Sample records for dual-wavelength spectrophotometer suitable

  1. Automated dual-wavelength spectrophotometer optimized for phytochrome assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, L.H.; Wampler, J.E.; Rich, E.S. Jr.


    A microcomputer-controlled dual-wavelength spectrophotometer suitable for automated phytochrome assay is described. The optomechanical unit provides for sequential irradiation of the sample by the two measuring wavelengths with intervening dark intervals and for actinic irradiation to interconvert phytochrome between its two forms. Photomultiplier current is amplified, converted to a digital value and transferred into the computer using a custom-designed IEEE-488 bus interface. The microcomputer calculates mathematically both absorbance and absorbance difference values with dynamic correction for photomultiplier dark current. In addition, the computer controls the operating parameters of the spectrophotometer via a separate interface. These parameters include control of the durations of measuring and actinic irradiation intervals and their sequence. 14 references, 4 figures

  2. Pulsed hybrid dual wavelength Y-branch-DFB laser-tapered amplifier system suitable for water vapor detection at 965 nm with 16 W peak power (United States)

    Vu, Thi N.; Klehr, Andreas; Sumpf, Bernd; Hoffmann, Thomas; Liero, Armin; Tränkle, Günther


    A master oscillator power amplifier system emitting alternatingly at two neighbored wavelengths around 965 nm is presented. As master oscillator (MO) a Y-branch DFB-laser is used. The two branches, which can be individually controlled, deliver the two wavelengths needed for a differential absorption measurement of water vapor. Adjusting the current through the DFB sections, the wavelength can be adjusted with respect to the targeted either "on" or "off" resonance, respectively wavelength λon or wavelength λoff. The emission of this laser is amplified in a tapered amplifier (TA). The ridge waveguide section of the TA acts as optical gate to generate short pulses with duration of 8 ns at a repetition rate of 25 kHz, the flared section is used for further amplification to reach peak powers up to 16 W suitable for micro-LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). The necessary pulse current supply user a GaN-transistor based driver electronics placed close to the power amplifier (PA). The spectral properties of the emission of the MO are preserved by the PA. A spectral line width smaller than 10 pm and a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 37 dB are measured. These values meet the demands for water vapor absorption measurements under atmospheric conditions.

  3. High-accuracy alignment based on atmospherical dispersion - technological approaches and solutions for the dual-wavelength transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, Boeckem


    In the course of the progressive developments of sophisticated geodetic systems utilizing electromagnetic waves in the visible or near IR-range a more detailed knowledge of the propagation medium and coevally solutions of atmospherically induced limitations will become important. An alignment system based on atmospherical dispersion, called a dispersometer, is a metrological solution to the atmospherically induced limitations, in optical alignment and direction observations of high accuracy. In the dispersometer we are using the dual-wavelength method for dispersive air to obtain refraction compensated angle measurements, the detrimental impact of atmospheric turbulence notwithstanding. The principle of the dual-wavelength method utilizes atmospherical dispersion, i.e. the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. The difference angle between two light beams of different wavelengths, which is called the dispersion angle Δβ, is to first approximation proportional to the refraction angle: β IR ν(β blue - β IR ) = ν Δβ, this equation implies that the dispersion angle has to be measured at least 42 times more accurate than the desired accuracy of the refraction angle for the wavelengths used in the present dispersometer. This required accuracy constitutes one major difficulty for the instrumental performance in applying the dispersion effect. However, the dual-wavelength method can only be successfully used in an optimized transmitter-receiver combination. Beyond the above mentioned resolution requirement for the detector, major difficulties in instrumental realization arise in the availability of a suitable dual-wavelength laser light source, laser light modulation with a very high extinction ratio and coaxial emittance of mono-mode radiation at both wavelengths. Therefore, this paper focuses on the solutions of the dual-wavelength transmitter introducing a new hardware approach and a complete re-design of the in [1] proposed conception of the dual-wavelength

  4. Tunable dual-wavelength filter and its group delay dispersion in domain-engineered lithium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hao Shao


    Full Text Available A tunable dual-wavelength filter is experimentally demonstrated in domain-engineered lithium niobate. Application of an electric field on the y-surfaces of the sample results in the optical axes rotating clockwise and anticlockwise, which makes selective polarization rotation. The quasi phase-matching wavelengths could be adjusted through suitable domain design. A unique dual valley spectrum is obtained in a periodically poled lithium niobate structure with a central defect if the sample is placed between two parallel polarizers. The expected bandwidth could be varied from ∼1 nm to ∼40 nm. Moreover, both the spectral response and group delay dispersion could be engineered.

  5. Linear programming phase unwrapping for dual-wavelength digital holography. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Jiao, Jiannan; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Hongru; Tian, Ailing; Asundi, Anand


    A linear programming phase unwrapping method in dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed and verified experimentally. The proposed method uses the square of height difference as a convergence standard and theoretically gives the boundary condition in a searching process. A simulation was performed by unwrapping step structures at different levels of Gaussian noise. As a result, our method is capable of recovering the discontinuities accurately. It is robust and straightforward. In the experiment, a microelectromechanical systems sample and a cylindrical lens were measured separately. The testing results were in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable not only in digital holography but also in other dual-wavelength interferometric techniques.

  6. Dual-wavelength laser transmission photoscanner for breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.; He, P.; Tanaka, H.; Takahashi, M.; Takai, M.; Baba, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Ohta, K.


    This paper reports on the prototype of a laser transmission photoscanner (LTPS) constructed and used for the detection of breast cancer and compared with x-ray mammography. LTPS has been improved to enable spectroanalysis and application in breast cancer screening. The new type is introduced. In order to obtain higher sensitivity, the output of lasers was increased in intensity. The signal integration time was increased 10-fold, and the width of the detector area was doubled. The gated operation of the detector enables the good throughput. Simultaneous scanning in the dual wavelengths of 630 and 830 nm makes it possible to differentiate hemoglobin (Hb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) in spectroanalysis by means of Lambert--Beer's law. Clinical application of dual-wavelength LTPS shows good correlation with pathology

  7. Dual wavelength operation in diode-end-pumped hybrid vanadate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dual wavelength operation at 1062.8 nm and 1064.1 nm in a diode-pumped hybrid laser comprising of Nd3+-doped birefringent YVO4 and GdVO4 crystals is demon-strated. A detailed characterization of the laser is performed under CW and pulsed operation. Under Q-switching, 4 W of average power at 5 kHz repetition ...

  8. Dual-Wavelength Sensitized Photopolymer for Holographic Data Storage (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan; Zhao, Yuxia; Wan, Yuhong; Zhai, Qianli; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Dayong; Wu, Feipeng


    Novel photopolymers for holographic storage were investigated by combining acrylate monomers and/or vinyl monomers as recording media and liquid epoxy resins plus an amine harder as binder. In order to improve the holographic performances of the material at blue-green wavelength band two novel dyes were used as sensitizer. The methods of evaluating the holographic performances of the material, including the shrinkage and noise characteristics, are described in detail. Preliminary experiments show that samples with optimized composite have good holographic performances, and it is possible to record dual-wavelength hologram simultaneously in this photopolymer by sharing the same optical system, thus the storage density and data rate can be doubly increased.

  9. Estimation of Snow Parameters from Dual-Wavelength Airborne Radar (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert; Iguchi, Toshio; Detwiler, Andrew


    Estimation of snow characteristics from airborne radar measurements would complement In-situ measurements. While In-situ data provide more detailed information than radar, they are limited in their space-time sampling. In the absence of significant cloud water contents, dual-wavelength radar data can be used to estimate 2 parameters of a drop size distribution if the snow density is assumed. To estimate, rather than assume, a snow density is difficult, however, and represents a major limitation in the radar retrieval. There are a number of ways that this problem can be investigated: direct comparisons with in-situ measurements, examination of the large scale characteristics of the retrievals and their comparison to cloud model outputs, use of LDR measurements, and comparisons to the theoretical results of Passarelli(1978) and others. In this paper we address the first approach and, in part, the second.

  10. Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, C; Vincent, S; Choudhury, A I K; Campbell, J; Gordon, R; Brolo, A G; Sinton, D


    In this paper, we demonstrate a compact integrated nanohole array-based surface plasmon resonance sensing device. The unit includes a LED light source, driving circuitry, CCD detector, microfluidic network and computer interface, all assembled from readily available commercial components. A dual-wavelength LED scheme was implemented to increase spectral diversity and isolate intensity variations to be expected in the field. The prototype shows bulk sensitivity of 266 pixel intensity units/RIU and a limit of detection of 6 × 10 −4 RIU. Surface binding tests were performed, demonstrating functionality as a surface-based sensing system. This work is particularly relevant for low-cost point-of-care applications, especially those involving multiple tests and field studies. While nanohole arrays have been applied to many sensing applications, and their suitability to device integration is well established, this is the first demonstration of a fully integrated nanohole array-based sensing device.

  11. Ratio Imaging of Enzyme Activity Using Dual Wavelength Optical Reporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz F. Kircher


    Full Text Available The design of near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF probes that are activated by specific proteases has, for the first time, allowed enzyme activity to be imaged in vivo. In the current study, we report on a method of imaging enzyme activity using two fluorescent probes that, together, provide improved quantitation of enzymatic activity. The method employs two chemically similar probes that differ in their degradability by cathepsin B. One probe consists of the NIRF dye Cy5.5 attached to a particulate carrier, a crosslinked iron oxide nanoparticle (CLIO, through cathepsin B cleavable l-arginyl peptides. A second probe consists of Cy3.5 attached to a CLIO through proteolytically resistant d-arginyl peptides. Using mixtures of the two probes, we have shown that the ratio of Cy5.5 to Cy3.5 fluorescence can be used to determine levels of cathepsin B in the environment of nanoparticles with macrophages in suspension. After intravenous injection, tissue fluorescence from the nondegradable Cy3.5–d-arginyl probe reflected nanoparticle accumulation, while fluorescence of the Cy5.5–l-arginyl probe was dependent on both accumulation and activation by cathepsin B. Dual wavelength ratio imaging can be used for the quantitative imaging of a variety of enzymes in clinically important settings, while the magnetic properties of the probes allow their detection by MR imaging.

  12. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert


    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  13. Digitally tunable dual wavelength emission from semiconductor ring lasers with filtered optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoder, Mulham; Verschaffelt, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Danckaert, Jan; Leijtens, Xaveer; Bolk, Jeroen


    We report on a novel integrated approach to obtain dual wavelength emission from a semiconductor laser based on on-chip filtered optical feedback. Using this approach, we show experiments and numerical simulations of dual wavelength emission of a semiconductor ring laser. The filtered optical feedback is realized on-chip by employing two arrayed waveguide gratings to split/recombine light into different wavelength channels. Semiconductor optical amplifiers are placed in the feedback loop in order to control the feedback strength of each wavelength channel independently. By tuning the current injected into each of the amplifiers, we can effectively cancel the gain difference between the wavelength channels due to fabrication and material dichroism, thus resulting in stable dual wavelength emission. We also explore the accuracy needed in the operational parameters to maintain this dual wavelength emission. (letter)

  14. Noncontact simultaneous dual wavelength photoplethysmography: A further step toward noncontact pulse oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Kenneth; Ward, Tomas; Markham, Charles


    We present a camera-based device capable of capturing two photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals at two different wavelengths simultaneously, in a remote noncontact manner. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and dual wavelength array of light emitting diodes (760 and 880 nm). By alternately illuminating a region of tissue with each wavelength of light, and detecting the backscattered photons with the camera at a rate of 16 frames/wavelength s, two multiplexed PPG wave forms are simultaneously captured. This process is the basis of pulse oximetry, and we describe how, with the inclusion of a calibration procedure, this system could be used as a noncontact pulse oximeter to measure arterial oxygen saturation (S p O 2 ) remotely. Results from an experiment on ten subjects, exhibiting normal S p O 2 readings, that demonstrate the instrument's ability to capture signals from a range of subjects under realistic lighting and environmental conditions are presented. We compare the signals captured by the noncontact system to a conventional PPG signal captured concurrently from a finger, and show by means of a J. Bland and D. Altman [Lancet 327, 307 (1986); Statistician 32, 307 (1983)] test, the noncontact device to be comparable to a contact device as a monitor of heart rate. We highlight some considerations that should be made when using camera-based ''integrative'' sampling methods and demonstrate through simulation, the suitability of the captured PPG signals for application of existing pulse oximetry calibration procedures

  15. Noncontact simultaneous dual wavelength photoplethysmography: A further step toward noncontact pulse oximetry (United States)

    Humphreys, Kenneth; Ward, Tomas; Markham, Charles


    We present a camera-based device capable of capturing two photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals at two different wavelengths simultaneously, in a remote noncontact manner. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and dual wavelength array of light emitting diodes (760 and 880nm). By alternately illuminating a region of tissue with each wavelength of light, and detecting the backscattered photons with the camera at a rate of 16frames/wavelengths, two multiplexed PPG wave forms are simultaneously captured. This process is the basis of pulse oximetry, and we describe how, with the inclusion of a calibration procedure, this system could be used as a noncontact pulse oximeter to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) remotely. Results from an experiment on ten subjects, exhibiting normal SpO2 readings, that demonstrate the instrument's ability to capture signals from a range of subjects under realistic lighting and environmental conditions are presented. We compare the signals captured by the noncontact system to a conventional PPG signal captured concurrently from a finger, and show by means of a J. Bland and D. Altman [Lancet 327, 307 (1986); Statistician 32, 307 (1983)] test, the noncontact device to be comparable to a contact device as a monitor of heart rate. We highlight some considerations that should be made when using camera-based "integrative" sampling methods and demonstrate through simulation, the suitability of the captured PPG signals for application of existing pulse oximetry calibration procedures.

  16. A dual-wavelength tunable laser with superimposed fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Durán-Sánchez, M; Pottiez, O; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V


    We report a dual-wavelength tunable fiber laser. The cavity is formed by two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a temperature tunable high-birefringence fiber optical loop mirror (FOLM). FBGs with wavelengths of 1548.5 and 1538.5 nm were printed in the same section of a fiber using two different masks. The superimposed FBGs were placed on a mechanical mount that allows stretch or compression of the FBGs. As a result of the FBG strain both lines are shifted simultaneously. Dual-wavelength generation requires a fine adjustment of the cavity loss for both wavelengths. (paper)

  17. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Worhoff, Kerstin; De Ridder, Rene M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus


    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in Al2O3:Yb3+ is presented. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single microparticles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are

  18. Intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensing with a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Wörhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, René M; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped amorphous aluminum oxide on a silicon substrate is demonstrated. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single micro-particles with diameters

  19. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van der Werf, Kees; Hollink, Anton; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped aluminium oxide is presented. Single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are detected.

  20. Suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.; Braeckel, van A.


    The suitability of grazing, burning, mowing and cutting as tools for succession control in peatland was assessed and expressed on a scale from 0 - 1. All management tools are suitable, but their effects are conditional. The suitability depends on the targeted vegetation transition and on their

  1. A diode-pumped Nd:YAlO3 dual-wavelength yellow light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Pei; Xia, Jing; Li, Shutao; Fu, Xihong


    We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first diode-pumped Nd:YAlO 3 (Nd:YAP) continuous-wave (cw) dual-wavelength yellow laser at 593 nm and 598 nm, based on sum-frequency generation between 1064 and 1339 nm in a-axis polarization using LBO crystal and between 1079 and 1341 nm in c-axis polarization using PPKTP crystal, respectively. At an incident pump power of 17.3 W, the maximum output power obtained at 593 nm and 598 nm is 0.18 W and 1.86 W, respectively. The laser experiment shows that Nd:YAP crystal can be used for an efficient diode-pumped dual-wavelength yellow laser system. (paper)

  2. Simulation of simultaneously obtaining ocean temperature and salinity using dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yin; Ma, Yong; Li, Hao; Huang, Jun; Fang, Yu; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Bo


    A method for simultaneously obtaining the ocean temperature and salinity based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is proposed in this letter. On the basis of the relationships between the temperature and salinity and the Brillouin shifts, a retrieval model for retrieving the temperature and salinity is established. By using the retrieval model, the ocean temperature and salinity can be simultaneously obtained through the Brillouin shifts. Simulation based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is also carried out for verification of the accuracy of the retrieval model. Results show that the errors of the retrieval model for temperature and salinity are ±0.27 °C and ±0.33‰. (letter)

  3. Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Xu, Zhi-wei; Wang, Meng; Chen, Hai-yan


    A novel dual-wavelength fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A couple of uniform FBGs are used as the cavity mirrors, and the third FBG is used as intracavity wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. Experimental results show that by adjusting the operation temperature of the intracavity wavelength selector, a tunable dual-wavelength laser emission can be achieved. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength lasing with asymmetric FBG FP resonator and its technical feasibility.

  4. High-power dual-wavelength external-Cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier with tunable terahertz frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    Tunable dual-wavelength operation of a diode laser system based on a tapered diode amplifier with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated around 800nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5:0 THz......, this is the highest output power from a dual-wavelength diode laser system operating with tunable terahertz frequency difference. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  5. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy. (United States)

    Beck, Sara E; Ryu, Hodon; Boczek, Laura A; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Jeanis, Kaitlyn M; Rosenblum, James S; Lawal, Oliver R; Linden, Karl G


    A dual-wavelength UV-C LED unit, emitting at peaks of 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together was evaluated for its inactivation efficacy and energy efficiency at disinfecting Escherichia coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores, compared to conventional low-pressure and medium-pressure UV mercury vapor lamps. The dual-wavelength unit was also used to measure potential synergistic effects of multiple wavelengths on bacterial and viral inactivation and DNA and RNA damage. All five UV sources demonstrated similar inactivation of E. coli. For MS2, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was most effective. When measuring electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was most efficient for inactivating E. coli and MS2; the LP UV and MP UV mercury lamps were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UV-C LEDs, there was no statistical difference in electrical efficiency for inactivating MS2, HAdV2, and B. pumilus spores. The 260 nm and 260|280 nm LEDs had a statistical energy advantage for E. coli inactivation. For UV-C LEDs to match the electrical efficiency per order of log reduction of conventional LP UV sources, they must reach efficiencies of 25-39% or be improved on by smart reactor design. No dual wavelength synergies were detected for bacterial and viral inactivation nor for DNA and RNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crosstalk eliminating and low-density parity-check codes for photochromic dual-wavelength storage (United States)

    Wang, Meicong; Xiong, Jianping; Jian, Jiqi; Jia, Huibo


    Multi-wavelength storage is an approach to increase the memory density with the problem of crosstalk to be deal with. We apply Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes as error-correcting codes in photochromic dual-wavelength optical storage based on the investigation of LDPC codes in optical data storage. A proper method is applied to reduce the crosstalk and simulation results show that this operation is useful to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. At the same time we can conclude that LDPC codes outperform RS codes in crosstalk channel.

  7. Interrogation of weak Bragg grating sensors based on dual-wavelength differential detection. (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li


    It is shown that for weak Bragg gratings the logarithmic ratio of reflected intensities at any two wavelengths within the spectrum follows a linear relationship with the Bragg wavelength shift, with a slope proportional to their wavelength spacing. This finding is exploited to develop a flexible, efficient, and cheap interrogation solution of weak fiber Bragg grating (FBGs), especially ultra-short FBGs, in distributed sensing based on dual-wavelength differential detection. The concept is experimentally studied in both single and distributed sensing systems with ultra-short FBG sensors. The work may form the basis of new and promising FBG interrogation techniques based on detecting discrete rather than continuous spectra.

  8. Extending the depth of field with chromatic aberration for dual-wavelength iris imaging. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Niamh M; Dainty, Christopher; Goncharov, Alexander V


    We propose a method of extending the depth of field to twice that achievable by conventional lenses for the purpose of a low cost iris recognition front-facing camera in mobile phones. By introducing intrinsic primary chromatic aberration in the lens, the depth of field is doubled by means of dual wavelength illumination. The lens parameters (radius of curvature, optical power) can be found analytically by using paraxial raytracing. The effective range of distances covered increases with dispersion of the glass chosen and with larger distance for the near object point.

  9. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode interference filter and a semiconductor saturable absorber (United States)

    Wang, M.; Huang, Y. J.; Ruan, S. C.


    In this paper, we have demonstrated a theta cavity passively Q-switched dual-wavelength fiber laser based on a multimode interference filter and a semiconductor saturable absorber. Relying on the properties of the fiber theta cavity, the laser can operate unidirectionally without an optical isolator. A semiconductor saturable absorber played the role of passive Q-switch while a section of single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure served as an multimode interference filter and was used for selecting the lasing wavelengths. By suitably manipulating the polarization controller, stable dual-wavelength Q-switched operation was obtained at ~1946.8 nm and ~1983.8 nm with maximum output power and minimum pulse duration of ~47 mW and ~762.5 ns, respectively. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from ~20.2 kHz to ~79.7 kHz by increasing the pump power from ~2.12 W to ~5.4 W.

  10. External-cavity high-power dual-wavelength tapered amplifier with tunable THz frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    A tunable 800 nm high-power dual-wavelength diode laser system with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5.0 THz. A maximum output power of 1.54 W is achie......A tunable 800 nm high-power dual-wavelength diode laser system with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5.0 THz. A maximum output power of 1.54 W...... is achieved with a frequency difference of 0.86 THz, the output power is higher than 1.3 W in the 5.0 THz range of frequency difference, and the amplified spontaneous emission intensity is more than 20 dB suppressed in the range of frequency difference. The beam quality factor M2 is 1.22±0.15 at an output...

  11. Dual-wavelength external cavity laser device for fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Xuting; Cai, Zhijian; Wu, Jianhong


    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in the detection of drugs, pesticides, explosives, food additives and environmental pollutants, for its characteristics of fast measurement, easy sample preparation, and molecular structure analyzing capability. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to these applications, with strong fluorescence background covering up the weak Raman signals. Recently shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) not only can completely remove the fluorescence background, but also can be easily integrated into portable Raman spectrometers. Usually, SERDS uses two lasers with small wavelength gap to excite the sample, then acquires two spectra, and subtracts one to the other to get the difference spectrum, where the fluorescence background will be rejected. So, one key aspects of successfully applying SERDS method is to obtain a dual-wavelength laser source. In this paper, a dual-wavelength laser device design based on the principles of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is proposed, which is low-cost and compact. In addition, it has good mechanical stability because of no moving parts. These features make it an ideal laser source for SERDS technique. The experiment results showed that the device can emit narrow-spectral-width lasers of two wavelengths, with the gap smaller than 2 nanometers. The laser power corresponding to each wavelength can be up to 100mW.

  12. Optimization of dual-wavelength intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques using Monte Carlo optical modeling (United States)

    Dana, Nicholas; Sowers, Timothy; Karpiouk, Andrei; Vanderlaan, Donald; Emelianov, Stanislav


    Coronary heart disease (the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques) is a significant health problem in the industrialized world. A clinical method to accurately visualize and characterize atherosclerotic plaques is needed. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is being developed to fill this role, but questions remain regarding optimal imaging wavelengths. We utilized a Monte Carlo optical model to simulate IVPA excitation in coronary tissues, identifying optimal wavelengths for plaque characterization. Near-infrared wavelengths (≤1800 nm) were simulated, and single- and dual-wavelength data were analyzed for accuracy of plaque characterization. Results indicate light penetration is best in the range of 1050 to 1370 nm, where 5% residual fluence can be achieved at clinically relevant depths of ≥2 mm in arteries. Across the arterial wall, fluence may vary by over 10-fold, confounding plaque characterization. For single-wavelength results, plaque segmentation accuracy peaked at 1210 and 1720 nm, though correlation was poor (blood, a primary and secondary wavelength near 1210 and 1350 nm, respectively, may offer the best implementation of dual-wavelength IVPA imaging. These findings could guide the development of a cost-effective clinical system by highlighting optimal wavelengths and improving plaque characterization.

  13. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar. (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael


    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  14. Terahertz-wave differential detection based on simultaneous dual-wavelength up-conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Takida


    Full Text Available We report a terahertz (THz-wave differential detection based on simultaneous dual-wavelength up-conversion in a nonlinear optical MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with optical and electronic THz-wave sources. The broadband parametric gain and noncollinear phase-matching of MgO:LiNbO3 provide efficient conversion from superposed THz waves to spatially distributed near-infrared (NIR beams to function as a dispersive THz-wave spectrometer without any additional dispersive element. We show that the μW-level THz waves from two independent sources, a 0.78-THz injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generator (is-TPG and a 1.14-THz resonant tunneling diode (RTD, are simultaneously up-converted to two NIR waves and then detected with two NIR photodetectors. By applying a balanced detection scheme to this dual-frequency detection, we demonstrate THz-wave differential imaging of maltose and polyethylene pellets in the transmission geometry. This dual-wavelength detection is applicable to more than three frequencies and broadband THz-wave radiation for real-time THz-wave spectroscopic detection and imaging.

  15. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity. (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang


    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  16. Reduction of implantation shadowing effect by dual-wavelength exposure photo process

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yiming; Lee Sang Yun; Roche, William; Sturtevant, John


    As transistor engineering continues to well below 100 nm length devices, ion implantation process tolerances are making these formerly "non-critical" lithography levels more and more difficult. In order to minimize the channeling effect and to obtain a controllable profile of dopant, an angle implantation is often required. However, a shadow area of resist pattern is always accompanied with an angle implantation. This shadowing effect consumes silicon real estate, and reduces the line edge placement (LEP) tolerances. Therefore, methodologies to reduce the shadowing effect in angled implantation become a critical consideration not only for device engineering but also for photolithography. Based on the model analysis, simulation and experiments, this paper presents an effective novel process utilizing dual-wavelength exposure (DWE) to reduce the shadowing effect. The DWE process is realized by two consecutive exposures for an I-line resist with a DUV stepper/scanner and an I-line stepper. The process leverages ...

