrolysis bio-oils as an adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaf, Amir

    Fast pyrolysis allows converting of up to 75 % of biomass into a crude bio-oil, which can be separated into a phenolic rich fraction (PRF) via ethyl acetate extraction while a sugar rich fraction preferentially concentrates in the aqueous phase. Rheological and thermal characterization of heat treated PRF from pyrolysis of Douglas Fir is performed using cone and plate rheology set up, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that this material demonstrates a unique thermoplastic behavior with low Tg and softening point that can be systematically manipulated through changes in thermal history. As these materials are good candidates for development of hot melt adhesives, lap shear tests were also performed using wood stripes to evaluate their mechanical properties as an adhesive. Optimization of properties of the PRF is sought in this study through polymer blending with other bio-degradable thermoplastic poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Blends of PRF/PCL and PRF/PLA of different ratios are prepared by solvent casting and melt blending and thermally and thermomechanically characterized for their miscibility and phase behavior. Presence of molecular interactions are furthur investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FTIR). The blends show complete miscibility based on their Tg and melting points and significant improvement in shear strength is observed. Mechanisms leading to changes in properties are described and a physical model is proposed. The blend systems have good potential to be used as a thermoplastic bio degradable adhesives with satisfactoty properies.

  17. Effect of the γ-radiation on phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus Mich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.M.; Dias, M.D.; Pereira, M.T.; Takahashi, J.A.; Ferraz, V.P.; Pilo-Veloso, D.; Alcantara, A.F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Echinodorus macrophyllus Mich. (Chapeu-de-couro) is popularly used as diuretic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-rheumatic agents. Leaves of this species are largely commercialized and show high level of microbiological contamination (bacteria and fungi). This work describes the effect of the 60 Co γ-radiation on the phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of E. macrophyllus. trans-Ferulic acid, (E)-caffeoyltartronic acid, 6-C-(1-hexitol)-apigenin, and 6-C-(1-hexitol)-luteolin were isolated by preparative HPLC. HPLC chromatograms showed concentration changes of some phenolic constituents, suggesting the formation of radiolytic products. The phenol fractions were active against Bacillus subitilis and Staphylococcus aureus and showed high antioxidant activity. However, the antibacterial and antioxidant activities reduced when the absorbed dose was increased. - Highlights: → Effects of the γ-radiation on the chemical constituents of the leaves of E. macrophyllus. → To determine the conditions, which are sufficient for microbiological decontamination. → Analysis by HPLC of the phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of E. macrophyllys. → Effects of the γ-radiation in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of E. macrophyllus.

  18. Effect of the {gamma}-radiation on phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus Mich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.M., E-mail: silvatm@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, M.D. [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, M.T. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear-CDTN, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Takahashi, J.A.; Ferraz, V.P.; Pilo-Veloso, D.; Alcantara, A.F.C. [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Echinodorus macrophyllus Mich. (Chapeu-de-couro) is popularly used as diuretic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-rheumatic agents. Leaves of this species are largely commercialized and show high level of microbiological contamination (bacteria and fungi). This work describes the effect of the {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation on the phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of E. macrophyllus. trans-Ferulic acid, (E)-caffeoyltartronic acid, 6-C-(1-hexitol)-apigenin, and 6-C-(1-hexitol)-luteolin were isolated by preparative HPLC. HPLC chromatograms showed concentration changes of some phenolic constituents, suggesting the formation of radiolytic products. The phenol fractions were active against Bacillus subitilis and Staphylococcus aureus and showed high antioxidant activity. However, the antibacterial and antioxidant activities reduced when the absorbed dose was increased. - Highlights: > Effects of the {gamma}-radiation on the chemical constituents of the leaves of E. macrophyllus. > To determine the conditions, which are sufficient for microbiological decontamination. > Analysis by HPLC of the phenol fractions obtained from the leaves of E. macrophyllys. > Effects of the {gamma}-radiation in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of E. macrophyllus.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Ethanolic Extract and Phenolic Fraction of Jatropha aethiopica (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Their Hypoglycemic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiotea-Turro, Daylin; Camaforte, Nathalia A P; Valerino-Diaz, Alexander B; Ortiz Nuñez, Yarelis; Rinaldo, Daniel; Dokkedal, Anne L; Bosqueiro, José R; Santos, Lourdes Campaner Dos

    2018-02-14

    Although Jatropha aethiopica, popularly known in Cuba as "mata diabetes", is used in salads and as a dietary supplement, its chemical composition and antidiabetic properties yet remains unclear. In this work, we evaluate the qualitative and quantitative composition of ethanolic extract (EE) and phenolic fraction (PF) of Jatropha aethiopica leaves and their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract yielded nine compounds, which included protocatechuic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-galactopyranoside (4), a new kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), rutin (7), kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and quercetin (9). The compounds (1, 4-7) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) in both the ethanolic extract (62.65 ± 0.15 mg/g) and phenolic fraction (61.72 ± 0.23 mg/g). The results obtained show that both ethanolic extract and phenolic fraction contributed toward the improvement of glucose tolerance, which in turn led to a decline in the glucose levels. Remarkably, the ethanolic extract presented a relatively higher promising effect compared to metformin.

  20. Effect of Processing on phenolic acid composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of three wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of bread-making on the assay of phenolic acids of whole and refined wheat from three wheat varieties, comparing refined (RF) and whole wheat (WW) flour, dough, and bread fractions. The efficacy of two common base hydrolysis methods for phenolic acid analysis...

  1. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Cirlini, Martina; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-19

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS n ) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected), 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives), 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid), and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives). Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones) were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  2. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandita; Islam, Md Ekramul; Jahan, Nusrat; Islam, Mohammad Saiful; Khan, Alam; Islam, Md Rafikul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-02-04

    Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant

  3. Characterisation of phenolic compounds of the ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis and its potential antidepressant-like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleti, Nathielli Nayara; Mello, Jonas; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; de Albuquerque, Cláudia Almeida Coelho; Alberton, Michele Debiasi; Barauna, Sara Cristiane

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluates the antidepressant-like effect and analysed the qualitative and quantitative 74 phenolic standards of ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis leaves. Acute administration of fraction in mice reduced the immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests confirming its antidepressant-like activity. The anti-immobility effect elicited by this fraction was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg kg -1 ), ketanserin (5 mg kg -1 ), SCH 23,390 (0.05 mg kg -1 ) or yohimbine (1 mg kg -1 ). A sub effective dose of the fraction produced a synergistic effect with fluoxetine (5 mg kg -1 ). Chromatographic analysis identified 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids in the ethyl acetate fraction from T. catharinensis. Capillary electrophoresis presented 7.34 ± 0.02 mg g -1 of p-coumaric acid concentration in the fraction. Therefore, it is possible that antidepressant-like effect elicited by ethyl acetate fraction from T. catharinensis be dependent on the p-coumaric acid.

  4. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jawad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad

    2014-05-03

    We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging potential. Further, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were performed using Ellman's assay. Moreover, total phenolic contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry sample (mg GAE/g dry weight). Among different fractions, Ph.Cr (90.82), Ph.Chf (178.16), Ph.EtAc (203.44) and Ph.Bt (153.61) exhibited high phenolic contents. All fractions showed concentration dependent DPPH scavenging activity, with Ph.EtAc 71.33% (IC50 15 μg/ml), Ph.Bt 71.40% (IC50 3 μg/ml) and Ph.Sp 71.40% (IC50 35 μg/ml) were most potent. The plant extracts exhibited high ABTS scavenging ability i.e. Ph.Bt (91.03%), Ph.EtAc (90.56%), Ph.Sp (90.84%), Ph.Aq (90.56%) with IC50activity as; Ph.Cr, 86.87% (IC50 330 μg/ml), Ph.Hex, 87.49% (IC50 35 μg/ml), Ph.Chf, 84.76% (IC50 55 μg/ml), Ph.Sp, 87.58% (IC50 108 μg/ml) and Ph.EtAc 79.95% (IC50 310 μg/ml) at 1 mg/ml). Furthermore the BChE inhibitory activity was most prominent in Ph.Hex 90.30% (IC50 40 μg/ml), Ph.Chf 85.94% (IC50 215 μg/ml), Ph.Aq 87.62% (IC50 3 μg/ml) and Ph.EtAc 81.01% (IC50 395 μg/ml) fractions. In this study, for the first time, we determined phenolic contents, isolated crude saponins, investigated antioxidant and anticholinestrase potential of P. hydropiper extracts. The results indicate that P. hydropiper is enriched with potent bioactive compounds and warrant further investigation by isolation and structural elucidation to find

  6. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  7. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'Amari' and 'Hallawi' date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives.

  8. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (polyphenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (polyphenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected, 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives, 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid, and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives. Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  9. Changes in the phenolic composition of pancake fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of two wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extrac...

  10. Simple quantification of phenolic compounds present in the minor fraction of virgin olive oil by LC-DAD-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Caballero, M P; Acedo-Valenzuela, M I; Galeano-Díaz, T

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the results of the study on the extraction, identification and quantification of a group of important phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) samples, obtained from olives of various varieties, by liquid chromatography coupled to UV-vis and fluorescence detection. Sixteen phenolic compounds belonging to different families have been identified and quantified spending a total time of 25 min. The linearity was examined by establishing the external standard calibration curves. Four order linear ranges and limits of detection ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 μg mL(-1) and 0.006 to 0.3 μg mL(-1) were achieved using UV-vis and fluorescence detection, respectively. Regarding the real samples, for the determination of the phenolic compounds in higher concentrations (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) a simple liquid-liquid extraction with ethanol was used to make the sample compatible with the mobile phase. Recovery values close to 100% were obtained. However, a previous solid phase extraction with Diol cartridges was necessary to concentrate and separate the minor phenolic compounds of the main interferences. The parameters affecting this step were carefully optimized and, after that, recoveries near 80-100% were obtained for the rest of the studied phenolic compounds. Also, the limits of detection were improved 15 times. Finally, the standard addition method was carried out for each of the analytes and no matrix effect was found, so the quantification of the 16 phenolic compounds from different monovarietal VOO was carried out by using the corresponding external standard calibration plot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Storage method, drying processes and extraction procedures strongly affect the phenolic fraction of rosemary leaves: an HPLC/DAD/MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinacci, N; Innocenti, M; Bellumori, M; Giaccherini, C; Martini, V; Michelozzi, M

    2011-07-15

    The Rosmarinus officinalis L. is widely known for its numerous applications in the food field but also for the increasing interest in its pharmaceutical properties. Two groups of compounds are mainly responsible for the biological activities of the plant: the volatile fraction and the phenolic constituents. The latter group is mainly constituted by rosmarinic acid, by a flavonoidic fraction and by some diterpenoid compounds structurally derived from the carnosic acid. The aim of our work was to optimize the extractive and analytical procedure for the determination of all the phenolic constituents. Moreover the chemical stability of the main phenols, depending on the storage condition, the different drying procedures and the extraction solvent, have been evaluated. This method allowed to detect up to 29 different constituents at the same time in a relatively short time. The described procedure has the advantage to being able to detect and quantify several classes of compounds, among them numerous minor flavonoids, thus contributing to improving knowledge of the plant. The findings from this study have demonstrated that storing the raw fresh material in the freezer is not appropriate for rosemary, mainly due to the rapid disappearing of the rosmarinic acid during the freezing/thawing process. Regarding the flavonoidic fraction, consistent decrements, were highlighted in the dried samples at room temperature if compared with the fresh leaf. Rosmarinic acid, appeared very sensitive also to mild drying processes. The total diterpenoidic content undergoes to little changes when the leaves are freeze dried or frozen and limited losses are observed working on dried leaves at room temperature. Nevertheless it can be taken in account that this fraction is very sensitive to the water presence during the extraction that favors the conversion of carnosic acid toward it oxidized form carnosol. From our findings, it appear evident that when evaluating the phenolic content in

  12. Magnetocaloric effect and corrosion resistance of La(Fe, Si)13 composite plates bonded by different fraction of phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. S.; Xue, J. N.; Wang, Y. X.; Sun, H.; Long, Y.

    2018-04-01

    La(Fe, Si)13-based composite plates were successfully fabricated using different amount of phenolic resin. The introduction of phenolic resin as binder increased the corrosion resistance and maintained giant magnetocaloric effect for La(Fe, Si)13-based composite plates. It was found that corroded spots were firstly observed on the boundaries between resin and La(Fe, Si)13 particles, rather than in La(Fe, Si)13-based particles, after being immersed in static distilled water. The corrosion rate decreased significantly with the increase of resin content. And the increase of the content of phenolic resin leads to the reduction of corrosion current density. Meanwhile, the volumetric magnetic entropy change ΔSM decreases slightly as the content of phenolic resin increases. The ΔSM of the plates with 3 wt.%, 5 wt.% and 8 wt.% resin are 63.1, 61.2 and 59.8 mJ/cm3 K under a low magnetic field change of 1 T, respectively.

  13. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  14. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenolic-enriched fractions from brewers' spent grain possess cellular antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects in cell culture model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2014-05-01

    Large quantities of brewers' spent grain (BSG), a co-product of the brewing industry, are produced annually. BSG contains hydroxycinnamic acids, and phenolic-rich extracts from BSG have previously demonstrated the ability to protect against oxidant-induced DNA damage. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of eight phenolic extracts from BSG: four pale (P1-P4) and four black (B1-B4) extracts. BSG extracts were more cytotoxic in Jurkat T than U937 cells, with lower IC₅₀ values in Jurkat T cells, measured using the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Pale BSG extracts P2 and P3 showed the greatest anti-inflammatory potential, significantly (P BSG, particularly the pale BSG extracts, have the ability to reduce a stimulated cytokine production and may also protect against cellular oxidative stress. Results of the present study highlight the potential of BSG phenolic extracts to act as functional food ingredients, providing an alternative use and improving the value of this brewing industry co-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Sustainable Phenolic Fractions as Basis for Furfuryl Alcohol-Based Co-Polymers and Their Use as Wood Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Luckeneder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfuryl alcohol is a very interesting green molecule used in the production of biopolymers. In the present paper, the copolymerization in acid environment with natural, easily-available, phenolic derivatives is investigated. The processes of polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol with: (i spent-liquor from the pulping industry and (ii commercial tannin from acacia mimosa were investigated though viscometry and IR-spectroscopy. The curing kinetics of the formulations highlighted the importance of the amount of furfuryl alcohol and catalyst as well as the effect of temperature for both phenolic-furanic polymers. Evidence of covalent copolymerization has been observed through infrared spectrometry (FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA and confirmed with additional solubility tests. These bio-based formulations were applied as adhesives for solid wood and particleboards with interesting results: at 180 °C, the spent-liquor furanic formulations allow wood bonding slightly with lower performance than PVA in dry conditions, while mixed formulations allow the gluing of particleboard with only satisfactory internal bonding tests.

  17. Impact of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Melkania, Uma

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of furan derivatives (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) and phenolic compounds (vanillin and syringaldehyde) on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. The inhibitors were applied in the concentration ranges of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5g/L each. Inhibition coefficients of phenolic compounds were higher than those of furan derivatives and vanillin exhibited maximum inhibition coefficients correspondingly lowest hydrogen yield among all inhibitors. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural addition resulted in an average decrease of 26.99% and 37.16% in hydrogen yield respectively, while vanillin and syringaldehyde resulted in 49.40% and 42.26% average decrease in hydrogen yield respectively. Further analysis revealed that Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were completely degraded up to concentrations of 1g/L, while vanillin and syringaldehyde were degraded completely up to the concentration of 0.5g/L. Volatile fatty acid generation decreased with inhibitors addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenology, TPC and size-fractioning phenolics variability in temperate Sargassaceae (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) from Western Brittany: native versus introduced species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lann, K; Connan, S; Stiger-Pouvreau, V

    2012-09-01

    The phenology of the introduced Sargassum muticum and two native species Bifurcaria bifurcata and Cystoseira baccata were monitored during eighteen months at two sites in Brittany. Density and length varied seasonally only in Sargassum. Larger individuals of Sargassum were observed in summer whereas in Cystoseira, they appeared almost in autumn. Peaks in maturity were delayed: in summer for Sargassum and in winter for Cystoseira and Bifurcaria. Phenolic contents increased before their respective reproductive period as a chemical defence. Moreover, size composition varied with site and season depending on species. In Sargassum, the quantity of small compounds decreased in summer together with an increase of 2000/5000 Da compounds. In Bifurcaria 2000/5000 Da compounds increased in summer (photoprotection) while in Cystoseira it increased in winter (protection for reproduction). Sargassum presented then a phenological plasticity not observed in native species. Moreover the three species possessed different chemical strategies to succeed in partitioning their vital space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant capacity of the phenolic fraction and its effect on the oxidative stability of olive oil varieties grown in the southwest of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of olive oils from seven representative fruit varieties (Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz from the southwest of Spain is carried out according to antioxidant capacity of the phenolic fraction and oxidative stability in different ripening stages. Antioxidant capacity is measured through the reduction of a 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation previously oxidized with peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide. The decrease in absorbance at 730 nm at 3 min was measured. Values like Trolox Equivalents Antioxidant Capacity and oxidative stability varied from 0.6 to 2.5 mmol Trolox·kg–1 oil and 28.3 to 170.9 hours Rancimat respectively. The best positive correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were in the Carrasqueña and Arbequina varieties. The rest showed moderated correlations. Correlation between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability was found in a range from 0.66 to 0.97, depending on varieties.Se caracterizaron Aceites de Oliva Virgen procedentes de siete variedades de aceitunas (Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual y Verdial de Badajoz representativas del sur-oeste de España de acuerdo a la capacidad antioxidante de su fracción fenólica y a su estabilidad oxidativa, en diferentes estados de maduración. La capacidad antioxidante se midió por la disminución de absorbancia a 730 nm, producida por la reducción del radical ácido 2,2′azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolin- 6-ácido sulfónico, a 3 min del inicio de la reacción en presencia del extracto fenólico. Los valores de capacidad antioxidante y de estabilidad oxidativa variaron de 0,6 hasta 2,5 mmol Trolox·Kg–1 y de 28,3 hasta 170,9 horas respectivamente. La mejor correlación entre los compuestos fenólicos y la capacidad antioxidante se observó para las variedades Carrasqueña y Arbequina. Por otro lado

  20. The inhibitory effect of Duchesnea chrysantha extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions by regulating IgE and cytokine production in Nc/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Kim, In Sik; Ryu, Ji-Sun; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yun, Chi-Young

    2012-02-01

    Duchesnea chrysantha belongs to the Rosaceae family and has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases in Korea and other parts of East Asia. This study examined the antiinflammatory effect of Duchesnea chrysantha extract (DcE) on atopic dermatitis in vitro and in vivo. DcE inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in THP-1 cells and the release of IL-6 and MCP-1 in EoL-1 cells after treatment with house dust mite extract. In the in vivo experiment, Nc/Nga mice were sensitized to DNCB and then orally and dorsally administered DcE (50 mg/kg in PBS) for 3 weeks. The DcE administration significantly reduced the skin severity score when compared with the control group and inhibited the thickening of the epidermis and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis. In addition, the serum IgE levels decreased markedly in the DcE-treated mice when compared with the control group. The synthesis of IL-5, IL-13, MCP-1 and eotaxin was also decreased in splenocytes of the DcE-treated group, while IFN-γ was increased in the Dc-administered group. These results may indicate that DcE attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions by lowering the IgE and inflammatory cytokine levels, and that it is useful in drug development for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  2. Phenol recovery with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman

    1943-08-03

    This report covers the results of a phenol recovery plant at Ludwigshafen which had recently suffered a severe explosion. From a Gelsenberg hydrogenation middle oil with 18 percent phenol, an 86 to 96 percent phenol fraction was recovered. Because the occurring neutral oil was phenol-free and because with the process a phenol loss was impossible, it was assumed that the yield was quantitative. With regard to the working process, the middle oil was fed into the upper section of a column four feet high, in which liquid ammonia from below climbed upward. The ammonia thereby absorbed the phenol quantitatively, and the ammonium phenolate solution absorbed a certain amount of neutral oil. The loaded ammonia went over the top of the column while at the foot of the column the phenol-free neutral oil collected and was drawn off. The ammonium phenolate solution was then washed with light gasoline in a second column. For this, the ammonia was fed into the upper, the light gasoline into the lower part of the column. The light gasoline absorbed almost quantitatively the neutral oil which was molecularly or actually colloidally dissolved in the ammonium phenolate solution, and even a small amount of the phenol and ammonia. Thickening in concentration, the light gasoline was fed into a storage tank where it was freed of its dissolved components by atmospheric distillation and recycled into the process. The ammonium phenolate solution which before the gasoline wash left behind a vaporization residue with about 40 percent phenol afterwards produced a raw phenol of 86 to 96 percent pure phenol. Because of technical difficulties, the concentration of the washed ammonium phenolate solution could not be determined. It was gathered at the bottom of the second column and fed into a storage tank where the phenol was freed by pressure distillation. The ammonia was then recycled into the process.

  3. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  4. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [es

  5. Recovery and stability over time of phenolic fractions by an industrial filtration system of olive mill wastewaters: a three-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellumori, Maria; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Romani, Annalisa; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia

    2017-11-06

    The recovery of phenolic compounds from olive milling is recognized as strategic for producers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of retentates obtained from olive mill wastewaters treated with a membrane filtration system constituted by a micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration, followed by a final reverse osmosis, over three crop seasons. Efficiency was evaluated in terms of phenolic amount in the retentates and of organic load in the final discarded waters. Phenolic compounds were quantified using tyrosol as external standard. Our study highlighted a reproducibility of the process over years and a low organic load in permeates from reverse osmosis. Hydroxytyrosol was very stable in the liquid products at 18-28 °C over 24 months of storage. The retentates from reverse osmosis showed the highest phenolic content (78.6 mg g -1 dry matter in 2015), associated with a potassium content of 22 g kg -1 . The liquid concentrated retentates showed an unexpected stability over time of their bioactive phenolic compounds, particularly of hydroxytyrosol. These samples recovered from olive mill wastewaters can be good sources of natural antioxidants and potassium to guarantee the correct intake and to formulate new food ingredients or food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. PREPARATION OF NOVOLACS USING PHENOLIC RICH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The possibility of using phenolic rich components (water insoluble fraction) from biomass pyrolysis oil as partial substitute of phenol in synthesis of high-ortho phenolic novolac under the catalyst of. HCl/Zn(AC)2 has been proved using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transformed infrared.

  7. Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germek, Valerija Majetić; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-06-26

    The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits).

  8. PHENOLIC ACIDS AND LIGNINS IN THE LYCOPODIALES,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ethanolysis or alkaline oxidation of their extracted wood-meals. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified in phenolic acid ...Twenty-one species and varieties of Lycopodium have been examined for phenolic acids and for phenolic aldehydes, ketones and acids obtained on...found to yield syringic acid in the ethanol-soluble fraction and on degradation of lignin whereas species included in the genera Huperzia and Lepidotis

  9. Preparation of novolacs using phenolic rich components as partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of using phenolic rich components (water insoluble fraction) from biomass pyrolysis oil as partial substitute of phenol in synthesis of high-ortho phenolic novolac under the catalyst of HCl/Zn(AC)2 has been proved using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy ...

  10. Anti-atherogenic effects of a phenol-rich fraction from Brazilian red wine (Vitis labrusca L.) in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; DalBó, Silvia; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Ianssen, Carla; Abatepaulo, Fátima; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Veleirinho, Beatriz; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Moderate wine intake (i.e., 1-2 glasses of wine a day) is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of a nonalcoholic ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from a South Brazilian red wine obtained from Vitis labrusca grapes. Experiments were carried out on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, which were subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with doses of EAF (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the level of plasma lipids, the vascular reactivity, and the atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with EAF at 3 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL plus very low-density lipoprotein levels compared with control hypercholesterolemic mice. The treatment of mice with EAF at 3 mg/kg also preserved the vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine on isolated thoracic aorta from hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice. This result is in agreement with the degree of lipid deposit on arteries. Taken together, the results show for the first time that the lowest concentration of an EAF obtained from a red wine produced in southern Brazil significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

  11. Effects of α-tocopherol on the in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of phenolics-rich fraction of Khaya senegalensis stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of combined administration of a low dose of a phenolicsrich fraction of Khaya senegalensis (PFKS stem bark with α-tocopherol on Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei brucei infection. Methods: Rats were divided into five groups of six animals, namely, normal control, uninfected but treated with PFKS and α-tocopherol, infected control, infected and treated with PFKS and α-tocopherol (ITTF and infected treated with diminazine aceturate. Rats in infected control, ITTF and infected treated with diminazine aceturate were infected with T. brucei brucei while the animals in uninfected but treated with PFKS and α-tocopherol and ITTF were treated with a combination of PFKS (100 mg/kg body weight and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg body weight for 8 days. At the end of the experiment, indices of anemia as well as hepatic and renal functions were analysed. Results: The combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05 retarded the proliferation of T. brucei brucei in the infected animals compared to the infected group but could not completely eliminate the parasites from the bloodstream of infected animals. Furthermore, the trypanosome-associated pathological changes such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages were significantly (P < 0.05 alleviated by the combination of PFKS and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Combination of a low dose of PFKS stem bark and α-tocopherol could be a therapeutically active regimen against animal trypanosomiasis.

  12. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  13. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  14. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  15. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia ivoriensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column ...

  16. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence of phenolic acids in leaves and fruit of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf was confirmed. Overall, proportions of 15 phenolic acids were found and identified in the analyzed material. These are: gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, syryngic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dimethoxycinnamic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3 other compounds named A, B, C, whose identification was not possible due to the lack of suitable reference patterns. Studies have shown that leaves and fruit of the plant Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. contain a large number of phenolic acids which possess many important pharmacological activities.

  18. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  19. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  20. Changes in phenolic acid content during dry-grind processing of corn into ethanol and DDGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthria, Devanand L; Memon, Ayaz A; Liu, Keshun

    2014-07-01

    Nine fractions (1, ground corn; 2, cooked slurry; 3, liquefied slurry; 4, fermented mash; 5, whole stillage; 6, thin stillage; 7, condensed distillers soluble (CDS); 8, distillers wet grains (DWG); and 9, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)) were collected at different steps from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol processing plants. Samples were analyzed for individual and total phenolic acid content by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. There were significant differences in phenolic acid (individual and total) content and the antioxidant capacity in the nine fractions collected from the three processing plants, but the changing trends in all three plants were very similar. The four phenolic acids identified in all fractions were caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids. Vanillic acid was present in all fractions except fractions 2 and 3. All fractions collected following fermentation, except fractions 6 and 7, had higher concentrations of phenolic acids than fractions before fermentation, with DWG having the highest phenolic acids content. The increased concentration of phenolic acid content after fermentation in four fractions (4, 5, 8 and 9) was primarily due to depletion of starch during dry-grind processing. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of enriched phenolic acid concentration in DDGS on diet palatability (sensory property) and animal health. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Phenolics from Kalanchoe marmorata Baker, Family Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Badawy Singab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of plants rich in phenolics in Egypt, Kalanchoe marmorata Baker was subjected to phytochemical study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed its richness in phenolics. Fractionation of the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of K. marmorata by different organic solvents successively resulted in the isolation and purification of five compounds from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. These compounds namely; E1 isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E2 quercitin; E3 4′-methoxy-myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E4 Quercitin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside and E5 protocatechuic-4′-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside, were identified by analysis of their spectral data including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  2. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  3. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  4. Photodegradation and removal of phenol and phenolic derivatives from petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoparticles of TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrezaei, F. [Academic Center for Education, Culture & Research (ACECR), Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhbari, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, A. [Kermanshah Oil Refinery company, R& amp; D department (KORC), Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary degradation system of phenol and phenolic derivatives from refinery wastewater. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, temperature and catalyst concentration. Determination of phenol and phenolic derivatives compounds is carried out by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. In order to analyze the process, chemical oxygen demand fraction (R) was studied. The region of the exploration for the process was taken as the area enclosed by pH (2-10), temperature (293-318 k) and catalyst concentration (10-200 mg/l) boundaries. The optimum conditions for phenol and phenolic derivatives removal were found to be 3, 318 k and 100 mg/l, respectively, for pH, temperature and catalyst concentration. The results showed that, at optimum conditions, remarkable removal of 90% of phenol after 2 h can be achieved. The main feature of this work is the use of inexpensive and recoverable catalyst and may be considered for preliminary application in the refinery wastewater treatments after physicochemical treatments to avoid solids and colloids.