  17. Application of dual-wavelength spectrophotometry to the uranium ore analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wenlong; Yao Mingxia; Yin Zinan; Guo Hancheng.


    In the buffer solution (pH 2.2) with citric acid and sodium hydrogen phosphate, the uranium in ores can be directly determined with arsenazo III by dual-wavelength spectrophotometric method when Triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and maleic acid are added as masking agents. The measuring wavelength and referential wavelength are 653.0 nm and 607.5 nm respectively. The interference of calcium can be fully eliminated because of its equivalent absorbance at these two wavelengths. The method is simple and rapid. The coefficient of variation (n=5) is less than 5% for 0.06% ∼ 0.5% of uranium in five certified reference materials. The values obtained for U agree with the certified values

  18. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, A-P; Luo, Z-C; Xu, W-C; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Dianov, E M


    We demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Exploiting the spectral filtering effect caused by the combination of the polarizer and intracavity birefringence, the wavelength separation of dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses can be flexibly tuned between 2.38 and 20.45 nm. Taking the advantage of NPR-induced intensity-dependent loss to suppress the mode competition, the stable dual-wavelength pulses output is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation is achieved by simply rotating the polarization controllers (PCs)

  19. Dual wavelength multiple-angle light scattering system for cryptosporidium detection (United States)

    Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Sweeney, S. J.


    A simple, dual wavelength, multiple-angle, light scattering system has been developed for detecting cryptosporidium suspended in water. Cryptosporidium is a coccidial protozoan parasite causing cryptosporidiosis; a diarrheal disease of varying severity. The parasite is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water, particularly drinking-water, but also accidental ingestion of bathing-water, including swimming pools. It is therefore important to be able to detect these parasites quickly, so that remedial action can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. The proposed system combines multiple-angle scattering detection of a single and two wavelengths, to collect relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering phase functions from tested suspension, and multivariate data analysis techniques to obtain characterizing information of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs two diode lasers (violet InGaN-based and red AlGaInP-based) as light sources and silicon photodiodes as detectors and optical components, all of which are readily available. The measured scattering patterns using the dual wavelength system showed that the relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering pattern of cryptosporidium oocysts was significantly different from other particles (e.g. polystyrene latex sphere, E.coli). The single wavelength set up was applied for cryptosporidium oocysts'size and relative refractive index measurement and differential measurement of the concentration of cryptosporidium oocysts suspended in water and mixed polystyrene latex sphere suspension. The measurement results showed good agreement with the control reference values. These results indicate that the proposed method could potentially be applied to online detection in a water quality control system.

  20. Design and implementation of a dual-wavelength intrinsic fluorescence camera system (United States)

    Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Musacchia, Joseph J.; Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Wang, Ying; Franco, Walfre


    Intrinsic UV fluorescence imaging is a technique that permits the observation of spatial differences in emitted fluorescence. It relies on the fluorescence produced by the innate fluorophores in the sample, and thus can be used for marker-less in-vivo assessment of tissue. It has been studied as a tool for the study of the skin, specifically for the classification of lesions, the delimitation of lesion borders and the study of wound healing, among others. In its most basic setup, a sample is excited with a narrow-band UV light source and the resulting fluorescence is imaged with a UV sensitive camera filtered to the emission wavelength of interest. By carefully selecting the excitation/emission pair, we can observe changes in fluorescence associated with physiological processes. One of the main drawbacks of this simple setup is the inability to observe more than a single excitation/emission pair at the same time, as some phenomena are better studied when two or more different pairs are studied simultaneously. In this work, we describe the design and the hardware and software implementation of a dual wavelength portable UV fluorescence imaging system. Its main components are an UV camera, a dual wavelength UV LED illuminator (295 and 345 nm) and two different emission filters (345 and 390 nm) that can be swapped by a mechanical filter wheel. The system is operated using a laptop computer and custom software that performs basic pre-processing to improve the image. The system was designed to allow us to image fluorescent peaks of tryptophan and collagen cross links in order to study wound healing progression.

  1. A fast dual wavelength laser beam fluid-less optical CT scanner for radiotherapy 3D gel dosimetry II: dosimetric performance (United States)

    Ramm, Daniel


    New clinical radiotherapy dosimetry systems need comprehensive demonstration of measurement quality. Practicality and reliability are other important aspects for clinical dosimeters. In this work the performance of an optical CT scanner for true 3D dosimetry is assessed using a radiochromic gel dosimeter. The fluid-less scanner utilised dual lasers to avoid the necessity for pre-irradiation scans and give greater robustness of image quality, enhancing practicality. Calibration methods using both cuvettes and reconstructed volumes were developed. Dosimetric accuracy was similar for dual and single wavelength measurements, except that cuvette calibration reliability was reduced for dual wavelength without pre-irradiation scanning. Detailed performance parameters were specified for the dosimetry system indicating the suitability for clinical use. The most significant limitations of the system were due to the gel dosimeter rather than the optical CT scanner. Quality assurance guidelines were developed to maintain dosimetry system performance in routine use.

  2. Optical fiber spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Weixin; Tian Guocheng; Ye Guoan; Zhou Zhihong; Cheng Weiwei; Huang Lifeng; Liu Suying; Tang Yanji; Hu Jingxin; Zhao Yonggang


    A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. λ 19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

  3. Estimate of rain evaporation rates from dual-wavelength lidar measurements: comparison against a model analytical solution (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Demoz, Belay; Li, Xiaowen; Welton, Ellsworth J.


    Rain evaporation significantly contributes to moisture and heat cloud budgets. In this paper, we illustrate an approach to estimate the median volume raindrop diameter and the rain evaporation rate profiles from dual-wavelength lidar measurements. These observational results are compared with those provided by a model analytical solution. We made use of measurements from the multi-wavelength Raman lidar BASIL.

  4. Dual wavelength Mode-Locking of InAs/InP quantum dot laser diodes at 1.5µm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.


    We report on stable dual-wavelength mode-locking of 3.1GHz and 10GHz two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot laser diodes. Evaluation of relative time delay between different spectral components indicates opposite sign of chirp over the two spectral lobes

  5. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.


    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  6. Association of age and macular pigment optical density using dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima VC


    Full Text Available Verônica Castro Lima,1,2 Richard B Rosen,1,3 Tiago Santos Prata,2 Syril Dorairaj,4 Leigh Spielberg,1 Mauricio Maia,2 Juliana M Sallum21Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3New York Medical College, New York, NY, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USABackground: Several lines of evidence suggest that macular pigment may play a protective role against age-related macular degeneration, but the influence of age on macular pigment density levels remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between age and the normal distribution of macular pigment optical density (MPOD values surrounding the fovea.Methods: Consecutive healthy subjects with no evidence of ocular disease were enrolled in this study. After inclusion, MPOD values were measured at specific eccentricities (0.5, 1, and 2 degrees from the foveal center using a dual-wavelength autofluorescence method employing a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. The correlation between age and MPOD values was investigated using regression analysis.Results: Thirty subjects (30 eyes were included (mean age 48.6 ± 16.4 [range 23–77] years. Significant differences were found between MPOD values measured at 0.5, 1, and 2 degrees from the center of the fovea (0.49 ± 0.12 density units, 0.37 ± 0.11 density units, and 0.13 ± 0.05 density units, respectively, P < 0.05. Significant correlations between age and MPOD values at 0.5 and 1 degree were found (P ≤ 0.02. Values measured at 2 degrees did not correlate significantly with age (P = 0.06.Conclusion: In healthy subjects, MPOD values were highest near the foveal center. These values appeared to increase during adulthood (peak at 45–50 years, followed by a gradual reduction

  7. Dual-wavelength DFB quantum cascade lasers: sources for multi-species trace gas spectroscopy (United States)

    Kapsalidis, Filippos; Shahmohammadi, Mehran; Süess, Martin J.; Wolf, Johanna M.; Gini, Emilio; Beck, Mattias; Hundt, Morten; Tuzson, Béla; Emmenegger, Lukas; Faist, Jérôme


    We report on the design, fabrication, and performance of dual-wavelength distributed-feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting at several wavelengths in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectrum. In this work, two new designs are presented: for the first one, called "Neighbour" DFB, two single-mode DFB QCLs are fabricated next to each other, with minimal lateral distance, to allow efficient beam-coupling into multi-pass gas cells. In addition, the minimal distance allows either laser to be used as an integrated heater for the other, allowing to extend the tuning range of its neighbour without any electrical cross-talk. For the second design, the Vernier effect was used to realize a switchable DFB laser, with two target wavelengths which are distant by about 300 cm^{-1}. These devices are promising laser sources for Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy applications targeting simultaneous detection of multiple gasses, with distant spectral features, in compact and mobile setups.

  8. Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs (United States)

    Hundt, P. Morten; Tuzson, Béla; Aseev, Oleg; Liu, Chang; Scheidegger, Philipp; Looser, Herbert; Kapsalidis, Filippos; Shahmohammadi, Mehran; Faist, Jérôme; Emmenegger, Lukas


    Instrumentation for environmental monitoring of gaseous pollutants and greenhouse gases tends to be complex, expensive, and energy demanding, because every compound measured relies on a specific analytical technique. This work demonstrates an alternative approach based on mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy with dual-wavelength quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The combination of two dual- and one single-DFB QCL yields high-precision measurements of CO (0.08 ppb), CO2 (100 ppb), NH3 (0.02 ppb), NO (0.4 ppb), NO2 (0.1 ppb), N2O (0.045 ppb), and O3 (0.11 ppb) simultaneously in a compact setup (45 × 45 cm2). The lasers are driven time-multiplexed in intermittent continuous wave mode with a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The individual spectra are real-time averaged (1 s) by an FPGA-based data acquisition system. The instrument was assessed for environmental monitoring and benchmarked with reference instrumentation to demonstrate its potential for compact multi-species trace gas sensing.

  9. Efficient color-tunable multiexcitonic dual wavelength emission from Type II semiconductor tetrapods. (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ya; Li, Mingjie; Lian, Jie; Wu, Xiangyang; Yeow, Edwin K L; Jhon, Mark H; Chan, Yinthai


    We synthesized colloidal InP/ZnS seeded CdS tetrapods by harnessing the structural stability of the InP/ZnS seed nanocrystals at the high reaction temperatures needed to grow the CdS arms. Because of an unexpected Type II band alignment at the interface of the InP/ZnS core and CdS arms that enhanced the occurrence of radiative excitonic recombination in CdS, these tetrapods were found to be capable of exhibiting highly efficient multiexcitonic dual wavelength emission of equal intensity at spectrally distinct wavelengths of ∼485 and ∼675 nm. Additionally, the Type II InP/ZnS seeded CdS tetrapods displayed a wider range of pump-dependent emission color-tunability (from red to white to blue) within the context of a CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram and possessed higher photostability due to suppressed multiexcitonic Auger recombination when compared to conventional Type I CdSe seeded CdS tetrapods. By employing time-resolved spectroscopy measurements, we were able to attribute the wide emission color-tunability to the large valence band offset between InP and CdS. This work highlights the importance of band alignment in the synthetic design of semiconductor nanoheterostructures, which can exhibit color-tunable multiwavelength emission with high efficiency and photostability.

  10. Laser Treatment of Professional Tattoos With a 1064/532-nm Dual-Wavelength Picosecond Laser. (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Keaney, Terrence C; Alster, Tina


    Picosecond-domain laser pulses improve the photomechanical disruption of tattoos. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel, dual-wavelength, 1,064/532-nm, picosecond-domain laser for tattoo clearance. This was a prospective, self-controlled, clinical study of 34 subjects with 39 tattoos treated at 2 sites with an interval of 4.8 ± 1.6 weeks and up to 10 treatments (mean, 7.5). Blinded evaluation and investigator assessment of serial digital images was performed to evaluate treatment efficacy in the 36 tattoos that received at least 3 treatments. Investigators also assessed efficacy before each treatment visit up to 10 treatments. Safety and tolerability was evaluated for all 39 tattoos that underwent at least 1 treatment. Blinded evaluation demonstrated that lightening of tattoos was achieved in all subjects, with 86% (31 of 36 tattoos) showing at least a 50% clearance after 3 treatments. Adverse events were few and transient in nature. Patient satisfaction and treatment tolerability were high. Treatment of single-colored and multicolored tattoos with this novel 1,064/532-nm picosecond laser is highly safe and effective.

  11. Continuous-wave single-frequency laser with dual wavelength at 1064 and 532 nm. (United States)

    Zhang, Chenwei; Lu, Huadong; Yin, Qiwei; Su, Jing


    A continuous-wave high-power single-frequency laser with dual-wavelength output at 1064 and 532 nm is presented. The dependencies of the output power on the transmission of the output coupler and the phase-matching temperature of the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal are studied. An output coupler with transmission of 19% is used, and the temperature of LBO is controlled to the optimal phase-matching temperature of 422 K; measured maximal output powers of 33.7 W at 1064 nm and of 1.13 W at 532 nm are obtained with optical-optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The laser can be single-frequency operated stably and mode-hop-free, and the measured frequency drift is less than 15 MHz in 1 min. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 1064 nm laser are 1.06 and 1.09, respectively. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 532 nm laser are 1.12 and 1.11, respectively.

  12. Using a fast dual-wavelength imaging ellipsometric system to measure the flow thickness profile of an oil thin film (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Wei; Han, Chien-Yuan; Jhou, Jhe-Yi; Peng, Zeng-Yi


    Dual-wavelength light sources with stroboscopic illumination technique were applied in a process of photoelastic modulated ellipsometry to retrieve two-dimensional ellipsometric parameters of thin films on a silicon substrate. Two laser diodes were alternately switched on and modulated by a programmable pulse generator to generate four short pulses at specific temporal phase angles in a modulation cycle, and short pulses were used to freeze the intensity variation of the PEM modulated signal that allows ellipsometric images to be captured by a charge-coupled device. Although the phase retardation of a photoelastic modulator is related to the light wavelength, we employed an equivalent phase retardation technique to avoid any setting from the photoelastic modulator. As a result, the ellipsometric parameters of different wavelengths may be rapidly obtained using this dual-wavelength ellipsometric system every 4 s. Both static and dynamic experiments are demonstrated in this work.

  13. Stable Dual-Wavelength Fibre Laser with Bragg Gratings Fabricated in a Polarization-Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang; Feng-Ping, Yan; Xiang-Qiao, Mao; Shui-Sheng, Jian


    A new polarization-independent dual-wavelength fibre laser by fabricating a uniform FBG and a chirped FBG in a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre (PM-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelength spacing is 0.18nm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 50dB with pump power of 246mW. Chirped FBG is used to make the reflectivity wavelengths of two PM-FBGs match easier. Since both EDF and FBGs are polarization-maintaining without splices and the two wavelengths are polarization-independent, the maximum amplitude variation and wavelength shifts for both lasing wavelength with 3-min intervals over a period of six hours are less than 0.2 dB and 0.005 nm, respectively, which shows stable dual-wavelength output

  14. Association of age and macular pigment optical density using dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging. (United States)

    Lima, Verônica Castro; Rosen, Richard B; Prata, Tiago Santos; Dorairaj, Syril; Spielberg, Leigh; Maia, Mauricio; Sallum, Juliana M


    Several lines of evidence suggest that macular pigment may play a protective role against age-related macular degeneration, but the influence of age on macular pigment density levels remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between age and the normal distribution of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) values surrounding the fovea. Consecutive healthy subjects with no evidence of ocular disease were enrolled in this study. After inclusion, MPOD values were measured at specific eccentricities (0.5, 1, and 2 degrees) from the foveal center using a dual-wavelength autofluorescence method employing a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. The correlation between age and MPOD values was investigated using regression analysis. Thirty subjects (30 eyes) were included (mean age 48.6 ± 16.4 [range 23-77] years). Significant differences were found between MPOD values measured at 0.5, 1, and 2 degrees from the center of the fovea (0.49 ± 0.12 density units, 0.37 ± 0.11 density units, and 0.13 ± 0.05 density units, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant correlations between age and MPOD values at 0.5 and 1 degree were found (P ≤ 0.02). Values measured at 2 degrees did not correlate significantly with age (P = 0.06). In healthy subjects, MPOD values were highest near the foveal center. These values appeared to increase during adulthood (peak at 45-50 years), followed by a gradual reduction after 60 years of age.

  15. Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for blood oxygen saturation measurement (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Kuranov, Roman V.; McElroy, Austin B.; Milner, Thomas E.


    We report design and demonstration of a dual wavelength photothermal (DWP) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for imaging of a phantom microvessel and measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) level. The DWP-OCT system contains a swept-source (SS) two-beam phase-sensitive (PhS) OCT system (1060 nm) and two intensity modulated photothermal excitation lasers (770 nm and 800 nm). The PhS-OCT probe beam (1060 nm) and photothermal excitation beams are combined into one single-mode optical fiber. A galvanometer based two-dimensional achromatic scanning system is designed to provide 14 μm lateral resolution for the PhS-OCT probe beam (1060 nm) and 13 μm lateral resolution for photothermal excitation beams. DWP-OCT system's sensitivity is 102 dB, axial resolution is 13 μm in tissue and uses a real-time digital dispersion compensation algorithm. Noise floor for optical pathlength measurements is 300 pm in the signal frequency range (380-400 Hz) of photothermal modulation frequencies. Blood SO2 level is calculated from measured optical pathlength (op) signal in a 300 μm diameter microvessel phantom introduced by the two photothermal excitation beams. En-face and B-scan images of a phantom microvessel are recorded, and six blood samples' SO2 levels are measured using DWP-OCT and compared with values provided by a commercial blood oximeter. A mathematical model indicates thermal diffusion introduces a systematic artifact that over-estimates SO2 values and is consistent with measured data.

  16. Single- and dual-wavelength laser pulses induced modification in 10×(Al/Ti)/Si multilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salatić, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Petrović, S., E-mail: [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Peruško, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Čekada, M.; Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pantelić, D.; Jelenković, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Experimental and numerical study of laser-induced ablation and micro-sized crater formation. • Dual-wavelength pulses induce creation of wider and deeper craters due to synergies of two processes. • Sunflower-like structure formed by dual-wavelength pulses at low irradiance. • Numerical model of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation for complex (Al/Ti)/Si system has been developed. - Abstract: The surface morphology of the ablation craters created in the multilayer 10×(Al/Ti)/Si system by nanosecond laser pulses at single- and dual wavelength has been studied experimentally and numerically. A complex multilayer thin film including ten (Al/Ti) bilayers deposited by ion sputtering on Si(1 0 0) substrate to a total thickness of 260 nm were illuminated at different laser irradiance in the range 0.25–3.5 × 10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2}. Single pulse laser irradiation was done at normal incidence in air, with the single wavelength, either at 532 nm or 1064 nm or with both laser light simultaneously in the ratio of 1:10 for energy per pulse between second harmonic and 1064 nm. Most of the absorbed laser energy was rapidly transformed into heat, producing intensive modifications of composition and morphology on the sample surface. The results show an increase in surface roughness, formation of specific nanostructures, appearance of hydrodynamic features and ablation of surface material with crater formation. Applying a small fraction (10%) of the second harmonic in dual-wavelength pulses, a modification of the 10×(Al/Ti)/Si system by a single laser pulse was reflected in the formation of wider and/or deeper craters. Numerical calculations show that the main physical mechanism in ablation process is normal evaporation without phase explosion. The calculated and experimental results agree relatively well for the whole irradiance range, what makes the model applicable to complex Al/Ti multilayer systems.

  17. In vivo glucose monitoring using dual-wavelength polarimetry to overcome corneal birefringence in the presence of motion. (United States)

    Pirnstill, Casey W; Malik, Bilal H; Gresham, Vincent C; Coté, Gerard L


    Over the past 35 years considerable research has been performed toward the investigation of noninvasive and minimally invasive glucose monitoring techniques. Optical polarimetry is one noninvasive technique that has shown promise as a means to ascertain blood glucose levels through measuring the glucose concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. However, one of the key limitations to the use of optical polarimetry as a means to noninvasively measure glucose levels is the presence of sample noise caused by motion-induced time-varying corneal birefringence. In this article our group presents, for the first time, results that show dual-wavelength polarimetry can be used to accurately detect glucose concentrations in the presence of motion-induced birefringence in vivo using New Zealand White rabbits. In total, nine animal studies (three New Zealand White rabbits across three separate days) were conducted. Using the dual-wavelength optical polarimetric approach, in vivo, an overall mean average relative difference of 4.49% (11.66 mg/dL) was achieved with 100% Zone A+B hits on a Clarke error grid, including 100% falling in Zone A. The results indicate that dual-wavelength polarimetry can effectively be used to significantly reduce the noise due to time-varying corneal birefringence in vivo, allowing the accurate measurement of glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye and correlating that with blood glucose.

  18. A highly stable and switchable dual-wavelength laser using coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer as an optical filter (United States)

    Jasim, A. A.; Ahmad, H.


    The generation and switching of dual-wavelength laser based on compact coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (CM-MZI) is reported. The CM-MZI is constructed by overlapping two portions of a single tapered optical fiber which has a diameter of 9 μm as to create multi-mode interference and also to produce spatial mode beating as to suppress mode competition in the homogeneous gain medium. The system is able to generate a dual-wavelength laser output that can be switched with the aid of the polarization rotation technique. Four dual-wavelength oscillation pairs are obtained from the interference fringe peaks of the CM-MZI comb filter with a switched channel spacing of 1.5 nm, 3.0 nm, and 6.0 nm. The wavelength spacing is stable at different pump powers. The lasing wavelength has a 3-dB linewidth of about 30 pm and peak-to-floor ration of about 55 dB at a pump power of 38 mW.

  19. Dual wavelength imaging of a scrape-off layer in an advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osin, D.; Schindler, T., E-mail: [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688-7010 (United States)


    A dual wavelength imaging system has been developed and installed on C-2U to capture 2D images of a He jet in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) of an advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. The system was designed to optically split two identical images and pass them through 1 nm FWHM filters. Dual wavelength images are focused adjacent on a large format CCD chip and recorded simultaneously with a time resolution down to 10 μs using a gated micro-channel plate. The relatively compact optical system images a 10 cm plasma region with a spatial resolution of 0.2 cm and can be used in a harsh environment with high electro-magnetic noise and high magnetic field. The dual wavelength imaging system provides 2D images of either electron density or temperature by observing spectral line pairs emitted by He jet atoms in the SOL. A large field of view, combined with good space and time resolution of the imaging system, allows visualization of macro-flows in the SOL. First 2D images of the electron density and temperature observed in the SOL of the C-2U FRC are presented.

  20. The effects of LMWOAs on biodegradation of multi-component PAHs in aqueous solution using dual-wavelength fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xingyuan; Sang Lingzi; Chen Jianing; Zhu Yaxian; Zhang Yong


    Biodegradation of dissolved fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Ph) and pyrene (Py), three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), singly or as a mixture of the three, by two bacterial strains, MEBIC 5140 (Mycobacterium flavescens) and MEBIC 5141 (Mycobacterium scrofulaceum), as well as the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), e.g. malic acid, citric acid and butyric acid on biodegradation of the three PAHs in mineral salts medium aqueous solution were investigated using a newly established dual-wavelength fluorimetric method. The results showed that biodegradation processes can be monitored simultaneously, quickly and simply by dual-wavelength fluorimetry. Both co-metabolism and inhibitory effects were found during the biodegradation of the three PAHs by MEBIC 5140 and MEBIC 5141. Positive effects of butyric acid and negative effects of citric acid on biodegradation of the three PAHs in a mixture were observed. - Biodegradation processes of dissolved multi-component PAHs in a mixture and effects of LMWOAs were investigated using a dual-wavelength fluorimetry.

  1. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser utilizing a dual-ring scheme with a saturable absorber (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Yao-Jen; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang


    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. Here, a dual-ring (DR) structure with an unpumped EDF of 2 m is designed to achieve SLM oscillation. Five fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are applied in the laser cavity serving as the reflective element to generate different dual-wavelength outputs. In the measurement, six sets of generated dual-wavelengths with various mode-spacing (Δλ) can be achieved via the five FBGs. Additionally, the stability performance of the proposed EDF DR laser is also demonstrated.

  2. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification. (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.


    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  3. Monitoring tree health with a dual-wavelength terrestrial laser scanner (United States)

    Hancock, S.


    harvesting). Trees were arranged so that some were clearly visible to the scanner and could be analysed individually (a best case scenario) whilst others were grouped to form a denser, more realistic canopy (a worse case scenario). A method was developed to simultaneously extract canopy structure (leaf area, tree height and clumping) and leaf biochemistry (EWT) from the laser scanner data. These results were compared to ground to assess their accuracy. References Danson, F. M., Hetherington D., Morsdorf F., Koetz B., Allgower B., 2007. Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 4, 157-160. Gaulton R., Danson F. M., Ramirez F. A., Gunawan O., 2013. The potential of dual-wavelength laser scanning for estimating vegetation moisture content. Remote Sensing of Environment, 132, 32-39.

  4. Continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a distributed feedback laser diode with an external cavity using a volume Bragg grating (United States)

    Zheng, Yujin; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki


    We demonstrate continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a broad-area distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with a single external-cavity configuration. This high-power DFB laser has a narrow bandwidth (current and temperature ranges.

  5. Phase retrieval from the phase-shift moiré fringe patterns in simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry (United States)

    Cheng, Jinlong; Gao, Zhishan; Bie, Shuyou; Dou, Yimeng; Ni, Ruihu; Yuan, Qun


    Simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry (SDWI) could extend the measured range of each single-wavelength interferometry. The moiré fringe generated in SDWI indirectly represents the information of the measured long synthetic-wavelength ({λ }{{S}}) phase, thus the phase demodulation is rather arduous. To address this issue, we present a method to convert the moiré fringe pattern into a synthetic-wavelength interferogram (moiré to synthetic-wavelength, MTS). After the square of the moiré fringe pattern in the MTS method, the additive moiré pattern is turned into a multiplicative one. And the synthetic-wavelength interferogram could be obtained by a low-pass filtering in spectrum of the multiplicative moiré fringe pattern. Therefore, when the dual-wavelength interferometer is implemented with the π/2 phase shift at {λ }{{S}}, a sequence of synthetic-wavelength phase-shift interferograms with π/2 phase shift could be obtained after the MTS method processing on the captured moiré fringe patterns. And then the synthetic-wavelength phase could be retrieved by the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Compared with other methods in SDWI, the proposed MTS approach could reduce the restriction of the phase shift and frame numbers for the adoption of the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Following, numerical simulations are executed to evaluate the performance of the MTS method in processing time, frames of interferograms and the phase shift error compensation. And the necessary linear carrier for MTS method is less than 0.11 times of the traditional dual-wavelength spatial-domain Fourier transform method. Finally, the deviations for MTS method in experiment are 0.97% for a step with the height of 7.8 μm and 1.11% for a Fresnel lens with the step height of 6.2328 μm.

  6. A novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation. (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxi; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Han; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Zhuying; Hu, Yong; Li, Yingxin


    This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order

  7. A Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL) for Forest Structure Retrieval (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Douglas, E. S.; Martel, J.; Cook, T.; Mendillo, C.; Marshall, R. A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Schaaf, C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Li, Z.; Yang, X.; Culvenor, D.; Jupp, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.


    A newly-constructed, ground-based lidar scanner designed for automated retrieval of forest structure, the Dual Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), separates laser "hits" of leaves from hits of trunks and branches using simultaneous laser pulses at 1548 nm, where leaf water content produces strong absorption, and at 1064 nm, where leaves and branches have similar reflectances. The DWEL uses a rotating mirror scan mechanism on a revolving mount, coupled with full digitization of return waveforms, to identify, locate, and parameterize scattering events in the three-dimensional space around the scanner. In the DWEL instrument, the two measurement lasers are triggered simultaneously. Laser pulses are sharply peaked; full-width half-max pulse length of the lasers is 5.1 ns, corresponding to 1.53 m in distance. The laser pulses are expanded and collimated to a 6-mm beam diameter (1/e2), then shaped into a top-hat cross section using a diffraction apparatus. Interchangeable optics provide a beam divergence of 1.25-, 2.5-, or 5-mrad. A mirror and two dichroic filters combine the beams and join them with a visible green continuous-wave marker laser. The combined beam is guided along an optical path to the 10-cm rotating scan mirror. Scan encoders in zenith and azimuth directions resolve the pointing of the instrument to 215 units per 2π radians. Scan resolution has three settings: 1-, 2-, and 4-mrad. Scan time varies with resolution: 11 min at 4 mrad; 41 min at 2 mrad; and 2.7 hr at 1 mrad. The return beam enters the 10-cm diameter Newtonian-Nasmyth telescope and is directed to the receiver assembly, which splits the return beam using a dichroic filter and narrowband pass filters. Two 0.5 mm InGaAs photodiodes measure the return signal, which is sampled by two digitizers at 2 gigasamples per second with 10-bit precision. This provides a 7.5-cm sampling of the 1.53 m pulse, allowing very good reconstruction of the return waveform. The designed signal-to-noise ratio is 10:1 (8

  8. Design and fabrication of a diffractive beam splitter for dual-wavelength and concurrent irradiation of process points. (United States)

    Amako, Jun; Shinozaki, Yu


    We report on a dual-wavelength diffractive beam splitter designed for use in parallel laser processing. This novel optical element generates two beam arrays of different wavelengths and allows their overlap at the process points on a workpiece. To design the deep surface-relief profile of a splitter using a simulated annealing algorithm, we introduce a heuristic but practical scheme to determine the maximum depth and the number of quantization levels. The designed corrugations were fabricated in a photoresist by maskless grayscale exposure using a high-resolution spatial light modulator. We characterized the photoresist splitter, thereby validating the proposed beam-splitting concept.

  9. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms. (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro


    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Development of Raman spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.I.


    In this work, the Raman spectrophotometer HG.2S Jobin Yvon rebuilt and developed, the Raman setup provided as a gift for Neelian University from Amsterdam University. The main parts, which were replaced, include monochromator, an air-cooled photomultiplier tube RCA IP 28, log amplifier, hand scanning lab VIEW card for computer interfacing. The components assembled and the whole device was tested successfully. The developed setup was checked using some standard solutions, which showed perfect consistency with literature in the references and published papers. Solutions included hexane, cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and sodium sulfate.(Author)

  11. Dual-wavelength OR-PAM with compressed sensing for cell tracking in a 3D cell culture system (United States)

    Huang, Rou-Xuan; Fu, Ying; Liu, Wang; Ma, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching; Sun, Mingjian; Li, Pai-Chi


    Monitoring dynamic interactions of T cells migrating toward tumor is beneficial to understand how cancer immunotherapy works. Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM) can provide not only high spatial resolution but also deeper penetration than conventional optical microscopy. With the aid of exogenous contrast agents, the dual-wavelength OR-PAM can be applied to map the distribution of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with gold nanospheres (AuNS) under 523nm laser irradiation and Hepta1-6 tumor spheres with indocyanine green (ICG) under 800nm irradiation. However, at 1K laser PRF, it takes approximately 20 minutes to obtain a full sample volume of 160 × 160 × 150 μm3 . To increase the imaging rate, we propose a random non-uniform sparse sampling mechanism to achieve fast sparse photoacoustic data acquisition. The image recovery process is formulated as a low-rank matrix recovery (LRMR) based on compressed sensing (CS) theory. We show that it could be stably recovered via nuclear-norm minimization optimization problem to maintain image quality from a significantly fewer measurement. In this study, we use the dual-wavelength OR-PAM with CS to visualize T cell trafficking in a 3D culture system with higher temporal resolution. Data acquisition time is reduced by 40% in such sample volume where sampling density is 0.5. The imaging system reveals the potential to understand the dynamic cellular process for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  12. Dual-wavelength electroluminescence from an n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Bor-Sheng; Chiu, Hung-Jen; Chen, Tai-Hong; Lai, Li-Wen; Ho, Chai-Cheng; Liu, Day-Shan


    Highlights: • The LEDs fabricated by 450 °C- and 700 °C-annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction structures were investigated. • The structure annealed at 700 °C emitted yellowish light composed of the dual-wavelength radiations centered at 420 and 610 nm. • The long-wavelength radiation was attributed to emerge from the deep-level emission and the Ga–O interlayer emission. - Abstract: We investigated the electro-optical properties of light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by using the n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction structures annealed at 450 °C and 700 °C, in vacuum ambient. A dominant near-UV emission at approximately 420 nm was observed from the LED fabricated by the 450 °C-annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction structure, whereas that of the structure annealed at 700 °C emitted a yellowish light composed of the dual-wavelength emissions centered at 420 and 610 nm. The mechanism responsible for the broad long-wavelength radiation was ascribed to the transitions associated with both the deep-level emissions due to the activation of the native defects on the n-ZnO side surface and the formation of the Ga–O interlayer resulting from the in-diffusion of oxygen atoms to the p-GaN side surface of the n-ZnO/p-GaN interface.

  13. Stable narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched graphene oxide embedded in a photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Soltanian, M R K; Alimadad, M; Harun, S W


    An ultra-stable dual-wavelength saturable absorber based on a cladding-embedded commercial graphene oxide (GO) solution by capillary action in a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated for the first time. The saturation absorption property is achieved through evanescent coupling between the guided light and the cladding-filled graphene layers. Stable spacing dual-wavelength fiber lasing is attained by controlling the polarization state of a simple 0.9 m long ring of highly doped Leikki Er80-8/125 erbium-doped fiber as the primary gain medium with PCF, polarization controller and tunable bandpass filter. Embedded GO is used to generate the desired pulsed output, and the laser is capable of generating pulses having a repetition rate of 24 kHz with an average output power and pulse energy of 0.167 mW and 8.98 nJ, respectively, at the maximum pump power of 220 mW. (paper)

  14. Observation of stable bound soliton with dual-wavelength in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yu; Tian Jin-Rong; Dong Zi-Kai; Xu Run-Qin; Li Ke-Xuan; Song Yan-Rong


    A phase-locked bound state soliton with dual-wavelength is observed experimentally in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber (EDF) laser with a fiber loop mirror (FLM). The pulse duration of the soliton is 15 ps and the peak-to-peak separation is 125 ps. The repetition rate of the pulse sequence is 3.47 MHz. The output power is 11.8 mW at the pump power of 128 mW, corresponding to the pulse energy of 1.52 nJ. The FLM with a polarization controller can produce a comb spectrum, which acts as a filter. By adjusting the polarization controller or varying the pump power, the central wavelength of the comb spectrum can be tuned. When it combines with the reflective spectrum of the fiber Bragg grating, the total spectrum of the cavity can be cleaved into two parts, then the bound state soliton with dual-wavelength at 1549.7 nm and 1550.4 nm is obtained. (paper)

  15. Efficient phase locking of two dual-wavelength fiber amplifiers by an all-optical self-feedback loop (United States)

    Lei, Bing; Chen, Keshan; Yao, Tianfu; Shi, Jianhua; Hu, Haojun


    Efficient phase locking of two dual-wavelength fiber amplifiers has been demonstrated by using a self-feedback coupling and intracavity filtering configuration, and the effect of bandwidth and wavelength spacing on their phase locking performances have been investigated in experiment. Two independent fiber lasers with different operating wavelength were combined incoherently by a 3 dB fiber coupler to form a dual-wavelength seed source laser, which was injected into the fiber amplifiers' coupling array through the self-feedback loop. The effect of bandwidth and wavelength spacing was researched by altering the seed laser's pump power and operating wavelengths respectively. As long as the feedback loop and the single-mode fiber filtering configuration were well constructed in the unidirectional ring laser cavity, stable phase locking states and high fringe visibility interference patterns could always be obtained in our experiment. When the spacing of two operating wavelength was varied from 1.6 nm to 19.6 nm, the fringe visibility decreased slightly with the increase of wavelength spacing, and the corresponding fringe visibility was always larger than 0.6. In conclusion, we believe that efficient phase locking of several multi-wavelength laser sources is also feasible by passive self-adjusting methods, and keeping the component laser beams' phase relationship stable and fixed is more important than controlling their operating wavelengths.

  16. [Design of Dual-Beam Spectrometer in Spectrophotometer for Colorimetry]. (United States)

    Liu, Yi-xuan; Yan, Chang-xiang


    Spectrophotometers for colorimetry are usually composed of two independent and identical spectrometers. In order to reduce the volume of spectrophotometer for colorimetry, a design method of double-beam spectrometer is put forward. A traditional spectrometer is modified so that a new spectrometer can realize the function of double spectrometers, which is especially suitable for portable instruments. One slit is replaced by the double-slit, than two beams of spectrum can be detected. The working principle and design requirement of double-beam spectrometer are described. A spectrometer of portable spectrophotometer is designed by this method. A toroidal imaging mirror is used for the Czerny-Turner double-beam spectrometer in this paper, which can better correct astigmatism, and prevent the dual-beam spectral crosstalk. The results demonstrate that the double-beam spectrometer designed by this method meets the design specifications, with the spectral resolution less than 10 nm, the spectral length of 9.12 mm, and the volume of 57 mm x 54 mm x 23 mm, and without the dual-beam spectral overlap in the detector either. Comparing with a traditional spectrophotometer, the modified spectrophotometer uses a set of double-beam spectrometer instead of two sets of spectrometers, which can greatly reduce the volume. This design method can be specially applied in portable spectrophotometers, also can be widely applied in other double-beam spectrophotometers, which offers a new idea for the design of dual-beam spectrophotometers.

  17. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, T. J.


    In atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a reference path may be provided for radiation which excludes the flame. This radiation provides a signal from a detector which varies only with the instrumental drift produced by variations in the radiation source brightness and by variations in detector gain. The signal can be used to compensate for drift in other signals received through a sample path including the flame. In the present invention, radiation passes through the sample path continuously during measurement, and only through the reference path between sample measurements. Movable mirrors shift the radiation between the paths upon externally applied commands. Conveniently, the reference path measurement is made while the flame is stabilized during the change between samples. The reference path measurements are stored and used to correct for drift

  18. Diode-pumped orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength Nd3+:LaBO2MoO4 laser (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Gong, X. H.; Lin, Y. F.; Huang, J. H.; Luo, Z. D.; Huang, Y. D.


    Polarized spectroscopic properties related to 1.07 μm laser operation of a 1.8 at.% Nd3+:LaBO2MoO4 crystal grown by the Czochralski method were investigated at room temperature. Using a 2.2-mm-thick, Z-cut Nd3+:LaBO2MoO4 crystal as gain medium, orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength laser at 1,068 and 1,074 nm was first realized in a plano-concave resonator end-pumped by a quasi-continuous-wave 795 nm diode laser. A total output peak power of 1.2 W with slope efficiency of 26 % around 1.07 μm was obtained. The influences of resonator length and pump power on output laser wavelength were also investigated.

  19. Generation of dual-wavelength, synchronized, tunable, high energy, femtosecond laser pulses with nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile (United States)

    Wang, J.-K.; Siegal, Y.; Lü, C.; Mazur, E.


    We use self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber to produce broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Subsequent amplification through two Bethune cells yields high-energy, tunable, pulses synchronized with the output of an amplified colliding-pulse-modelocked (CPM) laser. We routinely obtain tunable 200 μJ pulses of 42 fs (fwhm) duration with a nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile. Although self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber is widely used in femtosecond laser systems, amplification of a fiber-generated supercontinuum in a Bethune cell amplifier is a new feature which maintains the high-quality spatial profile while providing high gain. This laser system is particularly well suited for high energy dual-wavelength pump=probe experiments and time-resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy.

  20. High-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, W Z; Chang, M T; Su, K W; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F


    We report on high-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser. A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is developed to achieve synchronously mode-locked operation at two spectral bands centered at 1031.67 and 1049.42 nm with a pulse duration of 1.54 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 80.3 GHz. With a diamond heat spreader to improve the heat removal efficiency, the average output power can be up to 1.1 W at an absorbed pump power of 5.18 W. The autocorrelation traces reveal that the mode-locked pulse is modulated with a beat frequency of 4.92 THz and displays a modulation depth to be greater than 80%. (paper)

  1. A tunable dual-wavelength pump source based on simulated polariton scattering for terahertz-wave generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Jianquan; Li, Enbang


    We propose a dual-wavelength pump source by utilizing stimulated polariton scattering in a LiNbO 3 crystal. The residual pump and the generated tunable Stokes waves can be combined to generate THz-wave generation via difference frequency generation (DFG). With a pump energy of 49 mJ, Stokes waves with a tuning range from 1067.8 to 1074 nm have been generated, and an output energy of up to 14.9 mJ at 1070 nm has been achieved with a conversion efficiency of 21.7%. A sum frequency generation experiment was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme for THz-wave DFG. (paper)

  2. A quasi-three-level dual-wavelength thin-disk laser at 1024 and 1030 nm based on a diode-pumped Yb:YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, G C; Li, Y D; Zhao, M; Chen, X Y; Wang, J B; Chen, G B


    A diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG dual-wavelength continuous-wave (cw) laser that generates simultaneous laser action at wavelengths of 1024 and 1030 nm is demonstrated for the first time. A total output power of 897 mW for the dual-wavelength was achieved at an incident pump power of 17.8 W. Furthermore, intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1024 and 1030 nm was then realized in an LBO crystal to reach the green range. We obtained a total cw output power of 85 mW at 513.5 nm. (paper)

  3. Dual-wavelength high-power diode laser system based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier with tunable frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    knowledge, this is the broadest tuning range of the frequency difference from a dual-wavelength diode laser system. The spectrum, output power, and beam quality of the diode laser system are characterized. The power stability of each wavelength is measured, and the power fluctuations of the two wavelengths......A dual-wavelength high-power semiconductor laser system based on a tapered amplifier with double-Littrow external cavity is demonstrated around 800 nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 10.0 THz. To our...

  4. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Du, L.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.


    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two

  5. Asynchronous and synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a mode-locker. (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Pan, Yingling; Zhao, Xin; Yin, Siyao; Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Zheng


    The evolution from asynchronous to synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber laser is experimentally investigated by tailoring the intracavity dispersion. Through tuning the intracavity-loss-dependent gain profile and the birefringence-induced filter effect, asynchronous dual-wavelength soliton pulses can be generated until the intracavity anomalous dispersion is reduced to ∼8  fs/nm. The transition from asynchronous to synchronous pulse generation is then observed at an elevated pump power in the presence of residual anomalous dispersion, and it is shown that pulses are temporally synchronized at the mode-locker in the cavity. Spectral sidelobes are observed and could be attributed to the four-wave-mixing effect between dual-wavelength pulses at the carbon nanotube mode-locker. These results could provide further insight into the design and realization of such dual-wavelength ultrafast lasers for different applications such as dual-comb metrology as well as better understanding of the inter-pulse interactions in such dual-comb lasers.

  6. Strong spectral variation of biomass smoke light absorption and single scattering albedo observed with a novel dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument (United States)

    Kristin Lewis; William P. Arnott; Hans Moosmuller; Cyle E. Wold


    A dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument operating at 405 and 870 nm was used during the 2006 Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment to measure light scattering and absorption by smoke from the combustion of a variety of biomass fuels. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering by reciprocal nephelometry within the instrument's acoustic resonator accompany...

  7. Optoelectronics instrumentation of a spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, A.; Camas, J.; Rios, C.; Lopez, F.; Anzueto, G.; Castannon, J.; Dominguez, J.


    Today, it is necessary to characterize materials to generate knowledge and propose new technology in the development of optical sensors. However, the acquisition of spectrophotometers is not easy for the researchers that not have an economic resource. So, in this paper the design of a spectrophotometer is presented using optical technology such as light source, light and electron scattering commercially available in Mexico, and whose construction is cheap and easy to build. (Author)

  8. Prospective study of removing solar lentigines in Asians using a novel dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond laser. (United States)

    Negishi, Kei; Akita, Hirotaka; Matsunaga, Yukiko


    Quality-switched (QS) lasers are known to be an effective treatment for removing solar lentigines, however, high incidence of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a concern in darker skin types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond Nd:YAG laser for removing solar lentigines in Asians. This was a prospective, IRB-approved study. Twenty cases with solar lentigines on the face were enrolled for treatment and evaluated at 1- and 3-month after the final treatment. Results were assessed by blinded evaluators using a 5-grade percentage improvement scale and Melanin index (MI) measured by a reflectance spectrophotometer. A patient self-assessment questionnaire was also administered using a 5-grade improvement scale. Additional treatment was performed if the improvement was less than 75% or the lentigo partially remained after 4 weeks. Histological evaluation was performed to compare the differences between the current picosecond laser and a QS Nd:YAG laser 532-nm using light and electron microscopy. Forty-three lesions in 20 females, skin type III or IV, age 53.7 ± 9.75 were treated and evaluated. The laser setting was: 532-nm, 750 picoseconds, average fluence of 0.35 ± 0.06 J/cm [2] using a spot size of 3 or 4 mm. Forty lesions (93.02%) achieved over 75% clearance with a single treatment and the other three lesions (6.98%) needed two treatments. PIH occurred only in 4.65% of lesions. The average score of the blinded evaluators' assessment was 4.77 and 4.58 on a 5-grade percentage improvement scale. The patients' self-assessment rating was 4.76 and 4.67 on a 5-grade scale at 1- and 3-month follow-up, respectively. The improvement rate of relative MI (MI in the lesion minus that of the normal area) was 77.60 ± 36.27% and 76.93 ± 20.95% at 1-and 3-month follow-up. Histology showed vacuolar formation by both lasers in the epidermis that were different sizes

  9. Theoretical modelling of dual-wavelength pumped Yb3+–Tm3+ co-doped silica fibre laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yuqing; Chen, Jianguo


    Numerical simulations have, for the first time to our knowledge, been carried out to characterize the Yb 3+ –Tm 3+ co-doped silica fibre laser (YTFL), defined by a fibre grating and an end mirror, by using the rate equations, which take into consideration both the energy transfer processes from Yb 3+ to Tm 3+ ions and the cross-relaxation processes among different Tm 3+ ions. A dual-wavelength pumping scheme with one at 805 nm and the other at 975 nm is used to pump the YTFL. We have investigated the wavelength-dependent output power of the YTFL, from 1750 to 2200 nm, which takes its maximum output power at ∼ 1800 nm. The effect of the cross-relaxation processes in the Tm 3+ -doped silica fibre laser has been studied. The results indicate that these processes are beneficial to the laser and should be considered in the theoretical modelling. The influence of the Yb 3+ concentration on the characteristics of the YTFL has also been analysed and the results show that Yb 3+ dopants can improve the output power and slope efficiency of the laser

  10. Dual Wavelength RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Two Antispasmodic Drugs: An Application in Pharmaceutical and Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmul Hasan


    Full Text Available A reverse phase stability indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of two antispasmodic drugs in pharmaceutical parenteral dosage forms (injectable and in serum has been developed and validated. Mobile phase ingredients consist of Acetonitrile : buffer : sulfuric acid 0.1 M (50 : 50 : 0.3 v/v/v, at flow rate 1.0 mL/min using a Hibar μBondapak ODS C18 column monitored at dual wavelength of 266 nm and 205 nm for phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol, respectively. The drugs were subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis (oxidation, base, acid, and thermal degradation. Oxidation degraded the molecule drastically while there was not so much significant effect of other stress conditions. The calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 0.9992 for PG and TMP, respectively. The drug recoveries fall in the range of 98.56% and 101.24% with 10 pg/mL and 33 pg/mL limit of detection and limit of quantification for both phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and was applied successfully to quantify the amount of trimethylphloroglucinol and phloroglucinol in bulk, injectable form and physiological fluid. Forced degradation studies proved the stability indicating abilities of the method.

  11. Synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in coaxial pumping scheme and its application in terahertz difference frequency generation (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Kai; Mei, Jialin; Jin, Shuo; Ge, Meng; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan


    A compact and flexible dual-wavelength laser with combined two laser crystals (a-cut and c-cut Nd:YLF) as the gain media under coaxially laser-diode (LD) end-pumping configuration was demonstrated and μW-level THz wave was generated based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in a GaSe crystal. The dynamics of coaxial pumping dualwavelength laser was theoretically investigated, showing that the power ratio and pulse interval for both wavelengths could be tuned by balancing the gains at both wavelengths via tuning pump focal position. Synchronized orthogonal 1047/1053 nm laser pulses were obtained and optimal power ratio was realized with the total output power of 2.92W at 5 kHz pumped by 10-W LD power. With an 8-mm-long GaSe crystal, 0.93 μW THz wave at 1.64 THz (182 μm) was generated. Such coaxially LD end-pumped lasers can be extended to various combinations of neodymium doped laser media to produce different THz wavelengths for costless and portable applications.

  12. Study on Brilliant Blue-chitosan System by Dual-wavelength Overlapping Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Method and its Analytical Applications (United States)

    Ma, Caijuan; Sun, Zijun; Liu, Guihua; Su, Zhengquan; Bai, Yan


    The method was presented for the sensitive and selective determination of chitosan (CTS) in health products with Brilliant Blue (BB) as a probe, based on dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS). In weakly acidic buffer solution, the binding of CTS and BB could result in the RRS intensities getting enhanced significantly at RRS peaks of 344 nm and 452 nm, and the scattering intensities of the two peaks were proportional to the concentration of CTS within a certain range. When the RRS intensities of the two wavelengths were superposed, the results showed higher sensitivity. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the total of the two increased RRS intensities was linear to the CTS concentration in the range of 0.02-1.80 μg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.45 ng/mL. In this work, the optimum conditions and the effects of some foreign substances were studied. Accordingly, the new method based on DWO-RRS for the determination of CTS was developed. In addition, the effect of the molecular weight and the deacetylation degree between different chitosan molecules was discussed. Finally, this assay was applied to determine the concentration of CTS in health products with satisfactory results.

  13. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S


    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  14. A stable dual-wavelength Q-switch using a compact passive device containing photonics crystal fiber embedded with carbon platinum (United States)

    Safaei, R.; Amiri, I. S.; Rezayi, M.; Ahmad, H.