  5. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  6. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  7. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Cirlini; Pedro Mena; Michele Tassotti; Kelli A. Herrlinger; Kristin M. Nieman; Chiara Dall’Asta; Daniele Del Rio

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn) and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives...

  8. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The...

  9. Phenolic compounds in Ecuadorian fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco, Catalina

    2009-01-01

    A group of eighteen fruits cultivated in Ecuador were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and attempts were made to identify the group and content of phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. In terms of total phenolic content, three groups (with 1000 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW) were clearly distinguishable. RP-HPLC-DAD and/or LC-MS/MS were used to study the phenolic compounds in four Rosaceae fruits (Andean blackberry, str...

  10. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  11. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a strong relationship (R2 = 0.77) between total antioxidant activity and total flavonoid contents and (R2 = 0.6517) for total phenolic content of the fractions. The present study demonstrated that V. doniana leaves extracts contain high amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds so that these compounds are ...

  12. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  13. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  14. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  15. Production of renewable phenolic resins by thermochemical conversion of biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effendi, A.; Gerhauser, H.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Bio-Energy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This review covers the production and utilisation of liquids from the thermal processing of biomass and related materials to substitute for synthetic phenol and formaldehyde in phenol formaldehyde resins. These resins are primarily employed in the manufacture of wood panels such as plywood, MDF, particle-board and OSB. The most important thermal conversion methods for this purpose are fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, pressure liquefaction and phenolysis. Many feedstocks have been tested for their suitability as sources of phenolics including hard and softwoods, bark and residual lignins. Resins have been prepared utilising either the whole liquid product, or a phenolics enriched fraction obtained after fractional condensation or further processing, such as solvent extraction. None of the phenolics production and fractionation techniques covered in this review are believed to allow substitution of 100% of the phenol content of the resin without impacting its effectiveness compared to commercial formulations based on petroleum derived phenol. This survey shows that considerable progress has been made towards reaching the goal of a price competitive renewable resin, but that further research is required to meet the twin challenges of low renewable resin cost and satisfactory quality requirements. Particular areas of concern are wood panel press times, variability of renewable resin properties, odour, lack of reactive sites compared to phenol and potential for increased emissions of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  16. Summary review of the health effects associated with phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R M; Santodonato, J; Neal, M W

    1987-12-01

    Phenol, a monohydroxy derivative of benzene, occurs naturally in animal waste and by decomposition of organic wastes. It is also produced by man, originally by fractional distillation of coal tar, but more recently by cumene hydroperoxidation and toluene oxidation. As a result of large production volume and natural sources, occupational and environmental exposure to phenol is likely. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, vapor inhalation, or ingestion, and, regardless of route of exposure, can result in detrimental health effects. Acute toxicity has been observed in man and experimental animals, resulting in muscle weakness, convulsions, and coma. In addition, studies have shown that although teratogenic effects have not been associated with exposure to phenol by either inhalation or oral route, high doses of phenol are fetotoxic. This paper addresses these studies and others in an attempt to determine if human health is at risk to those levels of phenol present in the environment and workplace. However, because data are limited, further research is necessary to analyze the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of this chemical.

  17. High frequency shoot organogenesis in juvenile leaf of Duchesnea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... conservation strategy. The micro-propagated plants were easily ... 6 mm long and broad in flowering; petals 5, ovate, yellow, 4-5*7-8 mm; ..... 9.0 μM BA medium from a hypocotyls; B, differentiation of callus by medium with 3.0 μM IAA and 2.0 μM BA; C, shoot organogenesis induced by medium with 2.5 μM ...

  18. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  19. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avina G, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  20. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  1. Yucca schidigera bark: phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacente, Sonia; Montoro, Paola; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo

    2004-05-01

    Two new phenolic constituents with unusual spirostructures, named yuccaols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark. Their structures were established by spectroscopic (ESIMS and NMR) analysis. The new yuccaols D and E, along with resveratrol (3), trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), yuccaols A-C (5-7), yuccaone A (8), larixinol (9), the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark, and the phenolic portion of this extract, were assayed for antioxidant activity by measuring the free radical scavenging effects using two different assays, namely, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid (autoxidation assay). The significant activities exhibited by the phenolic fraction and its constituents in both tests show the potential use of Y. schidigera as a source of antioxidant principles.

  2. [Role of the vitamin factor in preventing phenol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, R I; Pozniakovskiĭ, V M; Agarkova, I A

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on rats were made to examine the effect of vitamin B1, pantothenic and ascorbic acids on the acetylation system and some characteristics of protein metabolism under chronic exposure to phenol. Inhibition of phenol vapours led to inhibition of the acetylation on the 105th day of the experiment, to accumulation of pyruvic acid by the blood and diurnal urine, to elevation of cholesterol content in the blood serum. The total content of protein and protein fractions in the blood serum remained unchanged. Additional vitaminization of the animals with thiamine (150 micrograms), calcium pantothenate (650 micrograms) or with their mixture containing ascorbic acid (2 mg) resulted in normalization of the test characteristics of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The data obtained and the clinical trials carried out by the authors suggest introduction of the physiological doses of thiamine, calcium pantothenate and ascorbic acid into the diet of the workers in order to prevent phenol poisonings more effectively.

  3. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  4. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae), and three phytochemical (HPLC) fractions containing the major phenolic compounds were investigated for their effects on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. The three fractions used contained the major peaks within ...

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  6. Characterization of phenols biodegradation by compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Gilevska, Tetyana; Wenzig, Felix; Hans, Richnow; Vogt, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradation of phenol and alkylphenols has been described under both oxic and anoxic conditions. In the absence of molecular oxygen, the degradation of phenolic compounds is initiated by microorganisms through carboxylation, fumarate addition to the methyl moiety or anoxic hydroxylation of the methyl moiety. Comparatively, under aerobic condition, the initiation mechanisms are revealed to be monoxygenation or dihydroxylation for phenol and ring hydroxylation or methyl group oxidation for cresols. While several studies biochemically characterized the enzymes and reaction mechanisms in the relevant degradation pathways, isotope fractionation patterns were rarely reported possibly due to constraints in current analytical methods. In this study, the carbon isotope fractionation patterns upon the degradation of phenol and cresols by several strains were analyzed by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry connected with liquid chromatography (LC-IRMS). The corresponding enrichment factors for carbon (ƐC) have been obtained. Cresols degradation by various strains showed generally moderate carbon isotope fractionation patterns with notable differences. For p-cresol degradation, five strains were examined. The aerobic strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIMB8250 exploits ring hydroxylation by molecular oxygen as initial reaction, and a ƐC value of -1.4±0.2‰ was obtained. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes NCIMB 9867, an aerobic strain initiating cresols degradation via oxygen-dependent side chain hydroxylation, yielded a ƐC value of -2.3±0.2‰. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, Geobacter metallireducens DSM 7210 and Azoarcus buckelii DSM 14744 attacks p-cresol at the side chain by monohydroxylation using water as oxygen source; the two strains produced ƐC values of -3.6±0.4‰ and -2±0.1‰, accordingly. The sulfate-reducing Desulfosarcina cetonica DSM 7267 activating cresols by fumarate addition to the methyl moiety yielded ƐC values of -1.9±0.2‰ for p

  7. Effects of phenolic constituents of daylily flowers on corticosterone- and glutamate-treated PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huan; Yang, Fei-Fei; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le; Chang, Qi; Zhang, Ze-Sheng; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2017-01-21

    Daylily flowers, the flower and bud parts of Hemerocallis citrina or H. fulva, are well known as Wang-You-Cao in Chinese, meaning forget-one's sadness plant. However, the major types of active constituents responsible for the neurological effects remain unclear. This study was to examine the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract and fractions and to identify the active fractions. The extract of daylily flowers was separated with AB-8 resin into different fractions containing non-phenolic compounds, phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids as determined using UPLC-DAD chromatograms. The neuroprotective activity was measured by evaluating the cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release using PC12 cell damage models induced by corticosterone and glutamate. The neurological mechanisms were explored by determining their effect on the levels of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the cell culture medium measured using an LC-MS/MS method. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the extract and phenolic fractions of daylily flowers at concentrations ranging from 0.63 to 5 mg raw material/mL significantly reversed corticosterone- and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The fractions containing phenolic acid derivatives (0.59% w/w in the flowers) and/or flavonoids (0.60% w/w) exerted similar dose-dependent neuroprotective effect whereas the fractions with non-phenolic compounds exhibited no activity. The presence of phenolic acid derivatives in the corticosterone- and glutamate-treated PC12 cells elevated the DA level in the cell culture medium whereas flavonoids resulted in increased ACH and 5-HT levels. Phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids were likely the active constituents of daylily flowers and they conferred a similar extent of neuroprotection, but affected the release of neurotransmitters in a different manner.

  8. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P oil phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  9. Soymilk enriched with green coffee phenolics - Antioxidant and nutritional properties in the light of phenolics-food matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of soymilk fortification with green coffee extract (GCE) on phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity, relative in vitro digestibility of proteins and starch, and consumer acceptance. Special attention was paid to the effect of phenolics-food matrix interactions on fortification efficiency. Soymilk was enriched with GCE extracts containing 0.025-1mg of phenolics per 1mL-samples M1-M6. Compared to control, an increase in phenolic contents of up to 70% (M6) was observed for potentially bioaccessible fractions (AD). The antiradical activity and reducing power were also about 1.9 and 10.1 times higher, respectively. However, the determined phenolic and antioxidant activities differed from those predicted. Fortification improved the digestibility of nutrients when higher doses of GCE was introduced (M4-M6). The addition of GCE at an adequate dose allowed the production of a beverage with elevated hedonic properties. In conclusion, fortification was a successful in improving the pro-health status of soymilk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Winkler‐Moser, Jill K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of phenolics naturally present in canola seeds and meal. Individual phenolics were extracted from ground, defatted canola seeds, and meal. Fractionated extracts rich in sinapic acid, sinapine, or canolol as well as a non......‐fractionated extract were used. These extracts (100 and 350 µM) were evaluated as antioxidants in stripped canola oil‐in‐water (o/w) emulsion. For comparison, the antioxidative effect of phenolic standards for sinapic acid and sinapine (as sinapine thiocyanate) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) as a positive control...... were also evaluated. The concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and selected volatiles measured at different time points was used to evaluate the antioxidative effect. Moreover, the properties of extracts and corresponding phenolic standards were evaluated in three different in vitro antioxidant assays...

  11. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  12. Phenolic acids in extracts obtained from the flowering herbs of Cirsium vulgare (Savi Ten. growing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kozyra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the phenolic acids in the methanol extract from the flowering herbs of Cirsium vulgare (Savi Ten. growing in Poland were isolated and identified. The samples containing free phenolic acids and those released after acid and alkaline hydrolyses were investigated by 2D TLC on cellulose. After purification by SPE, samples were also analyzed by RP-HPLC. Six phenolic acids such as gallic, protokatechuic, gentisic, hydrobenzoic, vanillic and caffeic acids were detected in the fraction of free phenolic acids of the methanol extract, irrespectively of the method used.

  13. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractionsinhibit migration of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ean-Jeong Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects.In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF, a non-phenolic fraction (NPF, which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL, and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer.Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples towards human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro. The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy.PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 µg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC50 on AML12: 0.024 µg/mL, IC50 on HepG2: 2.103 µg/mL. We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of

  14. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  15. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  16. Fractionation statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Baoyong; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Paralog reduction, the loss of duplicate genes after whole genome duplication (WGD) is a pervasive process. Whether this loss proceeds gene by gene or through deletion of multi-gene DNA segments is controversial, as is the question of fractionation bias, namely whether one homeologous chromosome is more vulnerable to gene deletion than the other. Results As a null hypothesis, we first assume deletion events, on one homeolog only, excise a geometrically distributed number o...

  17. Antioxidant activity relationship of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slobodan S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum; Clusiaceae has been used in traditional and modern medicine for a long time due to its high content of biologically active phenolics. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for their fractionation and identification, and to determine the most active antioxidant compounds in plant extract. Results An LC-MS method which enables fast qualitative and semiquantitative analysis was developed. The composition determined is in agreement with the previous results, where 6 flavonoids, 4 naphthodianthrones and 4 phloroglucinols have been identified. Significant antioxidant activity was determined for most of the fractions by DPPH assay (the lowest IC50 of 0.52 μg/ml, NO scavenging (6.11 μg/ml, superoxide scavenging (1.86 μg/ml, lipid peroxidation (0.0079 μg/ml and FRAP (the highest reduction capacity of 104 mg Fe equivalents/g assays. Conclusion LC-MS technique has been successfully applied for a quick separation and identification of the major components of H. perforatum fractions. Majority of the fractions analyzed have expressed a very high antioxidative activity when compared to synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids, while phloroglucinols and naphthodianthrones showed no significant activity. It is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, by fractionation, H. perforatum preparations with significantly increased phloroglucinols-to-naphthodianthrones ratio (up to 95:5.

  18. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-11-01

    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m -3 . The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88-95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM 2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM 2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75-11.1 mg kg -1 . According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning and

  19. Influence of physical and chemical parameters on the irradiation of aqueous solutions of phenol by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzari, Fabien

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the influence of different parameters by electron beam irradiation on the decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution. A simulation based on a simplified mechanism emphasized the importance of the oxygenation of the solutions in the removal of phenol by ionisation. A model of the reactor used was proposed from the study of the influence of the beam energy on the decomposition of phenol. Penetration depths of the electrons were determined. Phenol degradation was found to increase with the dose rate. The fraction of the dose into several passages under the electron beam improved the abatement of the phenol. The reoxygenation of the solutions between each passage and the kinetic expressions of irradiation could explain this effect. As expected, the first by-products identified were originated from the reaction of phenol with hydroxyl radicals. [fr

  20. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  1. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  2. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  3. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  4. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  5. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of wheat species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leváková Ľudmila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (genus Triticum is considered to be an important source of polyphenols, plant secondary metabolites with numerous health-promoting effects. Many phytochemicals are responsible for the high antioxidant activity of whole grain products. However, there is a lack of information about composition of phenolic acids and their concentrations in different Triticum species. Despite the fact that the increased consumption of whole grain cereals and whole grain-based products has been closely related to reduced risk of chronic diseases, bioactive compounds found in whole grain cereals have not achieved as much attention as the bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have revealed that the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of whole grain cereals have been regularly undervalued in the literature, because they contain more polyphenols and other phytochemicals than was reported in the past. Phenolic acids represent a large group of bioactive compounds in cereals. These compounds play a significant role in the possible positive effects of the human diet rich in whole grain cereals, especially in wheat and provide health benefits associated with demonstrably diminished risk of chronic disease development. Ferulic acid, the primary and the most abundant phenolic acid contained in wheat grain, is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of wheat, particularly bran fraction. In this paper, selected phenolic compounds in wheat, their antioxidant activity and health benefits related to consumption of whole grain cereals are reviewed.

  6. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  7. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native Turkish grape varieties (Vitis vinifera Öküzgözü, V. vinifera Boğazkere and V. vinifera Shiraz) and some red fruit wines produced from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) and black mulberry ...

  8. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  9. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  10. The effects of dietary phenolic compounds on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauliard, Benoit; Grieve, Douglas; Wilson, Rhoda; Crozier, Alan; Jenkins, Carol; Mullen, William D; Lean, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins may protect against the development of COPD. This study examined the effects of phenolic compounds and food sources on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells. The effects of the following phenolic compounds on basal and interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated release of IL-8, IL-6, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined: resveratrol; Bouvrage, a commercially available raspberry juice (Ella Drinks Ltd., Alloa, Clacksmannanshire, UK); and quercetin 3'-sulfate. Purification of the raspberry juice by high-performance liquid chromatography gave three fractions: Fraction 1 contained phenolic acid and vitamin C, Fraction 2 contained flavonoids and ellagic acid, and Fraction 3 contained anthocyanins and ellagitannins. IL-8 production was increased in the presence of IL-1 (165 vs. 6,011 pg/mL, P or =50 micromol/mL significantly inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. Similar findings were made with raspberry juice at concentrations > or =25 microL/mL, and Fractions 1 and 3 were best able to inhibit IL-8 production. Quercetin 3'-sulfate, at 25 micromol/mL, inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. The changes observed in IL-8 were paralleled by changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Thus, phenolic compounds can significantly alter cytokine and antioxidant production.

  11. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2, and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5, along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH-20 to afford quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4. Seven hundred mg of ethyl acetate crude extract was separated by HSCCC to obtain six fractions which were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The HSCCC separation obtained total of 80 mg of the mixture of quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4 (26.43% and 71.89%, respectively in fraction 2, 14 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5 at 95.14% of purity in fraction 3, 15 mg of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 at 92.83% of purity in fraction 5, 12 mg of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2 at 97.99% of purity in fraction 6. This is the first time these phenolic compounds have been obtained from H. halodendron, and their chemical structures identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  12. Free Radical-Scavenging Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Fractions from Cranberry Products

    OpenAIRE

    Caillet, Stéphane; Lorenzo, Guillaume; Côté, Jacinthe; Sylvain, Jean-François; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and antiradical activity were evaluated in HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace containing antho- cyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, respectively. Compounds with close polarities were collected to obtain between three and four fractions from each juice or extract. The cranberry phenols are good free radical-scav-eng...

  13. Octyl Phenol Synthesis Using Natural Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casuscelli

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of clay minerals, HB, NB and Al-PILC have been studied in the alkylation reactions of 2-octanol with phenol at 180°C, under conditions of alcohol/phenol = 1 (mole ratio and W/FAo °= 64,27 ghmol-1. The selectivity of Al-PILC was 77,12% for octyl phenol and 16,5% for dioctyl phenol.

  14. (ethylene terephthalate) degradation in phenol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No abstract available. The evaluation of the acid number, ash content and melting temperature of poly (ethylene terephthalate) has been reported (Otaigbe et al, 2003). The polymer was dissolved in phenol: 1,2 dichlorobenzene solvent mixture of 35%: 65% and 50%: 50% by weight and then degraded at 143±2oC.

  15. Trichlorinated phenols from Hypholoma elongatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swarts, H.J.; Verhagen, F.J.M.; Field, J.A.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three trichlorinated phenols, 2,4,6-trichloro-3-methoxyphenol, 3,5,6-trichloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenol and 3,4,6-trichloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenol, were detected as novel metabolites in the ethyl acetate extract from the culture medium of the Basidiomycete, Hypholoma elongatum (strain WIJS94-28).

  16. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental wines derived from bunch (Vitis vinifera) and muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) grapes to determine compositional differences in phenolics. HPLC analysis of wines showed that majority of phenolic compounds eluted during the first 30 min. Of the red ...

  17. Contribution of olive seed to the phenolic profile and related quality parameters of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces, Pilar; Romero, Carmen; Gutierrez, Francisca; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2007-11-01

    Conflicting results have been reported about the effect of fruit de-stoning on the virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of the present study was to determine whether olive seed plays any role in the synthesis of this oil phenolic fraction. Increases of around 25% of total phenolic compounds were observed in oils obtained from de-stoned olive fruits in three main Spanish cultivars. To investigate the involvement of olive seed in determining the phenolic profile of VOO, whole intact olive fruits were added with up to 400% olive stones. Excellent regression coefficients were found in general for the decrease of total phenolic compounds and, particularly, of o-diphenolics in the resulting oils. On the other hand, it was found that olive seed contains a high level of peroxidase (POX) activity (72.4 U g(-1) FW), accounting for more than 98% of total POX activity in the whole fruit. This activity is able to modify VOO phenolics in vitro, similar to the effect of adding stones during VOO extraction. Olive seed plays an important role in determining VOO phenolic profile during the process to obtain an oil that seems to be associated with a high level of POX activity. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. [Evolution of phenolic compounds during wine aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glories, Y

    1978-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of red wine are separated and isolated by a method involving two precipitations (by EtOH and by MeOH-CHCl2), adsorption of the precipitates and supernatants on to p.v.p., and selective desorption of different fractions by mydroalcoholic and acidic solvents. The method permits the definition of wine composition by groups of phenolic compounds which are identified and quantified, and whose molecular mass is determined. Tanins exist in wine in different forms: combinations with salts (T-S) and with polysaccharides (T-P), highly condensed tanins (TtC), condensed tanins (TC), tanin-anthocyanin complexes (T-A), less condensed tanins (T), procyanidin dimer (P). The combinations of tanins with polysaccharides comprise a new class of compounds whose importance is relatively limited in young wine but increases with time during wine maturation (20 to 30 p. cent of the tanins can exist in this form after 20 years of conservation). The percentage of each class varies in the case of young wine, with the cepage, the level of grape maturaity and the conditions of vinification. During the maturation process, the percentage corresponding to the procyanidin dimer group (P), rapidly attains zero after several years. The tanins of old wines are primarily composed of condensed tanins (TC + TtC) and combinations with polysaccharides and with salts. The anthocyanins exist in wine in 3 forms: free anthocyanins, combined anthocyanins and polymerised anthocyanins which belong to the condensed tanins. The free anthocyanins rapidly dissapear during the first few years of wine maturation. The combined and polymerised anthocyanins generally remain present in regard-less of wine age. These groups play an important role in the determination of wine colour.

  19. Gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic states, but it remains unclear if the effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at the transcriptional level in vivo. Gene expression microarray analysis w...

  20. Phenolic compounds of Triplaris gardneriana can protect cells against oxidative stress and restore oxidative balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Thiago Silva; Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Sousa, Nathanna Mateus; Pessoa, Igor Parra; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Hamers, Astrid R M; Farias, Davi Felipe; Peijnenburg, Ad; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-09-01

    This work aimed to add value to an underexploited plant species from Brazil, Triplaris gardneriana. To that, the phenolic compounds profile of its seed ethanolic extract and fractions was examined by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity assessed using chemical assays as well as in vitro cell imaging. Twelve compounds were quantified and classified as either phenolic acids or flavonoids. The fractionation process did not generate fractions with different compositions except for chloroformic fraction, which showed only 6 out of 12 standard compounds used. DPPH assay revealed samples with a concentration-dependent radical scavenging activity, being methanolic fraction the one with the largest activity (SC 50 11.45±0.02μg/mL). Lipid peroxidation assessment, in the presence and absence of stress inducer, showed that particularly the ethanol extract (IC 50 26.75±0.08μg/mL) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC 50 6.14±0.03μg/mL) could inhibit lipid peroxidation. The ethyl acetate fraction performed best in chelating iron (48% complexation at 1000μg/mL). Cell imaging experiments showed that the ethanolic extract could protect cells against oxidative stress as well as restore the oxidative balance upon stress induction. In conclusion, T. gardneriana seeds showed a promising phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity that may be further exploited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. var. pleniflora flowers (Golnar) against bacterial strains causing foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Asgarpanah, Jinous; Sadaghiyani, Parisa Nosrati; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-15

    Flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) var. pleniflora, known as "Golnar" in Iranian traditional medicine have been used for the prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. In this study, antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Golnar and its fractions were scientifically evaluated against bacteria causing foodborne diseases including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysantriae, and Salmonella typhi. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were also determined. The antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract and its fractions were primarily evaluated by agar well diffusion and their MIC and MBC were determined by broth macro dilution method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were measured based on gallic acid and rutin equivalents (GAE and RE), respectively. After evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid content the chloroform fraction showed the lowest phenolic and flavonoid contents (3.8 mg GAE/g and 1.1 mg RE/g respectively) and the methanol fraction showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (18.1 mg GEA/g and 3.3 mg RE/g respectively). The total phenolic and flavonoid content was positively associated with the antibacterial activities of the fractions with chloroform extract exhibiting lowest antibacterial activity against E. coli (MIC 25 mg/ml) and the methanol fraction exhibiting the highest antibacterial effect against S. aureus (MIC 0.19 mg/ml). Golnar extract showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria causing food poisoning. Therefore, the extract can be used for prevention or treatment of foodborne diseases or as preservative in the food industry. The methanol fraction with the highest phenolic and flavonoid content showed the highest antibacterial effect. This indicates that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract can be responsible for the

  3. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  4. Evaluation of in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory potential of different fraction of Hybanthus enneaspermus Linn F. Muell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dk; Kumar, R; Kumar, M; Sairam, K; Hemalatha, S

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI) activity of different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus for potential use in diabetic cataract. Total phenol and flavonoid content of different fractions was determined. ARI activity of different fractions in rat lens was investigated in vitro. The results showed significant level of phenolic and flavonoid content in ethyl acetate fraction [total phenol (212.15±0.79 mg/g), total flavonoid (39.11±2.27 mg/g)] and aqueous fraction [total phenol (140.62±0.57 mg/g), total flavonoid (26.07±1.49 mg/g)] as compared with the chloroform fraction [total phenol (68.56±0.51 mg/g), total flavonoid (13.41±0.82 mg/g)] and petrolium ether fraction [total phenol (36.68±0.43 mg/g), total flavonoid (11.55±1.06 mg/g)]. There was a significant difference in the ARI activity of each fraction, and it was found to be the highest in ethyl acetate fraction [IC50 (49.26±1.76 µg/mL)] followed by aqueous extract [IC50 (70.83±2.82 µg/mL)] and it was least in the petroleum ether fraction [IC50 (118.89±0.71 µg/mL)]. Chloroform fraction showed moderate activity [IC50 (98.52±1.80 µg/mL)]. Different fractions showed significanct amount of ARI activity, where in ethyl acetate fraction it was found to be maximum which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. The extract after further evaluation may be used in the treatment of diabetic cataract.

  5. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  6. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  7. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents and biological evaluation of aerial parts of nepeta praetervisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, G.; Afza, N.; Mali, A.; Fareed, N.; Lateef, M.; Iqbal, L.; Mughal, U.R

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents, radical scavenging potential and urease inhibitory activities in various fractions of the aerial parts of Nepeta praetervisa. Sub-fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) were prepared from the crude methanolic extract using partition chromatography. Phytochemical tests were performed and revealed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites in various sub-fractions (Table-1). Total phenolic contents of all the fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent and the ethyl acetate sub-fraction was found to possess the highest level of phenolic contents (627.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) as compared to the other fractions. The radical scavenging activity was determined at various concentrations ranging from 2.5 - 0.15 micro g /10 mu L by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method. At the lowest concentration level, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed maximum level of antioxidant activity (78%) compared to BHA used as standard. The decreasing order of activity was ethyl acetate>chloroform>aqueous>n-butanol>methanol>n-hexane. On the other hand when all these fractions were screened for urease inhibition activity using indophenols method, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed significant urease inhibitory activity (68 %) compared with the standard thiourea at the concentration of 50 mu g /10 mu L. The decreasing order of activity of various sub-fractions was ethyl acetate>chloroform>hexane>aqueous, while n-butanol sub- fraction was inactive. (author)

  8. Phenolic glycosides from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum and C. glabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Harakat, Dominique; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts and polar fractions of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum and C. glabrum has been assessed. Seven new phenolic glycosides (1-7) were isolated from the most active fractions, along with 15 known compounds (8-22). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR analysis, HRESIMS, and comparison with literature experimental data for known compounds.