    A compact fiber laser utilizing platinum nanoparticles doped on carbon (Pt/C) embedded in photonic crystal fiber capable of generating a stable Q-switch dual-wavelength is designed and verified. Stable Q-switch pulses, with a repetition rate of 73.6 kHz, pulse width of 1.45 µs and power of 3.8 nJ in two separated wavelengths of 1557.39 nm and 1558.86 nm at a pump power of 350 mW, have been obtained. This is a novel method for generating Q-switch dual-wavelength pulses using a well-protected component that introduces both a saturable absorber and Mach-Zehnder interferometer effects simultaneously in the laser cavity. Furthermore, to best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Pt/C nanoparticles have been used in a saturable absorber for optical pulse generation.

  15. Dual-wavelength vortex beam with high stability in a diode-pumped Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser (United States)

    Shen, Yijie; Meng, Yuan; Fu, Xing; Gong, Mali


    We present a stable dual-wavelength vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with two spectral peaks separated by a few terahertz in a diode-pumped Yb:CaGdAlO4 (CALGO) laser. The dual-wavelength spectrum is controlled by the pump power and off-axis loss in a laser resonator, arising from the broad emission bandwidth of Yb:CALGO. The OAM beam is obtained by a pair of cylindrical lenses serving as a π/2 convertor for high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes. The stability is verified by the fact that a 1\\hbar OAM beam with two spectral peaks at 1046.1 nm and 1057.2 nm (3.01 THz interval) can steadily operate for more than 3 h. It has great potential for scaling the application of OAM beams in terahertz spectroscopy, high-resolution interferometry, and so on.

  16. A geomorphologist's dream come true: synoptic high resolution river bathymetry with the latest generation of airborne dual wavelength lidar (United States)

    Lague, Dimitri; Launeau, Patrick; Michon, Cyril; Gouraud, Emmanuel; Juge, Cyril; Gentile, William; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Crave, Alain


    Airborne, terrestrial lidar and Structure From Motion have dramatically changed our approach of geomorphology, from low density/precision data, to a wealth of data with a precision adequate to actually measure topographic change across multiple scales, and its relation to vegetation. Yet, an important limitation in the context of fluvial geomorphology has been the inability of these techniques to penetrate water due to the use of NIR laser wavelengths or to the complexity of accounting for water refraction in SFM. Coastal bathymetric systems using a green lidar can penetrate clear water up to 50 m but have a resolution too coarse and deployment costs that are prohibitive for fluvial research and management. After early prototypes of narrow aperture green lidar (e.g., EEARL NASA), major lidar manufacturer are now releasing dual wavelength laser system that offer water penetration consistent with shallow fluvial bathymetry at very high resolution (> 10 pts/m²) and deployment costs that makes the technology, finally accessible. This offers unique opportunities to obtain synoptic high resolution, high precision data for academic research as well as for fluvial environment management (flood risk mapping, navigability,…). In this presentation, we report on the deployment of the latest generation Teledyne-Optech Titan dual-wavelength lidar (1064 nm + 532 nm) owned by the University of Nantes and Rennes. The instrument has been deployed over several fluvial and lacustrine environments in France. We present results and recommendation on how to optimize the bathymetric cover as a function of aerial and aquatic vegetation cover and the hydrology regime of the river. In the surveyed rivers, the penetration depth varies from 0.5 to 4 m with discrete echoes (i.e., onboard detection), heavily impacted by water clarity and bottom reflectance. Simple post-processing of the full waveform record allows to recover an additional 20 % depth. As for other lidar techniques, the main

  17. A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications (United States)

    Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.


    Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

  18. A dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering method for the determination of chondroitin sulfate with nile blue sulfate (United States)

    Cui, Zhiping; Hu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang


    A dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS) method was developed to detect chondroitin sulfate (CS) with nile blue sulfate (NBS). At pH 3.0-4.0 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium, CS interacted with NBS to form an ion-association complex. As a result, the new spectra of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), second order scattering (SOS) and frequence doubling scattering (FDS) appeared and their intensities were enhanced greatly. Their maximum wavelengths were located at 303 nm (RRS), 362 nm (RRS), 588 nm (SOS) and 350 nm (FDS), respectively. The scattering intensities of the three methods were proportional to the concentration of CS in certain ranges. The methods had high sensitivity and the detection limits were between 1.5 and 7.1 ng mL -1. The DWO-RRS method had the highest sensitivity with the detection limit being 1.5 ng mL -1. The characteristics of the spectra and optimal reaction conditions of RRS method were investigated. The effects of coexistent substances on the determination of CS were evaluated. Owing to the high sensitivity, RRS method had been applied to the determination of CS in eye drops with satisfactory results. The recovery range was between 99.4% and 104.6% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was between 0.4% and 0.8%. In addition, the reasons for RRS enhancement were discussed and the shape of ion-association complex was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  19. Dual-wavelength green laser with a 4.5 THz frequency difference based on self-frequency- doubling in Nd3+ -doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate. (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Rico, M L; Capmany, J


    We report a dual-wavelength continuous-wave laser at 542.4 and 546.8 nm based on an Nd(3+)-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Two fundamental infrared (IR) wavelengths at 1084.8 and 1093.6 nm are simultaneously oscillated and self-frequency-doubled to green. The aperiodic domain distribution patterned in the crystal allows for quasi-phase matched self-frequency-doubling of both IR fundamentals while avoiding their sum-frequency mixing.

  20. Dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW and Q-switched laser in diode end-pumped Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 crystal (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Gao, Congcong; Dou, Renqin; Nie, Hongkun; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Wenpeng; Yu, Haijuan; Wang, Guoju; Zhang, Qingli; Lin, Xuechun; He, Jingliang; Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Bingyuan


    Dual-wavelength continuous-wave and Q-switched lasers are demonstrated in a Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 crystal under 790 nm laser diode end pumping for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The laser operates with a dual wavelength at 1949.677 nm and 2070 nm for continuous-wave with a spacing of about 120 nm. The maximum output power is 0.332 W with a pump power of 3 W. By using graphene as the saturable absorber, a passively Q-switched operation is performed with a dual-wavelength at 1950.323 nm and 2068.064 nm with a wavelength interval of about 118 nm. The maximum average output power of the Q-switched laser goes up to 200 mW with a minimum pulse duration of 1.2 µs and a maximum repetition rate of 34.72 kHz.

  1. Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.


    A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing

  2. Modernization of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, Visa; Milivojevic, Dragan; Karabasevic, Dejan


    In Copper Institute in Bor, connection has been made between absorption spectrophotometer and standard PC with the aim to make its operation more reliable and comfortable. Applied solution includes both software and hardware components. An I/O interface module has been installed in PC [1]. Software component consists of programs for measuring and interpretation of results. Paper presents details of this job realization.(Author)

  3. A UV pre-ionized dual-wavelength short-pulse high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for laser particle acceleration research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahim, N A; Mouris, J F; Davis, R W


    In this report we describe the Chalk River dual-wavelength, short-pulse, single-mode, high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for research in laser particle acceleration and CANDU materials modifications. The facility is designed and built around UV-preionized transversely-excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) Lumonics CO{sub 2} laser discharge modules. Peak focussed power densities of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in 500 ps pulses have been obtained. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Shutter mechanism for spacecraft spectrophotometer (United States)

    Weilbach, A.


    A shutter mechanism is described for the backscatter ultraviolet spectrophotometer experiment on the Nimbus D satellite. The purpose of the experiment is to determine spatial distribution of atmospheric ozone from measurements of ultraviolet radiation backscattered by the earth's atmosphere. The system consists of two independent, rotary cylinder shutters, controlled by a dual star Geneva mechanism, and driven by a single stepper motor. A single driver controls a combination of two independently driven Geneva stars. Design considerations involved the use of low friction, nonmetallic materials.

  5. A fast dual wavelength laser beam fluid-less optical CT scanner for radiotherapy 3D gel dosimetry I: design and development (United States)

    Ramm, Daniel


    Three dimensional dosimetry by optical CT readout of radiosensitive gels or solids has previously been indicated as a solution for measurement of radiotherapy 3D dose distributions. The clinical uptake of these dosimetry methods has been limited, partly due to impracticalities of the optical readout such as the expertise and labour required for refractive index fluid matching. In this work a fast laser beam optical CT scanner is described, featuring fluid-less and dual wavelength operation. A second laser with a different wavelength is used to provide an alternative reference scan to the commonly used pre-irradiation scan. Transmission data for both wavelengths is effectively acquired simultaneously, giving a single scan process. Together with the elimination of refractive index fluid matching issues, scanning practicality is substantially improved. Image quality and quantitative accuracy were assessed for both dual and single wavelength methods. The dual wavelength scan technique gave improvements in uniformity of reconstructed optical attenuation coefficients in the sample 3D volume. This was due to a reduction of artefacts caused by scan to scan changes. Optical attenuation measurement accuracy was similar for both dual and single wavelength modes of operation. These results established the basis for further work on dosimetric performance.

  6. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers. (United States)

    Tahvili, M S; Du, L; Heck, M J R; Nötzel, R; Smit, M K; Bente, E A J M


    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two lobes provide a coherent bandwidth and are verified to lead to two synchronized optical pulses. The generated optical pulses are elongated in time due to a chirp which shows opposite signs over the two spectral lobes. Self-induced mode-locking in the single-section laser shows that the dual-wavelength spectra correspond to emission from ground state. In the hybrid mode-locking regime, a map of locking range is presented by measuring the values of timing jitter for several values of power and frequency of the external electrical modulating signal. An overview of the systematic behavior of InAs/InP(100) quantum dot mode-locked lasers is presented as conclusion.

  7. Widely tunable single-/dual-wavelength fiber lasers with ultra-narrow linewidth and high OSNR using high quality passive subring cavity and novel tuning method. (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Yan, Fengping; Zhao, Ziwei; Su, Hongxin; Yao, X Steve


    High stability single- and dual-wavelength compound cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) with ultra-narrow linewidth, high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and widely tunable range are demonstrated. Different from using traditional cascaded Type-1/Type-2 fiber rings as secondary cavities, we nest a Type-1 ring inside a Type-2 ring to form a passive subring cavity to achieve single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) lasing with ultra-narrow linewidth for the first time. We also show that the SLM lasing stability can be further improved by inserting a length of polarization maintaining fiber in the Type-2 ring. Using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and two superimposed FBGs as mode restricting elements, respectively, we obtain a single-wavelength EDFL with a linewidth as narrow as 715 Hz and an OSNR as high as 73 dB, and a dual-wavelength EDFL with linewidths less than 1 kHz and OSNRs higher than 68 dB for both lasing wavelengths. Finally, by employing a novel self-designed strain adjustment device capable of applying both the compression and tension forces to the FBGs for wavelength tuning, we achieve the tuning range larger than 10 nm for both of the EDFLs.

  8. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter. (United States)

    Yin, Bin; Feng, Suchun; Liu, Zhibo; Bai, Yunlong; Jian, Shuisheng


    A tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser based on polarization-maintaining chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (PM-CMFBG) filter is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, the CMFBG inscribed on the PM fiber is applied for the wavelength-tunable and-switchable dual-wavelength laser. The PM-CMFBG filter with ultra-narrow transmission band (0.1 pm) and a uniform polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable single polarization SLM operation is guaranteed by the PM-CMFBG filter and polarization controller. A tuning range of about 0.25 nm with about 0.075 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform PM-FBG. Meanwhile, the linewidth of the fiber laser for each wavelength is approximate 6.5 and 7.1 kHz with a 20 dB linewidth, which indicates the laser linewidth is approximate 325 Hz and 355 Hz FWHM.

  9. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.


    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  10. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd


    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  11. Incorporation of flow injection analysis with dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering for rapid determination of malachite green and its metabolite in fish. (United States)

    Zhu, Jinghui; Qin, Mingyou; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli


    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system combined with dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS) has been established and validated for rapid determination of malachite green (MG) and its metabolite in fish samples. Under experimental condition, MG would react with Erythrosin (Ery) to form ion-association complexes, resulting in the occurrence of two RRS peaks and a dramatic enhancement of RRS intensity. The maximum RRS peaks were located at 286 nm and 337 nm. It is noted that the increments of both of these two peaks were proportional to the concentration of MG. The detection limit of DWO-RRS was 1.5 ng/mL, which was comparable to several reported methods. Moreover, the results of real sample analysis exhibited an acceptable recovery between 97.5% and 103.6%, indicating that the method had good reproducibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. OCDMA PON supporting ONU inter-networking based on gain-switched Fabry-Pérot lasers with external dual-wavelength injection. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zeng, Duoduo; Guo, Changjian; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing


    We propose and demonstrate an OCDMA-PON scheme with optical network unit (ONU) internetworking capability, which utilizes low-cost gain-switched Fabry-Pérot (GS-FP) lasers with external dual-wavelength injection as the pulse sources on the ONU side. The injection-generated optical pulses in two wavelengths from the same GS-FP laser are used separately for the PON uplink transmission and ONU internetworking. Experimental results based on a two-user OCDMA system confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme. With OCDMA technologies, separate ONU-internetworking groups can be established using different optical codes. We also give experiment results to analyze the performance of the ONU-ONU transmission at different power of interference signals when two ONU-internetworking groups are present in the OCDMA-PON.

  13. Diameter-dependent photoluminescence properties of strong phase-separated dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN nanopillar LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353 (China); School of Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Ji, Ziwu, E-mail: [School of Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Zhou, Yufan; Wang, Xuelin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Baoli [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Xu, Xiangang [Key Laboratory of Functional Crystal Materials and Device (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Gao, Xingguo; Leng, Jiancai [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353 (China)


    Highlights: • Nanopillar LED with smaller diameter shows a larger strain relaxation in the MQWs. • Nanopillar induced blue shift of green peak is smaller than that of blue peak. • Nanopillar induced blue shift of green/blue peak at 300 K is smaller than at 4 K. • PL intensity decreases with reducing nanopillar diameter with same pillar density. - Abstract: In this paper, strong phase-separated blue/green dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN nanopillar (NP) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with the same NP density and various NP diameters were fabricated using focused ion beam etching. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to show the effect of NP diameter on the strain relaxation in the multi-quantum-wells (MQWs). The effect of NP diameter on optical behaviors of the strong phase-separated dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN NP LEDs was investigated for the first time by using micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The blue shifts of PL peak energies of the NP LEDs showed that the NP LED with a smaller diameter exhibited a larger strain relaxation in the MQWs, as confirmed by micro-Raman results. And the blue shift of green emission was smaller than that of blue emission. The total integrated PL intensities from the NP arrays were enhanced compared to the as-grown sample due to the increased recombination rate and light extraction efficiency. The enhancement factor decreased with decreasing the NP diameter in our experiments, which indicated that the loss of active volume was gradually dominant for the luminous efficiency of NP LEDs compared to the increased recombination rate and light extraction efficiency.

  14. Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Qian, Xiaobo; Wang, Jingya; Liu, Jingjing; Fan, Xiuwei; Liu, Jie; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun


    The spectral properties and laser performance of Er:SrF2 single crystals were investigated and compared with Er:CaF2. Er:SrF2 crystals have larger absorption cross-sections at the pumping wavelength, larger mid-infrared stimulated emission cross-sections and much longer fluorescence lifetimes of the upper laser level (Er3+:4I11/2 level) than those of Er:CaF2 crystals. Dual-wavelength continuous-wave (CW) lasers around 2.8 μm were demonstrated in both 4at.% and 10at.% Er:SrF2 single crystals under 972 nm laser diode (LD) end pumping. The laser wavelengths are 2789.3 nm and 2791.8 nm in the former, and 2786.4 nm and 2790.7 nm in the latter, respectively. The best laser performance has been demonstrated in lightly doped 4at.% Er:SrF2 with a low threshold of 0.100 W, a high slope efficiency of 22.0%, an maximum output power of 0.483 W.

  15. Anti-Mullerian hormone trend evaluation after laparoscopic surgery of monolateral endometrioma using a new dual wavelengths laser system (DWLS) for hemostasis. (United States)

    Nappi, Luigi; Angioni, Stefano; Sorrentino, Felice; Cinnella, Gilda; Lombardi, Michela; Greco, Pantaleo


    Operative laparoscopy is the gold standard in the treatment of endometriotic ovarian cysts. Excisional surgery is the best technique to prevent recurrences and improve symptoms but it may result in ovarian reserve damage due to the removal of healthy ovarian cortex. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on ovarian reserve of the use of dual wavelengths laser system (DWLS) hemostasis after stripping technique of monolateral endometrioma, by dosing the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). This prospective study was conducted at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, from December 2013 to January 2015. Forty-five women underwent excision of monolateral endometriotic ovarian cyst by stripping without using a bipolar coagulation and performing hemostasis with a DWLS. The AMH serum levels were estimated before the surgery (T0), 4-6 weeks (T1) and 6-9 months (T2) after surgery. Our results suggest that an appropriate surgical technique with the use of laser hemostasis does not determine a significant reduction of ovarian reserve. Laser hemostasis could prevent follicular reserve loss after ovarian endometrioma surgery.

  16. The effects of 595- and 1,064-nm lasers on rooster comb blood vessels using dual-wavelength and multipulse techniques. (United States)

    Li, Guang; Sun, Jianfang; Shao, Xuebao; Sang, Honggui; Zhou, Zhanchao


    After laser irradiation, hemoglobin can transform into methemoglobin and coagulum, which have high absorptivity of near-infrared light. Sequential irradiation with 595 nm and 1,064 nm may be more effective than single wavelength to decrease residual vessel number in rooster combs. Six protocols (single pulse with 595 nm, double pulse with 595 nm, single pulse with 1,064 nm, double pulse with 1,064 nm, sequential irradiation with 595 nm and 1,064 nm (multiplex), and a blank control group) were used to compare the effects of sequential and single-wavelength irradiation on reducing residual vessel number, as well as the epidermal side effects, in the rooster comb. Different treatment techniques were applied to the same comb, at the same time. The treated areas of the epidermis and the residual vessels were observed using an optical microscope. All five techniques were effective in decreasing the number of residual vessels in the comb, and the side effects on the epidermis were similar for all. Considering the selectivity of the 595-nm laser and the rich melanin in the human epidermis, the dual-wavelength laser has a distinct advantage in treating vascular lesions. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  17. A fast and high-sensitive dual-wavelength diffuse optical tomography system using digital lock-in photon-counting technique (United States)

    Chen, Weiting; Yi, Xi; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng


    We presented a novel dual-wavelength diffuse optical imaging system which can perform 2-D or 3-D imaging fast and high-sensitively for monitoring the dynamic change of optical parameters. A newly proposed lock-in photon-counting detection method was adopted for week optical signal collection, which brought in excellent property as well as simplified geometry. Fundamental principles of the lock-in photon-counting detection were elaborately demonstrated, and the feasibility was strictly verified by the linearity experiment. Systemic performance of the prototype set up was experimentally accessed, including stray light rejection and inherent interference. Results showed that the system possessed superior anti-interference capability (under 0.58% in darkroom) compared with traditional photon-counting detection, and the crosstalk between two wavelengths was lower than 2.28%. For comprehensive assessment, 2-D phantom experiments towards relatively large dimension model (diameter of 4cm) were conducted. Different absorption targets were imaged to investigate detection sensitivity. Reconstruction image under all conditions was exciting, with a desirable SNR. Study on image quality v.s. integration time put forward a new method for accessing higher SNR with the sacrifice of measuring speed. In summary, the newly developed system showed great potential in promoting detection sensitivity as well as measuring speed. This will make substantial progress in dynamically tracking the blood concentration distribution in many clinical areas, such as small animal disease modeling, human brain activity research and thick tissues (for example, breast) diagnosis.

  18. Field trial of a dual-wavelength fluorescent emission (L.I.F.E.) instrument and the Magma White rover during the MARS2013 Mars analog mission. (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit; Weisleitner, Klemens; Hunger, Lars; Kohstall, Christoph; Frisch, Albert; Józefowicz, Mateusz; Meszyński, Sebastian; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Frischauf, Norbert; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ragonig, Christoph; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sams, Sebastian; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Soucek, Alexander; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Stumptner, Willibald; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja


    Abstract We have developed a portable dual-wavelength laser fluorescence spectrometer as part of a multi-instrument optical probe to characterize mineral, organic, and microbial species in extreme environments. Operating at 405 and 532 nm, the instrument was originally designed for use by human explorers to produce a laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) spectral database of the mineral and organic molecules found in the microbial communities of Earth's cryosphere. Recently, our team had the opportunity to explore the strengths and limitations of the instrument when it was deployed on a remote-controlled Mars analog rover. In February 2013, the instrument was deployed on board the Magma White rover platform during the MARS2013 Mars analog field mission in the Kess Kess formation near Erfoud, Morocco. During these tests, we followed tele-science work flows pertinent to Mars surface missions in a simulated spaceflight environment. We report on the L.I.F.E. instrument setup, data processing, and performance during field trials. A pilot postmission laboratory analysis determined that rock samples acquired during the field mission exhibited a fluorescence signal from the Sun-exposed side characteristic of chlorophyll a following excitation at 405 nm. A weak fluorescence response to excitation at 532 nm may have originated from another microbial photosynthetic pigment, phycoerythrin, but final assignment awaits development of a comprehensive database of mineral and organic fluorescence spectra. No chlorophyll fluorescence signal was detected from the shaded underside of the samples.

  19. Fiber optic spectrophotometer with photodiode linear array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.


    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes, in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement ''in-situ'' and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer is described and technical performance presented. An extension using optical fibers on a ''classical'' spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) is also described and technical performance presented

  20. Broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, Z. X.; Weng, H. Z.; Li, Z. R.; Yang, Y. D.; Xiao, J. L.; Chen, S. W.; Huang, Y. Z.; Qin, W. P.; Qin, G. S.


    We demonstrate broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm and a frequency separation of ~9.28 GHz generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity. By using one continuous-wave laser as the pump source, multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1554–1574 nm were generated via cascaded Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. Interestingly, when pumped by two continuous-wave lasers with an appropriate frequency separation, the operating wavelength range of the multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers was increased to 1500–1600 nm due to cavity-enhanced cascaded four-wave mixing among the frequency components generated by two pump lasers in the dual wavelength Brillouin laser cavity.

  1. The radio-on-fiber-wavelength-division-multiplexed-passive-optical network (WDM-RoF-PON) for wireless and wire layout with linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and carrier reusing (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Chang, Jun


    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously. With the CSRZ-DPSK modulation, the wireless access in ONU can save RF source and the frequency of radio carrier can be controlled by OLT. The dual-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON with polarization multiplexing. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can save omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  2. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.


    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  3. Enzyme Activity Experiments Using a Simple Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; And Others


    Experimental procedures for studying enzyme activity using a Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer are described. The experiments demonstrate the effect of pH, temperature, and inhibitors on enzyme activity and allow the determination of Km, Vmax, and Kcat. These procedures are designed for teaching large lower-level biochemistry classes. (MR)

  4. Modification of a commercial spectrophotometer for photoacoustic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Harris, J.M.; Eyring, E.M.


    This note describes how a commercial UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer may be adapted to function as a double beam photoacoustic spectrophotometer operating at visible wavelengths. Modification of a Varian Cary 17 spectrophotometer was carried out first by dismounting the photomultiplier tube detector module and the cell compartment of the spectrophotometer. The sample and the reference beams were focused through two externally mounted quartz lenses onto the sample and reference photoacoustic cells, respectively

  5. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera (United States)

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal


    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  6. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.


    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  7. The EUV spectrophotometer on Atmosphere Explorer. (United States)

    Hinteregger, H. E.; Bedo, D. E.; Manson, J. E.


    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrophotometer for measurements of solar radiation at wavelengths ranging from 140 to 1850 A will be included in the payload of each of the three Atmosphere-Explorer (AE) missions, AE-C, -D, and -E. The instrument consists of 24 grating monochromators, 12 of which can be telecommanded either to execute 128-step scans each covering a relatively small section of the total spectrophotometer wavelength range or to maintain fixed (command-selected) wavelength positions. The remaining 12 nonscan monochromators operate at permanently fixed wavelengths and view only a small fraction of the solar disk except for one viewing the whole sun in H Lyman alpha. Ten of the 12 scan-capable monochromators also view the entire solar disk since their primary function is to measure the total fluxes independent of the distribution of sources across the solar disk.

  8. Conversion of Beckman DK-2A spectrophotometer into an automatic single-photon counting fluorescence spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkur, G.C.; Lagare, M.T.; Umakantha, N.


    Details of how a DK-2A spectrophotometer can be modified into an automatic single-photon counting fluorescence spectrophotometer for recording a low intensity spectrum, are reported. The single-photon count-rate converted into a DC voltage is applied at the appropriate stage in the sample channel amplifier circuit of a DK-2A to get the pen deflection proportional to the count-rate. A high intensity spectrum may be recorded in the usual way by merely turning the shaft of the mirror motor by 180 degrees. (author)

  9. [Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer]. (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhao; Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie


    To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer. Sixty-seven intact and healthy maxillary central incisors were in-vestigated. These incisors were darker than A3 according to the Vita Classical shade guide. The CIE tooth shade parameters L*, a*, and b* were simultaneously recorded at three tooth areas (cervical, body, and incisal) with a spectrophotometer before and after tooth bleaching (35%H2O2 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating). The shade dif-ferential (DeltaE) was calculated. ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The efficacy rates of tooth bleaching were satisfactory, with 86.6%, 86.6%, and 85.1% in the cervical, body, and incisal sites, respectively. The average values of DeltaE were 5.09, 4.44, and 4.40 in the cervical, body, and incisal sites. Tooth bleaching significantly increased L* and significantly decreased a* and b* in all tooth areas (P spectrophotometer could objectively evaluate the whitening effect of tooth bleaching at the different tooth sites. The tooth bleaching system (35%H202 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating) exerts powerful bleaching actions in most of the tooth areas investigated. The order of tooth bleaching effectiveness is cervicalbody>incisal. Yellow coloration is decreased mainly at the cervical site, and brightness was increased mostly at theincisal site. The effectiveness of tooth bleaching increases as the baseline b* value increases.

  10. A multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.; Zane, R.


    We describe a new multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer system, presently being installed at Mees Solar Observatory, Mount Haleakala, Maui. The apparatus is designed to record and interpret intensities from many sections of the visible and near-visible spectral regions simultaneously, with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The detector, a thermoelectrically cooled silicon vidicon camera tube, has its central target area divided into a rectangular array of about 100,000 pixels and is read out in a slow-scan (about 2 sec/frame) mode. Instrument functioning is entirely under PDP 11/45 computer control, and interfacing is via the CAMAC system.

  11. Aberration Correction in the Brewer Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.E.; Kerr, J.B.; McElroy, C.T.; Wardle, D.I.


    The optical design of the Brewer Spectrophotometer has been optimised for measurements in the 300-320 nm wavelength range. An aberration resolution limit that is much less than the 0.6 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) is achieved by using an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer design, modified by the inclusion tilted lens that optimises performance at 310 nm. The small contribution of the remaining aberration to the measured instrument function is critical to radiometric measurement quality. Ramifications of this design to the development of instrumentation with enhanced scanning abilities are discussed. (author)

  12. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.


    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  13. Last improvements of the DTC 1000 spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, F.


    The DTC 1000 spectrophotometer, based on optical fibers and photodiode array was developed for Pu(IV) measurement in fuel reprocessing. The apparatus takes advantage of experience acquired in optical fibers instrumentation and of the study of gamma radiation effects on fibers. This paper give the complete evolution of these last months (memory, hardware, software, background noise). But the principle of the apparatus and examples of results obtained on americium and plutonium on a previous version of the apparatus are recalled. 17 figs., 6 refs [fr

  14. Automated spectrophotometer for plutonium and uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hodgkins, D.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Rein, J.E.


    The automated spectrophotometer described is the first in a planned series of automated instruments for determining plutonium and uranium in nuclear fuel cycle materials. It has a throughput rate of 5 min per sample and uses a highly specific method of analysis for these elements. The range of plutonium and uranium measured is 0.5 to 14 mg and 1 to 14 mg, respectively, in 0.5 ml or less of solution with an option to pre-evaporate larger volumes. The precision of the measurements is about 0.02 mg standard deviation over the range corresponding to about 2 rel percent at the 1-mg level and 0.2 rel percent at the 10-mg level. The method of analysis involves the extraction of tetrapropylammonium plutonyl and uranyl trinitrate complexes into 2-nitropropane and the measurement of the optical absorbances in the organic phase at unique peak wavelengths. Various aspects of the chemistry associated with the method are presented. The automated spectrophotometer features a turntable that rotates as many as 24 samples in tubes to a series of stations for the sequential chemical operations of reagent addition and phase mixing to effect extraction, and then to a station for the absorbance measurement. With this system, the complications of sample transfers and flow-through cells are avoided. The absorbance measurement system features highly stable interference filters and a microcomputer that controls the timing sequence and operation of the system components. Output is a paper tape printout of three numbers: a four-digit number proportional to the quantity of plutonium or uranium, a two-digit number that designates the position of the tube in the turntable, and a one-digit number that designates whether plutonium or uranium was determined. Details of the mechanical and electrical components of the instrument and of the hardware and software aspects of the computerized control system are provided

  15. Development of a new reference spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwinkels, J.C.; Gignac, D.S.


    A new reference spectrophotometer is being developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) for high-accuracy transmittance measurements over the spectral range 200 to 250 nm. This computerized instrument is a single-beam design based upon a servomotor-driven double monochromator with a wavelength resolution of 0.022 nm. The other main components are: two interchangeable sources (deuterium and tungsten-halogen), two computer-selectable TE-cooled detectors (GaAs photomultiplier tube and PbS cell), all-reflective input and exit optics, and a large sample compartment. The significant feature of the optical system is a large, well-collimated measurement beam: the angle of convergence is 0.7 degrees for a slit height of 7 mm, and the maximal beam size is 37 x 20 mm. This beam geometry eliminates the need for polarization corrections (using linearly polarized light) or compensation for spatially non-uniform detector responsivity (using averaging sphere). The paper describes the instrument design and presents data from preliminary performance tests. The systematic and random sources of error that have been investigated include: wavelength accuracy and reproducibility, bandpass, beam uniformity, polarization, stray light, system drift and linearity

  16. A UV-Vis photoacoustic spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Wiegand, Joseph R; Mathews, L Dalila; Smith, Geoffrey D


    A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm(-1) with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm(-1). Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles.

  17. AESoP: Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Linford, Justin; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; Fitch, J.


    The Earth's atmosphere is a major obstruction to the precision and accuracy of ground-based photometry. The atmosphere removes light from astronomical objects both by absorption and scattering by constituent molecules, aerosols and clouds. These effects can change significantly over short time periods and over modest angles on the sky. To further understand these effects, the UNM Measurement Astrophysics Group has designed, built and recently deployed the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (AESoP), a 100mm objective grating spectrometer. By monitoring bright stars in sensibly the same direction as a larger photometric telescope is observing, AESoP will measure the wavelength-dependent extinction due to the Earth's atmosphere from 450nm to 900nm on time scales of approximately one minute. The collocated Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction (ALE) provides a high-precision monochromatic extinction measurement at 527nm. Knowing the extinction at a single wavelength allows us to pin the relative spectra generated by AESoP. These extinction spectra can then be integrated over the bandpass of the photometric telescope system to create real time corrections of observations. We present the design and construction of AESoP along with the preliminary results of our first combined observing campaign. This effort is our first step toward breaking the 1% photometry barrier. This project is funded by AFRL Grant FA9451-04-2-0355

  18. Cuvette and method for measuring refractive index in a spectrophotometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Embodiments of the present invention include a cuvette (100) for use in determining a refractive index of a sample matter in a spectrophotometer (600), the cuvette comprising a container (102) for holding the sample matter, the container (102) having an entry window (121) that allows input...... or integrally formed in the container and arranged in the radiation path, the photonic crystal having a grating part (111) causing a reflectance spectrum of the photonic crystal to exhibit a resonance. A spectrophotometer is also provided....

  19. A simple and low cost dual-wavelength β-correction spectrophotometric determination and speciation of mercury(II) in water using chromogenic reagent 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (United States)

    Al-Bagawi, A. H.; Ahmad, W.; Saigl, Z. M.; Alwael, H.; Al-Harbi, E. A.; El-Shahawi, M. S.


    The most common problems in spectrophotometric determination of various complex species originate from the background spectral interference. Thus, the present study aimed to overcome the spectral matrix interference for the precise analysis and speciation of mercury(II) in water by dual-wavelength β-correction spectrophotometry using 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR) as chromogenic reagent. The principle was based on measuring the correct absorbance for the formed complex of mercury(II) ions with TAR reagent at 547 nm (lambda max). Under optimized conditions, a linear dynamic range of 0.1-2.0 μg mL- 1 with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.997 were obtained with lower limits of detection (LOD) of 0.024 μg mL- 1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.081 μg mL- 1. The values of RSD and relative error (RE) obtained for β-correction method and single wavelength spectrophotometry were 1.3, 1.32% and 4.7, 5.9%, respectively. The method was validated in tap and sea water in terms of the data obtained from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) using student's t and F tests. The developed methodology satisfactorily overcomes the spectral interference in trace determination and speciation of mercury(II) ions in water.

  20. Hand-held spectrophotometer design for textile fabrics (United States)

    Böcekçi, Veysel Gökhan; Yıldız, Kazım


    In this study, a hand-held spectrophotometer was designed by taking advantage of the developments in modern optoelectronic technology. Spectrophotometer devices are used to determine the color information from the optic properties of the materials. As an alternative to a desktop spectrophotometer device we have implemented, it is the first prototype, low cost and portable. The prototype model designed for the textile industry can detect the color tone of any fabric. The prototype model consists of optic sensor, processor, display floors. According to the color applied on the optic sensor, it produces special frequency information on its output at that color value. In Arduino type processor, the frequency information is evaluated by the program we have written and the color tone information between 0-255 ton is decided and displayed on the screen.

  1. Satellite spectrophotometer for research of the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzov, P.; Mardirossian, G.; Stoyanov, S.


    The measurement of atmospheric ozone and its influence upon climate and life on Earth is undoubtedly one of the most pressing issues of present time. A mathematical model of an optical tract of a spectrophotometer has been designed. The paper presents the functional scheme of a satellite optoelectronic spectrophotometer for measuring the total content of atmospheric ozone and other gas components of the atmosphere, which has increased precision, smaller weight and energy consumption, increased space and time resolution, quickness of reaction and increased volume of useful information. The object of the paper is the design of an appliance which ensures research of ozone content in atmosphere from the board of a satellite

  2. Structure analysis of biomolecules using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekko, Kunihiko; Matsuo, Koichi


    We constructed the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrophotometer, which is capable of measuring circular dichroism spectra to 140 nm for aqueous solutions at temperature from -30 to 70degC, using a small-scale SR source at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HiSOR). This spectrophotometer was used for structural analyses of amino acids, saccharides, and proteins in water. The obtained results demonstrate that a synchrotron radiation VUVCD spectroscopy provides more detailed and new information on the structures of biomolecules, based on the high energy transitions of chromophores such as hydroxyl, acetal, and peptide groups. (author)

  3. Isosbestic points in the quality control oF spectrophotometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, E.M. de.


    The methodology and results of quality control of spectrophotometers are reported and the calibrating of the monochromator by isosbestic points is presented. Four colorimetric indicators are used. The absorption curves (in acid and alkaline media) and mathematic determination of the common junction point are used for indicated the isosbetic points. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Reliability of shade selection using an intraoral spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Witkowski, Siegbert; Yajima, Nao-Daniel; Wolkewitz, Martin; Strub, Jorge R


    In this study, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of human tooth shade selection using a digital spectrophotometer. Variability among examiners and illumination conditions were tested for possible influence on measurement reproducibility. Fifteen intact anterior teeth of 15 subjects were evaluated for their shade using a digital spectrophotometer (Crystaleye, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) by two examiners under the same light conditions representing a dental laboratory situation. Each examiner performed the measurement ten times on the labial surface of each tooth containing three evaluation sides (cervical, body, incisal). Commission International on Illumination color space values for L* (lightness), a* (red/green), and b* (yellow/blue) were obtained from each evaluated side. Examiner 2 repeated the measurements of the same subjects under different light conditions (i.e., a dental unit with a chairside lamp). To describe measurement precision, the mean color difference from the mean metric was used. The computed confidence interval (CI) value 5.228 (4.6598-5.8615) reflected (represented) the validity of the measurements. Least square mean analysis of the values obtained by examiners 1 and 2 or under different illumination conditions revealed no statistically significant differences (CI = 95%). Within the limits of the present study, the accuracy and reproducibility of dental shade selection using the tested spectrophotometer with respect to examiner and illumination conditions reflected the reliability of this device. This study suggests that the tested spectrophotometer can be recommended for the clinical application of shade selection.

  5. Fiber optic modification of a diode array spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.


    Fiber optics were adapted to a Hewlett-Packard diode array spectrophotometer to permit the analysis of radioactive samples without risking contamination of the instrument. Instrument performance was not compromised by the fiber optics. The instrument is in routine use at the Savannah River Plant control laboratories

  6. Performance assessment of Vita Easy Shade spectrophotometer on colour measurement of aesthetic dental materials. (United States)

    AlGhazali, N; Burnside, G; Smith, R W; Preston, A J; Jarad, F D


    Four different shades were used to produce 20 samples of resin-based composite and 20 samples of porcelain to evaluate the performance ability of an intra oral test spectrophotometer compared to a reference spectrophotometer. The absolute colour coordinates CIELAB values measured with both spectrophotometers were significantly different (p spectrophotometers (p < 0.05). Therefore, the Easy Shade can be used in dental practice and dental research with some limitations.

  7. 21 CFR 862.2300 - Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2300 Colorimeter, photometer, or spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A colorimeter, a photometer, or a spectrophotometer for clinical use is an...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2850 - Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical... Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify and measure...

  9. Non-focusing optics spectrophotometer, and methods of use (United States)

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.


    In one aspect, the present invention provides kinetic spectrophotometers that each comprise: (a) a light source; and (b) a compound parabolic concentrator disposed to receive light from the light source and configured to (1) intensify and diffuse the light received from the light source, and (2) direct the intensified and diffused light onto a sample. In other aspects, the present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter, the methods comprising the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer of the invention to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a value for a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data.

  10. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.


    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  11. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance (United States)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.


    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  12. Online analysis by a fiber-optic diode array spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.


    An online photometric analyzer has been developed which can make remote measurements over the 350 to 900 nm region at distances of up to 100 feet. The analyzer consists of a commercially available diode array spectrophotometer interfaced to a fiber-optic multiplexer to allow online monitoring of up to ten locations sequentially. The development of the fiber-optic interface is discussed and data from several online applications are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system

  13. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Fukuyama, T.; Yonehara, R.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Gekko, K.


    We have constructed a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrophotometer using a synchrotron radiation and an assembled-type MgF 2 cell endurable under a high vacuum, to measure the CD spectra of biomaterials in aqueous solutions from 310 to 140 nm. To avoid the absorption of light by air and water vapor, all optical devices of the spectrophotometer were set up under a high vacuum (10 -4 Pa). A path length of the optical cell can be adjusted by various Teflon spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 μm and its temperature can be controlled to an accuracy of ±1 deg. C over the range from -30 to 70 deg. C by a temperature-control unit using a Peltier thermoelectric element. The performance of the spectrophotometer and the optical cell constructed was tested by measuring the CD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate, D- and L-isomers of amino acids, and myoglobin in aqueous solutions. The spectra obtained demonstrate that the optical system and the sample cell constructed operate normally under a high vacuum and provide useful information on the structure of biomolecules based on the higher energy chromophores

  14. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsu, K.; Yonehara, R.; Gekko, K.


    Full text: Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is powerful for analyzing the structure of optically active materials such as biopolymers. However, no commercial CD spectrophotometer is capable of measuring the CD in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region below 190 nm because of technical difficulties involved in the light source, optical device, and sample cell. CD measurements extended to the VUV region can provide more detailed and new information on the structure of biopolymers based on the higher energy transition of chromophores such as hydroxyl and acetal groups. We have constructed a VUVCD spectrophotometer to measure the CD spectra of biomaterials in aqueous solutions in the 310-140 nm wavelength region under a high vacuum, using a small-scale SR source (0.7 GeV) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HiSOR). All optical devices of the spectrophotometer were set up under a high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), to avoid the absorption of light by air and water vapor. The SR light is separated into two orthogonal linearly polarized light beams by a linear polarizer and then modulated to circularly polarized light at 50 kHz by a photo-elastic modulator (PEM). In order to control PEM accurately and to stabilize the lock-in amplifier under a high vacuum, we used the optical servo-control system. Also, an assembled-type MgF 2 cell with a temperature-control unit was constructed using a Peltier thermoelectric element. Its path length can be adjusted by various Tefron spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 μm and its temperature can be controlled within an accuracy of ± 1 deg C in the range from -30 to 70 deg C. The performance of the spectrophotometer and MgF 2 cell constructed was tested by monitoring the CD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate (ACS), D- and L-isomers of amino acids. These obtained results demonstrate that the optical system and the sample cell constructed normally operate under a high vacuum to provide useful information on the structure analysis of

  15. [In vivo model to evaluate the accuracy of complete-tooth spectrophotometer for dental clinics]. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yang, Jian; Xu, Tong-Kai; Xu, Ming-Ming; Ma, Yu


    To test ΔE between measured value and right value from the Crystaleye complete-tooth spectrophotometer, and to evaluate the accuracy rate of the spectrophotometer. Twenty prosthodontists participated in the study. Each of them used Vita 3D-Master shadeguide to do the shade matching, and used Crystaleye complete-tooth spectrophotometer (before and after the test training) tested the middle of eight fixed tabs from shadeguide in the dark box. The results of shade matching and spectrophotometer were recorded. The accuracy rate of shade matching and the spectrophotometer before and after training were calculated. The average accuracy rate of shade matching was 49%. The average accuracy rate of the spectrophotometer before and after training was 83% and 99%. The accuracy of the spectrophotometer was significant higher than that in shade matching, and training can improve the accuracy rate.

  16. Automated atomic absorption spectrophotometer, utilizing a programmable desk calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futrell, T.L.; Morrow, R.W.


    A commercial, double-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer has been interfaced with a sample changer and a Hewlett-Packard 9810A calculator to yield a completely automated analysis system. The interface electronics can be easily constructed and should be adaptable to any double-beam atomic absorption instrument. The calculator is easily programmed and can be used for general laboratory purposes when not operating the instrument. The automated system has been shown to perform very satisfactorily when operated unattended to analyze a large number of samples. Performance statistics agree well with a manually operated instrument

  17. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft (United States)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Briehl, D. C.


    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  18. UV-observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg (United States)

    Vandersee, Winfried; Koehler, U.


    Regular spectral UV-B measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been performed at Hohenpeissenberg since 1990. Intercomparison of the Brewer instrument with other UV-B monitoring devices have shown agreement to within plus or minus 10 percent. Comparisons of UV-B spectra measured on fair weather days reveal the well known increasing influence of ozone on UV-B irradiance with decreasing wavelengths. The integral amplification factor the erythemal irradiance reaches values up to 2.8, which can be diminished by increasing turbidity. The influence of cirrus cloud on the UV-B is also shown.

  19. Simple LED spectrophotometer for analysis of color information. (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Kim, A-Hee; Oh, Han-Byeol; Goh, Bong-Jun; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jun-Sik; Jung, Gu-In; Baek, Jin-Young; Jun, Jae-Hoon


    A spectrophotometer is the basic measuring equipment essential to most research activity fields requiring samples to be measured, such as physics, biotechnology and food engineering. This paper proposes a system that is able to detect sample concentration and color information by using LED and color sensor. Purity and wavelength information can be detected by CIE diagram, and the concentration can be estimated with purity information. This method is more economical and efficient than existing spectrophotometry, and can also be used by ordinary persons. This contribution is applicable to a number of fields because it can be used as a colorimeter to detect the wavelength and purity of samples.

  20. Results of international Dobson spectrophotometer calibrations at Arosa, Switzerland, 1990 (United States)

    Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Koenig, G. L.; Evans, R. D.


    An international comparison of Dobson ozone spectrophotometers, organized and partially funded by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), was held at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO) in Arosa, Switzerland, July-August 1990. Countries participating with a total of 18 Dobson instruments were Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the United Soviet Socialist Republics. The reference standard instrument for the comparison was U.S.A. Secondary Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer 65 maintained by the NOAA Climate and Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. The mean difference in ozone obtained with the Dobson instruments relative to Dobson instrument 65, calculated from ADDSGQP observations in the air mass range 1.15-3.2, was minus 1.0 plus or minus 1.2 (1 sigma) percent. The WMO Standard Brewer Spectrometer 39 also participated. In the mean, the Brewer instrument measured 0.6 plus or minus 0.2 (1 sigma) percent more ozone than did Dobson instrument 65. Results are presented, also, of ozone vertical profile measurements made with the Dobson instruments, two Brewer spectrometers, a LIDAR, a balloon ozonesonde flown from Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, and balloon ozonesondes flown from Payerne, Switzerland.

  1. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu


    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed.

  2. [A micro-silicon multi-slit spectrophotometer based on MEMS technology]. (United States)

    Hao, Peng; Wu, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong-Shun; Zhang, Ke; Li, Hai-Wen


    A new mini-spectrophotometer was developed by adopting micro-silicon slit and pixel segmentation technology, and this spectrophotometer used photoelectron diode array as the detector by the back-dividing-light way. At first, the effect of the spectral bandwidth on the tested absorbance linear correlation was analyzed. A theory for the design of spectrophotometer's slit was brought forward after discussing the relationships between spectrophotometer spectrum band width and pre-and post-slits width. Then, the integrative micro-silicon-slit, which features small volume, high precision, and thin thickness, was manufactured based on the MEMS technology. Finally, a test was carried on linear absorbance solution by this spectrophotometer. The final result showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0.999, which means that the new mini-spectrophotometer with micro-silicon slit pixel segmentation has an obvious linear correlation.

  3. PC based data system for infrared spectrophotometer PU-9512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mohd Yakub; Venkiteswaran, S.; Nagar, M.S.


    This report summarises the upgrading of an old Infra Red Spectrophotometer using a pc for control, data acquisition, storage and analysis. The hardware link is made through RS232C serial port. The control and data management is achieved through software. A brief account of the facilities provided and versatility of the analysis package which was developed in-house in a user friendly menu driven fashion is given here. This is supported by the analysis and inter comparison of infra red spectra of organic/inorganic reactants and products. It has specific application in synthesis and characterization of new extractants, solvents, actinide and lanthanide complexes and in the study of thermally and radiolytically degraded products. (author)

  4. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.


    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  5. Estimation of total alkaloid in Chitrakadivati by UV-Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Ajanal, Manjunath; Gundkalle, Mahadev B; Nayak, Shradda U


    Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids. Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG). Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascola, R


    The H Canyon online spectrophotometers are calibrated for measurement of the uranium and nitric acid concentrations of several tanks in the 2nd Uranium Cycle.[1] The spectrometers, flow cells, and prediction models are currently optimized for a process in which uranium concentrations are expected to range from 0-15 g/L and nitric acid concentrations from 0.05-6 M. However, an upcoming processing campaign will involve 'Super Kukla' material, which has a lower than usual enrichment of fissionable uranium. Total uranium concentrations will be higher, spanning approximately 0-30 g/L U, with no change in the nitric acid concentrations. The new processing conditions require the installation of new flow cells with shorter path lengths. As the process solutions have a higher uranium concentration, the shorter path length is required to decrease the absorptivity to values closer to the optimal range for the instrument. Also, new uranium and nitric acid prediction models are required to span the extended uranium concentration range. The models will be developed for the 17.5 and 15.4 tanks, for which nitric acid concentrations will not exceed 1 M. The restricted acid range compared to the original models is anticipated to reduce the measurement uncertainty for both uranium and nitric acid. The online spectrophotometers in H Canyon Second Uranium Cycle were modified to allow measurement of uranium and nitric acid for the Super Kukla processing campaign. The expected uranium concentrations, which are higher than those that have been recently processed, required new flow cells with one-third the optical path length of the existing cells. Also, new uranium and nitric acid calibrations were made. The estimated reading uncertainties (2σ) for Tanks 15.4 and 17.5 are ∼5% for uranium and ∼25% for nitric acid

  7. Compensation for the temperature drift of the wavelength adjustment in an acoustooptic spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenskii, A V; Lysoi, B G; Cherednichenko, O B


    It is shown that the temperature drift of the wavelength adjustment in acoustooptic spectrophotometers can be compensated by using the reference channel of the spectrophotometer in which the absorption lines of neodymium-doped yttrium - aluminium garnet are employed as reference lines.

  8. The Spectrophotometer II: A Module on the Spectral Properties of Light. Tech Physics Series. (United States)

    Frank, Nathaniel; And Others

    This module is designed to give the learner an understanding of the nature of light and how its properties are used in the design of spectrophotometers. Problems promote the use of spectrophotometers in qualitative analysis, the optical elements used in a monochromator, and the physical properties of the prism and the diffraction grating. Other…

  9. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.Y.; Duan, J.L.; Maekawa, Y.; Koshikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.


    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm -1 . Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  10. Comparation studies of uranium analysis method using spectrophotometer and voltammeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugeng Pomomo


    Comparation studies of uranium analysis method by spectrophotometer and voltammeter had been done. The objective of experiment is to examine the reliability of analysis method and instrument performance by evaluate parameters; linearity, accuracy, precision and detection limit. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is used as standard, and the sample is solvent mixture of tributyl phosphate and kerosene containing uranium (from phosphoric acid purification unit Petrokimia Gresik). Uranium (U) stripping in the sample use HN0 3 0,5 N and then was analyzed by using of both instrument. Analysis of standard show that both methods give a good linearity by correlation coefficient > 0,999. Spectrophotometry give accuration 99,34 - 101,05 % with ratio standard deviation (RSD) 1,03 %; detection limit (DL) 0,05 ppm. Voltammetry give accuration 95,63 -101,49 % with RSD 3,91 %; detection limit (DL) 0,509 ppm. On the analysis of sludge samples were given the significantly different in result; spectrophotometry give U concentration 4,445 ppm by RSD 6,74 % and voltammetry give U concentration 7,693 by RSD 19,53%. (author)

  11. Construction of a photochemical reactor combining a CCD spectrophotometer and a LED radiation source. (United States)

    Gombár, Melinda; Józsa, Éva; Braun, Mihály; Ősz, Katalin


    An inexpensive photoreactor using LED light sources and a fibre-optic CCD spectrophotometer as a detector was built by designing a special cell holder for standard 1.000 cm cuvettes. The use of this device was demonstrated by studying the aqueous photochemical reaction of 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. The developed method combines the highly quantitative data collection of CCD spectrophotometers with the possibility of illuminating the sample independently of the detecting light beam, which is a substantial improvement of the method using diode array spectrophotometers as photoreactors.