  9. Identification of phenolic antioxidants and bioactives of pomegranate seeds following juice extraction using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-04-15

    Phenolics from free and hydrolyzed fractions of pomegranate juice (PJ) and seeds (PS) were evaluated. In general, total phenolic contents and scavenging of ABTS + , DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, as well as metal chelation of the soluble fraction from PS, were higher than those for PJ. Insoluble-bound phenolics from PS accounted for up to 27% of total scavenging capacity (free+esterified+insoluble-bound). Phenolic acids (13), monomeric flavonoids (8), hydrolysable tannins (12), proanthocyanidin (1) and anthocyanins (12) were tentatively characterized using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Several compounds were identified for the first time in PJ or PS. The inhibition of DNA damage (induced by hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals), copper-induced LDL-cholesterol peroxidation, as well as alpha-glucosidase and lipase activities were demonstrated, therefore supporting the potential exploitation of PJ and PS as sources of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of dehydration of phenols on nobel metals using first-principles micokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds constitute a sizable fraction of depolymerized biomass and are an ideal feedstock for the production of chemicals such as benzene and toluene. However, these compounds require catalytic upgrade via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), a process whereby oxygen is removed as water by adding hy...

  11. Phenolic compounds of Triplaris gardneriana can protect cells against oxidative stress and restore oxidative balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de Thiago Silva; Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; Sousa, de Nathanna Mateus; Pessoa, Igor Parra; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Medeiros, De Jackeline Lima; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Hamers, Astrid R.M.; Farias, Davi Felipe; Peijnenburg, Ad; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to add value to an underexploited plant species from Brazil, Triplaris gardneriana. To that, the phenolic compounds profile of its seed ethanolic extract and fractions was examined by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity assessed using chemical assays as well as in vitro cell imaging.

  12. Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2009-06-01

    Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses.

  13. Phenols displaying tyrosinase inhibition from Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Woo, Hyun Sim; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Ki Hun; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2016-10-01

    Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of melanin and other pigments via the oxidation of l-tyrosine. The methanol extract from Humulus lupulus showed potent inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this methanol extract resulted in the isolation of seven flavonoids (1-7), identified as xanthohumol (1), 4'-O-methylxanthohumol (2), xanthohumol C (3), flavokawain C (4), xanthoumol B (5), 6-prenylnaringenin (6) and isoxanthohumol (7). All isolated flavonoids (1-7) effectively inhibited the monophenolase (IC50s = 15.4-58.4 µM) and diphenolase (IC50s = 27.1-117.4 µM) activities of tyrosinase. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon-plots revealed that chalcones (1-5) were competitive inhibitors, whereas flavanones (6 and 7) exhibited both mixed and non-competitive inhibitory characteristics. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the phenolic phytochemicals of H. lupulus display potent inhibitory activities against tyrosinase.

  14. Influence of phenolic constituents from Yucca schidigera bark on arachidonate metabolism in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzig, Eva M; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Kunert, Olaf; Bauer, Rudolf

    2008-10-08

    Yucca schidigera Roezl. (Agavaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a variety of diseases including arthritis and rheumatism. Phenolic constituents isolated from yucca bark, such as resveratrol, trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene, and the yuccaols, have been shown to possess various activities in vitro, such as antioxidant, radical scavenging, iNOS expression inhibitory, and platelet aggregation inhibitory effects. In the present study, the influence of a phenolic-rich fraction from yucca bark and of its main phenolic constituents on key enzymes of arachidonate metabolism was investigated. The fraction and the pure phenolics were shown to inhibit COX-1, COX-2, and LTB 4 formation by 5-LOX in vitro to different extents. The degree of COX-1 inhibition was found to be strongly dependent on the substitution pattern of ring B of the stilbenic moiety. The same trend was observed for the COX-2 inhibitory potential, which was, however, in general much lower for the yuccaols as compared with resveratrol. Resveratrol was also the only compound possessing an LTB 4 formation inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity on key enzymes of arachidonate metabolism observed in this study might contribute to the explanation of the anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects observed for Y. schidigera and its phenolic constituents.

  15. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The role of phenols from bagasse vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil in cupper sulfured ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Brossard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum pyrolysis bagasse bio-oil collected in a series of sequential fractions was analyzed for total percentage of phenols and levoglucosan components. It was established that the ratio total phenols- to-levoglucosan could be used as an indicator of the performance of alkaline solutions of bio-oil fractions (SABO when they are used as foaming agents to benefit flotation of sulfured cupper minerals. A high total phenol-to-levoglucosan ratio results in high percentages of Cu in cupper flotation concentrates, L Cu. A closer look at the role of individual phenols reveals that p-cresol is the main phenol, although not the only one, responsible for the observed behavior. Additionally it was noted that rather high doses of these foaming agents must be used to obtain desirable results in flotation processes. A production cost estimate allows consideration of SABO as an alternative to others commercial foaming agents, especially if an optimization study reduces doses of SABO.

  17. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  18. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  19. Antibacterial activity of sphagnum acid and other phenolic compounds found in Sphagnum papillosum against food-borne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellegård, H; Stalheim, T; Hormazabal, V; Granum, P E; Hardy, S P

    2009-07-01

    To identify the phenolic compounds in the leaves of Sphagnum papillosum and examine their antibacterial activity at pH appropriate for the undissociated forms. Bacterial counts of overnight cultures showed that whilst growth of Staphylococcus aureus 50084 was impaired in the presence of milled leaves, the phenol-free fraction of holocellulose of S. papillosum had no bacteriostatic effect. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of an acetone-methanol extract of the leaves detected eight phenolic compounds. Antibacterial activity of the four dominating phenols specific to Sphagnum leaves, when assessed in vitro as minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were generally >2.5 mg ml(-1). MIC values of the Sphagnum-specific compound 'sphagnum acid' [p-hydroxy-beta-(carboxymethyl)-cinnamic acid] were >5 mg ml(-1). No synergistic or antagonistic effects of the four dominating phenols were detected in plate assays. Sphagnum-derived phenolics exhibit antibacterial activity in vitro only at concentrations far in excess of those found in the leaves. We have both identified the phenolic compounds in S. papillosum and assessed their antibacterial activity. Our data indicate that phenolic compounds in isolation are not potent antibacterial agents and we question their potency against food-borne pathogens.

  20. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  1. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  3. Characterization and quantitation of low and high molecular weight phenolic compounds in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-02-08

    The phenolic constituents of seeds of 12 different apple cultivars were fractionated by sequential extraction with aqueous acetone (30:70, v/v) and ethyl acetate after hexane extraction of the lipids. Low molecular weight phenolic compounds were individually quantitated by RP-HPLC-DAD. The contents of extractable and nonextractable procyanidins were determined by applying RP-HPLC following thiolysis and n-butanol/HCl hydrolysis, respectively. As expected, the results revealed marked differences of the ethyl acetate extracts, aqueous acetone extracts, and insoluble residues with regard to contents and mean degrees of polymerization of procyanidins. Total phenolic contents in the defatted apple seed residues ranged between 18.4 and 99.8 mg/g. Phloridzin was the most abundant phenolic compound, representing 79-92% of monomeric polyphenols. Yields of phenolic compounds significantly differed among the cultivars under study, with seeds of cider apples generally being richer in phloridzin and catechins than seeds of dessert apple cultivars. This is the first study presenting comprehensive data on the contents of phenolic compounds in apple seeds comprising extractable and nonextractable procyanidins. Furthermore, the present work points out a strategy for the sustainable and complete exploitation of apple seeds as valuable agro-industrial byproducts, in particular as a rich source of phloridzin and antioxidant flavanols.

  4. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  5. Insight in the phenolic composition and antioxidative properties of Vitis vinifera leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Generalić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, leaf ethanolic extracts of Vitis vinifera were assayed for their polyphenolic composition and antioxidative properties. The leaves were collected during lush vegetation period (May leaves and after the harvest (September leaves. Air dried plant material was homogenized and the polyphenolic constituents were extracted using conventional solvent extraction procedure. Total phenolics, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, catechins and flavanols were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were very rich in phenolic compounds. The concentration of total phenols in September leaves extract was about 30 % higher compared to May leaves extract, due to the increase of flavonoid (catechin fraction. Non-flavonoid compound content was almost equal in both extracts. The amount of flavanols, determined with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method, was taken as indicator of flavan-3-ol monomers, while high catechin content determined by vanillin method, indicated the presence of polymeric fraction. The total catechin content in September leaves extract was more than 3 folds higher in comparison to May leaves extract. Principal phenolic compounds were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography on reverse phase. Antioxidant properties, determined as: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate radical cation scavenging ability, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, Fe2+ chelating activity, and using β-carotene bleaching assay, were total phenol concentration dependent. September leaves extract had better free radical scavenging capacity, higher reducing power, and was more efficient in protecting the oxidation of emulsified linoleic acid, in comparison with May leaves extract which showed better chelating ability. The presence of active phenolic compounds: phenolic acids (3-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, vanillin acid, flavonoids ((+-catechin, (--epicatechin

  6. Flexible Phenolic Impregnated Felt, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop innovative yet practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Felt (PIF) materials for thermal...

  7. Degradation and toxicity reduction of phenol by ultrasound waves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of parameters such as pH, kinetic constants and initial phenol concentration on the sonochemical degradation of phenol and toxicity assay were studied. The experimental results showed that lower pH and lower concentration of phenol favor the phenol degradation. But the rates of phenol degradation under ...

  8. Phenolic Constituents from Alchornea castaneifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gleńsk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea castaneifolia is a tree growing commonly in several South American countries. It is best known under its Peruvian name Iporuru. The leaves are being used as a folk remedy against numerous symptoms associated with pain and inflammation. It has a reputation for being a tonic and booster of male libido. In this study, using a combination of chromatographic techniques, we isolated phenolic constituents present in leaves, and elucidated their structures using MS and NMR techniques. The isolated and characterized compounds were myricetin glucoside, myricetin galactoside, proanthocyanidin A1 and A2, epicatechin, gallic acid, shikimic acid, putranjivain A, elaeocarpusin and never before isolated methyl ester of repandusinic acid A.

  9. Rate limiting factors in trichloroethylene co-metabolic degradation by phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2014-04-01

    The potential of aerobic granular sludge in co-metabolic removal of recalcitrant substances was evaluated using trichloroethylene (TCE) as the model compound. Aerobic granules cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with phenol as the growth substrate exhibited TCE and phenol degradation activities lower than previously reported values. Depletion of reducing energy and diffusion limitation within the granules were investigated as the possible rate limiting factors. Sodium formate and citrate were supplied to the granules in batch studies as external electron sources. No significant enhancing effect was observed on the instant TCE transformation rates, but 10 mM formate could improve the ultimate transformation capacity by 26 %. Possible diffusion barrier was studied by sieving the biomass into five size fractions, and determining their specific TCE and phenol degradation rates and capacities. Biomass in the larger size fractions generally showed lower activities. Large granules of >700 μm diameter exhibited only 22 % of the flocs' TCE transformation capacity and 35 % of its phenol dependent SOUR, indicating the possible occurrence of diffusion limitation in larger biomass. However, the highest specific TCE transformation rate was observed with the fraction that mostly consisted of small granules (150-300 μm), suggesting an optimal size range while applying aerobic granules in TCE co-metabolic removal.

  10. Efficient quantification of the phenolic profiles of Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves and correlation between chromatographic fingerprint and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Luo, Ziwen; Wang, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen subsequent fractions were prepared from the ethyl acetate fraction of Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves after bio-guided chromatographic separation. The HPLC profiles and antioxidant activity of the various fractions indicated that the content of eight phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin, hyperoside, trifolin, quercitrin, afzelin and quercetin) and antioxidant activity vary significantly, and high concentrations of a combination of eight phenolic compounds would result in an increase of the antioxidant activity. These results suggested that the eight compounds could be used as chemical markers for quality assessment of Z. bungeanum leaves. Correlation between chromatographic fingerprint and antioxidant activity of the fractions showed that quercitrin and hyperoside play crucial roles in the antioxidant activity, and they can be seen as the milestone for quality control. The findings also suggested that five obtained fractions (E-3-3, E-2-4, E-7, E-5 and E-4) could become useful supplements for functional food ingredients and health-related products.

  11. Contribution of bacterial cell nitrogen to soil humic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, R.; Barro, L.

    1981-01-01

    Living cells of Serratia marcescens, uniformly labelled with 15 N, were added to samples of maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) forest soils. After different periods of incubation from zero time to 100 days, the soils were subjected to alkali-acid and phenol extraction to provide humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and 'humoprotein' fractions. Significant amounts of the cell nitrogen were recovered in the humic and fulvic acids immediately after addition. After incubation, less cell nitrogen appeared in the humic acid and more in the fulvic acid. The amount of cell nitrogen recovered in the humin fraction increased with incubation. Roughly 5 to 10 per cent of the added cell nitrogen was found as amino acid nitrogen from humoprotein in a phenol extract of the humic acid. The data are consistent with the occurrence of co-precipitation of biologically labile biomass nitrogen compounds with humic polymers during the alkaline extraction procedure involved in the humic-fulvic fractionation. (orig.)

  12. Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Bush Mango ( Irvingia gabonensis ) Kernels. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... Phenolic constituents (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins), comparative antiradical potency and cytotoxicity of processed mango (Mangifera ...

  13. Biodegradation of phenol by a newly isolated marine bacterial strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    peptone agar plates with. 1500 mg/L phenol. ... biodegradation of the strain was up to 92.0% under the optimum conditions even when the phenol ... Growth of marine bacterial isolates in various concentration of phenol. Isolate.

  14. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins

  15. Biodegradation of phenol by Pseudomonas pictorum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of phenol using Pseudomonas pictorum (ATCC 23328) a potential biodegradant of phenol was investigated under different operating conditions. Chitin was chosen as a support material and then partially characterized physically and chemically. The pH of the solution was varied over a range of 7 – 9.

  16. Biodegradation of phenol with immobilized Pseuodomonas putida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of phenol with immobilized Pseuodomonas putida activated carbon packed bio-filter tower. ... Comparative study on adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) of phenol using Pseuodomonas putida (MTCC 1194) in a biofilter tower packed with fresh granular activated carbon (GAC) ...

  17. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...

  18. Phytochemical composition, total phenolic content and ferric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in discovering drugs from natural source led to the investigation of the phytochemical composition, the total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of leaf, stem and root bark extracts of S. sarmentosus DC. The total phenolic content of the extracts were examined using ...

  19. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  20. Identification and genetic characterization of phenol- degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAURABH

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... compared with LmPH gene of Pseudomonas sp.CF600. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that the isolate can degrade phenol through catechol ortho fission pathway. In this paper, we reported about the new strain of Acinetobacter sp. capable of degrading phenol (9.5 mM.

  1. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Dodonaea viscosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Tauheeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Methanolic extract of the plant was dissolved in distilled water and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and nbutanol sequentially. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay and ferric thiocyanate assay along with determination of their total phenolics. The results revealed that ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited highest percent inhibition of DPPH radical as compared to other fractions. It showed 81.14 ± 1.38% inhibition of DPPH radical at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. The IC50 of this fraction was found to be 33.95 ± 0.58 μg/ml, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, having IC50 of 12.54 ± 0.89 μg/mL. It also showed highest FRAP value (380.53 ± 0.74 μM of trolox equivalents as well as highest total phenolic contents (208.58 ± 1.83 GAE μg/g and highest value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation (58.11 ± 1.49% at concentration of 500 μg/ml as compared to the other studied fractions. The chloroform fraction showed highest total antioxidant activity i.e.1.078 ± 0.59 (eq. to BHT.

  2. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  3. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus seedcake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail, N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of kenaf seedcake methanolic extract (CME and fractions obtained from it using ethyl acetate (EAF, hexane (HF and water (WF were investigated. Total phenolic contents were 64.5, 36.1, 31.3 and 14.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight in EAF, CME, WF, and HF, respectively. Kenaf seedcake extract/fractions showed inhibitory activity of β-carotene bleaching and corn oil oxidation. Also, the extract/fractions were scavenged for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The EAF extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity followed by the CME, WF and HF extracts. Therefore, the rich phenolic fractions of kenaf seedcake may represent a potential source of natural antioxidants. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in CME and HF extracts were gallic, (+-catechin, chlorogenic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillin.Se ha investigado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos procedentes de tortas de semillas de kenaf (CME y de las fracciones obtenidas usando acetato de etilo (EAF, hexano (HF y agua (WF. Los contenidos fenólicos totales fueron 64,5, 36,1, 31,3 y 14,6 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g de peso seco, en EAF, CME, WF, y HF, respectivamente. Los extractos/fracciones de semillas de kenaf mostraron actividad inhibitoria de blanqueo del β-caroteno y oxidación del aceite de maíz. Además, los extractos/fracciones fueron captadores de radicales del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil. El extracto EAF mostró la mayor actividad captadora de radicales de DPPH seguido por los extractos de CME, WF y HF. Por lo tanto, las fracciones ricas en fenoles de las tortas de semilla de kenaf pueden representar una fuente potencial de antioxidantes naturales. Los compuestos fenólicos predominantes identificados mediante HPLC-DAD en extractos de CME y HF fueron gálico, (+-catequina, ácido clorogénico, hidroxibenzoico, siríngico, y vainillina.

  4. Detection and quantification of phenolic compounds in olive oil by high resolution {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophoridou, Stella [NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Voutes, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dais, Photis [NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Voutes, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: dais@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2009-02-09

    High resolution {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy has been employed as a versatile and rapid method to analyze the polar fraction of extra virgin olive oils containing various classes of phenolic compounds. The strategy for identification of phenolic compounds is based on the NMR chemical shifts of a large number of model compounds assigned by using two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2D NMR was applied to phenolic extracts in an attempt to discover additional phenolic compounds. The {sup 1}H NMR methodology was successful in detecting simple phenols, such as p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, homovanillyl alcohol, vanillin, free tyrosol, and free hydroxytyrosol, the flavonols apigenin and luteolin, the lignans (+) pinoresinol, (+) 1-acetoxypinoresinol and syringaresinol, two isomers of the aldehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside, the dialdehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside lacking a carboxymethyl group, and finally total hydroxytyrosol and total tyrosol reflecting the total amounts of free and esterified hydroxytyrol and tyrosol, respectively. The absolute amount of each phenolic constituent was determined in the polar fraction by using anhydrous 1,3,5-triazine as an internal standard.

  5. Toxicity of Phenol and Salt on the Phenol-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Phenolic compounds, phenol and phenol derivatives are environmental contaminants in some industrial effluents. Entrance of such substances into the environment causes severe environmental pollution, especially pollution of water resources. Biological treatment is a method that uses the potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Among microorganisms, bacteria play an important role in treating wastewater contaminated with phenol. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on degradation of phenol in wastewater contaminated with this pollutant. Methods In this method, the growth rate of P. aeruginosa bacteria was investigated using different concentrations of salt and phenol. This is an experimental study conducted as a pilot in a batch reactor with different concentrations of phenol (25, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 600 mg L-1 and salt (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% during 9, 12 and 15 hours. During three days, from 5 experimental and 3 control samples, 18 samples were taken a day forming a sample size of 54 samples for each phenol concentration. Given the number of phenol concentrations (n = 6, a total of 324 samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. Results The phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1 was toxic for P. aeruginosa. However, at a certain concentration, it acts as a carbon source for P. aeruginosa. During investigations, it was found that increasing the concentration of phenol increases the rate of bacteria growth. The highest bacteria growth rate occurred was at the salt concentration of zero and phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that at high concentrations of salt, the growth of bacteria reduces so that it stops at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 (5%. Thus, the bacterium is halotolerant or halophilic. With an increase in phenol concentration, the growth rate increased. Phenol toxicity appears

  6. Determination of phenolic compounds in Yucca gloriosa bark and root by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Bassarello, Carla; Perrone, Angela; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2008-08-05

    On the basis of the biological activities shown by yuccaols and gloriosaols from Yucca schidigera and Yucca gloriosa, the content of yuccaols and gloriosaols in two different parts of Y. gloriosa (roots and bark), was determined for each single compound, and compared with phenolic determination in Y. schidigera bark, concluding that Y. gloriosa bark and roots are rich sources of phenolic derivatives structurally related to resveratrol. LC/ESIMS (liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry) qualitative and an LC/ESIMS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem electrospray mass spectrometry) quantitative studies of the phenolic fraction of Y. gloriosa were performed. LC/ESIMS/MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method previously described for yuccaols in Y. schidigera was applied and optimised for separation and determination of gloriosaols and yuccaols in Y. gloriosa. Due to the sensitivity and the repeatability of the assay, we suggest this method as suitable for industrial quality control of raw materials and final products.

  7. Correlations between Antioxidant Activity and Alkaloids and Phenols of Maca (Lepidium meyenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of maca has been considered to be the basis for other bioactivities, and revealing the active antioxidant compounds would help to elucidate a variety of bioactive compounds. In this study, the correlation between the antioxidant activity of maca and secondary metabolites, including ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (HRSA, lipid peroxidation inhibition ability (LPIA, total phenolic contents (TPCs, total alkaloid contents (TACs, and total sterol contents (TSCs, was investigated by measuring. Chloroform was selected to be an efficient extraction solvent for antioxidant compounds in maca by polarity fractions test. The results showed that TPC exhibited significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP and LPIA, while TAC had significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP, HRSA, and LPIA. These results suggested that alkaloids and phenols were the most important substances for the antioxidation of maca, of which the antioxidant effect of alkaloids seemed to be higher than that of phenols.

  8. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  9. [Antimicrobic features of phenolic lipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Iu A; Borzenkov, I A; Kalinin, M V; Loĭko, N G; Tarasov, A L; Plakunov, V K; Beliaev, S S; Voronina, N V; Gal'chenko, V F; El'-Registan, G I

    2010-01-01

    The connection between the efficiency of phenolic lipids (PL) and their hydrophobic property (solubility) and hydrophobic property of microorganisms' cell structure is shown. The mixture of amphiphilic di(oxiphenil)-phenil-methanes, which act bacteriostatically under 15 mg/l, possesses maximal efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus. Against Mycobacterium smegmatis with hydrophobic cell wall, hydrophobic 2,4-dialkylocibenzol 70 mg/l was the most effective. Hexylresorcin (HR) stops the development of gram-positive bacteria in concentrations 20-50 mg/l, that of gram-negative bacteria in concentration 65 mg/l, that of M. smegmatis at 70 mg/l, and that of yeast and fungi at 300 mg/l. HR prevails bacteria spores germination in the concentration 25-100 mg/l. The dependence of antibacterial action of isomers and homologues of alkylresorcins on their structure--number, position, and length of alkyl substituents--is studied.

  10. Experimental Investigation on the Specific Heat of Carbonized Phenolic Resin-Based Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Te; Ye, Hong; Zhang, Lisong; Cai, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    As typical phenolic resin-based ablative materials, the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic composites are widely used in aerospace field. The specific heat of the carbonized ablators after ablation is an important thermophysical parameter in the process of heat transfer, but it is rarely reported. In this investigation, the carbonized samples of the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic were obtained through carbonization experiments, and the specific heat of the carbonized samples was determined by a 3D DSC from 150 °C to 970 °C. Structural and compositional characterizations were performed to determine the mass fractions of the fiber and the carbonized product of phenolic which are the two constituents of the carbonized samples, while the specific heat of each constituent was also measured by 3D DSC. The masses of the carbonized samples were reduced when heated to a high temperature in the specific heat measurements, due to the thermal degradation of the carbonized product of phenolic resin in the carbonized samples. The raw experimental specific heat of the two carbonized samples and the carbonized product of phenolic resin was modified according to the quality changes of the carbonized samples presented by TGA results. Based on the mass fraction and the specific heat of each constituent, a weighted average method was adopted to obtain the calculated results of the carbonized samples. Due to the unconsolidated property of the fiber samples which impacts the reliability of the DSC measurement, there is a certain deviation between the experimental and calculated results of the carbonized samples. Considering the similarity of composition and structure, the data of quartz glass and graphite were used to substitute the specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber, respectively, resulting in better agreements with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the accurate specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber bundles was obtained by

  11. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  12. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  13. Phenols and lignin: Key players in reducing enzymatic hydrolysis yields of steam-pretreated biomass in presence of laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Taravilla, Alfredo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Demuez, Marie; González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2016-01-20

    Phenols are known as inhibitors for cellulases and fermentative microorganisms in bioethanol production processes. The addition of laccases removes the phenolic compounds and subsequently reduces the lag phase of the fermentative microorganism. However, the application of laccases diminishes glucose release during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study a model cellulosic substrate (Sigmacell) together with lignin extract, whole steam-pretreated wheat straw (slurry) and its water insoluble solid fraction (WIS) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the effects of laccase treatment in presence of lignin and phenols. The presence of laccase in enzymatic hydrolysis of Sigmacell with lignin extract reduced glucose yield by 37% compared with assays without laccase. Furthermore, this reduction was even more marked in presence of phenols (55% reduction). Interestingly, when hydrolyzing WIS, the addition of phenols coupled with laccase treatment did not show a reduction when compared with only laccase addition. This fact suggests the key role of lignin in the hydrolysis inhibition since in WIS the ratio cellulase per gram of lignin was much lower than in Sigmacell experiments. Finally, the lower cellobiose and xylose recoveries point out that phenolic oligomers formed by laccase oxidation play important roles in the inhibition of endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases. To conclude, the proportion of lignin and the composition of phenols are key players in the inhibition of cellulases when the enzymatic hydrolysis is combined with laccases detoxification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Abilities with Leaf Extracts from Two Varieties of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Padilla-Ramírez, José Saúl; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cortes, Osvaldo; Bartolomé-Camacho, María Carmen; Rodiles-López, José Octavio

    2018-02-27

    Guava leaf ( Psidium guajava L.) extracts are used in both traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. The antioxidant compounds in P. guajava leaves can have positive effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-cancer effects, as well as protecting against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were measured in extracts obtained with polar and non-polar solvents from leaves of two varieties of guava, Calvillo Siglo XXI and Hidrozac. The quantity of total phenolics and total flavonoids were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid and quercetin, respectively. Hydroxyl radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL) in vitro tests were used to assess the radical scavenging abilities of the extracts. The total phenolics were higher in the aqueous fraction of the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI, while in the Hidrozac variety total phenolics were higher in the acetone and chloroform fractions. Total flavonoids were higher in all fractions in the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI. Total phenolics showed a highly positive correlation for ORAC-FL, and a moderately positive correlation with hydroxyl radicals. Finally, total flavonoids showed a slightly positive correlation for ORAC-FL and hydroxyl radicals. Both varieties of guava leaf extract showed excellent antioxidant properties.

  15. Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Abilities with Leaf Extracts from Two Varieties of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; Garnica-Romo, Ma. Guadalupe; Padilla-Ramírez, José Saúl; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cortes, Osvaldo; Bartolomé-Camacho, María Carmen; Rodiles-López, José Octavio

    2018-01-01

    Guava leaf (Psidium guajava L.) extracts are used in both traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. The antioxidant compounds in P. guajava leaves can have positive effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-cancer effects, as well as protecting against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were measured in extracts obtained with polar and non-polar solvents from leaves of two varieties of guava, Calvillo Siglo XXI and Hidrozac. The quantity of total phenolics and total flavonoids were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid and quercetin, respectively. Hydroxyl radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL) in vitro tests were used to assess the radical scavenging abilities of the extracts. The total phenolics were higher in the aqueous fraction of the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI, while in the Hidrozac variety total phenolics were higher in the acetone and chloroform fractions. Total flavonoids were higher in all fractions in the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI. Total phenolics showed a highly positive correlation for ORAC-FL, and a moderately positive correlation with hydroxyl radicals. Finally, total flavonoids showed a slightly positive correlation for ORAC-FL and hydroxyl radicals. Both varieties of guava leaf extract showed excellent antioxidant properties. PMID:29495514

  16. Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Abilities with Leaf Extracts from Two Varieties of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Camarena-Tello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf (Psidium guajava L. extracts are used in both traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. The antioxidant compounds in P. guajava leaves can have positive effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-cancer effects, as well as protecting against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were measured in extracts obtained with polar and non-polar solvents from leaves of two varieties of guava, Calvillo Siglo XXI and Hidrozac. The quantity of total phenolics and total flavonoids were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid and quercetin, respectively. Hydroxyl radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL in vitro tests were used to assess the radical scavenging abilities of the extracts. The total phenolics were higher in the aqueous fraction of the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI, while in the Hidrozac variety total phenolics were higher in the acetone and chloroform fractions. Total flavonoids were higher in all fractions in the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI. Total phenolics showed a highly positive correlation for ORAC-FL, and a moderately positive correlation with hydroxyl radicals. Finally, total flavonoids showed a slightly positive correlation for ORAC-FL and hydroxyl radicals. Both varieties of guava leaf extract showed excellent antioxidant properties.