  12. Signal-to-noise optimization and evaluation of a home-made visible diode-array spectrophotometer (United States)

    Raimundo, Jr., Ivo M.; Pasquini, Celio


    This paper describes a simple low-cost multichannel visible spectrophotometer built with an RL512G EGG-Reticon photodiode array. A symmetric Czerny-Turner optical design was employed; instrument control was via a single-board microcomputer based on the 8085 Intel microprocessor. Spectral intensity data are stored in the single-board's RAM and then transferred to an IBM-AT 3865X compatible microcomputer through a RS-232C interface. This external microcomputer processes the data to recover transmittance, absorbance or relative intensity of the spectra. The signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range were improved by using variable integration times, which increase during the same scan; and by the use of either weighted or unweighted sliding average of consecutive diodes. The instrument is suitable for automatic methods requiring quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength detections, such as multivariative calibration and flow-injection gradient scan techniques. PMID:18924979

  13. Skin color analysis using a spectrophotometer in Asians. (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Lee, Won Jai; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Yong Oock; Park, Be-young Yun


    To objectively describe skin color, the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color coordinates and melanin and erythema indexes are used. However, it was difficult to understand the relationship among these parameters and to convert them into each other. We introduced a new technique to measure L*a*b* color coordinates and the melanin and erythema indexes at the same time. We analyzed the skin color of normal Asians using this method. The skin color of the forehead, cheek, upper inner arm, dorsum of hand, and anterior chest of 148 volunteers was measured using a spectrophotometer. Using a computer analysis program, L*a*b* values and the melanin and erythema indexes were presented at the same time. The averages of these data were shown according to gender, age, body parts, and correlations among the melanin and erythema indexes and L*a*b* color coordinates, and then they were analyzed. The averages of the melanin and erythema indexes of 148 participants were 1.10 +/- 0.29 and 1.29 +/- 0.38, respectively. The averages of the L*, a*, and b* values were 64.15 +/- 4.86, 8.96 +/- 2.65, and 18.34 +/- 2.39, respectively. The melanin and erythema indexes were higher in males than in females. While the correlation of the melanin index with the L* value was negative, it was positively correlated with the a* and b* values. While the erythema index showed a weak correlation with the b* value, its correlation was negative with the L* value and positive with the a* value. Our method of skin color measurement is useful. We consider the data of this study valuable basic data for the evaluation of colors of pigmental skin diseases and scars in the future.

  14. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.


    Five ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer nitrate analyzers were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) during a two-phase evaluation. In Phase I, the TriOS ProPs (10-millimeter (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-mm path length), Satlantic Submersible UV Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA, 10-mm path length), and S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5-mm path length) were evaluated in the HIF Water-Quality Servicing Laboratory to determine the validity of the manufacturer's technical specifications for accuracy, limit of linearity (LOL), drift, and range of operating temperature. Accuracy specifications were met in the TriOS, Hach, and SUNA. The stock calibration of the S::CAN required two offset adjustments before the analyzer met the manufacturer's accuracy specification. Instrument drift was observed only in the S::CAN and was the result of leaching from the optical path insert seals. All tested models, except for the Hach, met their specified LOL in the laboratory testing. The Hach's range was found to be approximately 18 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg-N/L) and not the manufacturer-specified 25 mg-N/L. Measurements by all of the tested analyzers showed signs of hysteresis in the operating temperature tests. Only the SUNA measurements demonstrated excessive noise and instability in temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius (°C). The SUNA analyzer was returned to the manufacturer at the completion of the Phase II field deployment evaluation for repair and recalibration, and the performance of the sensor improved significantly.

  15. Determination of the Performance Parameters of a Spectrophotometer: An Advanced Experiment. (United States)

    Cope, Virgil W.


    Describes an advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment developed for the determination of the performance parameters of a spectrophotometer. Among the parameters are the baseline linearity with wavelength, wavelength accuracy and respectability, stray light, noise level and pen response time. (HM)

  16. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Conceição, F C; Borges, P P; Gomes, J F S


    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K_2Cr_2O_7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses. (paper)

  17. Evaluation of accuracy of shade selection using two spectrophotometer systems: Vita Easyshade and Degudent Shadepilot. (United States)

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan; Ghoraishian, Seyed Ahmad; Mohaghegh, Mina


    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of shade matching using two spectrophotometric devices. Thirteen patients who require a full coverage restoration for one of their maxillary central incisors were selected while the adjacent central incisor was intact. 3 same frameworks were constructed for each tooth using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology. Shade matching was performed using Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer, Shadepilot spectrophotometer, and Vitapan classical shade guide for the first, second, and third crown subsequently. After application, firing, and glazing of the porcelain, the color was evaluated and scored by five inspectors. Both spectrophotometric systems showed significantly better results than visual method ( P spectrophotometers ( P Spectrophotometers are a good substitute for visual color selection methods.

  18. An extinction scale-expansion unit for the Beckman DK2 spectrophotometer (United States)

    Dixon, M.


    The paper describes a simple but accurate unit for the Beckman DK2 recording spectrophotometer, whereby any 0·1 section of the extinction (`absorbance') scale may be expanded tenfold, while preserving complete linearity in extinction. PMID:6048800

  19. Versatile IEEE-488 data acquisition and control routines for a diode array spectrophotometer


    Shiundu, Paul M.; Wade, Adrian P.


    The UV-visible diode array spectrophotometer is a work-horse instrument for many laboratories. This article provides simple data acquisition and control routines in Microsoft QuickBasic for a HP-8452A diode array spectrophotometer interfaced to an IBM PC/XT/AT, or compatible, microcomputer. These allow capture of full spectra and measure absorbance at one or several wavelengths at preset time intervals. The variance in absorbance at each wavelength is available as an option.

  20. Versatile IEEE-488 data acquisition and control routines for a diode array spectrophotometer (United States)

    Shiundu, Paul M.


    The UV-visible diode array spectrophotometer is a work-horse instrument for many laboratories. This article provides simple data acquisition and control routines in Microsoft QuickBasic for a HP-8452A diode array spectrophotometer interfaced to an IBM PC/XT/AT, or compatible, microcomputer. These allow capture of full spectra and measure absorbance at one or several wavelengths at preset time intervals. The variance in absorbance at each wavelength is available as an option. PMID:18924888

  1. Using a digital multimeter to capture spectral information generated by a spectrophotometer broadcast / atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Chaves, Alberto E.


    Spectral analysis capability of the information generated by a spectrophotometer broadcast / shimadzu AA 640-13 atomic absorption has increased, through the capture of data, using a digital multimeter as the interface between the spectrophotometer and a computer. To facilitate the identification of analytes was created Chromulan format files for the 99 chemical elements reported in the literature, and covering the region between 200 nm and 900 nm, the subject of this study. (author) [es

  2. Non-destructive assessment of grapevine water status in the field using a portable NIR spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Gutiérrez, Salvador; Diago, Maria Paz


    Until now, the majority of methods employed to assess grapevine water status have been destructive, time-intensive, costly and provide information of a limited number of samples, thus the ability of revealing within-field water status variability is reduced. The goal of this work was to evaluate the capability of non-invasive, portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy acquired in the field, to assess the grapevine water status in diverse varieties, grown under different environmental conditions, in a fast and reliable way. The research was conducted 2 weeks before harvest in 2012, in two commercial vineyards, planted with eight different varieties. Spectral measurements were acquired in the field on the adaxial and abaxial sides of 160 individual leaves (20 leaves per variety) using a commercially available handheld spectrophotometer (1600-2400 nm). Principal component analysis (PCA) and modified partial least squares (MPLS) were used to interpret the spectra and to develop reliable prediction models for stem water potential (Ψ s ) (cross-validation correlation coefficient (r cv ) ranged from 0.77 to 0.93, and standard error of cross validation (SECV) ranged from 0.10 to 0.23), and leaf relative water content (RWC) (r cv ranged from 0.66 to 0.81, and SECV between 1.93 and 3.20). The performance differences between models built from abaxial and adaxial-acquired spectra is also discussed. The capability of non-invasive NIR spectroscopy to reliably assess the grapevine water status under field conditions was proved. This technique can be a suitable and promising tool to appraise within-field variability of plant water status, helpful to define optimised irrigation strategies in the wine industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Clinical evaluation of a dental color analysis system: the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer®. (United States)

    Odaira, Chikayuki; Itoh, Sozo; Ishibashi, Kanji


    To evaluate the clinical performance of the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®), a dental color analysis system. Three color-measuring devices (Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®), CAS-ID1, MSC-2000) were tested and the differences in color measurements among them were evaluated using Scheffe's F-test. Color measurements with the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) were repeated 10 times by the same operator. The color difference (ΔE) between the first and tenth measurements was calculated. The Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) was used to measure the color of the maxillary left central incisor under two conditions (light and dark) and the effect of exterior lighting was analyzed to assess the accuracy of measurements. Furthermore, five different operators performed color measurements, and ΔE among the three devices was calculated. The ΔE between the target tooth and the crown of a single maxillary central incisor crown fabricated using data from the Crystaleye Spectrophotmeter(®) was calculated. Color differences between prebleaching and postbleaching were also analyzed with the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) using the parameters ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*. The data from the three spectrophotometers were not significantly different. The ΔE during repeated color measurements by the same operator was 0.6. The ΔE between light and dark conditions was 0.9. The data from the five operators were not significantly different. The mean ΔE value between the target tooth and the fabricated crown was 1.2 ± 0.4, and the mean ΔE value between prebleaching and postbleaching was 3.7 ± 1.0. The Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) is an easy-to-use color analysis system producing accurate color measurements under clinical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm


    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer.

  5. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi


    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  6. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer automation system. Part 3: Program documentation (United States)

    Roth, G. S.; Teuschler, J. M.; Budde, W. L.


    The Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UVVIS) automation system accomplishes 'on-line' spectrophotometric quality assurance determinations, report generations, plot generations and data reduction for chlorophyll or color analysis. This system also has the capability to process manually entered data for the analysis of chlorophyll or color. For each program of the UVVIS system, this document contains a program description, flowchart, variable dictionary, code listing, and symbol cross-reference table. Also included are descriptions of file structures and of routines common to all automated analyses. The programs are written in Data General extended BASIC, Revision 4.3, under the RDOS operating systems, Revision 6.2. The BASIC code has been enhanced for real-time data acquisition, which is accomplished by CALLS to assembly language subroutines. Two other related publications are 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part I Functional Specifications,' and 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part II User's Guide.'

  7. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism of amino acids as revealed by synchrotron radiation spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Koichi; Matsushima, Yosuke; Fukuyama, Takayuki; Gekko, Kunihiko; Senba, Shinya


    We succeeded in constructing a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrophotometer with a small-scale synchrotron radiation source (0.7 GeV) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HiSOR). This VUVCD system revealed for the first time the CD spectra of amino acids in aqueous media in the 310-140 nm region under high vacuum. These data, which cannot be observed by any types of existing CD spectrophotometers, now open a new field in the structural analysis of biomaterials on a basis of the higher energy transition of chromophores. (author)

  8. Shade determination using camouflaged visual shade guides and an electronic spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Kvalheim, S F; Øilo, M


    The aim of the present study was to compare a camouflaged visual shade guide to a spectrophotometer designed for restorative dentistry. Two operators performed analyses of 66 subjects. One central upper incisor was measured four times by each operator; twice with a camouflaged visual shade guide and twice with a spectrophotometer Both methods had acceptable repeatability rates, but the electronic shade determination showed higher repeatability. In general, the electronically determined shades were darker than the visually determined shades. The use of a camouflaged visual shade guide seems to be an adequate method to reduce operator bias.

  9. PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. II. The Wide Integral Field Unit PPak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelz, Andreas; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Roth, Martin M.; Bauer, Svend M.; Becker, Thomas; Paschke, Jens; Popow, Emil; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Laux, Uwe


    PPak is a new fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) developed at the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam and implemented as a module into the existing Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) spectrograph. The purpose of PPak is to provide an extended field of view with a large

  10. Spectrophotometer and ultrasound evaluation of late toxicity following breast-cancer radiotherapy. (United States)

    Yoshida, E J; Chen, H; Torres, M A; Curran, W J; Liu, T


    Radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicities are common, complex, and distressing side effects that affect 90% of patients receiving breast-cancer radiotherapy and 40% of patients post radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated the use of spectrophotometry and ultrasound to quantitatively measure radiation-induced skin discoloration and subcutaneous-tissue fibrosis. The study's purpose is to determine whether skin discoloration correlates with the development of fibrosis in breast-cancer radiotherapy. Eighteen breast-cancer patients were enrolled in our initial study. All patients were previously treated with a standard course of radiation, and the median follow-up time was 22 months. The treated and untreated breasts were scanned with a spectrophotometer and an ultrasound. Two spectrophotometer parameters-melanin and erythema indices-were used to quantitatively assess skin discoloration. Two ultrasound parameters-skin thickness and Pearson coefficient of the hypodermis-were used to quantitatively assess severity of fibrosis. These measurements were correlated with clinical assessments (RTOG late morbidity scores). Significant measurement differences between the treated and contralateral breasts were observed among all patients: 27.3% mean increase in skin thickness (p spectrophotometer parameters do not correlate with ultrasound parameters. Spectrophotometry and quantitative ultrasound are objective tools that assess radiation-induced tissue injury. Spectrophotometer parameters did not correlate with those of quantitative ultrasound suggesting that skin discoloration cannot be used as a marker for subcutaneous fibrosis. These tools may prove useful for the reduction of radiation morbidities and improvement of patient quality of life.

  11. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination]. (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong


    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  12. An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L.


    Qualitative analysis schemes are used in undergraduate laboratory settings as a way to introduce equilibrium concepts and logical thinking. The main component of all qualitative analysis schemes is a flame test, as the color of light emitted from certain elements is distinctive and a flame photometer or spectrophotometer in each laboratory is…

  13. Authentic Performance in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory: Building a Visible Spectrophotometer Prototype (United States)

    Wilson, Mark V.; Wilson, Erin


    In this work we describe an authentic performance project for Instrumental Analysis in which students designed, built, and tested spectrophotometers made from simple components. The project addressed basic course content such as instrument design principles, UV-vis spectroscopy, and spectroscopic instrument components as well as skills such as…

  14. Utilization of Android-base Smartphone to Support Handmade Spectrophotometer : A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Ujiningtyas, R.; Apriliani, E.; Yohana, I.; Afrillianti, L.; Hikmah, N.; Kurniawan, C.


    Visible spectrophotometer is a powerful instrument in chemistry. We can identify the chemical species base on their specific color and then we can also determine the amount of the species using the spectrophotometer. However, the availability of visible spectrophotometer still limited, particularly for education. This affect the skill of student to have experience on handling the instrumentation. On the other hand, the communication technology creates an opportunity for student to explore their smart feature, mainly the camera. The objective of this research is to make an application that utilize the camera feature as a detector for handmade visible spectrophotometer. The software have been made based on android program, and we name it as Spectrophone®. The spectrophotometer consists of an acrylic body, sample compartment, and light sources (USB-LED lamp powered by 6600 mAh battery). Before reach the sample, the light source was filtered using colored-mica plastic. The spectrophone® apps utilize the camera to detect the color based on its RGB composition. A different colored solution will show a different RGB composition based on the concentration and specific absorbance wavelength. We then can choose one type of color composition, R or G or B only to be converted as an absorbance using -Log (Cs/Co), where Cs and Co are color composition of sample and blank, respectively. The calibration curve of metilen blue measured. In a red (R) composition, the regression is not linear (R2=0.78) compare to the result of UV-Vis spectrophotomer model Spectroquant Pharo 300 (R2=0.8053). This measurement result shows that The Spectrophone® still need to be evaluated and corrected. One problem than can we identify that the diameter of pick point of RGB composition is too wide and this will affect the reading color composition. Next, we will fix the problem and in advance we will apply this Spectrophone® in a wide scale.

  15. Low-Profile, Dual-Wavelength, Dual-Polarized Antenna (United States)

    Carswell, James R.


    A single-aperture, low-profile antenna design has been developed that supports dual-polarization and simultaneous operation at two wavelengths. It realizes multiple beams in the elevation plane, and supports radiometric, radar, and conical scanning applications. This antenna consists of multiple azimuth sticks, with each stick being a multilayer, hybrid design. Each stick forms the h-plane pattern of the C and Ku-band vertically and horizontally polarized antenna beams. By combining several azimuth sticks together, the elevation beam is formed. With a separate transceiver for each stick, the transmit phase and amplitude of each stick can be controlled to synthesize a beam at a specific incidence angle and to realize a particular side-lobe pattern. By changing the transmit phase distribution through the transceivers, the transmit antenna beam can be steered to different incidence angles. By controlling the amplitude distribution, different side lobe patterns and efficiencies can be realized. The receive beams are formed using digital beam synthesis techniques, resulting in very little loss in the receive path, thus enabling a very-low loss receive antenna to support passive measurements.

  16. Vertical integration of dual wavelength index guided lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karouta, F.; Tan, H.H.; Jagadish, C.; Roy, van B.H.


    The vertical integration of two GaAs-based lasers operating at different wavelengths has been achieved with the use of re-growth technology. A V-channel substrate inner stripe structure was used for the bottom laser and a ridge waveguide for the top laser. Both lasers shared a common electrode and

  17. Passively synchronized dual-wavelength Q-switched lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp

    We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG.......We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG....

  18. Development of a Novel Spectrophotometer for Biochemical Analyzer Based on Volume Holography Transmissive Grating and Linear CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhong; Liu Guodong; Huang Zhen; Zeng Lvming; Dai Longmin


    The classical surface-embossed plane and concave grating are usually used as the diffraction grating in some spectrophotometers. But the minute cracks are produced on the surface of the gratings' grooves, which leads to generate the stray-light and decrease the efficiency of instrument. Therefore, a novel custom-built spectrophotometer for BCA is developed in this paper. Meanwhile, the volume holography transmissive (VHT) grating is used as the diffraction grating in this spectrophotometer. Additionally, a high resolution CCD and data acquisition (DAQ) card with combined the virtual software platform based on LabVIEW are used to design the spectral acquisition and analysis system. Experimental results show that the spectral range and the diffraction efficiency of the spectrophotometer for BCA are greatly increased. The spectral range of the spectrophotometer for BCA can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm. And, it uses the back-splitting-light technology and multi-channel parallel analysis. Compared with other same types, this spectrophotometer has many advantages, such as, higher efficiency, simpler algorithm, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and fewer stray-light and higher imaging quality, etc. Therefore, this spectrophotometer for BCA based on VHT grating will has the greatly potential values in the fields of the biochemical or medical research.

  19. Interference of different ionic species on the analysis of phosphate in HLW using spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.; Ghongane, D.E.; Valsala, T.P.; Sonavane, M.S.; Kulkarni, Y.; Changrani, R.D.


    During reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by PUREX process different categories of radioactive liquid wastes like High Level (HL), Intermediate Level (IL) and Low Level (LL) are generated. Different methodologies are adopted for management of these wastes. Since PUREX solvent (30% Tri butyl phosphate-70% Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon) undergoes chemical degradation in the highly acidic medium of dissolver solution, presence of phosphate in the waste streams is inevitable. Since higher concentrations of phosphate in the HLW streams will affect its management by vitrification, knowledge about the concentration of phosphate in the waste is essential before finalising the glass composition. Since a large number of anionic and cationic species are present in the waste, these species may interfere phosphate analysis using spectrophotometer. In the present work, the interference of different anionic and cationic species on the analysis of phosphate in waste solutions using spectrophotometer was studied

  20. Use of the SF-8 detection spectrophotometer for measuring absorption spectra of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlin, V.P.; Barbanel', Yu.A.


    Three versions of the use of the SF-8 spectrophotometer for high-temperature measurements are described: 1) based on the standard optical scheme at temperatures of up to 400 0 C; 2) based on a modified one-wave scheme; 3) based on a modified twin-wave scheme. The external heater used in the schemes 2 and 3 ensures that measurements can be performed at temperatures of up to 1000 0 C. In order to obtain the spectra of thin-layer samples vessels with an insert are used. For operation of the spectrophotometer according to the schemes 2 and 3 te heater may in principle be replaced by a cryostat or some other external device

  1. Application of ZnO Nanoparticle as Sulphide Gas Sensor Using UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliasih, N; Buchari; Noviandri, I


    The nanoparticle of metal oxides has great unique characteristics that applicable to the wide industrial as sensors and catalysts for reducing environmental pollution. Sulphide gas monitors and detectors are required for assessing safety aspects, due to its toxicity level. A thin film of ZnO as the sulphide gas sensor was synthesised by the simple method of chemical liquid deposition with variation of annealing temperature from 200 ºC to 500 ºC, and characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer. Characterization studies showed nanoparticle size from the range 62 – 92 nm of diameters. The application this ZnO thin film to sulfide gas, detected by UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer with diffuse reflectance, showed specific chemical reaction by the shifting of maximum % Reflectance peak. The gas sensing using this method is applicable at room. (paper)

  2. Construction, calibration, and application of a compact spectrophotometer for EUV(300-2500 A) plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, H.W.; Chen, K.I.; Terry, J.L.


    A 400-mm normal incidence concave grating spectrophotometer, specifically designed for plasma diagnostics, is described. The wavelength drive, in which the grating is translated as well as rotated, is discussed in detail; the wavelength linearity of the sine drive and methods of improving it are analyzed. The instrument can be used in any orientation, is portable under vacuum, and quite rugged. The construction techniques utilized produce a high quality vacuum making the instrument compatible with both high purity plasma devices and synchrotron radiation sources. The photometric sensitivity calibration was found to be very stable during extended use on high temperature plasma devices. The applications of the instrument to diagnose plasmas in two tokamaks and a mirror device are decribed. A facility used for photometric calibration of extreme ultraviolet (lambda>300-A) spectrophotometers against NBS standard diodes is described. The instrumental calibration obtained using this facility was checked by using synchrotron radiation from SURF II; very good agreement was observed

  3. Differences between the human eye and the spectrophotometer in the shade matching of tooth colour. (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Gómez-Polo, Miguel; Celemin-Viñuela, Alicia; Martínez Vázquez De Parga, Juan Antonio


    The aim of this work was to assess the agreement between instrumental and visual colour matching. Shade selection with the 3DMaster Toothguide (Vita-Zahnfabrik) was performed for 1361 maxillary central incisors and compared with the shade obtained with the EasyShade Compact (Vita-Zahnfabrik) spectrophotometer. We observed a greater correlation between the objective method and the subjective one in the colour dimension of lightness (Kappa 0.6587), followed by hue (Kappa 0.4337) and finally chroma (Kappa 0.3578). The colour dimension in which the greatest agreement is seen between the operator and the spectrophotometer is value or lightness. This study reveals differences between the measurement of colour via spectrophotometry and the visual shade selection method. According to our results, there is better agreement in the value or lightness colour dimension, which is the most important one in the choice of tooth colour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flameless atomic absorption determination of ruthenium using a ''Saturn-1'' spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichkov, V.N.; Sinitsyn, N.M.; Sadikova, F.G.; Govorova, M.I.; Yakshinskij, A.I.


    A flameless atomic absorption method is suggested for determining ruthenium in samples of complicated composition using a ''Saturn-1'' spectrophotometer with a L'vov graphite cuvette. The method was used for determining ruthenium in a copper-based sample (10 -3 % Ru) and in electrolyte slurries (10 -3 -10 -2 %). The limit of detection Csub(min, 0.95) = 3.0x10 -3 μg Ru/ml. Other platinum metals do not interfere [ru

  5. Development of optical spectrum acquisition with spectrophotometer for characterization of optical radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Vargas, Alvaro


    An improved process of the data acquisition system is developed with Pasco 750 interface and Pasco OS-8539 spectrophotometer. The optical spectrum and color temperature of incandescent sources available are obtained from the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada. The procedures developed in the project are recommended to collect data and analyze results. The purchase of a new Software and the interface of Pasco is recommended to have a better operation and update [es

  6. Development of Simple and Precise Method of Arginine Determination in Rumen Fluid by Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacher, B.; Marghazani, I. B.; Liu, J. X.; Liu, H. Y.


    The objective of current study was to build up a convenient, economic and accurate procedure to determine arginine (ARG) concentration in rumen fluid. Rumen fluid was collected from 3 rumen fistulated Chinese Holstein dairy cows and added with or without (control) 1mmol/l unprotected ARG and blank (with only medium) in to syringe system in triplicate as a replicate. All syringes were incubated in water bath at 39 Degree C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h and were terminated to measure the ARG concentration. Sakaguchi reaction method was used to analyze the ARG concentration in rumen fluid by determining the rumen degradation rate of protected and unprotected ARG. Temperature, time and absorbance were optimized in the procedure based on Sakaguchi reaction. Color consistency remained 4-6 min. The optimum temperature (0-5) Degree C was observed for maximum optical density 0.663 at wave length 500 nm. Minimum ARG that could be determined in rumen fluid by spectrophotometer was 4-5 μ g/ml. No significance (P>0.05) difference were observed between two results derived from spectrophotometer and amino acid analyzer methods. In conclusion, the spectrophotometer method of ARG determination in rumen fluid based on Sakaguchi reaction is easy, accurate, and economical and could be useful in learning ARG metabolism in the rumen. (author)

  7. Palmtop spectrophotometer for DNA and protein measurement in micro-nanoliter assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Tian; Huang Guoliang; Yang Xiaoyong; Ma Li; Yang Xu


    Spectrophotometer, an important tool in life science, medicine, and analytical fields, usually uses an optical path of 10 mm or more for absorbance measurement of UV light. This corresponds to a sample consumption of ≥ 50 μL in volume and a narrow measuring range of 0.5-50 ng/μL for nucleic acid samples and 0.05-2 mg/mL for protein samples. Higher concentrations must be diluted for measurement. In this paper, we developed an advanced palmtop spectrophotometer for the measurement of both DNA and protein concentrations in micro-nanoliter assays. We constructed a fiber transmission and a fiber reflection absorbance detection scheme illuminated by either UV-LED or deuterium lamp. The sensitivity of 0.5 ng/μL and a wide measuring range of 0.5-2000 ng/μL in concentrations were obtained for DNA, and the sensitivity of 0.05 mg/mL and a wide measuring range of 0.05-100 mg/mL were also obtained for protein. However, sample consumption is only 1 μL in volume for fiber transmission detection scheme and 500 nL for fiber reflection detection scheme. The linear correlation coefficient of measured concentrations to theoretical concentrations is greater than 0.99. With the profit of this work, a miniaturized spectrophotometer with better sensitivity and wider measuring range can be produced for analytical applications.