  17. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  18. Wheat bread enriched with green coffee - In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara

    2017-04-15

    The potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee were studied. Supplementation enhanced nutraceutical potential by improving phenolic content and lipid protecting capacity. The simulated-digestion-released phenolics (mainly caffeic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) from bread, also caused significant qualitative changes (chlorogenic acids were cleaved and significant amounts of caffeic acid and ferulic acid were determined). Compared to the control, for the bread with 1% and 5% of the functional component the contents of phenolics were 1.6 and 3.33 times higher. Also, an approximately 2.3-fold increase in antioxidant activity was found in bread containing 5% of the supplement. The compounds responsible for antioxidant potential have high bioaccessibility but poor bioavailability. The qualitative composition of the phenolic fraction has a key role in developing the antioxidant potential of bread; however, caffeine and synergism between antioxidants are also important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  20. An investigation of the olive phenols activity as a natural medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Gökalp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural antioxidants of olive oil have phenolic structure and their activities are related to the formation of stable derivatives. In this study, the single components of the phenolic fraction of olive oil (1,4-hydroquinone, Semiquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone have been studied as theoretical by using DFT (Density functional Theory. The behaviors of phenolic compounds of olive against to the alkyl peroxy radicals were investigated. Our data show that 1,4-benzoquinone is the best electron transfer agent in primary metabolic processes to human life. The frontier orbital gap, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital–LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap is the smallest for 1,4-benzoquinone. Hence, it is more stable than the others in blood. The natural phenolic compound's mechanism of many plants can be explained by using DFT method without consuming time and money. In this study, we have indicated the behaviors of natural antioxidants of olive oil's single components phenolic structure in blood phase. Keywords: 1,4-Hydroquinone, Semiquinone, 1,4-Benzoquinone, Blood, DFT

  1. Anaerobic methanogenic treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E.

    1982-09-01

    Batch culture experiments using domestic anaerobic sewage sludge were carried out with a variety of aromatic compounds to determine whether methanogenic fermentations of these substrates could be established. Of the 11 phenolics tested, only phenol and p-cresol were fermented to methane. The acclimation time for the degradation of these two substrates increased as their concentrations increased. In batch cultures, phenol or p-cresol were not degraded when their concentrations were greater than 500 and 400 mg/l respectively, although at higher concentrations, the methanogenic fermentations of non-phenolic substrates were not inhibited. Thus the phenolic-degrading bacteria are more susceptible to inhibition by the toxic substrates than are the methane bacteria. Four dimethylphenol isomers inhibited methane fermentation at 500 but not at 300 mg/l. Maximum degradation rates for phenol and p-cresol were found to be 42 and 52 mg/l/d respectively. Draw-and-feed cultures were established on these substrates, and the phenol-degrading culture showed a substrate removal efficiency of over 99.8%. The reactor, operated with a hydraulic retention time of 25 d and a solids retention time approaching infinity, received a nutrient solution containing 500 mg/l phenol. Preliminary batch cultures inoculated with oil sands tailings pond sludge indicate that microorganisms may exist therein, which are capable of anaerobically degrading o- and m-cresol, 2,5- and 3,5-dimethylphenol, and 3,4-dihydroxytoluene. Overall, these findings indicate that the anaerobic methanogenic degradation of phenolic wastewaters is biochemically feasible. 110 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  3. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirlini, Martina; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Nieman, Kristin M; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-08-03

    The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 ± 13.5 mg/g) with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and β-linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.

  4. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 ± 13.5 mg/g with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and β-linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.

  5. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  6. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  7. Data on coffee composition and mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of coffee related carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Simões, Cristiana; Maciel, Elisabete; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-08-01

    The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled "Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction" (Moreira et al., 2017) [1]. Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms and respective GC-MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.

  8. Data on coffee composition and mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of coffee related carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S.P. Moreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction” (Moreira et al., 2017 [1]. Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS chromatograms and respective GC–MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.

  9. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    Compounds from phenolic acid family are well known natural antioxidants, but the application of phenolic acids as antioxidants in industry is limited due to the relatively low solubility in oil-based media. The properties of phenolic acids can be modified through enzymatic lipophilization...... and modified phenolic acids will have amphiphilic property, therefore they can be localized at oil-water or water-oil phase where oxidation is considered to occur frequently. It had been reported that immobilized Candida Antarctica lipase B was the most effective biocatalyst for the various esterification...... reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show...

  10. Cooking quality properties and free and bound phenolics content of brown, black, and red rice grains stored at different temperatures for six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Chaves, Fábio Clasen; Vanier, Nathan Levien; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2018-03-01

    The changes in cooking quality and phenolic composition of whole black and red rice grains stored during six months at different temperatures were evaluated. Brown rice with known cooking quality properties and low phenolic levels was used for purposes comparison. All rice genotypes were stored at 13% moisture content at temperatures of 16, 24, 32, and 40°C. Cooking time, hardness, free and bound phenolics, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and free radical scavenging capacity were analysed. The traditional rice with brown pericarp exhibited an increase in cooking time and free phenolics content, while rice with black pericarp exhibited a reduction in cooking time after six months of storage at the highest studied temperature of 40°C. There as increases in ferulic acid levels occurred as a function of storage temperature. Red pericarp rice grains showed decreased antioxidant capacity against ABTS radical for the soluble phenolic fraction with increased time and storage temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterisation and quantification of phenolic compounds of extra-virgin olive oils according to their geographical origin by a rapid and resolutive LC-ESI-TOF MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, Youssef; Taamalli, Ameni; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic compounds present in seven samples of olive fruits were analysed by a rapid and resolutive LC-ESI-TOF MS method. All samples were collected during the normal picking period for olive oil production, in central and south Tunisia, and were obtained from the Oueslati variety cultivated in different olive growing areas. In the Tunisian samples, 22 compounds have been characterised by LC-ESI-TOF MS analysis. Results showed no qualitative differences in the phenolic fractions between virgin olive oils from different geographical region. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in a wide number of phenolic compounds. These results permit to use the phenolic fractions as an indicator of each region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenol and Its Toxicity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol and its derivatives like dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol (carbolic acid are widely used as insecticides, but they are very toxic substances. Phenol is a general protoplasmic poison with corrosive local effects that denature proteins. Poisoning with phenol compounds may occur by ingestion, inhalation, and absorption through skin. In this report we presented the toxicity effects of Phenol and its derivatives like dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol on humans. Case report: A 27-year-old married female was found unconscious at her residence in September 2013. She was expired after hospitalization in Lady Hardinge Medical College and its associated hospital on the same day after six hours. On examination, corrosion of skin, at angel of mouth and chin, and brown discoloration in mucosa of the esophagus were seen. Histological examination showed exfoliation of esophageal mucosa and coagulative necrosis of gastric mucosa. In toxicological analyses, carbolic acid was detected. Conclusion: Strict precautionary measures are advised when using this compound.

  13. Spectroscopic properties of pharmacologically active phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Polozov, G. I.; Sorokin, V. L.; Ksendzova, G. A.

    2012-05-01

    The IR Fourier-transform spectra of pharmacologically active phenol molecules in solutions in CCl4 and in the crystalline state have been studied. Phenol derivatives with different directivities and different levels of pharmacological efficiency have been examined. Based on analysis of the IR spectra of screened phenols, the antimicrobial activity of phenols with free hydroxyl groups has been shown to be highest. The high antimicrobial activity of aminophenols is related to the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. For aminophenols that are active against herpesviruses, O-H...N hydrogen bonds are formed in molecules. The main characteristic of the high antiviral activity against A-type influenza is predominance of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the O-H...O=C type in molecules. Sulfur-containing aminophenols, which manifest activity against HIV infection, are characterized by the occurrence of hydrogen bonds that involve the participation of the OH, NH, and SO2 groups.

  14. Profile, antioxidant potential, and applicability of phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    ) of Spirulina platensis and assesses their antioxidant potential, applying them as a natural conservative in minimally processed apples. The phenolic extract showed 396 µg g-1 gallic acid, 347 µg g-1 of caffeic acid, 54 µg g-1.

  15. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Mauromicale; Rosario Mauro; Gaetano Pandino; Sara Lombardo

    2011-01-01

    In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic a...

  16. Microwave Cure of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    高谷, 政広; 田平, 英敏; 岡本, 忠

    2006-01-01

    [Synopsis] Phenol-formaldehyde resin has been used as a versatile material for adhesives and coatings of a wide range of adherends because of its excellent performance in water- resistance, strength against abrasion, and so on. However, it has a drawback of slow rate of cure and relevant emission of formaldehyde gas after bonding. We studied the curing performance under irradiation of microwave for the purpose of looking for a way of accelerating the cure rate of phenol formaldehyde resin. Th...

  17. Phenolic Molecules in Virgin Olive Oils: a Survey of Their Sensory Properties, Health Effects, Antioxidant Activity and Analytical Methods. An Overview of the Last Decade Alessandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lercker

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable oils, virgin olive oil (VOO has nutritional and sensory characteristics that to make it unique and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. The importance of VOO is mainly attributed both to its high content of oleic acid a balanced contribution quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its richness in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of several human diseases. The polar phenolic compounds of VOO belong to different classes: phenolic acids, phenyl ethyl alcohols, hydroxy-isochromans, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. This latter family of compounds is characteristic of Oleaceae plants and secoiridoids are the main compounds of the phenolic fraction. Many agronomical and technological factors can affect the presence of phenols in VOO. Its shelf life is higher than other vegetable oils, mainly due to the presence of phenolic molecules having a catechol group, such as hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoid derivatives. Several assays have been used to establish the antioxidant activity of these isolated phenolic compounds. Typical sensory gustative properties of VOO, such as bitterness and pungency, have been attributed to secoiridoid molecules. Considering the importance of the phenolic fraction of VOO, high performance analytical methods have been developed to characterize its complex phenolic pattern. The aim of this review is to realize a survey on phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils bearing in mind their chemical-analytical, healthy and sensory aspects. In particular, starting from the basic studies, the results of researches developed in the last ten years will be focused.

  18. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly obs...

  19. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  20. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-12-04

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  1. fractional differential equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We apply this method for solving space–time fractional Cahn--Allen equation and space--time fractional Klein–Gordon equation. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense of modified Riemann--Lioville. As a result of some exact solution in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational solutions are deduced.

  2. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction…

  3. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  5. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  6. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  7. Efficacy of differently applied tyrosine and tryptophan for modulation of phenolic metabolism in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Saqib; Mahmood, Tariq; Hussian, Iqbal; Javed, Sadia; Afzal, Beenish; Ghaffar, Freeha; Iqbal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Phenolics are pharmaceutically important molecules. Tyrosine and tryptophan are precursors of phenolic metabolism. It was aimed to investigate the potential of exogenously introduced precursors on the phenolic contents in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague seedlings. The seeds of two local varieties (Chakwal and Desi) were grown in completely randomized design in a growth chamber at 19 ± 2°C with two amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) applied (priming and supplementation in rooting medium) at two treatment levels (0, and 1%). Ten days old seedlings were harvested and subjected for growth (root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) and phenolic estimation was done by HPLC method. Presence of seven phenolic acids including quercitin, chromatotropic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinnapic acid, trans 4 hydroxy 3 methoxy cinamic acid and P-courmeric acid was confirmed in both varieties with dissimilar fraction. Poor growth was observed by "Desi" under controlled conditions that were efficiently enhanced by tyrosine and tryptophan treatments. As precursors both amino acids differed for allosteric regulation of the pathway. That varied from application to application and variety to variety too for a pattern of phenolic accumulation. In conclusion, tyrosine and tryptophan application can be useful for farmers for improved growth of T. ammi and for pharmaceutical scientists to modulate metabolites of interest.

  8. The phenolic compounds: a commercial argument in the economic war to come on the quality of olive oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servili Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is deeply related to the amount of its minor compounds, chiefly volatile and phenolic compounds, which confer the sensory note and the remarkable nutritional and biological properties of this traditional Mediterranean fruit juice. Several agronomic aspects and technological factors affect the qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds in EVOO. The most abundant natural antioxidants of EVOO are tocopherols, carotenoids and hydrophilic phenols. The EVOO phenols represent a group of secondary plant metabolites not often present in other oils and fats. The class of the hydrophilic phenols includes phenolic alcohols and acids, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. The latter group is exclusively found in the Oleacease family plants of which the olive is the only edible fruit and it is considered as the most important fraction from a biological point of view. In particular, the secoiridoids are the most relevant phenols associated to health and biological proprieties and, at the same time, they are responsible for the bitter and pungency sensory notes of EVOO. The new approach to the EVOO extraction technologies is oriented towards the improvement of the virgin olive oil healthy and sensory properties by optimizing the oil mechanical extraction process conditions.

  9. A DFT study of phenol adsorption on a low doping Mn–Ce composite oxide model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D́Alessandro, Oriana [CINDECA – Fac. Cs. Ex. UNLP, CCT – CONICET, Calle 47 Nro. 257, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Pintos, Delfina García [ITHES–UBA, Pabellón de Industrias, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juan, Alfredo, E-mail: cajuan@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Física & IFISUR – UNS, Avda. Alem 1253, (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Irigoyen, Beatriz [ITHES–UBA, Pabellón de Industrias, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sambeth, Jorge [CINDECA – Fac. Cs. Ex. UNLP, CCT – CONICET, Calle 47 Nro. 257, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenol is adsorbed on the structural-oxygen-deficient Ce-Mn-O(1 1 1) surface interacting with the Ce cation first neighbor to Mn dopant. • The O–H of the phenol group bond is stretched up to 1.69 Å. • Phenol interaction with the hydroxylated H–OH/Ce{sub 0.875}Mn{sub 0.125}O{sub 1.9375}(1 1 1) surface is 0.51 eV stronger than on the clean surface. • The C{sub 6}H{sub 5}–O fraction is adsorbed in a bridge position between Mn and Ce cations with a tilt angle of 69.62° in agreement with IR data. - Abstract: Density functional theory calculations (DFT + U) were performed on a low doping Mn–Ce composite oxide prepared from experimental data, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). We considered a 12.5% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} solid solution with fluorite-type structure, where Mn replaces Ce{sup 4+} leading to an oxygen-deficient bulk structure. Then, we modeled the adsorption of phenol on the bare Ce{sub 0.875}Mn{sub 0.125}O{sub 1.9375}(1 1 1) surface. We also studied the effect of water adsorption and dissociation on phenol adsorption on this surface, and compared the predictions of DFT + U calculations with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements. The experimental results allowed us to both build a realistic model of the low doping Mn–Ce composite oxide and support the prediction that phenol is adsorbed as a phenoxy group with a tilt angle of about 70° with respect to the surface.

  10. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lovrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol, extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05. The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  11. Biodegradation of Phenol by Bacteria Strain Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus PA Isolated from Phenolic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghui Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A phenol-degrading bacterium strain PA was successfully isolated from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain PA was characterized as a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, nonmotile and short rod-shaped bacterium that utilizes phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that this strain is affiliated to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the group of Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was efficient in removing 91.6% of the initial 800 mg∙L−1 phenol within 48 h, and had a tolerance of phenol concentration as high as 1700 mg∙L−1. These results indicated that A. calcoaceticus possesses a promising potential in treating phenolic wastewater.

  12. Biodegradation of Phenol by Bacteria Strain Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus PA Isolated from Phenolic Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Xie, Wenyu; Li, Dehao; Peng, Yang; Li, Zesheng; Liu, Shusi

    2016-03-09

    A phenol-degrading bacterium strain PA was successfully isolated from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain PA was characterized as a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, nonmotile and short rod-shaped bacterium that utilizes phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that this strain is affiliated to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the group of Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was efficient in removing 91.6% of the initial 800 mg ∙ L(-1) phenol within 48 h, and had a tolerance of phenol concentration as high as 1700 mg ∙ L(-1). These results indicated that A. calcoaceticus possesses a promising potential in treating phenolic wastewater.

  13. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip; McDonald, Armando G.; Helms, Gregory L.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-31

    This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups, between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and

  14. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  15. Bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of whole grain and bran of white, red and black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuehan; Ahmed, Sulaiman; Xu, Yanjie; Beta, Trust; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shao, Yafang; Bao, Jinsong

    2018-02-01

    Total phenolic content (TPC), individual phenolic acid and antioxidant capacity of whole grain and bran fraction 18 rices with different bran color were investigated. The levels of TPC in bound fractions were significantly higher than those in the free fractions either in the whole grains or brans. The main bound phenolic acids in white rice samples were ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and isoferulic acid, and in pigmented rice samples were ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillic acid. The protocatechuic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were not detected in white samples. The content of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid had significantly positive correlations with TPC and antioxidant capacity. This study found much wider diversity in the phenolics and antioxidant capacity in the whole grain and brans of rice, and will provide new opportunities to further improvement of rice with enhanced levels of the phytochemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  18. Phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev; Garti, Nissim

    2003-10-08

    Analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels by LC-MS revealed eight catechin compounds-gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate-as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid. The mean kernel content of the eight catechin compounds was 4000 ppm (0.4% of kernel dry weight), with a 2100-9500 ppm range. Comparison of the profiles of the six major catechins from 40 Vitellaria provenances from 10 African countries showed that the relative proportions of these compounds varied from region to region. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound, comprising an average of 27% of the measured total phenols and exceeding 70% in some populations. Colorimetric analysis (101 samples) of total polyphenols extracted from shea butter into hexane gave an average of 97 ppm, with the values for different provenances varying between 62 and 135 ppm of total polyphenols.

  19. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  20. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from non-toxic Mexican Jatropha curcas L. shell methanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Domínguez, Xiomara Patricia; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Hosseinian, Farah; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Jatropha curcas seed shells are the by-product obtained during oil extraction process. Recently, its chemical composition has gained attention since its potential applications. The aim of this study was to identify phenolic compounds profile from a non-toxic J. curcas shell from Mexico, besides, evaluate J. curcas shell methanolic extract (JcSME) antioxidant activity. Free, conjugate and bound phenolics were fractionated and quantified (606.7, 193.32 and 909.59 μg/g shell, respectively) and 13 individual phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC. The radical-scavenging activity of JcSME was similar to Trolox and ascorbic acid by DPPH assay while by ABTS assay it was similar to BHT. Effective antioxidant capacity by ORAC was found (426.44 ± 53.39 μmol Trolox equivalents/g shell). The Mexican non-toxic J. curcas shell is rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity; hence, it could be considerate as a good source of natural antioxidants.

  1. Phenolics of Selected Cranberry Genotypes (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and Their Antioxidant Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Gihan; Debnath, Samir C; Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-12-14

    Free, esterified, and bound phenolic fractions of berries from five different cranberry genotypes and two market samples were evaluated for their total phenolic, flavonoid, and monomeric anthocyanin contents as well as their antioxidant efficacy using TEAC, ORAC, DPPH radical, reducing power, and ferrous ion chelation capacity assays. HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed for two of the rich sources (Pilgrim and wild clone NL2) of phenolics and high antioxidant activity. Among the genotypes, Pilgrim showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents and wild clones NL3 and NL2 showed the highest monomeric anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content, respectively. Protocatechuic and syringic acids were detected only in Pilgrim, whereas luteolin 7-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, proanthocyanidin B-type, and myricetin 3-O-galactoside were found in wild clone NL3 genotype. Moreover, proanthocyanin trimer A-type and dimer B-type predominated in the wild clone NL2, whereas proanthocyanidin dimer B and trimer A were predominant in Pilgrim.

  2. Phenolic acids profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Krstulović, Luka; Možina, Sonja Smole; Katalinić, Višnja

    2014-12-01

    Chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle ethanolic extracts were chemically analysed with respect to phenolics. Twelve phenolic acids were separated and identified by HPLC-DAD and the presence of rosmarinic acid was additionally confirmed by LC-MS. Five methods were applied for the evaluation of extracts' antioxidant properties (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, chelating activity, Briggs-Rauscher reaction), while the antibacterial activity was tested against some of the major food-borne pathogens (Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). Immortelle extract was the richest in phenolics with a dominant flavonoid fraction, while the other two extracts contained higher amount of non-flavonoids. The phenolic acid profile also varied; high concentration of rosmarinic acid was found in chamomile and common yarrow, while caffeic acid was dominant in immortelle. The best antioxidant properties were obtained for chamomile extract, while good antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive bacterial species, was detected for immortelle. The obtained results could be used as a tool for chemotaxonomic classification of the investigated plants or for their potential application as natural antioxidants/antimicrobials.

  3. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of olive oil phenolic concentration on human plasmatic phenolic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Valls, Rosa-M; Macià, Alba; Pedret, Anna; Giralt, Montse; Romero, Maria-Paz; de la Torre, Rafael; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-12-15

    Three different functional phenol-enriched virgin olive oils (FVOO) were prepared with a phenolic content of 250 (L-FVOO), 500 (M-FVOO), and 750 mg (H-FVOO) total phenols/kg. In a randomised, cross-over study with 12 healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of phenolic biological metabolites was assessed. An increasing linear trend was observed for hydroxytyrosol sulfate, the main phenolic metabolite quantified in plasma, with C(max) values of 1.35, 3.32, and 4.09 μmol/l, and AUC mean values of 263.7, 581.4, and 724.4 μmol/min for L-FVOO, M-FVOO, and H-FVOO, respectively. From our data an acute intake of phenol-enriched olive oils promotes a dose-dependent response of phenol conjugate metabolites in human plasma. Also, we point out for the first time hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate as a main biological metabolite of hydroxytyrosol from olive oil ingestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant characteristics of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) peel fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Engy Samih; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2009-12-01

    The polyphenolic composition of two Fortunella margarita (Nagami kumquat) specimens from Greece and Egypt was investigated employing fractionation by solvent partition and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main groups of phenolics identified in the different fractions generated were C-glycosylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavones, C-glycosylated flavanones, O-glycosylated flavanones, flavonols, chalcones, phenolic acids and derivatives thereof. The antioxidant potency of the fractions was assessed using two representative in vitro tests, including antiradical activity and hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity. It was revealed that the ethyl acetate fractions from both specimens contained the higher polyphenol content and exhibited the better antioxidant characteristics. The results indicated that F. margarita peels may be regarded as a rich source of potentially bioactive polyphenols.

  6. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzano, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32616443X; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale

  7. Fractional location problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Barros (Ana); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze some variants of the classical uncapacitated facility location problem with a ratio as an objective function. Using basic concepts and results of fractional programming, we identify a class of one-level fractional location problems which can be solved in

  8. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  9. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of grape canes extracts from vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y.; Zhang, A.; Fang, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Grape canes are the main agro-wastes from vineyards. This work studied the antioxidant activities of the defatted methanolic extracts (ME) of canes from 11 genotypes: 5 Vitis vinifera widely known cultivars and 6 Chinese wild varieties from three species (V. amurensis, V. davidii, and V. pentagona) and the antioxidant activities of the ME’s chloroform fractions (CF), ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) and water fractions (WF). Among ME and its three fractions, EAF’s total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were the highest, at 586 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and 320 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant power of the fractions/extracts was in the order EAF > ME > WF > CF, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging power and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity, while the order was EAF > CF > WF >ME based on the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity. Methanolic extracts demonstrated the strongest Fe2+-chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions generally correlated with the TPC and TFC in all assays, except with the Fe2+-chelating test. Grape canes from V. davidii had the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities compared with those from other grape species. Catechin, epicatechin and trans-resveratrol were the predominant phenolic components of fractions/extracts. In light of these valuable bioactivities, grape canes from annual pruning practice considered as waste material have good commercial potential for utilization as a promising natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, given its low cost and availability in large amounts. (Author)

  10. Synergistic inhibitory effect of citral with selected phenolics against Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Carriles, Karla; Argaiz, Alvaro; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2005-03-01

    Antifungal susceptibilities of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to individual and binary mixtures of citral with selected phenolics were evaluated to identify synergistic combinations. Individual effects of citral, vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol concentrations and combined effects of citral with the other phenolic compounds on the growth of Z. bailii were evaluated in potato dextrose agar, adjusted with sucrose to a water activity of 0.99 or 0.95, and hydrochloric acid to pH 4.5 or 3.5. MICs for individual and binary antimicrobial mixtures were identified and then transformed to fractional inhibitory concentrations. Inhibitory concentrations of citral and vanillin were higher than 650 ppm, whereas for thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol, concentrations were lower than 250 ppm for several of the studied water activity-pH conditions. Combining citral with the other phenolic compounds, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and FIC(Index) varied from 0.216 to 0.582. FIC(Index) demonstrated synergistic effects on Z. bailii inhibition when citral was used in combination with vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, or eugenol. Therefore, the relative amount of antimicrobials could be greatly reduced.

  11. Uptake and fate of phenol, aniline and quinoline in terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M.; Fellows, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The bioavailability and chemical fate of xenobiotics in terrestrial plants can influence the impact of fossil fuel development on the human food chain. To determine the relative behavior of organic residues representing a range of chemical classes, we compared the rates of root absorption, tissue distribution and chemical fate of phenol, aniline and quinoline in soybean plants. Root absorption rates for these compounds were 180, 13 and 30 μg/g (fresh weight) root/day, respectively. Following uptake, aniline was concentrated in the root, while phenol and quinoline were evenly distributed in roots and leaves. After accumulation, phenol was readily decomposed, and its carbon was respired. While aniline was susceptible to oxidative decomposition, it persisted in leaves and roots; 25% of the soluble activity represented aniline, and a significant fraction was bound or conjugated to cell constitutents. Quinoline persisted both in the parent form and as metabolic products. However, in leaves, additional compounds were found that were chemically similar to quinoline; these were not found in unexposed plants. A substantial fraction of the quinoline accumulated by leaves was emitted to the atmosphere by volatilization. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Temitope O; Fatoki, John O; Adegbite, Victor A; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf. Inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in egg, brain, and liver homogenates, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH-) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. Total phenol was assessed in all fractions, and the reducing power of methanolic fraction was compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The results showed that Fe2+ induced significant lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the homogenates. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest percentage inhibition of LPO in both egg yolk (68.3%) and brain (66.3%), while the aqueous fraction exerted the highest inhibition in liver homogenate (89.1%) at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. These observed inhibitions of LPO by these fractions were higher than that of ascorbic acid used as a standard. The DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the highest with IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. The ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had the highest OH- radical scavenging ability with the same IC50 value of 5 microg/mL. The total phenol content of ethyl acetate fraction was the highest with 0.127 microg/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The reductive potential of methanolic fraction showed a concentration-dependent increase. This study showed that inhibition of LPO and the DPPH and OH- radicals scavenging abilities of Mangifera indica leaf could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf may be a good source of natural antioxidative agent.

  13. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  14. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... the ability of utilizing various chlorophenolic compounds and demonstrates its potentials of degrading high concentration of phenol in industrial effluents. Key words: Bioremediation, Pseudomonas fluorescens, industrial effluent, chlorophenols. INTRODUCTION. Chlorinated phenols are important chemicals ...

  15. In-Depth Two-Year Study of Phenolic Profile Variability among Olive Oils from Autochthonous and Mediterranean Varieties in Morocco, as Revealed by a LC-MS Chemometric Profiling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Olmo-García, Lucía; Ajal, El Amine; Monasterio, Romina P.; Hanine, Hafida; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil phenolic fraction considerably contributes to the sensory quality and nutritional value of this foodstuff. Herein, the phenolic fraction of 203 olive oil samples extracted from fruits of four autochthonous Moroccan cultivars (“Picholine Marocaine”, “Dahbia”, “Haouzia” and “Menara”), and nine Mediterranean varieties recently introduced in Morocco (“Arbequina”, “Arbosana”, “Cornicabra”, “Frantoio”, “Hojiblanca”, “Koroneiki”, “Manzanilla”, “Picholine de Languedoc” and “Picual”), were explored over two consecutive crop seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014) by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid), belonging to five chemical classes (secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, lignans and phenolic acids) were identified and quantified. Phenolic profiling revealed that the determined phenolic compounds showed variety-dependent levels, being, at the same time, significantly affected by the crop season. Moreover, based on the obtained phenolic composition and chemometric linear discriminant analysis, statistical models were obtained allowing a very satisfactory classification and prediction of the varietal origin of the studied oils. PMID:28036024

  16. In-Depth Two-Year Study of Phenolic Profile Variability among Olive Oils from Autochthonous and Mediterranean Varieties in Morocco, as Revealed by a LC-MS Chemometric Profiling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Bajoub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil phenolic fraction considerably contributes to the sensory quality and nutritional value of this foodstuff. Herein, the phenolic fraction of 203 olive oil samples extracted from fruits of four autochthonous Moroccan cultivars (“Picholine Marocaine”, “Dahbia”, “Haouzia” and “Menara”, and nine Mediterranean varieties recently introduced in Morocco (“Arbequina”, “Arbosana”, “Cornicabra”, “Frantoio”, “Hojiblanca”, “Koroneiki”, “Manzanilla”, “Picholine de Languedoc” and “Picual”, were explored over two consecutive crop seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014 by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid, belonging to five chemical classes (secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, lignans and phenolic acids were identified and quantified. Phenolic profiling revealed that the determined phenolic compounds showed variety-dependent levels, being, at the same time, significantly affected by the crop season. Moreover, based on the obtained phenolic composition and chemometric linear discriminant analysis, statistical models were obtained allowing a very satisfactory classification and prediction of the varietal origin of the studied oils.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  18. Preparation of free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds from peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Zhang, Huilin; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2012-02-01

    The soluble phenolic compounds of rambutan peels (RP) were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and the operating parameters were optimized. The optimal conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 80.85%, extraction time of 58.39 s, and the ratio of liquid to solid of 24.51:1. The soluble phenolic content by MAE was 213.76 mg GAE/g DW. The free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-boaund phenolic compounds were prepared by alkaline hydrolysis, and the contents of 3 fractions were 185.12, 27.98 and 9.37 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. The contents of syringic acid and p-coumaric acid were high in the free fraction, showing 16.86 and 19.44 mg/g DW, and the soluble conjugate and insoluble-bound phenolics were mainly composed of gallic acid and caffeic acid. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of 3 fractions were evaluated in 5 model systems. Results indicated that the free fraction had high antioxidant activities, compared with the soluble conjugate and insoluble-bound fractions. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system; Comparación entre métodos de extracción líquido-líquido y en fase sólida previos a la identificación de la fracción fenólica presente en las aguas residuales procedentes del lavado del aceite de oliva obtenido mediante el sistema de extracción de aceite de oliva en dos fases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-07-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [Spanish] Los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las aguas residuales de la industria oleícola (OMW) se caracterizan por una gran actividad antioxidante. Por otra parte, suponen un problema medioambiental debido a que son difíciles de degradar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de estos compuestos biológicamente activos que se encuentran en las OMW generadas del proceso de obtención del aceite de oliva por el sistema de dos fases, para así convertir un residuo contaminante en una fuente de antioxidantes naturales. Tras optimizar el proceso de extracción de los compuestos fenólicos utilizando extracción líquido-líquido (LLE) y extracción en fase sólida (SPE), se obtuvo que la secuencia más apropiada comprendió una centrifugación previa para eliminar la fracción lipídica, seguida de una extracción líquida con acetato de etilo o una SPE. Los compuestos más importantes identificados en las aguas residuales del lavado del aceite

  20. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  2. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, one of the causative agents of malaria, has high adaptability through mutation and is resistant to many types of anti-malarial drugs. This study presents an in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Allanblackia.

  3. Micropropagation and Evaluation of Phenolic Content, Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia cinerea, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is of wide medicinal application. This study investigated the antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents of wild plant of Vernonia cinerea with its respective shoot cultures.Nodal explants of V. cinerea were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  4. Physical bonding between sunflower proteins and phenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karefyllakis, Dimitris; Altunkaya, Serkan; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.

    2017-01-01

    The complexation of proteins with phenolic compounds has been recently considered a promising route to improve the oxidative stability of food dispersions, such as oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. However, the effect of such a complexation on the functional properties of proteins, such as their

  5. DROUGHT AFFECTS PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. ... Water deficit stress led to significant (P<0.05) increase in total protein content, but total phenolics content in all the landraces increased slightly. Drought stress ... the leaves of drought-stressed plants might be related to the antioxidant defence role of the.

  6. Profile, antioxidant potential, and applicability of phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of Spirulina platensis and assesses their antioxidant potential, applying them as a natural conservative in minimally processed apples. The phenolic extract showed 396 &µg g-1 gallic acid, 347 µg g-1 of caffeic acid, 54 µg g-1 salicylic acid ...

  7. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  8. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  9. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  10. Molecular complexes of phenols with DDQ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Molecular complexes of phenols with DDQ have been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 10–30°C in a solvent (CHCl3) of low polarity under low donor concentrations. All the complexes exhibit one CT band each in the wavelength region where acceptor and donor do not have any ...

  11. Continuous phenol removal using Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shock load studies are essential to investigate the suitability of biocontactors in degradation of pollutants. In the present work, the degradation of phenol by immobilized Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in a spouted bed contactor was conducted. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and polymer beads were tested for the ...

  12. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  13. Stability of lipid encapsulated phenolic acid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric acids are potential bioactive additives for use in animal feeds to replace current antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. These compounds are ubiquitous in plants and may be obtained from commodity grain crops and waste biomass. Encapsulation...

  14. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.F.; Luo, J.; Yao, S.D.; Lian, Z.R.; Zhang, J.S.; Lin, N.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. Green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants. (author)

  15. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenfeng; Luo Jian; Yao Side; Lian Zhirui; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1992-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. And green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants

  16. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... (Theobroma cacao). J. Mass Spectrom. 38:35-42. Sanchez R, Jauregui LR, Viladomat B, Codina (2004). Qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in apple Pomace using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem mode. Rapid Communun Mass Spectrom. 18:553-563. Saulo LDS ...

  17. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  18. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  19. CORRELATION AMONG PHENOLIC, TOXIC METALS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Toxic metals, Phenols, Flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, Correlation analysis. INTRODUCTION. Humans consume ... treat intestinal worms, fluid retention, poor appetite, and trouble sleeping (insomnia). It is also used as a sedative to ... Treatment of skin diseases, diabetes, anti- hepatotoxic activity. 13, 14. Pot.

  20. DEGRADATION AND TOXICITY REDUCTION OF PHENOL BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    WAVES. A. Maleki1*, A.H. Mahvi2, A. Mesdaghinia2 and K. Naddafi2. 1Health Faculty, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. 2School of Public Health ... advanced oxidation process for the treatment of hazardous contaminants in water. .... Degradation and toxicity reduction of phenol by ultrasound waves.

  1. Condensed tannins. Structure of the "phenolic scids"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter E. Laks; Richard W. Hemingway

    1987-01-01

    Conifer bark-derived condensed tannins can be used in formulating adhesives. Under some extraction conditions and during normal adhesive formulation, the tannin is exposed to strongly alkaline conditions. Alkaline rearrangement results in partial or total rearrangement of tannins of the procyanidin class to "phenolic acids" which have less phloroglucinol...

  2. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid nitration of electron rich phenols using Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O in glacial acetic acid at room temperature was observed with good yield. The method allows nitration of phenols without oxidation, and isolation of nitration product in a rapid and simple way. The described method is selective for phenols.

  3. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. Isolation and identification of phenol degrading bacteria from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to isolate and identify phenol degrading bacteria from Lake Parishan and to assay their kinetic growth. Sixty samples of water and sedimentation of different area of Lake Parishan were collected. In order to isolate phenol degrading bacteria, samples were cultured on salt base phenol broth media.

  7. Degradation and toxicity reduction of phenol by ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maleki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of parameters such as pH, kinetic constants and initial phenol concentration on the sonochemical degradation of phenol and toxicity assay were studied. The experimental results showed that lower pH and lower concentration of phenol favor the phenol degradation. But the rates of phenol degradation under sonication have always been quite low. It is found that the rate of ultrasonic degradation of phenol for initial concentration of 1 mg/L is 0.018 min-1 but later it reduces with increasing of phenol initial concentration substantially and the experimental data fitted well with pseudo first-order reaction rate equation. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to Daphnia magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that the TU value for effluent was 1.21 times lower than that obtained for phenol solely. Thus, the toxicity of metabolites formed during the degradation of phenol is lower than the toxicity of phenol itself.

  8. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction.

  9. Exploring antioxidant reactivity and molecular structure of phenols ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenolic compounds can be considered as themost important bioactive compounds in Mediterranean diet. However, many of the complex connections between phenols antioxidant reactivity and their molecular structure remain unsolved. To shine light on these issues, the antioxidant reactivity of 15 relevant phenolic ...

  10. Effects of UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic composition of leaves and berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Diago, María P; Monforte, Laura; Tardaguila, Javier; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces adaptive responses that can be used for plant production improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of solar UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic compounds of leaves and berry skins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano under field conditions. Phenolic compounds were analyzed globally and individually in both the vacuolar fraction and, for the first time in grapevine, the cell wall-bound fraction. These different locations may represent diverse modalities of phenolic response to and protection against UV. UV exclusion led to a decrease in Fv /Fm in leaves, revealing that solar UV is needed for adequate photoprotection. Only p-caffeoyl-tartaric acid from the soluble fraction of leaves and myricetin-3-O-glucoside from the soluble fraction of berry skins were significantly higher in the presence of UV radiation, and thus they could play a role in UV protection. Other hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavanols and stilbenes did not respond to UV exclusion. UV exclusion led to subtle changes in leaves and berry skins of Graciano cultivar, which would be well adapted to current UV levels. This may help support decision-making on viticultural practices modifying UV exposure of leaves and berries, which could improve grape and wine quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Marika; Lucas-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate (i) the phenol and flavonoid recovery and bioaccessibility indexes and (ii) the antioxidant activity of both types of non-defatted and defatted chia seeds during the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The ground samples were subjected to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and the resultant fractions were extracted and subjected to spectrophotometric assays. The results pointed to increasing concentrations of polyphenolic compounds during digestion, although only a low-medium percentage of phenols and a low percentage of flavonoids were available for absorption in the intestinal tract. In addition, the high level of fats seemed to have a negative effect on the bioaccessibility of flavonoids. Further studies should be undertaken to better understand the stabilization of the bioactive compounds of chia and to improve their bioaccessibility. Meanwhile, the present study represents a solid base for studying the bioavailability of bioactive compounds of chia seeds.

  12. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  13. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-03-30

    The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Paraplegia after intercostal neurolysis with phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollapalli L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakshman Gollapalli, Rudramanaidu Muppuri Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: In patients with advanced stages of cancer, severe pain is commonly encountered and is very difficult to treat. It affects the quality of life of the patient and the families involved. Pain can be managed using analgesics and adjuvant therapy. However, studies have shown that at least 10%–15% of patients fail to control pain adequately and will experience severe pain. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old female with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland and developed paraplegia following intercostal neurolysis with phenol. After a successful diagnostic T6 to T12 intercostal nerve block, the patient was scheduled for an intercostal neurolytic block. We injected 2 mL of 10% aqueous phenol at each level on the left from the T6 to T12 ribs. One hour after the procedure, the patient developed bilateral lower extremity weakness with difficulty moving. A physical examination showed the absence of sensation to pinpricks and vibration from T10 to S5 and an absence of anal sphincter tone and sensation. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed leptomeningeal metastatic disease and myelitis. We postulate that the paraplegia could be from phenol diffusing along either the spinal nerves or the paravertebral venous plexus into the subarachnoid space. This case report points to the risks involved with phenol neurolysis close to the spine, and we propose alternative methods to minimize neurological complications. Keywords: intercostal neurolysis, pain, phenol, paraplegia 

  15. Cross polarization, magic-angle spinning /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of soil humic fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Hawkins, B.L.; Maciel, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cross polarization, magic-angle spinning /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize humic fractions isolated from different soils. The humic acid fractions are more aromatic than the humin fractions, probably due to the higher polysaccharide content of humins. However, fulvic acid fractions are more aromatic than the corresponding humic acid and humin fractions. These results can be interpreted in terms of the isolation procedure, because the high affinity of Polyclar AT for phenols results in higher aromaticities as compared with other isolation methods (e.g. charcoal).

  16. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Miraglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  17. Composição fenólica, atividade antibacteriana e antioxidante da própolis vermelha brasileira Phenolic composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of brazilian red propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingridy Simone Ribeiro Cabral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous hive product collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It has a complex chemical composition, constituted by various phenolic compounds. Extracts of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, and ethanol were obtained from a sample of red propolis from the state of Alagoas. Assays were carried out for determination of contents of phenolics, along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The EEP, fractions and sub-fractions showed strong biological activities and were related with phenolic the content compounds contents. The sub-fractions were more bioactive than the EEP and fractions, demonstrating that the antioxidant and antibacterial activities are not a result of synergistic effect between the various chemical compounds in propolis.

  18. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mauromicale

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  19. Directional liquefaction of biomass for phenolic compounds and in situ hydrodeoxygenation upgrading of phenolics using bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Kui Wang; Zhongzhi Yang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from biomass are important feedstocks for the sustainable production of hydrocarbon biofuels. Hydrodeoxygenation is an effective process to remove oxygen-containing functionalities in phenolic compounds. This paper reported a simple method for producing hydrocarbons by liquefying biomass and upgrading liquefied products. Three phenolic...

  20. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers. Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered, which are essentially related to visualizing operations with fractions.

  1. Characterisation of phenolic compounds by HPLC-TOF/IT/MS in buds and open flowers of 'Chemlali' olive cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamalli, Amani; Abaza, Leila; Arráez Román, David; Segura Carretero, Antonio; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Nabil, Ben Youssef

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals that play several important functions in plants. In olive (Olea europaea L), there is not enough information about the occurrence of these compounds in buds and flowers. To conduct a comprehensive characterisation of buds and open flowers from the olive cultivar 'Chemlali'. The polar fraction of buds and open flowers was extracted using solid-liquid extraction with hydro-alcoholic solvent. Then extracts were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI/TOF/MS) and electrospray ionisation ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/IT/MS²) operating in negative ion mode. Phenolic compounds from different classes including secoiridoids, flavonoids, simple phenols, cinnamic acid derivatives and lignans were tentatively identified in both extracts. Qualitatively, no significant difference was observed between flower buds and open flowers extracts. However, quantitatively the secoiridoids presented higher percentage of total phenols in open flowers (41.7%) than in flower buds (30.5%) in contrast to flavonoids, which decreased slightly from 38.1 to 26.7%. Cinnamic acid derivatives and simple phenols did not show any change. Lignans presented the lowest percentage in both extracts with an increase during the development of the flower bud to open flower. The HPLC-TOF/IT/MS allowed the characterisation, for the first time, of the phenolic profile of extracts of 'Chemlali' olive buds and open flowers, proving to be a very useful technique for the characterisation and structure elucidation of phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fractional Stochastic Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.

  3. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...

  4. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  5. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  6. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... to two empirical data sets: we assess the roughness of a time series of high-frequency asset prices and we test the validity of Kolmogorov's scaling law in atmospheric turbulence data....

  7. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  8. Rapid and comprehensive evaluation of (poly)phenolic compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice by UHPLC-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; García-Viguera, Cristina; Bruni, Renato; Crozier, Alan; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-12-13

    The comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in food and beverages is a crucial starting point for assessing their biological, nutritional, and technological properties. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been described as a rich source of (poly)phenolic components, with a broad array of different structures (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and hydrolyzable tannins) and a quick, high throughput, and accurate screening of its complete profile is still lacking. In the present work, a method for UHPLC separation and linear ion trap mass spectrometric (MSn) characterization of pomegranate juice phenolic fraction was optimized by comparing several different analytical conditions. The best solutions for phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and ellagitannins have been delineated and more than 70 compounds have been identified and fully characterized in less than one hour total analysis time. Twenty-one compounds were tentatively detected for the first time in pomegranate juice. The proposed fingerprinting approach could be easily translated to other plant derived food extracts and beverages containing a wide array of phytochemical compounds.

  9. Removal of Phenol in Aqueous Solution Using Kaolin Mineral Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Kaolin clay were tested for phenol removal as toxic liquid waste from aqueous waste water. Several experimental conditions such as weight and particle size of clay were investigated to study batch kinetic techniques, also the ph and concentration of the phenol solution were carried out. The stability of the Langmuir adsorption model of the equilibrium data were studied for phenol sorbent clay system. Infrared spectra, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis techniques were used to characterize the behavior of kaolin clay and kaolin clay saturated with phenol. The results obtained showed that kaolin clay could be used successfully as an efficient sorbent material to remove phenol from aqueous solution

  10. Benzoic acid intermediates in the anaerobic biodegradation of phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londry, K.L.; Fedorak, P.M

    1992-01-01

    Phenols have many environmental sources, including plants producing simple phenols to the complex phenolic polymers such as lignins. Phenols from industrial processes such as petroleum refining, coal conversion, and wood preservation are of greater concern because of their potential toxicity and recalcitrance. A review is presented describing the sources and types of phenols released into the environment, the role of various electron acceptors in environmental situations, and the common occurrence of benzoic acid intermediates in the biotransformations of lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The anaerobic metabolism of phenol and the three cresol isomers is addressed in detail to illustrate that the formation of benzoic acid is a common feature in phenol biodegradation. Finally, the known pathways for benzoic acid metabolism under anaerobic conditions are reviewed. 101 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Series expansion in fractional calculus and fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Fractional calculus is the calculus of differentiation and integration of non-integer orders. In a recently paper (Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2756-2778), the Fundamental Theorem of Fractional Calculus is highlighted. Based on this theorem, in this paper we introduce fractional series expansion method to fractional calculus. We define a kind of fractional Taylor series of an infinitely fractionally-differentiable function. Further, based on our definition we generalize hypergeometric functio...

  12. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lígia Dokkedal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC. The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  13. Antioxidant activity and total phenols from the methanolic extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Laís Goyos; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia

    2011-11-10

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC). The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E)-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  14. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  15. Fractional calculus in pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopasakis, Pantelis; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Macheras, Panos; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides

    2018-02-01

    We are witnessing the birth of a new variety of pharmacokinetics where non-integer-order differential equations are employed to study the time course of drugs in the body: this is dubbed "fractional pharmacokinetics". The presence of fractional kinetics has important clinical implications such as the lack of a half-life, observed, for example with the drug amiodarone and the associated irregular accumulation patterns following constant and multiple-dose administration. Building models that accurately reflect this behaviour is essential for the design of less toxic and more effective drug administration protocols and devices. This article introduces the readers to the theory of fractional pharmacokinetics and the research challenges that arise. After a short introduction to the concepts of fractional calculus, and the main applications that have appeared in literature up to date, we address two important aspects. First, numerical methods that allow us to simulate fractional order systems accurately and second, optimal control methodologies that can be used to design dosing regimens to individuals and populations.

  16. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  17. Discoloration of polymers by phenolic antioxidants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Habicher, W. D.; Pilař, Jan; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Kuthan, J.; Piringer, G. O.; Zweifel, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2002), s. 531-538 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA ČR GA203/02/1243 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polymer discoloration * phenolic antioxidant * antioxidant transformation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2002

  18. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... distilled water) and allowed to stand at 22ºC for 5 min. Then, 0.75. mL of sodium carbonate (60 g/L) ... was taken in a test tube and incubated at 30°C in water bath for 10 min. Then, absorbance was taken at 0 .... have reported high DPPH scavenging activity of lemon compared to orange. The high phenolic ...

  19. Monitoring of phenol photodegradation by ultraviolet spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, B.; Gonzalez, C.; Thomas, O.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed as an emerging technology for hazardous organic treatment in industrial wastewater. In this paper, the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy to follow phenol photodegradation was studied in a laboratory photochemical reactor equipped with a low pressure mercury lamp. It has been observed that a multicomponent approach is efficient for the evolution estimation of the initial product or intermediate compounds formed during the photodegradation.

  20. Spice phenolics inhibit human PMNL 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N Satya; Raghavendra, R; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2004-06-01

    A wide variety of phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in spices possess potent antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. We examined whether 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the key enzyme involved in biosynthesis of leukotrienes is a possible target for the spices. Effect of aqueous extracts of turmeric, cloves, pepper, chili, cinnamon, onion and also their respective active principles viz., curcumin, eugenol, piperine, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, quercetin, and allyl sulfide were tested on human PMNL 5-LO activity by spectrophotomeric and HPLC methods. The formation of 5-LO product 5-HETE was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.122-1.44 mg for aqueous extracts of spices and 25-83 microM for active principles, respectively. The order of inhibitory activity was of quercetin>eugenol>curcumin>cinnamaldehyde>piperine>capsaicin>allyl sulfide. Quercetin, eugenol and curcumin with one or more phenolic ring and methoxy groups in their structure showed high inhibitory effect, while the non-phenolic spice principle allyl sulfide showed least inhibitory effect on 5-LO. The inhibitory effect of quercetin, curcumin and eugenol was similar to that of synthetic 5-LO inhibitors-phenidone and NDGA. Moreover, the inhibitory potency of aqueous extracts of spice correlated with the active principles of their respective spices. The synergistic or antagonistic effect of mixtures of spice active principles and spice extracts were investigated and all the combinations of spice active principles/extracts exerted synergistic effect in inhibiting 5-LO activity. These findings clearly suggest that phenolic compounds present in spices might have physiological role in modulating 5-LO pathway.

  1. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Geferson; Paulino, Niraldo; Ribeiro, Maria Cristina Marcucci; Siedler, Bianca Sica; Munhoz, Lívia Silveira; Finger, Paula Fonseca; Vargas, Gilberto D`Avila; Hübner, Sílvia de Oliveira; Vidor, Telmo; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2009-01-01

    Adjuvants play an important role in vaccine formulations by increasing their immunogenicity. In this study, the phenolic compound-rich J fraction (JFR) of a Brazilian green propolis methanolic extract stimulated cellular and humoral immune responses when co-administered with an inactivated vaccine against swine herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1). When compared to control vaccines that used aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, the use of 10 mg/dose of JFR significantly increased (p < 0.05) neutralizin...

  2. Control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello

    2015-08-17

    Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and products derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.

  4. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sead Rešić; Ismet Botonjić; Maid Omerović

    2016-01-01

    Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers). Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered...

  5. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  6. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Effects of a Chemically Defined Fraction of Syrah Red Wine on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Eugênia Abrantes de; Alves, Naiane Ferraz Bandeira; Monteiro, Matheus Morais de Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Clenia de Oliveira; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da; Silva, Telma Maria Guedes da; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Oliveira, Eduardo de Jesus

    2017-06-03

    A particularly phenolic-rich fraction extracted from red wine from the São Francisco valley (Northeastern Brazil) was chemically characterized and its hypotensive and antioxidant effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The liquid-liquid pH dependent fractionation scheme afforded a fraction with high content of bioactive phenolics such as flavonols, flavonol glycosides, phenolic acids and anthocyanins, whose identities were confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis. Pretreatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with this wine fraction at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg by gavage. for 15 days was able to decrease mean arterial pressure and heart rate as well as decrease serum lipid peroxidation. The fraction at concentrations of 0.01-1000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and this effect was not attenuated by endothelium removal. Our results demonstrate it is possible for phenolic constituents of red wine that are orally bioavailable to exert in vivo hypotensive and antioxidant effects on intact endothelial function.

  7. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Effects of a Chemically Defined Fraction of Syrah Red Wine on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Abrantes de Figueiredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A particularly phenolic-rich fraction extracted from red wine from the São Francisco valley (Northeastern Brazil was chemically characterized and its hypotensive and antioxidant effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The liquid-liquid pH dependent fractionation scheme afforded a fraction with high content of bioactive phenolics such as flavonols, flavonol glycosides, phenolic acids and anthocyanins, whose identities were confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis. Pretreatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with this wine fraction at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg by gavage. for 15 days was able to decrease mean arterial pressure and heart rate as well as decrease serum lipid peroxidation. The fraction at concentrations of 0.01–1000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and this effect was not attenuated by endothelium removal. Our results demonstrate it is possible for phenolic constituents of red wine that are orally bioavailable to exert in vivo hypotensive and antioxidant effects on intact endothelial function.

  8. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3 with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH· radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·− scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  9. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  10. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  11. Thermomechanical analyses of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jintang; Yao, Zhengjun; Chen, Yongxin; Wei, Dongbo; Wu, Yibing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Over 10% glass fiber was used to reinforce phenolic foam in the shape of glass fiber mat. • Nucleating agents were used together with glass fiber mat and improved tensile strength of phenolic foam by 215.6%. • Nucleating agents lead to a smaller bubble size of phenolic foam. • The glass transition temperature of phenolic foam remained unchanged during the reinforcement. - Abstract: In this paper, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and dynamic mechanical analysis were employed to study the properties of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat. Unreinforced phenolic foam was taken as the control sample. Mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy were performed to confirm the results of TMA. The results show that glass fiber mat reinforcement improves the mechanical performance of phenolic foam, and nucleating agents improve it further. Phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat has a smaller thermal expansion coefficient compared with unreinforced foam. The storage modulus of the reinforced phenolic foam is also higher than that in unreinforced foam, whereas the loss modulus of the former is lower than that of the latter. The glass transition temperature of the phenolic foam matrix remains unchanged during the reinforcement

  12. Synthesis of a boron modified phenolic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resin has long been used as matrix for composites mainly because of its flame retardant behavior and high char yield after pyrolysis, which results in a self supporting structure. The addition of ceramic powders, such as SiC and B4C, as fillers to the phenolic resin, results in better thermo-oxidative stability, but as drawbacks, it has poor homogeneity, adhesion and processing difficulties during molding of the composites. The addition of single elements, such as boron, silicon and phosphorus in the main backbone of the thermo-set resin is a new strategy to obtain special high performance resins, which results in higher mechanical properties, avoiding the drawbacks of simply adding fillers, which results in enhanced thermo-oxidative stability compared to conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins. Therefore, the product can have several applications, including the use as ablative thermal protection for thermo-structural composites. This work describes the preparation of a boron-modified phenolic resin (BPR using salicyl alcohol and boric acid. The reaction was performed in refluxing toluene for a period of four hours, which produced a very high viscosity amber resin in 90% yield.The final structure of the compound, the boric acid double, substituted at the hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring, was determined with the help of the Infrared Spectroscopy, ¹H-NMR, TGA-DSC and boron elemental analysis. The absorption band of the group B-O at 1349 cm ˉ¹ can be visualized at the FT-IR spectrum. ¹H-NMR spectra showed peaks at 4.97-5.04 ppm and 3.60-3.90 ppm assigned to belong to CH2OH groups from the alcohol. The elemental analysis was also performed for boron determination.The product has also been tested in carbon and silicon fibers composite for the use in thermal structure. The results of the tests showed composites with superior mechanical properties when compared with the conventional phenolic resin.