  8. Application of microplate spectrophotometer in determination of apparent amylose content and mutant selection in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaoyang; Shen Shengquan; Chen Wenyue; Shu Qingyao


    The application of automatic microplate spectrophotometer (SpectraMax 190, Sunnyvale, USA) was investigated for measurement of apparent amylose content (AAC) of rice grains. By using five rice varieties (IR24, Iri371, Z413, KMD1 and Xiushui 11), a microplate spectrophotometer-facilitated AAC measurement system was established with similar accuracy to that of standard protocol (NY147-88). In this system, sample was treated as NY147-88, but directly stained in a microplate and the OD values of each sample were determined by a microplate spectrophotometer. A regression equation was established by using the AAC and OD value of standard samples, and the AAC of test samples were estimated by using the equation. The system is simple, accurate and high-throughput. By using this system, about 1500 progenies of M 3 seeds (harvested from individual M 2 plants) were screened for putative AAC mutants, from which one mutant line ZXY16 was developed with a middle AAC of about 16%

  9. Quantitative analysis of skin reaction by reflectance spectrophotometer. Acute reaction following proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko.


    Acute reactions induced by proton irradiation were measured using a reflectance spectrophotometer, which is commonly used in the printing and textile industries. In this method, the skin color was expressed by three parameters, lightness (L * ), chroma (C * ) and hue (h). At first, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this spectrophotometer, the skin color of a normal volunteer was measured 100 times. The values of the three parameters for normal skin were as follows (mean values and standard deviation), L * : 68.64±0.29, C * : 19.08±0.13, h: 69.41±0.76. The standard deviations with regard to L * and h, were considered to be sufficiently small when compared with the changes of these parameters (prefix: Δ) in the irradiated sites (ΔL * * and h values significantly decreased with time, and the L * values were highly correlated with elapsed treatment days. The h values had a relatively low linear correlation compared with L * . The C * values had no trends as the treatment period was extended. Among these parameters, the L * values were the most valuable for assessment of proton-induced skin reactions, and it was suggested that the L * values measured with this spectrophotometer were a useful index for showing biological effects induced by proton irradiation. Further experiments are needed to apply this method to quantify the biological effects induced by other forms of ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Correlation between skin color evaluation by skin color scale chart and narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Treesirichod, Arucha; Chansakulporn, Somboon; Wattanapan, Pattra


    Various methods are available for the evaluation of skin color. A skin color scale chart is a convenient and inexpensive tool. However, the correlation between a skin color scale chart and objective measurement has not been evaluated. To assess the correlation between skin color evaluation done by a skin color scale chart (Felix von Luschan skin color chart) and a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer (Mexameter MX18). The participants were evaluated for skin color by using the Felix von Luschan skin color chart (range 1-36) and a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer (Mexameter MX18) in which the results of the measurements were expressed as Erythema (E) and Melanin (M) indices. Skin color was measured on four different anatomical skin sites from each participant on the medial aspect of the volar and the dorsal regions of both forearms. A total of 208 records from 52 participants were established. The majority of participants (19.2%) were rated with the skin color scale at the number 16 (range 14-33). The mean M plus E, M, and E indices were 498.9 ± 143.9, 230.4 ± 74.4, and 268.5 ± 73.2, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the number on the skin color scale and each index: M plus E, M, and E indices were 0.90, 0.90, and 0.86, respectively, with a statistical significance of P spectrophotometer.

  11. Chemical Fouling Reduction of a Submersible Steel Spectrophotometer in Estuarine Environments Using a Sacrificial Zinc Anode. (United States)

    Tait, Zachary S; Thompson, Megan; Stubbins, Aron


    The availability of in situ spectrophotometers, such as the S::CAN spectro::lyser, has expanded the possibilities for high-frequency water quality data collection. However, biological and chemical fouling can degrade the performance of in situ spectrophotometers, especially in saline environments with rapid flow rates. A complex freshwater washing system has been previously designed to reduce chemical fouling for the S::CAN spectro::lyser spectrophotometer. In the current study, we present a simpler, cheaper alternative: the attachment of a sacrificial zinc anode. Results are presented detailing the S::CAN spectro::lyser performance with and without the addition of the sacrificial anode. Attachment of the zinc anode provided efficient corrosion protection during 2-wk deployments in a highly dynamic (average tidal range, 2.5 m) saline tidal saltmarsh creek at Groves Creek, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer (United States)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon


    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  13. Data acquisition system and performance based on Apple II for using in experimental physics - Applications to spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.F.; Castro, J.C.


    A microcomputer based system oriented to experimental physics is described. The system was developed to achieve versatility, low cost, reliability and easy utilization. An application to this system to a dispersive spectrophotometer is also included. (author) [pt

  14. Fiberoptic spectrophotometer (United States)

    Tans, Petrus P.; Lashof, Daniel A.


    A device for determining the relative composition of a sample of a gas by comparison of the Raman-scattered light of the sample with that of a known gas comprising: a means for passing a single light source through the unknown and the known gases, choppers to alternate the Raman-scattered light into a common light detection and measuring system, optical fiber networks for spatially mixing the resulting Raman scattered light from each sample and directing the mixed light to selective detectors, and a compiler to record the light intensity of each wavelength of Raman-scattered light as a function of the sample from which it originated.

  15. Using the Rapid-Scanning, Ultra-Portable, Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL) Alone and In Tandem with the Full-Waveform Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL) to Establish Forest Structure and Biomass Estimates in a Variety of Ecosystems (United States)

    Schaaf, C.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Peri, F.; Erb, A.; Raumonen, P.; Muir, J.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Martel, J.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.; Jupp, D. L. B.; van Aardt, J. A.; Kelbe, D.; Romanczyk, P.; Faulring, J.


    Terrestrial lidars are increasingly being deployed in a variety of ecosystems to calibrate and validate large scale airborne and spaceborne estimates of forest structure and biomass. While these lidars provide a wealth of high resolution information on canopy structure and understory vegetation, they tend to be expensive, slow scanning and somewhat ponderous to deploy. Therefore, frequent deployments and characterization of larger areas of a hectare or more can still be challenging. This suggests a role for low cost, ultra-portable, rapid scanning (but lower resolution) instruments -- particularly in scanning extreme environments and as a way to augment and extend strategically placed scans from the more highly capable lidars. The Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL) is an inexpensive, highly portable, fast-scanning (33 seconds), time-of-flight, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) instrument, built in collaboration with RIT, by U Mass Boston. The instrument uses a 905nm SICK time of flight laser with a 0.25o resolution and 30m range. The higher resolution, full-waveform Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), developed by Boston University, U Mass Lowell and U Mass Boston, builds on the Australian CSIRO single wavelength, full-waveform Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), but utilizes two simultaneous laser pulses at 1064 and 1548 nm to separate woody returns from those of foliage at a range of up to 100m range. The UMass Boston CBL has been deployed in rangelands (San Joaquin Experimental Range, CA), high altitude conifers (Sierra National Forest, CA), mixed forests (Harvard Forest LTER MA), tropical forests (La Selva and Sirena Biological Stations, Costa Rica), eucalypts (Karawatha, Brisbane TERN, Australia), and woodlands (Alice Holt Forest, UK), frequently along-side the DWEL, as well as in more challenging environments such as mangrove forests (Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica) and Massachusetts salt marshes and eroding bluffs (Plum Island LTER, and UMass Boston

  16. Comparison of accuracies of an intraoral spectrophotometer and conventional visual method for shade matching using two shade guide systems. (United States)

    Parameswaran, Vidhya; Anilkumar, S; Lylajam, S; Rajesh, C; Narayan, Vivek


    This in vitro study compared the shade matching abilities of an intraoral spectrophotometer and the conventional visual method using two shade guides. The results of previous investigations between color perceived by human observers and color assessed by instruments have been inconclusive. The objectives were to determine accuracies and interrater agreement of both methods and effectiveness of two shade guides with either method. In the visual method, 10 examiners with normal color vision matched target control shade tabs taken from the two shade guides (VITAPAN Classical™ and VITAPAN 3D Master™) with other full sets of the respective shade guides. Each tab was matched 3 times to determine repeatability of visual examiners. The spectrophotometric shade matching was performed by two independent examiners using an intraoral spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade™) with five repetitions for each tab. Results revealed that visual method had greater accuracy than the spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer; however, exhibited significantly better interrater agreement as compared to the visual method. While VITAPAN Classical shade guide was more accurate with the spectrophotometer, VITAPAN 3D Master shade guide proved better with visual method. This in vitro study clearly delineates the advantages and limitations of both methods. There were significant differences between the methods with the visual method producing more accurate results than the spectrophotometric method. The spectrophotometer showed far better interrater agreement scores irrespective of the shade guide used. Even though visual shade matching is subjective, it is not inferior and should not be underrated. Judicious combination of both techniques is imperative to attain a successful and esthetic outcome.

  17. Satisfaction of Dental Students, Faculty, and Patients with Tooth Shade-Matching Using a Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Ballard, Erin; Metz, Michael J; Harris, Bryan T; Metz, Cynthia J; Chou, Jang-Ching; Morton, Dean; Lin, Wei-Shao


    The aims of this study were to evaluate dental students' clinical shade-matching outcomes (from subjective use of shade guide) with an objective electronic shade-matching tool (spectrophotometer); to assess patients', students', and supervising faculty members' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcomes; and to assess clinicians' support for use of the spectrophotometer to improve esthetic outcomes. A total of 103 volunteer groups, each consisting of patient, dental student, and supervising faculty member at the University of Louisville, were recruited to participate in the study in 2015. Using the spectrophotometer, clinical shade-matching outcome (ΔE clinical ) and laboratory shade-matching outcome (ΔE laboratory ) were calculated. Two five-point survey items were used to assess the groups' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcome and support for an objective electronic shade-matching tool in the student clinic. The results showed that both ΔE clinical (6.5±2.4) and ΔE laboratory (4.3±2.0) were outside the clinical acceptability threshold ΔE values of 2.7, when visual shade-matching method (subjective usage of shade guide) was used to fabricate definitive restorations. Characteristics of the patients, dental students, supervising faculty members, and restorations had minimal to no effect on the ΔE clinical The patients, dental students, and supervising faculty members generally had positive opinions about the clinical shade-matching outcome, despite the increased ΔE clinical observed. Overall, clinical shade-matching outcomes in this school need further improvement, but the patients' positive opinions may indicate the need to revisit the acceptability threshold ΔE value of 2.7 in the academic setting.

  18. A furnace and temperature controller for optical absorption studies with a spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani Rogat, F.


    The design and main features of a furnace with a temperature controller and programmer are shown. This system allows to measure the optical absorption spectrum of a sample from room temperature to 400 deg C, in a double beam spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer 350. The sample temperature can be linearly increased at different heating rates between 4 and 38 deg C/min. The temperature ramp can be stopped at any desired point and the sample temperature shall be stabilized in less than one minute. This temperature shall be kept constant within 0.5 deg C for hours. The sample is heated in vacuum. (author)

  19. Flight of a UV spectrophotometer aboard Galileo 2, the NASA Convair 990 aircraft (United States)

    Sellers, B.; Hunderwadel, J. L.; Hanser, F. A.


    An ultraviolet interference-filter spectrophotometer (UVS) fabricated for aircraft-borne use on the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP) has been successfully tested in a series of flights on the NASA Convair 990, Galileo II. UV flux data and the calculated total ozone above the flight path are reported for several of the flights. Good agreement is obtained with the total ozone as deducted by integration of an ozone sonde vertical profile obtained at Wallops Island, Virginia near the time of a CV-990 underpass. Possible advantages of use of the UVS in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are discussed.

  20. A broad band X-ray imaging spectrophotometer for astrophysical studies (United States)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Lee, Dong Hwan; Ku, William H.-M.


    A broadband X-ray imaging spectrophotometer (BBXRIS) has been built for astrophysical studies. The BBXRIS is based on a large-imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (LIGSPC), a combination of a gas scintillation proportional counter and a multiwire proportional counter, which achieves 8 percent (FWHM) energy resolution and 1.5-mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 5.9 keV. The LIGSPC can be integrated with a grazing incidence mirror and a coded aperture mask to provide imaging over a broad range of X-ray energies. The results of tests involving the LIGSPC and a coded aperture mask are presented, and possible applications of the BBXRIS are discussed.

  1. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data (United States)

    Downie, John D.


    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  2. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991 (United States)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.


    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  3. Image plane detector spectrophotometer - Application to O2 atmospheric band nightglow (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhao; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Hays, Paul B.


    A new variety of low resolution spectrometer is described. This device, an image plane detector spectrophotometer, has high sensitivity and modest resolution sufficient to determine the rotational temperature and brightness of molecular band emissions. It uses an interference filter as a dispersive element and a multichannel image plane detector as the photon collecting device. The data analysis technqiue used to recover the temperature of the emitter and the emission brightness is presented. The atmospheric band of molecular oxygen is used to illustrate the use of the device.

  4. Information-measurement and control system of the five-channel stellar spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitskij, L.V.; Bukach, A.B.; Kaplin, Yu.V.; Bondarenko, V.P.; Smirnov, A.I.


    The multichannel information-measurement control system of the five-channel stellar spectrophotometer working in photon counting regime is described. The detecting part is synthesized taking into account the principles of multifunctional use of elements of the system. In the part of the photometer scanning mechanism control a discrete drive with the step motor is used. The data are detected on the punched tape, which is convenient for putting them into computer, into a digit printing device with the decimal code or on a diagram tape of the automatic potentiometer

  5. A method for calibration of Soleil-Babinet compensator using a spectrophotometer (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Lei; Li, Bo; Shi, Lili; Luo, Ting


    A method using a spectrophotometer for calibrating Soleil-Babinet compensator is proposed. It is based on the spectroscopic method which utilizes the relation between transmittance and wavelength to obtain retardation. By placing a multiple order half wave plate behind the Soleil-Babinet compensator, zero-order retardation can be measured, which is difficult to accomplish by spectroscopic method. In the experiment, the retardations of the compensator in the range 0- λ are measured. It is demonstrated that the precision of retardation is 0.45 nm at the position 0 and λ while the maximum error is less than 1 nm between the two positions.

  6. A spectrophotometer-based diffusivity assay reveals that diffusion hindrance of small molecules in extracellular matrix gels used in 3D cultures is dominated by viscous effects. (United States)

    Galgoczy, Roland; Pastor, Isabel; Colom, Adai; Giménez, Alicia; Mas, Francesc; Alcaraz, Jordi


    The design of 3D culture studies remains challenging due to the limited understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent hindered diffusion and the lack of simple diffusivity assays. To address these limitations, we set up a cost-effective diffusivity assay based on a Transwell plate and the spectrophotometer of a Microplate Reader, which are readily accessible to cell biology groups. The spectrophotometer-based assay was used to assess the apparent diffusivity D of FITC-dextrans with molecular weight (4-70kDa) spanning the physiological range of signaling factors in a panel of acellular ECM gels including Matrigel, fibrin and type I collagen. Despite their technical differences, D data exhibited ∼15% relative difference with respect to FRAP measurements. Our results revealed that diffusion hindrance of small particles is controlled by the enhanced viscosity of the ECM gel in conformance with the Stokes-Einstein equation rather than by geometrical factors. Moreover, we provided a strong rationale that the enhanced ECM viscosity is largely contributed to by unassembled ECM macromolecules. We also reported that gels with the lowest D exhibited diffusion hindrance closest to the large physiologic hindrance of brain tissue, which has a typical pore size much smaller than ECM gels. Conversely, sparse gels (≤1mg/ml), which are extensively used in 3D cultures, failed to reproduce the hindered diffusion of tissues, thereby supporting that dense (but not sparse) ECM gels are suitable tissue surrogates in terms of macromolecular transport. Finally, the consequences of reduced diffusivity in terms of optimizing the design of 3D culture experiments were addressed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Instrumentation-related uncertainty of reflectance and transmittance measurements with a two-channel spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Peest, Christian; Schinke, Carsten; Brendel, Rolf; Schmidt, Jan; Bothe, Karsten


    Spectrophotometers are operated in numerous fields of science and industry for a variety of applications. In order to provide confidence for the measured data, analyzing the associated uncertainty is valuable. However, the uncertainty of the measurement results is often unknown or reduced to sample-related contributions. In this paper, we describe our approach for the systematic determination of the measurement uncertainty of the commercially available two-channel spectrophotometer Agilent Cary 5000 in accordance with the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurements. We focus on the instrumentation-related uncertainty contributions rather than the specific application and thus outline a general procedure which can be adapted for other instruments. Moreover, we discover a systematic signal deviation due to the inertia of the measurement amplifier and develop and apply a correction procedure. Thereby we increase the usable dynamic range of the instrument by more than one order of magnitude. We present methods for the quantification of the uncertainty contributions and combine them into an uncertainty budget for the device.

  8. Evaluation of Biocompatibility of Root Canal Sealers on L929 Fibroblasts with Multiscan EX Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Konjhodzic-Prcic, Alma; Jakupovic, Selma; Hasic-Brankovic, Lajla; Vukovic, Amra


    The purpose of the current study was to estimate the biocompatibility of endodontic sealers with different bases on L929 mouse fibroblasts permanent cell line using Multiscan EX Spectrophotometer. Endodontics sealers used in this study were GuttaFlow (Roeko) silicone based sealer, AH plus (De Tray-DENTSPLY) epoxy resin based, Apexit (Vivadent) calcium hydroxide based and Endorez (Ultradent) methacrylate based sealer. Sealer were tested trough time, freshly mixed 24 h, 48h and 7 days after setting. Biocompatibility was determinate on permanent cell lines L929 mouse fibroblasts trough cytotoxicity using MTT assay. Level of absorption was measured with multi scan EX spectrophotometer on length 420-600 nm. Sealer based on calcium hydroxide Apexit Plus, GuttaFlow silicone based sealer and AH plus epoxy resin based sealer, have shown a low cytotoxicity through the all periods of time on culture of L292 mouse fibroblasts. Methacrylate based sealer, Endorez showed moderate cytotoxicity when freshly mixed and after 7 days. After 24 hours the visibility of the cells was 74,0% and after 48 hours 65,1%. which is slightly cytotoxic. According to results of this study there is a statistically significant difference among the groups p<0,05 for all the tested sealers. Apexit Plus, GuttaFlow and AH plus can be considered as biocompatibile. EndoREZ sealer which is based on methacrylate, after 7 days shows 50,1% of visible live cells which is considered as moderate cytotoxicity.

  9. White light photothermal lens spectrophotometer for the determination of absorption in scattering samples. (United States)

    Marcano, Aristides; Alvarado, Salvador; Meng, Junwei; Caballero, Daniel; Moares, Ernesto Marín; Edziah, Raymond


    We developed a pump-probe photothermal lens spectrophotometer that uses a broadband arc-lamp and a set of interference filters to provide tunable, nearly monochromatic radiation between 370 and 730 nm as the pump light source. This light is focused onto an absorbing sample, generating a photothermal lens of millimeter dimensions. A highly collimated monochromatic probe light from a low-power He-Ne laser interrogates the generated lens, yielding a photothermal signal proportional to the absorption of light. We measure the absorption spectra of scattering dye solutions using the device. We show that the spectra are not affected by the presence of scattering, confirming that the method only measures the absorption of light that results in generation of heat. By comparing the photothermal spectra with the usual absorption spectra determined using commercial transmission spectrophotometers, we estimate the quantum yield of scattering of the sample. We discuss applications of the device for spectroscopic characterization of samples such as blood and gold nanoparticles that exhibit a complex behavior upon interaction with light.

  10. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi


    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  11. Vertical-type chiroptical spectrophotometer (I): instrumentation and application to diffuse reflectance circular dichroism measurement. (United States)

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Reiko


    We have designed and built a novel universal chiroptical spectrophotometer (UCS-2: J-800KCMF), which can carry out in situ chirality measurement of solid samples without any pretreatment, in the UV-vis region and with high relative efficiency. The instrument was designed to carry out transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DR) circular dichroism (CD) measurements simultaneously, thus housing two photomultipliers. It has a unique feature that light impinges on samples vertically so that loose powders can be measured by placing them on a flat sample holder in an integrating sphere. As is our first universal chiroptical spectrophotometer, UCS-1, two lock-in amplifiers are installed to remove artifact signals arising from macroscopic anisotropies which are unique to solid samples. High performance was achieved by theoretically analyzing and experimentally proven the effect of the photoelastic modulator position on the CD base line shifts, and by selecting high-quality optical and electric components. Measurement of microcrystallines of both enantiomers of ammonium camphorsulfonate by the DRCD mode gave reasonable results.

  12. Laser-plasma sourced, temperature dependent, VUV spectrophotometer using dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.


    We have developed a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer with wide energy and temperature range coverage, utilizing a laser-plasma light source (LPLS), CO 2 -laser sample heating and time-resolved dispersive analysis. Reflection and transmission spectra can be taken from 1.7 to 40 eV (31-700 nm) on samples at 15-1800 K with a time resolution of 20-400 ns. These capabilities permit the study of the temperature dependence of the electronic structure, encompassing the effects of thermal lattice expansion and electron-phonon interaction, and changes in the electronic structure associated with equilibrium and metastable phase transitions and stress relaxation. The LPLS utilizes a samarium laser-plasma created by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (500 mJ/pulse) to produce high brightness, stable, continuum radiation. The spectrophotometer is of a single beam design using calibrated iridium reference mirrors. White light is imaged off the sample in to the entrance slit of a 1-m polychromator. The resolution is 0.1 to 0.3 nm. The dispersed light is incident on a focal plane phosphor, fiber-optic-coupled to an image-intensified reticon detector. For spectroscopy between 300 and 1800 K, the samples are heated in situ with a 150 Watt CO 2 laser. The signal to noise ratio in the VUV, for samples at 1800 K, is excellent. From 300 K to 15 K samples are cooled using a He cryostat. (orig.)

  13. [Design of flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer]. (United States)

    Xiang, Xian-Yi; Wen, Zhi-Yu


    Near-infrared spectrum analysis can be used to determine the nature or test quantitatively some chemical compositions by detecting molecular double frequency and multiple frequency absorption. It has been used in agriculture, biology, petrifaction, foodstuff, medicament, spinning and other fields. Near-infrared spectrophotometer is the main apparatus for near-infrared spectrum analysis, and the grating is the most important part of the apparatus. Based on holographic concave grating theory and optic design software CODE V, a flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer was designed from primary structure, which relied on global optimization of the software. The contradiction between wide spectrum bound and limited spectrum extension was resolved, aberrations were reduced successfully, spectrum information was utilized fully, and the optic structure of spectrometer was highly efficient. Using CODE V software, complex high-order aberration equations need not be solved, the result can be evaluated quickly, flat field and resolving power can be kept in balance, and the work efficiency is also enhanced. A paradigm of flat field holographic concave grating is given, it works between 900 nm to 1 700 nm, the diameter of the concave grating is 25 mm, and F/ # is 1. 5. The design result was analyzed and evaluated. It was showed that if the slit source, whose width is 50 microm, is used to reconstruction, the theoretic resolution capacity is better than 6.3 nm.

  14. Objectification of facial color inspection to differentiate obstructive/nonobstructive jaundice in neonates by spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Shen, Zhen; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong


    The purpose of this study was to study whether color difference in facial color truly exists between neonates with obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice, and whether the color difference could be objectified by spectrophotometer. Twelve biliary atresia patients were enrolled in an obstructive jaundice group and 15 neonates admitted for non-conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a nonobstructive group. Nine patients with syphilis (n=6) and sacrococcygeal teratoma (n=3) were studied as control. Transcutaneous total bilirubin (TB) and hemoglobin were recorded. Face color was measured by spectrophotometer. Spectral reflection curve and L*a*b* model parameters were studied. Facial color of jaundiced neonates were characteristic in waveform that reflectivity at wavelength of 550nm was significantly decreased compared with control by 16.4±3.4%, while not significantly different between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (p=0.124). At 650nm, reflection in nonobstructive jaundice was decreased by 8.4±2.3% (pobstructive jaundice (58.09±1.25%)>nonobstructive jaundice (54.25±7.27%). Value b* was higher in jaundiced patients compared to normal control (11.88±2.16, pspectrophotometer. Study of Diagnostic Test. Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.


    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.