  13. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Hasni; Aziz, Azlina Abdul; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2013-05-29

    Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods. Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian α-glucosidase as well as α-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals. The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of α-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33 ± 4.99 μg/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and

  14. Purification and cloning of DNA fragments fractionated on agarose gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, H G; Gasson, M J

    1995-04-01

    Purification of DNA fragments from acrylamide or agarose gels is a commonly used technique in the molecular biology laboratory. This article describes a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive method of purifying DNA fractions from an agarose gel. The purified DNA is suitable for use in a wide range of applications including ligation using DNA ligase. The procedure uses standard high-melting-temperature agarose and normal TBE electrophoresis buffer. In addition, the protocol does not involve the use of highly toxic organic solvents such as phenol.

  15. Profile of the Phenolic Compounds of Rosa rugosa Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cendrowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa rugosa petals are a rich source of phenolic compounds, which determined their antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the polyphenolic composition of not processed petals of Rosa rugosa collected from the commodity crops and to determine the variability of the contained therein polyphenols between harvesting seasons. Twenty polyphenols were identified by UPLC-ESI-MS. The main fraction of polyphenols was ellagitannins, which are 69 to 74% of the total polyphenols of the petals. In the petals of Rosa rugosa, four anthocyanins have been identified: cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-sophoroside, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, of which the predominant peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside represented approx. 85% of all the determined anthocyanin compounds. It was found that the petals of Rosa rugosa are a valuable source of bioactive compounds and can be considered as a healthy valuable resource.

  16. Sweet Work with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  17. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  18. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use ε-expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when t → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when t → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency ...

  19. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  20. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  1. Fermion Number Fractionization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Fermion Number Fractionization. Kumar Rao Narendra Sahu Prasanta K ... Author Affiliations. Kumar Rao1 Narendra Sahu1 Prasanta K Panigrahi1. Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India ...

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  3. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  4. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. R. Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil. Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02 were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yong; Hou, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenliang; Chang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resin—a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending streng...

  6. The hydrogen bond strength of the phenol-phenolate anionic complex: a computational and photoelectron spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytendyk, Allyson M; Graham, Jacob D; Collins, Kim D; Bowen, Kit H; Wu, Chia-Hua; Wu, Judy I

    2015-10-14

    The phenol-phenolate anionic complex was studied in vacuo by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy using 193 nm photons and by density functional theory (DFT) computations at the ωB97XD/6-311+G(2d,p) level. We characterize the phenol-phenolate anionic complex as a proton-coupled phenolate pair, i.e., as a low-barrier hydrogen bond system. Since the phenol-phenolate anionic complex was studied in the gas phase, its measured hydrogen bond strength is its maximal ionic hydrogen bond strength. The D(PhO(-)···HOPh) interaction energy (26-30 kcal mol(-1)), i.e., the hydrogen bond strength in the PhO(-)···HOPh complex, is quite substantial. Block-localized wavefunction (BLW) computations reveal that hydrogen bonded phenol rings exhibit increased ring π-electron delocalization energies compared to the free phenol monomer. This additional stabilization may explain the stronger than expected proton donating ability of phenol.

  7. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  8. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  9. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  10. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  11. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  12. LC-MS phenolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis as an approach for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils of four rare Tunisian cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Kelebek, Hasim; Ammar, Sonda; Abichou, Mounir; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-08-15

    In this work, the phenolic composition of four rare cultivars grown under the same agronomical and environmental conditions was studied. This is to test the effects of cultivars and ripening index essentially on phenolic composition in olive oils as well as tocopherols composition, organoleptic profiling and oxidative properties. Furthermore, some agronomical traits were determined in which a general increase in the size of the fruit and oil contents were recorded for all cultivars. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). A total of 13 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were determined. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were observed among cultivars and also among sampling times. On the contrary to the agronomical traits, a general decrease (p<0.05) of total phenolic compounds was observed during maturation. Likewise, a decrease in tocopherols concentrations and oxidative properties was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  14. Fractional Poisson Fields and Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Giacomo; Leonenko, Nikolai; Merzbach, Ely

    2018-01-01

    We present new properties for the Fractional Poisson process (FPP) and the Fractional Poisson field on the plane. A martingale characterization for FPPs is given. We extend this result to Fractional Poisson fields, obtaining some other characterizations. The fractional differential equations are studied. We consider a more general Mixed-Fractional Poisson process and show that this process is the stochastic solution of a system of fractional differential-difference equations. Finally, we give some simulations of the Fractional Poisson field on the plane.

  15. Fractional Poisson Fields and Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Giacomo; Leonenko, Nikolai; Merzbach, Ely

    2018-02-01

    We present new properties for the Fractional Poisson process (FPP) and the Fractional Poisson field on the plane. A martingale characterization for FPPs is given. We extend this result to Fractional Poisson fields, obtaining some other characterizations. The fractional differential equations are studied. We consider a more general Mixed-Fractional Poisson process and show that this process is the stochastic solution of a system of fractional differential-difference equations. Finally, we give some simulations of the Fractional Poisson field on the plane.

  16. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  17. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  18. Modelling of Phenol Contamination in Wonorejo Estuary, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntoyo; Sakinah, W.

    2017-07-01

    Phenol as a part of marine pollution in Wonorejo estuary has been a concern today. Mass death of clams and decreasing growth of shrimps often occur in this area. The citizens made assumption that source of marine pollution from Sidoarjo mud disaster. This paper investigates the distribution of phenol from modelling with MIKE 21, Eco Lab module. Measurement were done in Wonorejo estuary to get a validation of modelling. Modelling result shows phenol concentration in northern Wonorejo estuary is higher than other areas. Hence, it was concluded that the phenol source is not from Sidoarjo mud disaster.

  19. Peroxidase extraction from jicama skin peels for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, T.; Lau, S. Y.; Khor, E. H.; Danquah, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives exist in various types of industrial effluents, and are known to be harmful to aquatic lives even at low concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies for phenol removal are challenged with long retention time, high energy consumption and process cost. Enzymatic treatment has emerged as an alternative technology for phenol removal from wastewater. These enzymes interact with aromatic compounds including phenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, forming free radicals which polymerize spontaneously to produce insoluble phenolic polymers. This work aims to extract peroxidase from agricultural wastes materials and establish its application for phenol removal. Peroxidase was extracted from jicama skin peels under varying extraction conditions of pH, sample-to-buffer ratio (w/v %) and temperature. Experimental results showed that extraction process conducted at pH 10, 40% w/v and 25oC demonstrated a peroxidase activity of 0.79 U/mL. Elevated temperatures slightly enhanced the peroxidase activities. Jicama peroxidase extracted at optimum extraction conditions demonstrated a phenol removal efficiency of 87.5% at pH 7. Phenol removal efficiency was ∼ 97% in the range of 30 - 40oC, and H2O2 dosage has to be kept below 100 mM for maximum removal under phenol concentration tested.

  20. Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs in nanotoxicity assays, the adsorption of phenol red (a pH indicator for culture medium by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and three kinds of carbon blacks (CBs with nanosize, and its effects on cytotoxicity were studied. Results indicated that the phenol red adsorbed and delivered into cells by CBs was responsible for the toxicity to Hela cells in the medium without serum. The cellular uptake of phenol red was verified using 125I-labeling techniques. The size-dependent cytotoxicity of CBs was found to closely correlate to adsorption of phenol red, cellular uptake of phenol red-CB complexes and the amount of phenol red delivered into the cells by CBs. Although the CBs were either nontoxic or slightly toxic, as vehicles of phenol red, they played an essential role in the cytotoxicity induced by phenol red. However, MWNTs showed an intrinsic cytotoxicity independent of phenol red. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.

  1. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y S; Jayakumar, N S; Hashim, M A

    2010-12-15

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  3. Chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger - formation of halogenated phenols and subsequent environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melbye, Alf G.; Faksness, Liv-Guri; Knudsen, Boerre Leif

    2006-03-15

    Formation of halogenated phenols as side products from treatment of produced water with aqueous chlorine dioxide has been investigated. The literature describes formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in effluent treatment using chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. A new chlorine dioxide product, originally intended as a H2S scavenger in the oil and gas industry, has been tested both as a phenol scavenger and H2S-scavenger for produced water applications. The concern about the possible formation of halogenated by-products initiated laboratory testing of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger for produced water applications. The tests also included synthetic matrixes containing phenols, and the tests show that halogenated phenols, mainly brominated species, are found in produced water after treatment with chlorine dioxide. Due to potential environmental risk from halogenated organic contaminants, the use of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger is not recommended. (Author)

  4. Exposure to phenols, parabens and UV filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla N.; Jørgensen, Niels; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of eight simple phenols, six parabens and nine UV filters were analysed in urine from 65 FLG loss-of-function mutation carriers and 130 non-carriers (controls). Regression analyses, controlling for urinary dilution and confounders, were performed to estimate associations between FLG mutation...... status and chemical concentrations in urine. Results FLG mutation carriers had 80% (13–180%) higher urinary concentrations of methyl paraben (MeP) and 91% (13–219%) higher concentrations of n-propyl paraben (n-PrP) than controls. For 13 compounds, levels were higher in FLG mutation carriers, although...

  5. Kinetics of Phenol Oxidation by Candidateopicalis: Effect of Oxygen Supply Rate and Nutrients on Phenol Inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Páca, J.; Komárková, E.; Prell, Aleš; Stiborová, M.; Sobotka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 701-707 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/0575 Keywords : phenol oxidation * candida tropicalis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  6. Utilizing the phenol byproducts of coke production: 3. Phenols as coinhibitors of thermopolymerization during styrene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.I. Batura; A.F. Gogotov; V.I. Cherepanov; O.I. Baranov; A.A. Levchuk; M.V. Parilova [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    A new oligomerization procedure for phenol byproducts from coke production is experimentally studied. This method, oxidative combination, is intended to produce an effective coinhibitor of styrene thermopolymerization. When combined with a Mannich base, the new oligomer exhibits excellent inhibiting properties in the heat treatment of styrene and matches the effectiveness of imported inhibitors based on nitroxyl radicals. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  8. Gene expression changes in mononuclear cells in patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Miranda Jose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic markers compared with low phenols virgin olive oil, but it still remains unclear whether effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at transcriptional level in vivo. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying expression changes in genes which could be mediated by virgin olive oil phenol compounds in the human. Results Postprandial gene expression microarray analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during postprandial period. Two virgin olive oil-based breakfasts with high (398 ppm and low (70 ppm content of phenolic compounds were administered to 20 patients suffering from metabolic syndrome following a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design. To eliminate the potential effect that might exist in their usual dietary habits, all subjects followed a similar low-fat, carbohydrate rich diet during the study period. Microarray analysis identified 98 differentially expressed genes (79 underexpressed and 19 overexpressed when comparing the intake of phenol-rich olive oil with low-phenol olive oil. Many of these genes seem linked to obesity, dyslipemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among these, several genes seem involved in inflammatory processes mediated by transcription factor NF-κB, activator protein-1 transcription factor complex AP-1, cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPKs or arachidonic acid pathways. Conclusion This study shows that intake of virgin olive oil based breakfast, which is rich in phenol compounds is able to repress in vivo expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, thereby switching activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a less deleterious inflammatory profile. These results provide at least a partial molecular basis for reduced risk of cardiovascular disease observed in Mediterranean countries, where virgin olive

  9. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  10. QSARs for phenols and phenolates: oxidation potential as a predictor of reaction rate constants with photochemically produced oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Oueis, Yan; O'Connor, Meghan; Rinaman, Johanna E; Taggart, Miranda G; McCarthy, Rachel E; Foster, Kimberley A; Latch, Douglas E

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of the reaction rate constants of phenols and phenolates with three photochemically produced oxidants, singlet oxygen, carbonate radical, and triplet excited state sensitizers/organic matter, are developed. The predictive variable is the one-electron oxidation potential (E 1 ), which is calculated for each species using density functional theory. The reaction rate constants are obtained from the literature, and for singlet oxygen, are augmented with new experimental data. Calculated E 1 values have a mean unsigned error compared to literature values of 0.04-0.06 V. For singlet oxygen, a single linear QSAR that includes both phenols and phenolates is developed that predicts experimental rate constants, on average, to within a factor of three. Predictions for only 6 out of 87 compounds are off by more than a factor of 10. A more limited data set for carbonate radical reactions with phenols and phenolates also gives a single linear QSAR with prediction of rate constant being accurate to within a factor of three. The data for the reactions of phenols with triplet state sensitizers demonstrate that two sensitizers, 2-acetonaphthone and methylene blue, most closely predict the reactivity trend of triplet excited state organic matter with phenols. Using sensitizers with stronger reduction potentials could lead to overestimation of rate constants and thus underestimation of phenolic pollutant persistence.

  11. Critical-ionization model for the dissolution of phenolic polymers in aqueous base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagin, Lewis Wayne

    The microelectronics industry owes much of its success to the miniaturization of the integrated circuit. Advances in the design of photoresists used in microlithography have enabled this progress to continue. The majority of photoresist formulations contain phenolic polymers, and their imaging capabilities arise from the radiation- induced differences in dissolution rate between exposed and unexposed regions of the photoresist in basic aqueous solutions. The Critical-Ionization Model provides an understanding at the molecular level of the important factors in the aqueous dissolution of phenolic polymers below the entanglement molecular weight. The model postulates that a critical fraction of the acidic sites on a phenolic polymer must ionize for the polymer to dissolve in aqueous base. A functional relationship between the dissolution rate and the degree of ionization is developed based on this hypothesis. Quantitative predictions for the effects of polymer structure on the dissolution rate follow from equations relating the degree of ionization to the degree of polymerization, the polymer pKa, and the developer concentration. Experimental verification is' provided through tests of model predictions for the minimum base concentration required for development and the effects of polymer structure on the dissolution rate. Molecular simulations of resist dissolution based on the Critical-Ionization Model are used to probe the mechanism of surface inhibition and the evolution of edge roughness and surface roughness in photoresist profiles. These simulations demonstrate the dependence of the dissolution rate and surface roughness on the molecular-weight distribution of the polymer, degree of deprotection, void fraction, and developer concentration. Model parameters are evaluated using experimental data from turbidimetry, potentiometry, and copolymer studies. Means to extend the scope of the Critical-Ionization Model to describe and ultimately simulate other steps in the

  12. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora). Luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside is probably a new compound, for the first time described. Two minor constituents of flavonoid fraction have been identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside by means of HPLC method. The percentage of total flavonoids determined by use of spectrophotometric method was in the range from 0.30 to 0.46% of dry mass. In phenolic acid fraction, caffeic, rosmarinic and p-coumaric acids have been identified. Total amount of phenolic acids determined by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 0.75% to 1.4 % and the content of rosmarinic acid quantified by HPLC method fluctuated in the wide range from 0.06% to 0.15% depending on the sample. The results of the investigations showed that the composition of flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids in lemon catnip are similar to those in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The amount of flavonoids are similar in both plants, and the percentage of rosmarinic acid is about ten times lower in lemon catnip than in lemon balm. The presence of luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides, caffeic acid as well as the previously described terpenoids (ursolic acid, citral, nerol. geraniol) suggests the possibility of the use of lemon catnip herb as a constituent of phytopharmaceutical preparations with mild sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidative and antiinflammatory action.

  13. Quantification of Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Pterodon emarginatus Vogel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia R. Barbosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the phenolic (Folin-Dennis and flavonoid (colorimetric assay constituents and the antioxidant activity of Pterodon emarginatus seeds were investigated in several samples prepared with different extraction procedures: essential oil (EO using a Clevenger-type apparatus; hexanic (HF, ethyl acetate (EAF, buthanolic (BF and methanolic (MF fractions using Soxhlet extraction, and extracts (1 g/extract obtained from different methods: reflux 80°C/30 min, ultrasound/30 min, static maceration/48 h and heating plate 100°C/45 min. These extracts were prepared using water or ethanol/water at 30:70 v/v, 50:50 v/v or 70:30 v/v. Antioxidant activity [2,2-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH] was tested only in the fractions obtained from Soxhlet extraction. The extract obtained from reflux using ethanol/water (70:30, v/v showed the highest phenolic constituents level. The EAF, BF and MF showed DPPH scavenging activities with IC50=163.22, 18.89 and 10.15 μg/ml, respectively.

  14. Inhibition of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds are universal in the hydrolysate of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The phenolics reduce the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the cost of ethanol production. We investigated inhibition of phenolics on cellulase during enzymatic hydrolysis using vanillin as one of the typical lignin-derived phenolics and Avicel as cellulose substrate. As vanillin concentration increased from 0 to 10 mg/mL, cellulose conversion after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis decreased from 53 to 26 %. Enzyme deactivation and precipitation were detected with the vanillin addition. The enzyme concentration and activity consecutively decreased during hydrolysis, but the inhibition degree, expressed as the ratio of the cellulose conversion without vanillin to the conversion with vanillin (A 0 /A), was almost independent on hydrolysis time. Inhibition can be mitigated by increasing cellulose loading or cellulase concentration. The inhibition degree showed linear relationship with the vanillin concentration and exponential relationship with the cellulose loading and the cellulase concentration. The addition of calcium chloride, BSA, and Tween 80 did not release the inhibition of vanillin significantly. pH and temperature for hydrolysis also showed no significant impact on inhibition degree. The presence of hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group in phenolics affected the inhibition degree. Besides phenolics concentration, other factors such as cellulose loading, enzyme concentration, and phenolic structure also affect the inhibition of cellulose conversion. Lignin-blocking agents have little effect on the inhibition effect of soluble phenolics, indicating that the inhibition mechanism of phenolics to enzyme is likely different from insoluble lignin. The inhibition of soluble phenolics can hardly be entirely removed by increasing enzyme concentration or adding blocking proteins due to the dispersity and multiple binding sites of phenolics

  15. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  16. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruits from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Catalina; Riihinen, Kaisu; Ruales, Jenny; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2009-02-25

    RP-HPLC-DAD was used to study the content of phenolic compounds in four Ecuadorian fruits (strawberry, Andean blackberry, plum, and capuli cherry). Compounds were identified using spectral characteristics of representative standards and reference samples. Further, LC-MS with MS/MS was used to confirm molecular assignments in previously unstudied capuli cherry. Gallic acid was detected in Andean blackberry, and galloyl esters were detected in strawberries. Both these berries contained ellagic acid derivatives as major compounds, followed by anthocyanins, cyanidin, and pelargonidin glycosides. Plums and capuli cherry showed similar profiles of phenolic compounds, with chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids being the most important hydroxycinnamates. (-)-Epicatechin was found in high amounts in Andean blackberry, plums, and capuli cherry, while (+)-catechin was only found in capuli cherry. Proanthocyanidins were major compounds in all fruits, and all contained considerable amounts of quercetin derivatives and smaller amounts of kaempferol derivatives. LC-MS analysis of capuli cherry revealed dimeric and trimeric procyanidins, quercetin and kaempferol hexosides and pentosides, and a kaempferol-O,C-dipentoside.

  17. Fractional Chern Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Regnault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chern insulators are band insulators exhibiting a nonzero Hall conductance but preserving the lattice translational symmetry. We conclusively show that a partially filled Chern insulator at 1/3 filling exhibits a fractional quantum Hall effect and rule out charge-density-wave states that have not been ruled out by previous studies. By diagonalizing the Hubbard interaction in the flat-band limit of these insulators, we show the following: The system is incompressible and has a 3-fold degenerate ground state whose momenta can be computed by postulating an generalized Pauli principle with no more than 1 particle in 3 consecutive orbitals. The ground-state density is constant, and equal to 1/3 in momentum space. Excitations of the system are fractional-statistics particles whose total counting matches that of quasiholes in the Laughlin state based on the same generalized Pauli principle. The entanglement spectrum of the state has a clear entanglement gap which seems to remain finite in the thermodynamic limit. The levels below the gap exhibit counting identical to that of Laughlin 1/3 quasiholes. Both the 3 ground states and excited states exhibit spectral flow upon flux insertion. All the properties above disappear in the trivial state of the insulator—both the many-body energy gap and the entanglement gap close at the phase transition when the single-particle Hamiltonian goes from topologically nontrivial to topologically trivial. These facts clearly show that fractional many-body states are possible in topological insulators.

  18. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolics are low molecular compounds ubiquitous in all tissues of higher plants with great significance in plant development. Our understanding of some phenolic compounds in the last few decades has greatly improved. However, their biological, ecological and agronomical significance in the rhizosphere of most ...

  19. Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of ... Keywords: Crataegus oxyacantha L.; Natural phenolic compounds; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, Southeast Serbia. ..... Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts, Food ...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles... articles intended for repeated use in contact with nonacid food (pH above 5.0), in accordance with the...

  1. Phenolic acid changes during Orobanche parasitism on faba bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is intended to provide further information on broomrape parasitism based on phenolic acid changes in either the host plant(s) or in each of the host and the parasite in the host-parasite system. Detection of phenolic acids was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the host ...

  2. Antioxidants and phenolic secretion in sugarcane genotypes shoot culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The secretion of phenolic compounds is a major limitation for sugarcane in vitro culture, causing a loss of regenerative capacity and subsequent cell death. In this study, micropropagation and phenolic secretion of four Saccharum genotypes in the presence of different antioxidants were evaluated. As...

  3. Enzymatic oxidative transformation of phenols by Trametes trogii laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Hanen; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh; Sayadi, Sami

    2012-09-01

    The removal of toxic phenolic compounds from industrial wastewater is an important issue to be addressed. Their presence in water and soil has become a great environmental concern, and effective methods for their removal need to be addressed. The feasibility of applying laccases for the degradation of phenolic compounds has received increasing attention. In the present work, the transformation of five phenolic compounds (catechol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, guaiacol and p-coumaric acid), the main constituents of a typical wastewater derived from an olive oil factory, by Trametes trogii laccases was studied at concentrations ranging between 0.2 and 1.6 mM. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed high degradation rates of phenolic compounds by T trogii laccases. Independently of the used concentration, a complete transformation of guaiacol, p-coumaric acid, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol occurred after 1 h of incubation. The transformation of catechol depends on its initial concentration. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that laccases catalysed transformation of p-coumaric acid and tyrosol, resulting in the formation of phenolic dimers. No reduction of enzyme activity has been observed during the oxidation of all phenolic compounds. These results suggest that the studied laccases were capable of efficiently removing phenolic compounds, as well as catalysing the production of novel phenolic dimers.

  4. Anti-cancer and antioxidant properties of phenolics isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of phenolics from the leaf extract of Toona sinensis (TS). Methods: Acetone leaf extract of TS was screened for total phenolic and flavanoid contents, and the flanonoids were subjected to high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. Antioxidant ...

  5. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are also present in pulp processing, petroleum refining, leather tannery, textiles and plastics (Lee et al., 1996; Angelino and Gennaro, 1997; Pẽnalver et al., 2002; Asan and Isildak, 2003; Lupetti et al., 2004). Furthermore, phenols may also be found in fertilizers and explosives (Aktas et al., 2006).

  6. Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty samples of sorghum beers “dolo” were selected from traditionally fermented household manufacturers from Burkina Faso. Dolo samples were screened for their total phenolic content, proanthocyanidins and putative antioxidant capacities, and were compared with industrial beers and wines. Total phenols were ...

  7. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  8. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Brown and Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tigernuts (yellow, YTG and brown, BTG)) were sorted, washed, dried, milled into powder, phenolics extracted with sodium hydroxide and analyzed with Gas chromatography (GC). The tigernuts contain significant concentration of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydrocinnamic acids and flavonoids. The major phenolic acids in YTG ...

  9. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenolic resin; nanometric silicon carbide; nanocomposites; friction coefficient. 1. Introduction. Phenolic resin composites have their applications in a wide range of fields ... Curing time and temperature as well as mold materials influence the resulting homogeneity, glass transition temperature and mechanical properties.

  10. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based com- posites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ...

  11. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Cherry laurel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated 17 different phenolic constituents and total antioxidant properties of cherry laurel, Laurocerasus officinalis Roem (family Rosaceae), locally named karayemis or taflan, a summer fruit highly characteristic of the Black Sea region. Phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high ...

  12. Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantification of Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of Thymus sipyleus Boiss and also to determine some phenolic compounds using a newly developed and validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.

  13. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  14. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample preparation method was tested for the determination of phenols in river water samples and landfill leachate. Concentrations of phenols in river water were found to be in the range 4.2 μg L–1 for 2-chlorophenol to 50 μg L–1 for 4-chlorophenol. In landfill leachate, 4-chlorophenol was detected at a concentration ...

  15. Radiation shielding phenolic fibers and method of producing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, K.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation shielding phenolic fiber is described comprising a filamentary phenolic polymer consisting predominantly of a sulfonic acid group-containing cured novolak resin and a metallic atom having a great radiation shielding capacity, the metallic atom being incorporated in the polymer by being chemically bound in the ionic state in the novolak resin. A method for the production of the fiber is discussed

  16. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total phenol from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction technology for total phenol from betel (Areca catechu L.) nut seed was carried out. On the basis of one factor tests, the method of response surface analysis with 3 factors including extracting temperature, time and solvent-material ratio on the content of total phenol was ...

  17. Short Communication: Production of phenol-based disinfectant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a phenol-based disinfectant was produced using vegetable soda soap as surfactant. The soap was produced by saponificaoin of palm kernel oil with sodium hydroxide crystal, followed by the addition of 10 ml of phenol to varying weights of soap. Antimicrobial analysis was done on the soap samples using disc ...

  18. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions onto natural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MET) have been carried out at 25 °C in batch mode to evaluate the effects of parameters such as pH, initial phenol concentration and adsorbent mass on the extent of adsorption. It was observed that phenol uptake increased with increases in ...

  19. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolate, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, was obtained using the enrichment process with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as a sole carbon source. This isolate was found to be able to degrade various highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as pentachlorophenol, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP as well as phenol, ...

  20. Inhibition of cholinesterases by phenolic acids detected in beer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the interactive index of combination. These results support the idea that simple phenolic acids from beer can play a role in neuroprotection, but further studies need to be conducted. Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer's disease, beer, butyrylcholinesterase, phenolic acids. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  1. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  2. Exploring antioxidant reactivity and molecular structure of phenols ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MERCEDES BECERRA-HERRERA

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... Abstract. Phenolic compounds can be considered as the most important bioactive compounds in Mediterranean diet. However, many of the complex connections between phenols antioxidant reactivity and their molecular structure remain unsolved. To shine light on these issues, the antioxidant reactivity of ...

  3. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yee Sern; Jayakumar, N.S.; Hashim, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage re...

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of phenolic compounds for food and feed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit several bioactive properties including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal characteristics with potential applications as additives in functional food and feed formulations. Phenolic compounds occur in plants as secondary metabolites and may be recovered as a co-...

  5. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport of individual phenolic compounds from apical compartment to the basolateral compartmentacross Caco-2 monolayer was also investigated. Sprouting enhanced the uptake of syringic acid from both thesegrains. Open-pan boiling reduced the uptake of quercetin from the onion. Among pure phenolic compounds, ...

  6. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruit Extracts of Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research February 2013; 12 (1): 105-110. ISSN: 1596-5996 ... molecules in a strand of DNA, the DNA can become .... Determination of total phenolics. Total phenol contents of the extracts were determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method [12]. An aliquot of the extracts (1 ml) was.

  7. The potential of postharvest silicon dips to regulate phenolics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACCI

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... (2007) that showed increased phenolic content on avocado fruit following Si application. Generally, fruit from. Ukulinga had no chilling in contrast to Ithala fruit that had high incidence of chilling injury. Furthermore, Ukulinga fruit had high flavonoid and phenolic content that played a role in mitigating chilling ...

  8. Gene cloning of phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PADC) gene, encoding phenolic acid decarboxylase, was cloned from Bacillus subtilis and ligated with a shuttle vector YEp352 to generate a novel plasmid YPADC. By analysis of sequencing and the restriction endonuclease digestion, the validity of construction was proved. Subsequently ...

  9. Quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of European pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pear fruits are an important source of plant secondary metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the individual phenolic compounds and some quality characteristics of the flesh and peel of the fruit in four pear ...

  10. Identification and genetic characterization of phenol-degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phenol-degrading novel monosodium glutamate was isolated from oil contaminated soil in India. This strain was found capable to utilize and tolerate up to 9.5 mM of phenol. Based on the results of phylogenetic similarity of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences and fatty acid analysis, strain MSG8 was ...

  11. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  12. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  13. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral

    OpenAIRE

    Sudsutad, Weerawat; Ntouyas, Sotiris K.; Tariboon, Jessada

    2014-01-01

    We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed.

  14. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawat Sudsutad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed.

  15. Kinetic and Isotherm Modelling of the Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro A. Casazza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive oil wastewater by commercial activated carbon was studied as a function of adsorbent quantity and temperature. The sorption kinetics and the equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (8 g of activated carbon per 100 mL, the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon expressed as mg of caff eic acid equivalent per g of activated carbon was 35.8 at 10 °C, 35.4 at 25 °C and 36.1 at 40 °C. The pseudo-second-order model was considered as the most suitable for kinetic results, and Langmuir isotherm was chosen to bett er describe the sorption system. The results confi rmed the effi ciency of activated carbon to remove almost all phenolic compound fractions from olive mill effl uent. The preliminary results obtained will be used in future studies. The carbohydrate fraction of this upgraded residue could be employed to produce bioethanol, and adsorbed phenolic compounds can be recovered and used in different industries.

  16. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, minerals and their correlations in non-pigmented, red, and black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Hu, Zhanqiang; Yu, Yonghong; Mou, Renxiang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Beta, Trust

    2018-01-15

    Soluble-free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound phenolics and antioxidant activity, flavonoid (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPAC), anthocyanins and minerals of fifteen whole rice grains with different colors were investigated. Soluble-free protocatechuic and vanillic acids were only quantified in black rice, which had the most quantities. Non-pigmented rice had no detectable conjugated protocatechuic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids both of which were found in black and red rice, respectively. The main bound phenolic acids were ferulic and p-coumaric, as well as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic in red rice and protocatechuic and vanillic acids in black rice. Soluble-conjugated phenolics, TFC, and anthocyanins were negatively correlated with L ∗ , b ∗ , C and H° values. TPAC was positively correlated with a ∗ (P<0.01). Protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and ferulic acids were associated with TPC and antioxidant activity in the soluble-conjugated fraction while protocatechuic and ferulic acid were correlated with those in the insoluble-bound fraction. Principal component analysis divided samples into non-pigmented, red and black rice groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruit and nut crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogah, Onwuchekwa; Watkins, Carolyn S; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C

    2014-10-01

    The demand for new fruit cultivars with high levels of phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, has received increasing attention from biochemists, pharmaceutical companies, plant breeders, and the general public due to their health benefits. This review focuses on the economically important Rosaceae, which contains varying proportions and concentrations of these compounds. The paper discusses the common phenolics in the Rosaceae including phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. The nonextractable phenolics are also presented but not discussed in detail. The metabolism and bioavailability of phenolics, as well as human and environmental factors that affect their concentration and composition, are highlighted. Furthermore, the paper presents different approaches for biofortification and posits that breeding may be the most viable and sustainable option as it improves other fruit quality traits simultaneously and increases confidence in adoption of new cultivars with enhanced consumer appeal.

  18. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan

    2010-10-20

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-12

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  20. Factors controlling phenol content on Theobroma cacao callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)

  1. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  2. Fractional variational principles with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Abdeljawad, Thabet Maaraba; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-01-01

    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail

  3. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  4. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  5. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  6. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  7. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  8. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2017-10-01

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  9. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  10. Phenolics and Lipophilized Phenolics as Antioxidants in Fish Oil Enriched Emulsions,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Emulsions containing omega-3 LC PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... factor determining their efficacy as antioxidants in simple model systems. Interactions between the antioxidants, emulsifier and pH also influence the antioxidant behavior. Moreover, studies with lipophilized phenolics in a food emulsion showed that there is no linear increase of antioxidant activity...... with increased lipophilicity. Instead a cut-off effect was observed in relation to the alkyl chain length lipophilized to the phenolic compound. Furthermore, the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants is influenced by the type of food system. Thus, our results show that the antioxidant behavior may not be as simple...

  11. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  12. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  13. FRUCTOSANS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF YACON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the high-efficiency liquid chromatography, the phenolic compounds of yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia introduced in Ukraine have been studied. The derivants of hydroxycinnamic acid is prevalent in the ethanol extracts from leaves and roots of yacon. Differences in the contents of  ethanol extracts from fresh and dry roots were shown. The total amount of hydroxycinnamic acids was 2,8 % – 4,3 % depending on the layer of leaves. It was found that roots content 36-45% of fructosans expressed as fructose and dry matter.

  14. LC-DAD-UV and LC-ESI-MS-based Analyses, Antioxidant Capacity, and Antimicrobial Activity of a Polar Fraction from Iryanthera ulei Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy A. Bernal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available LC-DAD-UV and LC-ESI-MS-based analyses were performed in order to chemically characterize a phenol-enriched fraction obtained from Iryanthera ulei leaves-derived ethanol extract. Eight glycosylated flavonoids, two free-flavonoids and two neolignans were detected to be part of its isopropyl acetate-soluble (iPS fraction. Presence of afzelin 1 was confirmed by isolation. Total Phenolic (TPC and Total Flavonoid Contents (TFC, Antioxidant Capacity (DPPH, ABTS • + , and FRAP methods, as well as antimicrobial activity against five strains were determined.

  15. Infrared spectra and ultraviolet-tunable laser induced photochemistry of matrix-isolated phenol and phenol-d5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Barbara Michela; Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui

    2012-01-14

    Monomers of phenol and its ring-perdeuterated isotopologue phenol-d(5) were isolated in argon matrices at 15 K. The infrared (IR) spectra of these species were recorded and analyzed. In situ photochemical transformations of phenol and phenol-d(5) were induced by tunable UV laser light. The photoproducts have been characterized by IR spectroscopy supported by theoretical calculations of the infrared spectra. The primary product photogenerated from phenol was shown to be the phenoxyl radical. The analysis of the progress of the observed phototransformations led to identification of 2,5-cyclohexadienone as one of the secondary photoproducts. Spectral indications of other secondary products, such as the Dewar isomer and the open-ring ketene, were also detected. Identification of the photoproducts provided a guide for the interpretation of the mechanisms of the observed photoreactions.

  16. Non-phenolic antioxidant compounds from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sayed, Mortada M; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Ahmed, Wafaa S; el-Wakil, Eman A

    2008-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae) showed antioxidant activity toward the well known in vitro antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (DPPH assay) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods. Due to the high scavenging activity of the n-butanol successive fraction toward DPPH and H2O2 (SC50 = 11.99 and 18.54 microg/ml, respectively), this extract was subjected to chromatographic separation and isolation. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analyses: 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxy-triaconta-3,12-dienoate)-glycerol (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (2), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3,23,28-triol (3), and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-acid-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (4). The four compounds were evaluated as antioxidant agents using the three antioxidant bioassay tests.

  17. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ju Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (± naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals.

  18. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite; Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avina G, E.I

    2002-07-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  19. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane...

  20. Thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, atM.A.

    1979-08-01

    Research on the nature of thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions and the possibility of increasing their activity and identifying conditions for their use in the electrode pitch process is described. From research done on different anthracite fractions processed at varying temperatures it was concluded that accumulations of condensates from heating anthracite fractions occur significantly slower in comparison with pitch. As a result the electrode pitch process is prolonged. Thermal treatment of an anthracite fraction causes the formation and accumulation of condensates and promotes thermochemical transformations. Lastly, the use of thermally treated anthracite fractions apparently intensifies the electrode pitch process and improves its quality. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  1. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: Almond hulls and grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubilar, M.; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, C.

    2007-01-01

    /water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG...... was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH......Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic...

  2. Centella asiatica and Its Fractions Reduces Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Quinolinic Acid and Sodium Nitroprusside in Rat Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Naiani Ferreira; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Froeder, Amanda L F; Busanello, Alcindo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix A A; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in several pathologies including neurological disorders. Centella asiatica is a popular medicinal plant which has long been used to treat neurological disturbances in Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, we quantified of compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and examined the phenolic content of infusion, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, we analyzed the ability of the extracts from C. asiatica to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical as well as total antioxidant activity through the reduction of molybdenum (VI) (Mo(6+)) to molybdenum (V) (Mo(5+)). Finally, we examined the antioxidant effect of extracts against oxidant agents, quinolinic acid (QA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on homogenates of different brain regions (cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus). The HPLC analysis revealed that flavonoids, triterpene glycoside, tannins, phenolic acids were present in the extracts of C. asiatica and also the phenolic content assay demonstrated that ethyl acetate fraction is rich in these compounds. Besides, the ethyl acetate fraction presented the highest antioxidant effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation in brain regions induced by QA. On the other hand, when the pro-oxidant agent was SNP, the potency of infusion, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions was equivalent. Ethyl acetate fraction from C. asiatica also protected against thiol oxidation induced by SNP and QA. Thus, the therapeutic potential of C. asiatica in neurological diseases could be associated to its antioxidant activity.

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant and endothelial protective effects of Lysimachia christinae Hance (Jin Qian Cao) extract fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning-Hua; Ke, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing-Jie; Huang, Sheng-Tang; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-10

    Lysimachia christinae Hance is a traditional Chinese medicine with diuretic, detumescent, and detoxifying effects. Our aimed to optimize the extraction protocol to maximize the yield of flavonoids from Lysimachia christinae Hance, and evaluate the pharmacological activities of four fractions, namely, petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB), and aqueous (AQ) fractions, of the ethanolic extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance. The flavonoid monomers in the crude extract were characterized via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used as markers for extract quality control and standardization. The total flavonoid, total phenolic, and total polysaccharide contents of each fraction were determined by spectrophotometry. Further, the in vitro free radical (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) scavenging activities, and antioxidant capacity in endothelial cells were evaluated for each fraction. After optimizing the extraction protocol to maximize the total flavonoid yield from L. christinae Hance, the NB fractions had the highest total flavonoid (39.4 ± 4.55 mg RE/g), total phenolic (41.1 ± 3.07 mg GAE/g) and total polysaccharide (168.1 ± 7.07 mg GE/g); In addition, the NB fraction of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance reveal the strongest radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in HUVECs. Among the four fractions of L. christinae Hance, the NB fraction showed the most potent antioxidant and endothelial protective effects, which may be attributed to its high flavonoid, phenolic contents and optimal portfolio of different active ingredients of NB fractions of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance. This study might improve our understanding of the pharmacological activities of L. christinae Hance, thereby facilitating its use in disease prevention and treatment.

  4. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  5. Effects of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on Technological Properties and Phenolic Compounds of Freshly Harvested and Stored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gabriela Hörnke; Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Lamas, Nelisa de Souza; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; de Oliveira, Maurício

    2017-10-01

    This study compared the physicochemical and technological properties of the IRGA 410 rice cultivar, obtained from organic and conventional cropping systems, and showed its susceptibility to changes during storage at 0, 6, and 12 mo. The rice conventional cropping system exhibited greater protein, lipids, and ash levels, and a head rice yield. However, organic rice presented greater total carbohydrates, soluble protein, amylose content, 33% greater free phenolics, and phenolic acids, but exhibited a greater percentage of stained grains during the storage period. The free phenolic content of cooked rice was lower than the free phenolic content of the raw rice. By Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometer (LC-MS) were identified p-coumaric and ferulic acids in both fractions (free and bound). The content of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid in bound fraction was higher in organic brown rice than in conventional brown rice. At 6 and 12 mo of storage, the main fungi found were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Prior to storage, the Bipolaris sp. fungi was identified only in organic rice. For conventional rice, the infestation level by Aspergillus sp. increased from 3% to 70% at the 6th mo of storage. In addition to the advantage of organic rice being free of agrochemicals, this study revealed that natural plant defense compounds could be produced when the rice was subjected to more biotic and abiotic stresses. However, some disadvantages were observed, such as lower protein content and a greater percentage of soluble protein, which favored the breaking of rice in processing, and a greater percentage of grain stained before and during storage. The organic and conventional cropping systems affect the physicochemical and technological properties of rice grains, which is one of the main cereals grown and consumed in the world. This study shows the advantages and disadvantages of the cropping system in grain properties that are in the interest of both consumers and

  6. Selective catalytic hydroalkylation and deoxygenation of substituted phenols to bicycloalkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2012-04-01

    Phenol and substituted phenols are hydroalkylated and hydrodeoxygenated to bi-cycloalkanes in a tandem reaction over Pd nanoclusters supported on a large-pore molecular sieve HBEA at 473-523 K using water as solvent. The HBEA-supported Pd catalyst (metal-acid ratio: 1:22 mol/mol) optimally balances the competing rates of metal catalyzed hydrogenation as well as of solid acid-catalyzed dehydration and carbon-carbon coupling to combine hydrodeoxygenation and dimerization of phenol derivatives to C{sub 12}-C{sub 18} bicycloalkanes in a single reaction sequence. A detailed kinetic study of the elementary reactions of (substituted) phenol and their potential products (cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexene) demonstrates that phenol selectively reacts with the in situ generated cyclohexanol or cyclohexene on Broensted acid sites. The acid-catalyzed alkylation of phenol with alcohol intermediates and alcohol dehydration are parallel reactions, which are subtly influenced by the competing hydrogenation reactions as well as by the presence of water as solvent. IR spectroscopy of adsorbed species and preliminary molecular modeling indicate that phenol and cyclohexanol enrichment in the large pores of zeolite HBEA is critical for the high activity and hydroalkylation selectivity.

  7. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated phenol mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Lei; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2010-05-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was developed for accelerated phenol degradation and mineralization. In the IPBR, photodegradation and biodegradation occurred simultaneously, but in two separated zones: a piece of mat-glass plate coated with TiO(2) film and illuminated by UV light was connected by internal circulation to a honeycomb ceramic that was the biofilm carrier for biodegradation. This arrangement was designed to give intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation. Phenol degradation was investigated by following three protocols: photocatlysis with TiO(2) film under ultraviolet light, but no biofilm (photodegradation); biofilm biodegradation with no UV light (biodegradation); and simultaneous photodegradation and biodegradation (intimately coupled photobiodegradation). Photodegradation alone could partly degrade phenol, but was not able to achieve significant mineralization, even with an HRT of 10 h. Biodegradation alone could completely degrade phenol, but it did not mineralize the COD by more than 74%. Photobiodegradation allowed continuous rapid degradation of phenol, but it also led to more complete mineralization of phenol (up to 92%) than the other protocols. The results demonstrate that intimate coupling was achieved by protecting the biofilm from UV and free-radical inhibition. With phenol as the target compound, the main advantage of intimate coupling in the IPBR was increased mineralization, presumably because photocatalysis made soluble microbial products more rapidly biodegradable.

  8. Associations of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rong; Chen, Min-jian; Ding, Guo-dong; Chen, Xiao-jiao; Han, Xiu-mei; Zhou, Kun; Chen, Li-mei; Xia, Yan-kai; Tian, Ying; Wang, Xin-ru

    2013-01-01

    Many phenols are known to mimic or antagonize hormonal activities and may adversely affect fetal growth. A study of 567 pregnant women was conducted to investigate the relationship between prenatal phenol exposure and birth outcomes, including birth weight, length, and gestational age. We measured the concentrations of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol in maternal urine and examine their association with birth outcomes. Categories of urinary benzophenone-3 concentration were associated with decreased gestational age in all infants (p for trend = 0.03). Between middle and low exposure groups, we also found bisphenol A was negatively associated with gestational duration (β adjusted = −0.48 week; 95% confidence interval: −0.91, −0.05). After stratification by gender, we found the consistent results in infant boys with those in all infants, but we did not observe significant association for girls. In conclusion, we found prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes. -- Highlights: •We examined relationship of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes. •We determined urinary concentrations of various phenols. •BP-3 and BPA were negatively associated with gestational age. •There was sex-specific association between phenol exposure and birth outcomes. -- Prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes

  9. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation via Phenol in Geobacter metallireducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Smith, Jessica A.; Bain, Timothy S.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic activation of benzene is expected to represent a novel biochemistry of environmental significance. Therefore, benzene metabolism was investigated in Geobacter metallireducens, the only genetically tractable organism known to anaerobically degrade benzene. Trace amounts (benzene to carbon dioxide with the reduction of Fe(III). Phenol was not detected in cell-free controls or in Fe(II)- and benzene-containing cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a Geobacter species that cannot metabolize benzene. The phenol produced in G. metallireducens cultures was labeled with 18O during growth in H218O, as expected for anaerobic conversion of benzene to phenol. Analysis of whole-genome gene expression patterns indicated that genes for phenol metabolism were upregulated during growth on benzene but that genes for benzoate or toluene metabolism were not, further suggesting that phenol was an intermediate in benzene metabolism. Deletion of the genes for PpsA or PpcB, subunits of two enzymes specifically required for the metabolism of phenol, removed the capacity for benzene metabolism. These results demonstrate that benzene hydroxylation to phenol is an alternative to carboxylation for anaerobic benzene activation and suggest that this may be an important metabolic route for benzene removal in petroleum-contaminated groundwaters, in which Geobacter species are considered to play an important role in anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:24096430

  10. An enzymatic method for removal of phenol from industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.; Singh, J. [DN College, Meerut (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogenous. An enzymatic method for removal of phenols from industrial wastewater, using turnip peroxidase, has been developed. Phenol-containing industrial wastewater was treated with immobilized turnip peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the reaction, a number of phenols are oxidized to form the corresponding free radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Free radicals polymerize to form substances that are less soluble in water than the original substances. The precipitates were removed by conventional methods and residual phenol was estimated. The present report describes the immobilization of turnip peroxidase on silica via covalent coupling, and its utility in phenol removal. A comparative study was also carried out with other immobilization techniques, viz., calcium alginate entrapment, polyacrylamide gel entrapment, etc. Peroxidase, covalently bound to silica, showed 95% removal of phenol, whereas naphthol was removed up to 99%.

  11. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Background The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410263

  12. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC. A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI with a correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  13. Use of HPLC- and GC-QTOF to determine hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) and its by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Diaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Mango industry processing generates high quantities of mango by-products such as peels and seeds (35%-60% of the fruit). Indeed, it is known that mango and its by-products contain different families of bioactive compounds that possess several health benefits. Thus, the aim of this study has been the determination of different families of phenolic derivatives (free and bound phenolic compounds and alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs)) in mango edible part and its by-products (peel, seed and seed husk) from three different cultivars. This is the first study that evaluates the phenolic compounds and ARs in the four fractions of mango of three different cultivars. Special attention has been paid to the determination of anthocyanins and ARs, because these families of compounds had not been studied in depth in mango. In fact, petunidin rutinoside-(p-coumaric acid) gallate was found in mango pulp, peel, seed and seed husk of the three cultivars and, it had never been described in mango before. It is also important to highlight that this is the first time that the identification and quantification of ARs have been performed in mango seed and seed husk; besides, four and five out of eleven alk(en)ylresorcinols detected in peel and pulp, respectively, were identified for the first time in these mango fractions. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS and FRAP assays. Seed free and bound phenolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and bioguided fractionation of Rumex tingitanus extracts for meat preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Dhekra; Bouaziz, Amira; Ennouri, Karim; Chawech, Rachid; Smaoui, Slim; Jarraya, Raoudha; Tounsi, Slim; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Rumex tingitanus leaves extracts as well as the identification of bioactive components and their performance in meat preservation. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF). For antimicrobial efficacy, leaves extract and derived fraction were tested for their capacity to inhibit bacterial and fungal proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the most potent antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the others extracts. Thus, the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes in minced beef meat model was examined. This fraction eradicates the L. monocytogenes population in meat in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. A bio-guided purification of the Rt EtOAc fraction resulted in the isolation of the compound responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity. This compound was identified as luteolin by analysis of spectroscopic data. Luteolin (PubChem CID: 5280445); p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (PubChem CID: 64957); Amphotericin B (PubChem CID: 5280965); Gentamicin and (PubChem CID: 6419933); Hexane (PubChem CID: 8058); Methanol (PubChem CID: 887); Ethanol (PubChem CID: 702); Dimethylsulfoxide (PubChem CID: 679); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; McNally, N.J.; Fowler, J.F.; Joiner, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m 2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m 2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  16. Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Kroon, P A; Williamson, G

    2001-01-01

    Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester-linked to......Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester...... system. Our results suggest that the phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids are bioavailable. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Aug-1...

  17. Photodegradation of phenol on Y2O3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Anilkumar, P.

    2009-01-01

    Under UV light, phenol degrades on the surface of Y 2 O 3 , an insulator, and the degradation follows first-order kinetics, depends linearly on the light intensity and slows down with pH. The efficiency of degradation is higher with UV-C light than with UV-A light. While particulate anatase TiO 2 , ZnO, ZnS, Fe 2 O 3 , CuO, CdO, and Nb 2 O 5 individually photodegrade phenol, each semiconductor shows synergism when present along with Y 2 O 3 , indicating electron-transfer from phenol adsorbed on Y 2 O 3 to the illuminated semiconductors.

  18. Effect of the modification of a natural mexican zeolite in the sorption of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes M, R.

    2007-01-01

    Clinoptilolite type zeolite is a material of relative abundance in Mexico, which possess ion exchange properties and it can be used in the removal of metal ions from polluted waters. The external surface of zeolites can be modified with cationic surfactants. This modification could have a negative effect on the removal of metal ions and provides to the material the capacity to adsorb phenolic compounds. For this reason, it is important to know the capability of the modified material on the sorption of metal ions and phenolic compounds, simultaneously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the external surface modification with surfactant of a Mexican zeolite over its sorption capacity of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol, in batch and column systems. To accomplish that, a clinoptilolite type zeolitic rock from a deposit located in the state of Sonora, Mexico, was used. It was ground, sieved and characterized with different techniques; and its external surface area was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). A grain size fraction was selected to carry out sorption kinetics and equilibrium experiments, as well as packed column tests with zeolitic material and solutions of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol. There are different models proposed in literature that are used to describe sorption kinetics and equilibrium. In this work, the sorption experimental results were adjusted to some of these models to identify controlling mechanisms on the kinetics and equilibrium of the studied systems. The results showed that the cadmium adsorption on natural and modified zeolite was similar in batch systems. For the case of 4-chloro phenol sorption, it was observed that natural zeolite does not retain this compound, while in modified zeolite the sorption is better than other comparable materials. The results also showed that for the case of cadmium sorption, the mechanism involved was ion exchange; while for sorption of 4-chloro phenol, a partition mechanism

  19. The Antioxidant Properties of Pectin Fractions Isolated from Vegetables Using a Simulated Gastric Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily V. Smirnov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of vegetable pectin fractions against intraluminal reactive oxygen species were elucidated in vitro in conjunction with their structural features. The pectin fractions were isolated using a simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5, pepsin 0.5 g/L, 37°C, 4 h from fresh white cabbage, carrot, onion, and sweet pepper. The fraction from onion was found to inhibit the production of superoxide radicals by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase. The high molecular weight of onion pectin and a large number of galactose residues in its side chains appeared to participate in interaction with xanthine oxidase. All the isolated pectic polysaccharides were found to be associated with protein (2–9% and phenolics (0.5–0.7% as contaminants; these contaminants were shown to be responsible for the antioxidant effect of vegetable pectin fractions against the hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals.

  20. Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, O P

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations

  1. Dynamical fractional chaotic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-12-01

    Chaotic inflation based on a simple monomial scalar potential, V (ϕ )∝ϕp, is an attractive large-field model of inflation capable of generating a sizable tensor-to-scalar ratio r . Therefore, assuming that future cosmic microwave background observations will confirm the large r value reported by BICEP2, it is important to determine what kind of dynamical mechanism could possibly endow the inflaton field with such a simple effective potential. In this paper, we answer this question in the context of field theory, i.e. in the framework of dynamical chaotic inflation, where strongly interacting supersymmetric gauge dynamics around the scale of grand unification dynamically generate a fractional power-law potential via the quantum effect of dimensional transmutation. In constructing explicit models, we significantly extend our previous work, as we now consider a large variety of possible underlying gauge dynamics and relax our conditions on the field content of the model. This allows us to realize almost arbitrary rational values for the power p in the inflaton potential. The present paper may hence be regarded as a first step toward a more complete theory of dynamical chaotic inflation.

  2. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of different extracts and fractions from Eucalyptus. grandis × urophylla bark (EB against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities. The ethyl acetate extract (EB-E showed the highest activity among others. Seven fractions were derived from EB-E; among them EB-E-7 showed the highest significant inhibition of both enzymes, with IC50 of 1.40±0.18 and 1.72±0.12 μg/mL, respectively. EB-E and its active fraction EB-E-7 showed highest contents of total phenolics: 178.79±4.68 and 920.4±5.46 mg GAEag−1, respectively. HPLC-MS analysis of EB-E-7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid, quercetin-glucuronide, quercetin-3-α-rhamnopyranoside, and ellagic acid rhamnoside as major compounds, together with smaller concentrations of myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside, myricetin-3-α-arabinofuranoside, and isorhamnetin. Therefore, the phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urograndis bark potently inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, having potential in prevention of hyperglycemia.

  3. Influence of ph and inoculum size on phenol utilization by bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of pH and inoculum size on phenol utilization by bacterial isolates from oil refinery effluent was investigated. The substrate used for the assessment was phenol, which formed a model substrate for the experiment. Phenol was progressively degraded at pH range of 6.3 to 8.0. Maximum phenol degradation by ...

  4. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  5. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

  6. Fractional Calculus and Shannon Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit analytical formula for the any order fractional derivative of Shannon wavelet is given as wavelet series based on connection coefficients. So that for any 2(ℝ function, reconstructed by Shannon wavelets, we can easily define its fractional derivative. The approximation error is explicitly computed, and the wavelet series is compared with Grünwald fractional derivative by focusing on the many advantages of the wavelet method, in terms of rate of convergence.

  7. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  8. Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue from Penicillium solitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Lange, Lene; Schnorr, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue, has been isolated from Penicillium solitum using a UV-guided strategy. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by chemical degradation...

  9. Phenol adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cínthia S; Abreu, Anelise L; Silva, Carmen L T; Guerreiro, Mário C

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) using spent coffee grounds, an agricultural residue, as carbon precursor and two different activating agents: water vapor (ACW) and K(2)CO(3) (ACK). These ACs presented the microporous nature and high surface area (620-950 m(2) g(-1)). The carbons, as well as a commercial activated carbon (CAC) used as reference, were evaluated as phenol adsorbent showing high adsorption capacity (≈150 mg g(-1)). The investigation of the pH solution in the phenol adsorption was also performed. The different activating agents led to AC with distinct morphological properties, surface area and chemical composition, although similar phenol adsorption capacity was verified for both prepared carbons. The production of activated carbons from spent coffee grounds resulted in promising adsorbents for phenol removal while giving a noble destination to the residue.

  10. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  11. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Barringtonia racemosa L. (Lecythidaceae). NM Hussin, R Muse, S Ahmad, J Ramli, M Mahmood, MR Sulaiman, MYA Shukor, MFA Rahman, KNK Aziz ...

  12. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  13. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  14. Photo-Fenton treatment of water containing natural phenolic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernjak, Wolfgang; Krutzler, Thomas; Glaser, Andreas; Malato, Sixto; Caceres, Julia; Bauer, Rupert; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2003-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are known to be present in high concentrations in various types of agro-industrial wastes. As they are highly biorecalcitrant, the possibility of treatment by advanced oxidation processes should be investigated. In this work, six model phenolic compounds (vanillin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and L-tyrosine) were chosen for a demonstration of degradation by photo-Fenton reaction, under artificial light in laboratory experiments in Vienna and under sunlight in pilot-plant experiments at the Plataforma Solar de Almería in Spain. All compounds were completely mineralised. No non-degradable intermediates were produced, either in experiments with single substances or in a more complex matrix of a mixture of phenolic compounds. The expected selectivity of the photo-Fenton reaction for aromatic compounds was proven by comparison of the decrease in total organic carbon with the removal of total phenolic content.

  15. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruit Extracts of Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moraceae) from Southeast Serbia. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To evaluate the content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and anthocyanins) of Morus nigra L. fruit (black mulberry) as well as the antioxidant ...

  16. Radiation oxidation of phenol in petrochemical waste water. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Kamenista, H.; Kopunec, R.; Mikulaj, V.; Rajec, P.

    1981-01-01

    The rate was studied of radiation destruction of phenol aqueous solutions at a concentration range of 1 to 100 ppm. Irradiated were model solutions containing additions of some organic and inorganic substances typical of the petrochemical industry. In view of the fact that the radiation destruction kinetics is determined by the amount of dissolved oxygen in the sample and by the phenol concentration, relatively low doses were used. Thus, a sufficient amount of oxygen in the sample and therefore the oxidation mechanism of radiolysis were ensured. The dose-response relationships for phenol destruction were studied using doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 J.kg -1 ; the limit dose was 500 J.kg -1 . From the results obtained, a kinetic model was constructed of radiation phenol oxidation in aqueous solutions in the presence of various organic and inorganic additions. (B.S.)

  17. Phenolic contents of myrtle (Myrtus communis L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu BAYIR YEĞİN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle is one of the important natural plant of the Mediterranean region. Fruits are in black and white colour. The earlier studies are mostly focused on the essential oil content of leaves in myrtle plant, whereas the latest studies are dealing with the phenolic compounds of leaves and fruits with their effects on human health. The aim of the study was to determine the phenolic content of the myrtle fruit and to investigate the differences between the genotypes. Myrtle fruits were collected from Antalya district. Phenolic content was determined by HPLC. Gallic acid (GA, catechin (CT, epicatechin (ECT, epicatechin-3-0-gallate (ECG, procyanidin B1 (B1, procyanidin B2 (B2, quercetin (Q, kamferol (K and myricetin (M were calculated as phenolic compounds. Epicatechin-3-0-gallate (in flavan-3-ol group and myricetin (in flavonol group were detected in large amounts.

  18. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic forms of Detarium senegalense J. F. GMEL. N.D. Ndiaye, S Munier, Y Pelissier, F Boudard, C Mertz, M Lebrun, C Dhuique-mayer, M Dornier ...

  19. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Nigerian Beverages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples; FCA , FCB ,FCC ,FCD) Pure cocoa powder (PCA, PCB), coffee (C), ginger (G) and Tea samples (Green, TA, TB) were assayed for total phenols, flavonoids, Vitamin C and radical scavenging abilities using four different in vitro antioxidant ...

  20. The effect of growing conditions on phenolic compounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid and is widely used for anti-inflammatory and healing properties. This study evaluates the level of phenolic compounds and the antimicrobial activity in extracts of M. urundeuva obtained from greenhouse seedlings grown from seeds that ...

  1. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  2. Daily intake estimation of phenolic compounds in the Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Navarro González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds are a large group of molecules present in plants with a diversity of chemical structures and biological activity. The objective of this study was to quantify the intake of phenolic compounds of the Spanish population. Material and Methods: The most consumed foods from vegetal origin in Spain were selected. These were picked up in the National Survey of Spanish Dietary Intake (ENIDE of 2011, edited by AESAN (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition as a basis for quantifying the intake of phenolic compounds of Spaniards using the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: This database has allowed to estimate the average intake of polyphenols per day of Spaniards, which is 1365.1mg. Conclusions: The average intake of total polyphenols of Spaniards could have a protective effect against the mortality rate and exercise a preventive function on some chronic diseases along with other healthy lifestyle habits.

  3. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  4. Red pericarp introgression lines derived from interspecific crosses of rice: physicochemical characteristics, antioxidative properties and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neerja; Kaur, Rimaljeet; Mangat, Gurjit S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2014-11-01

    Antioxidative properties and physicochemical characteristics of introgression lines (ILs) and their recurrent parents were analyzed. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and free radical-scavenging capacity were evaluated, since these are important antioxidative properties for developing nutraceutical and functional foods. Comparative analysis of the brown and milled rice fractions of ILs with their respective recurrent parents revealed 2.26- and 1.22-fold increase in total phenolics, 1.95- and 2.09-fold increase in flavonoids, 8.38- and 6.80-fold increase in proanthocyanidins and 1.55- and 1.20-fold increase in tannins in brown and milled rice fractions respectively. Higher CAT (1.36- and 1.89-fold) and SOD (1.71- and 2.02-fold) activities and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 7.13- and 1.98-fold) were observed in brown and milled rice fractions respectively of ILs compared with their respective recurrent parents. A high and positive correlation was obtained between TEAC and total phenols (0.73, P ≤ 0.01), flavonoids (0.66, P ≤ 0.05) and proanthocyanidins (0.69, P ≤ 0.05). The yield parameters and physicochemical characteristics of the grains, in general, were comparable in the ILs and their respective recurrent parents. The ILs of rice reported in the present study exhibited significant positive differences in the content of phenolic constituents and antioxidant properties with good grain quality characteristics over their recurrent parents, indicating their potential as a natural source of phytochemicals for nutraceutical and functional food development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramamurthy, Perumal; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Mentha extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Four solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) of ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder of M. spicata were analyzed for total antioxidant activity (TAA) and relative antioxidant activity (RAA) and compared with standard antioxidants such as Quercetin, beta-carotene, L-ascorbic acid and glutathione using ABTS*+ decolorization assay (ABTS/Potassium persulphate). The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract. Total phenolics are found to be highest in ethyl acetate fraction (54 mg/g) and least in hexane fraction (13 mg/g) and more or less similar in water and chloroform fractions (30-32 mg/g). TAA is found to be less in hexane and chloroform fractions (<53% at 50 microg/ml) and highest in ethyl acetate (95% at 20 microg/ml) and water (84% at 30 microg/ml) fractions. The RAA of ethyl acetate fraction is 1.1 compared to quercetin (at 5 microM/ml), but greater when compared to beta-carotene (15 microM/ml), L-ascorbic acid (15 microM/ml) and glutathione (15 microM/ml). The RAAs with these antioxidants are in the range of 1.31 -1.6. The values of RAAs for water fraction also show similar trend and are in the range of 1.0-1.4. The antioxidant activities of the solvent factions are closely related to the content of total phenolics present in them.

  6. Simultaneous adsorption of phenol and cadmium on amphoteric modified soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Zhaofu; Zhang Yiping; Zhang Zengqiang

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification is an effective way to enhance adsorption of pollutants by soil. In this study, we investigated the individual adsorption of cadmium ion (Cd 2+ ) and phenol and also in combination by the clay layer of a loessial soil treated with the amphoteric modifier, duodalkylbetaine (BS-12). Three levels of BS-12 modification were compared in this experiment: (1) unmodified soil (CK), (2) modification with an amount of BS-12 equivalent to 50% of the soil's CEC (50BS) and (3) modification with an amount of BS-12 equivalent to 100% of the soil's CEC (100BS). Cd 2+ adsorption was 0.92-1.70 times higher in the amphoteric modified soil compared to unmodified soil. Adsorption isotherms for Cd 2+ displayed a L1-type shape. Phenol adsorption was 1.25-4.35 times higher in the amphoteric modified soil compared to the unmodified control. The adsorption isotherms of phenol on amphoteric modified soils were generally linear, but changed to L1-type isotherms for modified soil in the Cd 2+ + phenol treatment at 40 o C. The results clearly showed that amphoteric modified soil had the ability to simultaneously adsorb Cd 2+ and phenol. Cd 2+ adsorption by the amphoteric modified soil was related to the initial concentration of Cd 2+ in the supernatant. Cd 2+ adsorption in the 100BS treatment exceeded adsorption in the 50BS treatment when Cd 2+ initial concentrations were higher than approximate 200 μg mL -1 . Phenol adsorption by modified soils decreased in the order: 100BS > 50BS > CK and was primarily determined by the surface hydrophobicity of the soil. For the unmodified soil, total adsorption in the Cd 2+ + phenol treatment was slightly lower compared to treatments that contained only Cd 2+ or phenol. This indicated an antagonistic effect between the adsorption of Cd 2+ and phenol, which was reduced after amphoteric modification. A comparison of temperature effects on Cd 2+ and phenol adsorption indicated that Cd 2+ was both physically and chemically adsorbed by the

  7. Fractional delayed damped Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbahi, Afshin; Haeri, Mohammad; Nazari, Morad; Butcher, Eric A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates the dynamical behaviour of the fractional delayed damped Mathieu equation. This system includes three different phenomena (fractional order, time delay, parametric resonance). The method of harmonic balance is employed to achieve approximate expressions for the transition curves in the parameter plane. The n = 0 and n = 1 transition curves (both lower and higher order approximations) are obtained. The dependencies of these curves on the system parameters and fractional orders are determined. Previous results for the transition curves reported for the damped Mathieu equation, delayed second-order oscillator, and fractional Mathieu equation are confirmed as special cases of the results for the current system.

  8. Volatile phenolics in Teran PTP red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile phenolics, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol were quantified in Teran PTP wines that were produced in the Kras winegrowing district. The compounds were determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry after extraction with diethylether. Three years monitoring (2011, 2012, 2013 vintages showed that all four undesirable compounds were identified in Teran PTP wines, however their content did not influence significantly the sensory characteristics of the wine. The average contents gained over the three-year period (2011-2013; n=82 were 153±193 µg L-1 for 4-ethylphenol, 1265±682 µg L-1 for 4-vinylphenol, 69±94 µg L-1 for 4-ethylguaiacol and 128±106 µg L-1 for 4-vinylguaiacol. 7.3 % of samples showed contents of 4-ethylphenol above the odour threshold values. For 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol that percentage was 98.8 %, 25.6 % and 91.5 %, respectively.

  9. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). 13 c...

  10. Effects of phenolic monomers on growth of Acidothermus cellulolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Barabote, Ravi D; Parales, Juanito V; Parales, Rebecca E; Berry, Alison M; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on biological pretreatment of switchgrass by solid-state fermentation with Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B have shown that inhibitory compounds prevent growth on untreated switchgrass. A. cellulolyticus was grown in liquid medium containing cellobiose with phenolic monomers added to determine if the phenolic compounds are one possible source of inhibition. Cinnamic acid derivatives (trans-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and hydrocinnamic acids), hydroxybenzoic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillic acids), benzaldehydes (vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde), and condensed tannin monomers (catechin and epicatechin) were tested at levels up to 20 mM. All compounds exhibited a dose-response relationship and strongly inhibited growth at 20 mM. trans-p-Coumaric acid was found to be the strongest inhibitor of A. cellulolyticus growth, with a specific growth rate of 0.004 h(-1) at 1 mM (0.18 h(-1) without phenolic monomer). GC-MS and HPLC methods were used to confirm the presence of these phenolic compounds in switchgrass and measure the amounts extracted using different conditions. The amounts of phenolic compounds measured were found to be higher than the threshold for growth inhibition. Leaching with water at 55°C was inefficient at removing bound phenolics, whereas NaOH treatment improved efficiency. Phenolic compounds spiked into alkaline pretreated switchgrass were also found to inhibit growth of A. cellulolyticus in solid-state fermentation. However, addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to switchgrass improved growth of A. cellulolyticus in liquid cultures, providing a possible approach for alleviating microbial inhibition due to phenolic compounds in lignocellulose. Copyright © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this v...

  12. Wood liquefaction with phenol by microwave heating and FTIR evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiyun Li; Chungyun Hse; Tefu Qin

    2015-01-01

    We examined wood liquefaction using phenol and mixed acid catalysts with microwave heating, and compared that with similar processes that use oil bath heating. The reaction time for microwave heating to achieve a residue content was one sixth, one eighteenth, and one twenty-fourth of that from oil bath heating, respectively, for phenol to wood (P/W) ratios of 2.5/1, 2/...

  13. Evaluation of phenolic acids and phenylpropanoids in the crude drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Radušienė, Jolita; Lukošius, Audronis; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic acids and phenylpropanoids have an important biological activity and are therapeutic agents of crude drugs. Development of validated analysis techniques of these phytotherapeutic agents (fingerprinting and assay procedures) is an important practice for efficacy, safety, and quality control of herbal drug preparations. The aim of the present work was to study analytical capabilities of the evaluation of selected phenolic acids and phenylpropanoids: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinn...

  14. Phenolic antioxidants extraction from raspberry wastes assisted by-enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Laroze,Liza; Soto,Carmen; Zúñiga,María Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on phenolic antioxidant extraction was studied in raspberry solid wastes. This by-product possesses high content of crude fiber (60%) and low values of protein, oil and ash. Raspberry fiber composition suggests that biocatalysts with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities would be useful for carrying out an enzymatically assisted antioxidant extraction. Hydro-alcoholic extraction was done using different commercial enzymes. Total phenol content an...

  15. Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total ...

  16. Determination of phenols using simultaneous steam distillation-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barták, P; Frnková, P; Cáp, L

    2000-01-21

    Simultaneous distillation-extraction was proposed as a preconcentration step for the determination of phenol and its derivatives in aqueous and soil samples. Detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) (water) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) (soil) were achieved by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The described preconcentration procedure was applied for the primary study of the adsorption equilibrium in a water-soil system serving as a model of phenol behaviors in the environment.

  17. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  18. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chromatographic purification. 2.1 Procedure for Nitration of Phenol. Phenol (94 mg, 1 mmol) dissolved in 3 mL glacial acetic acid in a 50 mL test tube was treated with solid Y(NO3)3.6H2O. (383 mg, 1 mmol) with constant shaking at RT for 10 min. The reaction was monitored by TLC at 10% EtOAc in. Petroleum benzene.

  19. Di-alkyl substituted phenol from Acalypha wilkesiana var. golden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present study was carried out by subjecting one of the residues obtained from the processing of plant to column chromatography. A phenol designated as W-3(I) [Rf (0.42); m.pt. (88-90 0C] was isolated whose identity has been established to be 3, 5-Di-t-butyl phenol (3, 5-Di-t-butyl hydroxy benzene) using the 1H NMR, ...

  20. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of phenolic compounds in Spermacoce verticillata (L. G. Mey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmim C. Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spermacoce verticillata, known as “poaia and vassourinha de botão”, is a species widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. It is a native species, small, upright perennial, and broadly distributed throughout Brazil. Until now, few chemical studies have focused on the phenolic composition of this species. Aims: Evaluate the phytochemical profile of phenolic compounds from Spermacoce verticillata and search new compounds that have chemotaxonomic significance. Methods: Leaves of S. verticillata were extracted using distilled water. The extract (SVL was purified by several chromatography processes. Extract and compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. Results: Phytochemical analysis led to identification, for the first time, of three compounds (1-3 for the specie. Chlorogenic acid (1 was identified by HPLC-DAD compared with reported in the literature. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin (2 and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3 were isolated from butanolic fraction and identified by spectroscopic analysis comparison with data reported in the literature. The flavonoid rutin is the major compound in SVL followed by kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and chlorogenic acid. Conclusions: This is the first report for these compounds (1-3 in S. verticillata. The presence of these three new compounds indicates chemical markers of the species for this genus and family. This information is extremely important because increases the resources for chemotaxonomic classification of these species.

  1. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazal Akyol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  2. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-05-27

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  3. Inhibition of Malassezia globosa carbonic anhydrase with phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari Heravi, Yeganeh; Bua, Silvia; Nocentini, Alessio; Del Prete, Sonia; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sereshti, Hassan; Capasso, Clemente; Gratteri, Paola; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-05-01

    A panel of 22 phenols was investigated as inhibitors of the β-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal parasite Malassezia globosa (MgCA), a validated anti-dandruff drug target. The displayed inhibitory activities were compared to the ones previously reported against the off-target widely distributed human (h) isoforms hCA I and II. All tested phenols possessed a better efficacy in inhibiting MgCA than the clinically used sulfonamide acetazolamide, with K I s in the range of 2.5 and 65.0μM. A homology-built model of MgCA was also used for understanding the binding mode of phenols to the fungal enzyme. Indeed, a wide network of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between the phenol and active site residues were evidenced. The OH moiety of the inhibitor was observed anchored to the zinc-coordinated water, also making hydrogen bonds with Ser48 and Asp49. The diverse substituents at the phenolic scaffold were observed to interact with different portions of the hydrophobic pocket according to their nature and position. Considering the effective MgCA inhibitory properties of phenols, beside to the rather low inhibition against the off-target hCA I and II, this class of compounds might be of considerable interest in the cosmetics field as potential anti-dandruff drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption capacity of phenolic compounds onto cellulose and xylan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma dos Santos Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between three phenolic compounds (catechin, caffeic acid and ferulic acid onto two dietary fibres (cellulose and xylan has been evaluated to inquire possible interferences on the biodisponibility of phenolic compounds. The adsorption kinetics were performed using solutions containing 100 mg/L of phenolic compounds during a contact time ranging between 10 and 120 minutes at pH 2.0, 4.5, and 7.0. After the kinetics, isotherms were obtained using phenolic compounds concentration ranging between 10 and 80 mg/L during 60 minutes, at pH 2.0 and 7.0 and temperature of 36 °C. Results indicate that adsorbed quantities mainly changed in function of pH, however the maximum adsorption was only of 0.978 mg of caffeic acid/g of xylan at pH 2 and after 60 min. Redlich-Peterson model were able to predict the adsorption isotherms of all phenolic compounds onto cellulose, except for caffeic acid at pH 7.0. The low adsorption capacities observed suggest that both dietary fibres are unable to compromise the biodisponibility of phenolic compounds, especially in the small intestine, where they are partially absorbed.

  5. Studying Room Temperature Curing of Phenolic Resin and their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Beheshty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resins are synthetic low molecular weight thermoset resins which are polymerized and cured to higher molecular weights by condensation method. These resins have high weathering resistance, high oxidative thermal properties and good chemical resistance. Phenolic resins can be cured thermally or by acid curing. The most common method of curing phenolic resin is by thermal curing that takes place in the range of 130-180oC. At room temperature, however, phenolic resins are cured by acid catalysts. In this paper, room temperature curing of resol phenolic resin by para toluene sulphonic acid has been investigated. The acid quantity has been determined for room temperature curing of two types of resols to achieve a reasonable hardness and gelation time. Temperature curing and thermal stability of respective resins have been investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. A glass-phenolic composite plate has been prepared and cured by these two methods. The results show that the optimum amount of acid is 20% by weight. Optimum mechanical properties, chemical resistance and thermal properties have been achieved for acid cured system. The hot cured resin, however, has better properties.

  6. Phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerea Spiridon, Otilia; Preda, Elena; Botez, Alexandru; Pitulice, Laura

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that adsorption is an efficient method of removal of various pollutants from wastewater. The present study examines the phenol removal from water by adsorption on a new material, based on zeolitic volcanic tuff. This compound contains zeolitic tuff and cellulose, another known adsorbent, in a mass ratio of 4 to 1. The performances of the new adsorbent composite were compared with those of a widely used adsorbent material, zeolitic volcanic tuff. The adsorbent properties were tested on batch synthetic solutions containing 1-10 mg L(-1) (1-10 ppm) phenol, at room temperature without pH adjustment. The influence of the adsorbent dose, pH and contact time on the removal degree of phenol from water was investigated. The experimental data were modeled using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir model was found to best represent our data revealing a monolayer adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity between 0.12 and 0.53 mg g(-1) at 25 °C, for 2.00 g of adsorbent, depending on the initial phenol concentration. The adsorption kinetic study was performed using a pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models illustrating that phenol adsorption on zeolite composite is well described by pseudo-first kinetic equations. Our results indicated that phenol adsorption on the new adsorbent composite is superior to that on the classic zeolite.

  7. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  9. Antibacterial activity of isolated phenolic compounds from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Uberos, José; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Peña, Alejandro; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). With this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry detection. Then, the effects on UPEC surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of the cranberry extract as well as the purest fractions (a total of 13) were tested. As expected, the whole extract presented a powerful antibacterial activity against UPEC while the selected fractions presented a different behavior. Myricetin and quercitrin significantly decreased (p < 0.05) E. coli biofilm formation compared with the control, while dihydroferulic acid glucuronide, procyanidin A dimer, quercetin glucoside, myricetin and prodelphinidin B led to a significant decrease of the surface hydrophobicity compared with the control. The results suggest that apart from proanthocyanidins, other compounds, mainly flavonoids, can act against E. coli biofilm formation and also modify UPEC surface hydrophobicity in vitro, one of the first steps of adhesion.

  10. Sources of particulate organic matter discharged by the Lena River using lignin phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Trojahn, S.; Hefter, J.; Pittauer, D.; Zubrzycki, S.; Han, P.; Rethemeyer, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2016-12-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) discharged by rivers and deposited offshore their mouths is generally assumed to record an integrated signal from the watershed and therefore provides an archive of past environmental changes. Yet, in large river systems the riverine POM might be trapped in flood plains and the lower reaches resulting in an inefficient transport of POM particularly from the distal parts of the watershed. Further, the POM likely undergoes degradation during transport from source to sink. The Lena River is one of these large river systems stretching from 53°N to 71°N in central Siberia. The watershed can be broadly divided into two different biomes, taiga in the south and tundra in the northernmost part. The relative contribution of these biomes to the POM load of the river and its discharge to the ocean as well as the changes it is undergoing during transport are not well understood. Here we present the lignin phenol composition of different grain size fractions (bulk, 2mm-63µm, gymnosperm-derived POM, particularly close to the river mouth and in the <63µm fraction. Because of the large heterogeneity of organic matter degradation in the soil samples and their grain size fractions, it is not quite clear to which degree the POM gets mineralized within the soils and during transport in the river compared to degradation occurring during cross shelf transport.

  11. Stabilization of Bio-Oil Fractions for Insertion into Petroleum Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Wright, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This project is part of a collaboration effort between Iowa State University (ISU), University of Oklahoma (OK) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this project is to stabilize bio-oil fractions and improve their suitability for insertion into petroleum refineries. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a complex mixture of unstable organic compounds. These organic compounds react under standard room conditions resulting in increases in bio-oil viscosity and water content – both detrimental for bio-oil storage and transportation. This study employed fractionation and upgrading systems to improve the stability of bio-oil. The fractionation system consists of a series of condensers, and electrostatic precipitators designed to separate bio-oil into five fractions: soluble carbohydrates (SF1&2), clean phenolic oligomers (CPO) and middle fraction (SF3&4), light oxygenates (SF5). A two-stage upgrading process was designed to process bio-oil stage fractions into stable products that can be inserted into a refinery. In the upgrading system, heavy and middle bio-oil fractions were upgraded into stable oil via cracking and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation. The light oxygenate fraction was steam reformed to provide a portion of requisite hydrogen for hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking employed hydrogen from natural gas, fuel gas and light oxygenates reforming. The finished products from this study consist of gasoline- and diesel-blend stock fuels.

  12. Antioxidant capacity and identification of the constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Rhus verniciflua Stokes by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Zhou, Hao; Tao, Ran; Ye, Jianzhong; Li, Wenjun

    2017-07-01

    Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Rhus verniciflua Stokes is an important source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was the tentative identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, comparison of the phenolic structure-antioxidant activity relationships. Twelve compounds of EAF belonging to polyphenol types were detected by high performance liquid chromatography and analysed on line with negative ion electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry, which were ethoxy 3-hydroxy benzoic acid, gallic acid (GA), 3,4-dihydroxy amygdalic acid, gallic acid cetyl ester, protocatechuic acid (PA), fustin, ethyl gallate (EG), garbanzol, fisetin, sulfuretin, butin and 3,7-dihydroxyflavanone-4'-rhamnoside. The antioxidant activity were evaluated based on the different types of radical scavenging capacities, i.e. DPPH·, ABTS·+ and OH. The antioxidant capacity of EAF mainly depended on the GA, EG, PA, fisetin, sulfuretin and butin. The phenolics exhibited a dose-dependent behaviour and high antioxidant ability.

  13. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic contents and identification of main compounds of various extracts from Artemisia aucheri aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mojarrab*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Artemisia aucheri Boiss. is regarded as one of 34 Artemisia species growing in Iran. The aim of this study was to undertake an investigation of the antioxidant activity as well as identification of main compound of different extracts and fractions of A. aucheri. Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of five different extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water and five fraction of ethanol extract was investigated by three different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method, ferrous ion chelating assay and β-catotene bleaching test and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Purification of major constituents of the most active fraction was done by preparative and semi preparative HPLC. For one of the isolated compounds, structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (ESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR experiments. Results: Hydroethanolic extract exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity in BCB assay in comparison with other extracts. The ethanol extract was the most active one in DPPH assay while none of the extracts showed notable ferrous ion chelating activity. Fraction 40% MeOH in water showed both the highest total phenolics content and the most potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. Statistical analysis did not show any significant difference between the two aforementioned assays in screening the samples for the antioxidant ability. One known caffeic acid derivative, ethyl caffeate, was isolated from the most active fraction of ethanolic extract. Conclusion: The findings of present study suggested that A. aucheri may be regarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Adaptation in Caco-2 human intestinal cell differentiation and phenolic transport with chronic exposure to phenolic-rich blackberry (Rubus sp.) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure may impact phenolic absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary e...

  16. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a crude extract and fractions from Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Dorneles Mahlke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract and fractions of Buddleja thyrsoides were investigated regarding antioxidant activities by DPPH, total phenolic contents by Folin-Ciocalteau and antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution method. Total phenolics varied from 214.07 ± 3.6 to 438.4 ± 0.3 mg g-1. Crude extract, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanolic fractions exhibited a weak scavenging activity (SC50=186.04 ± 10.8, 137.70 ± 8.5, 146.89 ± 9.0 and 165.71 ± 3.2 µg mL-1, respectively. A correlation between the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents could be shown (r=0.857, p<0.01. The lowest value of MIC was observed with butanolic fraction against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC and MFC at 62.5 µg mL-1. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were effective against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value at 250 and 500 µg mL-1 respectively.

  17. Molecular fractionation of starch by density-gradient ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae Wook; Lim, Seung Taik

    2003-03-28

    Amylose and amylopectin in corn and potato starches were fractionated by centrifugation at 124,000g for 3-72 h at 40 degrees C in a gradient media, Nycodenz, based on their sedimentation rate differences. The fractions were collected from a centrifuge tube, and then analyzed by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and iodine-binding test. Amylopectin, a large and highly branched starch molecule, migrated faster than amylose and quickly reached its isopycnic point with a buoyant density of about 1.25 g/mL, exhibiting a sharp and stable carbohydrate peak. Amylose, which is a relatively small and linear molecule, however, migrated slowly in a broad density range and continued moving to higher density regions, eventually overlapping with amylopectin peak as the centrifugation continued. This could indicate that the buoyant density of amylose is similar to that of amylopectin. Under centrifugal conditions of 3 h and 124,000g, amylose and amylopectin molecules were clearly separated, and the presence of intermediate starch molecules (11.5 and 7.7% for corn and potato starch, respectively) was also observed between amylose and amylopectin fractions. The amylose content of corn and potato starches was 22.6 and 21.1%, respectively, based on the total carbohydrate analysis after the ultracentrifugation for 3 h. In alkaline gradients (pH 11 or 12.5), the sedimentation rate of starch molecules and the buoyant density of amylopectin were reduced, possibly due to the structural changes induced by alkali.

  18. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with

  19. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulrattanarak, T.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation is to split the raw material in

  20. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.