    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  17. [Comparison of color reappearance between metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using crystaleye spectrophotometer]. (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fan-wen; Zhan, De-song


    To study the color reappearance effect of metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using Crystaleye spectrophotometer. 58 metal-ceram restorations and 58 foundry-ceram restorations according to the result of the Crystaleye spectrophotometer were made respectively. The deltaE between restorations and natural teeth as referenced were analyzed. And satisfaction of dentists and patients were evaluated. The deltaE between metal-ceram restorations and natural teeth was 7.13 +/- 0.74. The deltaE between foundry-ceram restorations and teeth was 1.47 +/- 0.84. There were statistical differences between the deltaE (P spectrophotometer can provide accurate reference for foundry-ceram restoration, but for metal-ceram restoration it is not accurate.

  18. [Precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer in gingival color measurement of maxillary anterior gingival]. (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tan, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Fang-ping; Tan, Yao; Zhou, Jian-feng


    To explore a gingival shade matching method and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer modified to be used in gingival color measurement. Crystaleye, a dental spectrophotometer (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a custom shading cover was tested. For precision assessment, two experienced experimenters measured anterior maxillary incisors five times for each tooth. A total of 20 healthy gingival sites (attached gingiva, free gingiva and medial gingival papilla in anterior maxillary region) were measured,the Commission Internationale de I' Eclairage (CIE) color parameters (CIE L*a*b*) of which were analyzed using the supporting software. For accuracy assessment, a rectangular area of approximately 3 mm×3 mm was chosen in the attached gingival portion for spectral analysis. PR715 (SpectraScan;Photo Research Inc.,California, USA), a spectroradiometer, was utilized as standard control. Average color differences (ΔE) between the values from PR715 and Crystaleye were calculated. In precision assessment,ΔL* between the values in all the test sites and average values were from(0.28±0.16)to(0.78±0.57), with Δa*and Δb* from(0.28±0.15)to (0.87±0.65),from(0.19±0.09)to( 0.58±0.78), respectively. Average ΔE between values in all test sites and average values were from (0.62 ± 0.17) to (1.25 ± 0.98) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE(0.90 ± 0.18). In accuracy assessment, ΔL* with control device were from(0.58±0.50)to(2.22±1.89),with Δa*and Δb* from(1.03±0.67)to(2.99±1.32),from(0.68±0.78)to(1.26±0.83), respectively. Average ΔE with the control device were from (2.44±0.82) to (3.51±1.03) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE (2.96 ± 1.08). With appropriate modification, Crystaleye, the spectrophotometer, has demonstrated relative minor color variations that can be useful in gingival color measurement.

  19. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices. (United States)

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang


    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  20. Comparing predictive abilities of three visible-near infrared spectrophotometers for soil organic carbon and clay determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Stenberg, Bo; Deng, Fan


    carbon (SOC) and clay calibrations for 194 Danish top soils. Scanning procedures for the three spectrophotometers where done according to uniform laboratory protocols. SOC and clay calibrations were performed using PLS regression. One third of the data was used as an independent test set. A range...... of spectral preprocessing methods was applied in search for model improvement. Validation for SOC content using an independent data set derived from all three spectrophotometers provided values of RMSEP between 0.45 and 0.52 %, R2=0.44-0.58 and RPD=1.3-1.5. Clay content was predicted with a higher precision...

  1. Vulcan - A low-resolution spectrophotometer for measuring the integrated colors of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakos, K.D.; Weiss, W.W.; Mueller, S.; Pressberger, R.; Wachtler, P.


    Recent advances in fiber optics, holographic gratings, and blue CCD sensitivity have been combined to develop a low-resolution spectrophotometer. Combining the principles of aperture photometry and spectroscopy, this device is designed specifically to measure the light from galaxies with low contrast to the sky brightness (i.e., low surface brightness galaxies). The instrument consists of two large apertures (up to several arcmin) with fast-field lens for imaging the entrance pupil onto a fiber-optics cable. The circular configuration for the input end of the fiber cable is modified to a rectangular slit at the output end. The output is then imaged onto a concave holographic grating producing a spectrum from 3200 A to 7600 A with a resolution of 140 A. The main purpose of this instrument is to obtain narrow-band optical colors for low surface brightness galaxies, which can then be applied to the study of stellar populations in these galaxies. 11 refs

  2. Results of laboratory tests of the information-measurement system of the five-channel spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukach, A.B.


    The study of technical characteristics of the five-channel spectrophotometer detecting star spectra in the 3125-8570 A range was carried out. The optimal conditions of photomultipliers and amplifiers allow to count statistically distributed pulses with the time resolution up to 50 ns. Detection, with printing and perforation, of the pulses rate has the absolute error of about +- 1 pulse, when the counting rate changes from 100 to 10 4 s -1 . The step-motor system and the scanning mechanism give the spectral line position with an accuracy of +- 0.2 step (+- 2 Mcm, i.e. 0.03 A for the first order of grating). Instrumental profile effect on the line position is investigated and the dispersion curves are obtained

  3. Calibration of a laboratory spectrophotometer for specular light by means of stacked glass plates. (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; Richardson, A. J.


    Stacked glass plates have been used to calibrate a laboratory spectrophotometer, over the spectral range 0.5-2.5 microns, for specular light. The uncalibrated instrument was characterized by systematic errors when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates. Calibration included first, a determination of the reflectance of a standard composed of barium sulfate paint deposited on an aluminum plate; second, the approximation of the reflectance and transmittance residuals between observed and computed values by means of cubic equations; and, finally, the removal of the systematic errors by a computer. The instrument, after calibration, was accurate to 1% when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates.

  4. Evaluation of the LASL automated spectrophotometer for uranium determination at submilligram levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.; Rein, J.E.


    The LASL automated spectrophotometer, designed for determination of 1 to 14 mg of uranium and 0.5 to 14 mg of plutonium, has been evaluated for determination of lower levels of uranium to 0.12 mg. The essentially linear response of absorbance is maintained and the standard deviation for a single measurement is constant at about 0.013 mg of uranium, corresponding to a maximum uncertainty of about 10 percent at the 0.12-mg limit. The instrument was applied to the analysis of a series of low-level-concentration, 0.07- to 0.8-mg/ml uranium samples. The results were not statistically different from those obtained by a manual spectrophotometric method

  5. A Study of UV Spectral Transmission Through Different Transparent Media with Spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Gadgil


    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the help of spectrophotometer using an artificial UV light source to find -out the percentage transmission of UVA and UVB regions of the UV spectrum. The aim of the experiment was to select the transparent medium which would block mum UVB at the same time allowing mammum UVA to pass through thus reducing the unwanted side effects of UVB light and reducing the efficacy of PUVASOL. It was observed that an ordinary plain 3.3 mm colorless glass was the best transparent medium and with its use a simple solarium could be constructed to treat patients on PUVASOL with sunlight as the source of UV light.

  6. Total ozone trends over the USA during 1979-1991 from Dobson spectrophotometer observations (United States)

    Komhyr, Walter D.; Grass, Robert D.; Koenig, Gloria L.; Quincy, Dorothy M.; Evans, Robert D.; Leonard, R. Kent


    Ozone trends for 1979-1991, determined from Dobson spectrophotometer observations made at eight stations in the United States, are augmented with trend data from four foreign cooperative stations operated by NOAA/CMDL. Results are based on provisional data archived routinely throughout the years at the World Ozone Data Center in Toronto, Canada, with calibration corrections applied to some of the data. Trends through 1990 exhibit values of minus 0.3 percent to minus 0.5 percent yr(exp -1) at mid-to-high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. With the addition of 1991 data, however, the trends become less negative, indicating that ozone increased in many parts of the world during 1991. Stations located within the plus or minus 20 deg N-S latitude band exhibit no ozone trends. Early 1992 data show decreased ozone values at some of the stations. At South Pole, Antarctica, October ozone values have remained low during the past 3 years.

  7. Design and evaluation of an imaging spectrophotometer incorporating a uniform light source. (United States)

    Noble, S D; Brown, R B; Crowe, T G


    Accounting for light that is diffusely scattered from a surface is one of the practical challenges in reflectance measurement. Integrating spheres are commonly used for this purpose in point measurements of reflectance and transmittance. This solution is not directly applicable to a spectral imaging application for which diffuse reflectance measurements are desired. In this paper, an imaging spectrophotometer design is presented that employs a uniform light source to provide diffuse illumination. This creates the inverse measurement geometry to the directional illumination/diffuse reflectance mode typically used for point measurements. The final system had a spectral range between 400 and 1000 nm with a 5.2 nm resolution, a field of view of approximately 0.5 m by 0.5 m, and millimeter spatial resolution. Testing results indicate illumination uniformity typically exceeding 95% and reflectance precision better than 1.7%.

  8. Microvolume protein concentration determination using the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Desjardins, Philippe; Hansen, Joel B; Allen, Michael


    Traditional spectrophotometry requires placing samples into cuvettes or capillaries. This is often impractical due to the limited sample volumes often used for protein analysis. The Thermo Scientific NanoDrop 2000c Spectrophotometer solves this issue with an innovative sample retention system that holds microvolume samples between two measurement surfaces using the surface tension properties of liquids, enabling the quantification of samples in volumes as low as 0.5-2 microL. The elimination of cuvettes or capillaries allows real time changes in path length, which reduces the measurement time while greatly increasing the dynamic range of protein concentrations that can be measured. The need for dilutions is also eliminated, and preparations for sample quantification are relatively easy as the measurement surfaces can be simply wiped with laboratory wipe. This video article presents modifications to traditional protein concentration determination methods for quantification of microvolume amounts of protein using A280 absorbance readings or the BCA colorimetric assay.

  9. Lightness, chroma, and hue distributions in natural teeth measured by a spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Pustina-Krasniqi, Teuta; Shala, Kujtim; Staka, Gloria; Bicaj, Teuta; Ahmedi, Enis; Dula, Linda


    The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution of color parameters, lightness (L*), chroma (C), hue (H), a* and b*, in the intercanine sector in maxilla. Patients' tooth color measurements were performed using an intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade ® (VITA Zahnfabrik H. Rauter GmbH and Co. KG, Bad Sackingen, Germany). The measurements were made in 255 subjects in the intercanine sector in maxilla. The mean values for the group of 255 subjects were as follows: L*, a*, b*, C, and H as 81.6, 0.67, 21.6, 21.7, and 92.7, respectively. For F=206.27 and P < 0.001 between L*, a*, b*, C, H, and central incisor/lateral incisor/canines, there were statistically significant differences. With the statistical analysis, it was determined that there are significant color differences between the teeth of the intercanine sector, which differences are clinically significant also.

  10. SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer: Science objectives, design and performance (United States)

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S. V.; Pertsov, A. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.


    The goals and construction details of a new design Polish-led X-ray spectrophotometer are described. The instrument is aimed to observe emission from entire solar corona and is placed as a separate block within the Russian TESIS X- and EUV complex aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON solar orbiting observatory. SphinX uses silicon PIN diode detectors for high time resolution measurements of the solar spectra in the range 0.8-15 keV. Its spectral resolution allows for discerning more than hundred separate energy bands in this range. The instrument dynamic range extends two orders of magnitude below and above these representative for GOES. The relative and absolute accuracy of spectral measurements is expected to be better than few percent, as follows from extensive ground laboratory calibrations.

  11. Converting a fluorescence spectrophotometer into a three-channel colorimeter for color vision research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, P.J.; Perez, A.L.; Suero, M.I.


    An old fluorescence spectrophotometer was recycled to make a three-channel colorimeter. The various modifications involved in its design and implementation are described. An optical system was added that allows the fusion of two visual stimuli coming from the two monochromators of the spectrofluorimeter. Each of these stimuli has a wavelength and bandwidth control, and a third visual stimulus may be taken from a monochromator, a cathode ray tube, a thin film transistor screen, or any other light source. This freedom in the choice of source of the third chromatic channel, together with the characteristics of the visual stimuli from the spectrofluorimeter, give this design a great versatility in its application to novel visual experiments on color vision

  12. Converting a fluorescence spectrophotometer into a three-channel colorimeter for color vision research (United States)

    Pardo, P. J.; Pérez, A. L.; Suero, M. I.


    An old fluorescence spectrophotometer was recycled to make a three-channel colorimeter. The various modifications involved in its design and implementation are described. An optical system was added that allows the fusion of two visual stimuli coming from the two monochromators of the spectrofluorimeter. Each of these stimuli has a wavelength and bandwidth control, and a third visual stimulus may be taken from a monochromator, a cathode ray tube, a thin film transistor screen, or any other light source. This freedom in the choice of source of the third chromatic channel, together with the characteristics of the visual stimuli from the spectrofluorimeter, give this design a great versatility in its application to novel visual experiments on color vision.

  13. Elemental investigation of momordica charantia linn. and syzigium jambolana linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.


    Elemental investigation of very important medicinal plant i.e. momordica charantia linn and syzigium jambolana linn, and its decoction has been carried out using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In present study fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements such as Zn, Cr, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni and Cd were determined in different parts of both plants and in its decoction. The level of essential elements was found high as compared to the level of toxic elements. Both plants are useful in the treatment of diabetes. The validation of the method was checked by employing NBS- 1570 (Spanish) as a standard reference material . The measured values of elements are in close agreement with certified values. (author)

  14. A comparison between a tristimulus colorimeter (Minolta ChromaMeter CR-200) and two spectrophotometers (Minolta Spectrophotometer CM-508i and CM-2002). Quantification of UV-B induced erythema in a hairless guinea pig model. (United States)

    Fullerton, A; Keiding, J


    A comparison was made between a tristimulus colorimeter (Minolta ChromaMeter CR 200) and two spectrophotometers (Minolta CM-508i and CM-2002). The object was to compare skin colour data in the CIE 1976 L*a*d*colour space system obtained with the different instruments after UV-B exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed on their dorsal trunk with UV-B light for different time periods. Skin colour in the L*a*b* system was measured 6 and 24 h after exposure. Reproducible and objective measurements expressed in the CIE system were obtained with all three instruments. A strong correlation was found between the Minolta Chromameter CR200 and each of the two spectrophotometers. However, absolute values found with the Minolta ChromaMeter CR 200, especially for b*, differed from values obtained with the two spectrophotometers. The instruments were, despite minor inter-instrumental variation, suited for objective evaluation of erythema. The spectrophotometers were somewhat cumbersome to use due to their heavy weight and difficulties in positioning within the test sites; the Minolta CromaMeter CR200 (or later versions) is thus preferable for simple routine measurements. Use of the spectophotometers appears only indicated where specific information about skin pigments or photoactive substances relative to wavelength is needed.

  15. Assessing the Engagement, Learning, and Overall Experience of Students Operating an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Remote Access Technology (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno


    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of…

  16. Development of a low-cost NIR instrument for minced meat analysis: Part 1 - Spectrophotometer and sample presentations (United States)

    The feasibility of using a compact, low-cost NIR spectrophotometer to predict moisture (MC) and total fat content of minced pork was demonstrated. Results were compared with those obtained using two research type instruments with high signal to noise ratio (S/N). The NIR measuring head of the compac...

  17. Photochemical induced growth and aggregation of metal nanoparticles in diode-array spectrophotometer via excited dimethyl-sulfoxide. (United States)

    Zidki, Tomer; Cohen, Haim; Meyerstein, Dan


    Ag(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles suspended in dilute aqueous solutions containing (CH(3))(2)SO are photochemically unstable. The light source of a diode-array spectrophotometer induces, within less than a minute, particle growth and aggregation. The results indicate that this process is triggered by UV light absorption by the (CH(3))(2)SO.

  18. A low cost short wave near infrared spectrophotometer: application for determination of quality parameters of diesel fuel. (United States)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Pasquini, Celio


    A low cost absorption spectrophotometer for the short wave near infrared spectral region (850-1050 nm) is described. The spectrophotometer is basically composed of a conventional dichroic lamp, a long-pass filter, a sample cell and a Czerny-Turner type polychromator coupled to a 1024 pixel non-cooled photodiode array. A preliminary evaluation of the spectrophotometer showed good repeatability of the first derivative of the spectra at a constant room temperature and the possibility of assigning some spectral regions to different C-H stretching third overtones. Finally, the spectrophotometer was successfully applied for the analysis of diesel samples and the determination of some of their quality parameters using partial least squares calibration models. The values found for the root mean square error of prediction using external validation were 0.5 for the cetane index and from 2.5 to 5.0 degrees C for the temperatures achieved during distillation when obtaining 10, 50, 85, and 90% (v/v) of the distilled sample, respectively. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Demonstrating Principles of Spectrophotometry by Constructing a Simple, Low-Cost, Functional Spectrophotometer Utilizing the Light Sensor on a Smartphone (United States)

    Hosker, Bill S.


    A highly simplified variation on the do-it-yourself spectrophotometer using a smartphone's light sensor as a detector and an app to calculate and display absorbance values was constructed and tested. This simple version requires no need for electronic components or postmeasurement spectral analysis. Calibration graphs constructed from two…

  20. The human ear canal: investigation of its suitability for monitoring photoplethysmographs and arterial oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budidha, K; Kyriacou, P A


    For the last two decades, pulse oximetry has been used as a standard procedure for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ). However, SpO 2 measurements made from extremities such as the finger, ear lobe and toes become susceptible to inaccuracies when peripheral perfusion is compromised. To overcome these limitations, the external auditory canal has been proposed as an alternative monitoring site for estimating SpO 2 , on the hypothesis that this central site will be better perfused. Therefore, a dual wavelength optoelectronic probe along with a processing system was developed to investigate the suitability of measuring photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals and SpO 2 in the human auditory canal. A pilot study was carried out in 15 healthy volunteers to validate the feasibility of measuring PPGs and SpO 2  from the ear canal (EC), and comparative studies were performed by acquiring the same signals from the left index finger (LIF) and the right index finger (RIF) in conditions of induced peripheral vasoconstriction (right hand immersion in ice water). Good quality baseline PPG signals with high signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from the EC, the LIF and the RIF sensors. During the ice water immersion, significant differences in the amplitude of the red and infrared PPG signals were observed from the RIF and the LIF sensors. The average drop in amplitude of red and infrared PPG signals from the RIF was 52.7% and 58.3%. Similarly, the LIF PPG signal amplitudes have reduced by 47.52% and 46.8% respectively. In contrast, no significant changes were seen in the red and infrared EC PPG amplitude measurements, which changed by +2.5% and −1.2% respectively. The RIF and LIF pulse oximeters have failed to estimate accurate SpO 2  in seven and four volunteers respectively, while the EC pulse oximeter has only failed in one volunteer. These results suggest that the EC may be a suitable site for reliable monitoring of PPGs and SpO 2 s even in the presence of

  1. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.


    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  2. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Bero, M.A.


    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC R film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A 633 ) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11 % for spectral absorbance measurements and 15 % for OD measurements. (authors)

  3. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming


    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology-fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01-0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  4. Determination of nanomolar chromate in drinking water with solid phase extraction and a portable spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Bo; Byrne, Robert H


    Determination of chromate at low concentration levels in drinking water is an important analytical objective for both human health and environmental science. Here we report the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with a custom-made portable light-emitting diode (LED) spectrophotometer to achieve detection of chromate in the field at nanomolar levels. The measurement chemistry is based on a highly selective reaction between 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and chromate under acidic conditions. The Cr-DPC complex formed in the reaction can be extracted on a commercial C18 SPE cartridge. Concentrated Cr-DPC is subsequently eluted with methanol and detected by spectrophotometry. Optimization of analytical conditions involved investigation of reagent compositions and concentrations, eluent type, flow rate (sample loading), sample volume, and stability of the SPE cartridge. Under optimized conditions, detection limits are on the order of 3 nM. Only 50 mL of sample is required for an analysis, and total analysis time is around 10 min. The targeted analytical range of 0-500 nM can be easily extended by changing the sample volume. Compared to previous SPE-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical procedure offers the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, shorter analysis time, greater operational convenience, and lower cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Determination of soil exchangeable base cations by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and extraction with ammonium acetate]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-ge; Xiao, Min; Dong, Yi-hua; Jiang, Yong


    A method to determine soil exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and extraction with ammonium acetate was developed. Results showed that the accuracy of exchangeable base cation data with AAS method fits well with the national standard referential soil data. The relative errors for parallel samples of exchangeable Ca and Mg with 66 pair samples ranged from 0.02%-3.14% and 0.06%-4.06%, and averaged to be 1.22% and 1.25%, respectively. The relative errors for exchangeable K and Na with AAS and flame photometer (FP) ranged from 0.06%-8.39% and 0.06-1.54, and averaged to be 3.72% and 0.56%, respectively. A case study showed that the determination method for exchangeable base cations by using AAS was proven to be reliable and trustable, which could reflect the real situation of soil cation exchange properties in farmlands.

  6. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements. (United States)

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A


    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Sensitive determination of mercury by a miniaturized spectrophotometer after in situ single-drop microextraction. (United States)

    Yang, Fangwen; Liu, Rui; Tan, Zhiqiang; Wen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Chengbin; Lv, Yi


    An in situ single-drop microextraction (SDME) method was developed for trace mercury determination by a miniaturized spectrophotometer, in which a simple and cheap light-emitting diode (LED) was employed as the light source, and a handheld charge coupled device (CCD) was served as the detector. A droplet of 0.006% dithizone-CCl(4) (m/v) was used as extraction phase and hanged on a rolled PTFE tube. LED light was adjusted carefully to pass through the centre of the droplet and the entrance slit of the CCD detector. The radiation intensities of 475 nm before and after SDME (I(0) and I(i)) were recorded for quantification. Under the optimum conditions, the system provided a linear range of 2-50 μg L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.2 μg L(-1). The enrichment factor was about 69. The present method showed the merits of high sensitivity, simplicity, rapidity, low reagent consumption and field analysis potential. Finally, this method was successfully applied for the determination of the total mercury in spiked tap water sample, spiked river water sample and certified reference material (GBW (E) 080393, simulated water). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitive determination of mercury by a miniaturized spectrophotometer after in situ single-drop microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fangwen; Liu Rui; Tan Zhiqiang; Wen Xiaodong; Zheng Chengbin; Lv Yi


    An in situ single-drop microextraction (SDME) method was developed for trace mercury determination by a miniaturized spectrophotometer, in which a simple and cheap light-emitting diode (LED) was employed as the light source, and a handheld charge coupled device (CCD) was served as the detector. A droplet of 0.006% dithizone-CCl 4 (m/v) was used as extraction phase and hanged on a rolled PTFE tube. LED light was adjusted carefully to pass through the centre of the droplet and the entrance slit of the CCD detector. The radiation intensities of 475 nm before and after SDME (I 0 and I i ) were recorded for quantification. Under the optimum conditions, the system provided a linear range of 2-50 μg L -1 , with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.2 μg L -1 . The enrichment factor was about 69. The present method showed the merits of high sensitivity, simplicity, rapidity, low reagent consumption and field analysis potential. Finally, this method was successfully applied for the determination of the total mercury in spiked tap water sample, spiked river water sample and certified reference material (GBW (E) 080393, simulated water).

  9. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission (United States)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  10. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming


    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology-fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01-0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  11. Validation of the method spectrophotometer in the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Silva, F.


    The objective of this study was to validate the spectrophotometer method described by Bateman et al. (1994) for the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna) and to evaluate the histamine concentration in samples of fresh tuna. To fulfill the recently exposed objectives, the figures of merit were determined like they are it: recovery limits of detection, sensibility and repetitive of the method spectrophotometry and applied the analysis at twenty samples of fresh tuna for copy of the Metropolitan area and three sample like reference of fresh tuna stored 4 degree centigrade by 15 days. The histamine recovery you determines enriching seven ours of fresh tuna with histamine to two levels different 0.613 mg/L and 2.21 mg/L. three samples were left without enriching and you subtract the average to the native histamine. You determines the one it limits of detection using the standard deviation to three levels of concentration of histamine 1.37 mg/L, 2.22 mg/L and 3.22 mg/L, the minimum quantity of hi stamina that you can determine for the method spectrophotometry settling down. The repetitive you determines using the standard deviation for 100 among the average of the histamine values, in seven you replies independent of the same sample. You determines the histamine content, in the fresh tuna Thunnus Tunna of the expends of the Metropolitan Area and in samples of reference stored 4 degrees centigrade by 15 days [es

  12. Spectrophotometer as a tool for analysis of various species in radioactive liquid wastes (Preprint No. RA-27)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeotikar, R.G.; Kaushik, C.P.; Raj, Kanwar


    For the immobilisation of high level radioactive liquid waste in a glass matrix, the analysis of different species in the waste is the primary requirement for fixing the base composition of glass. The commercially available spectrophotometer has been remotised to facilitate the analysis of different radioactive streams. Methods for analysis of constituents such as Fe, Mo, Cr, U, total lanthanides, Zr and PO4 have been established. (author)

  13. Roughened glass slides and a spectrophotometer for the detection of the wavelength-dependent refractive index of transparent liquids. (United States)

    Niskanen, Ilpo; Räty, Jukka; Myllylä, Risto; Sutinen, Veijo; Matsuda, Kiyofumi; Homma, Kazuhiro; Silfsten, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik


    We describe a method to determine the wavelength-dependent refractive index of liquids by measurement of light transmittance with a spectrophotometer. The method is based on using roughened glass slides with different a priori known refractive indices and immersing the slides into the transparent liquid with unknown refractive index. Using the dispersion data on the glass material it is possible to find the index match between the liquid and the glass slide, and hence the refractive index of the liquid.

  14. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO2 in exhale air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A


    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 μm). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm -1 ) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO 2 in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1‰.

  15. Study of the influence of substrate and spectrophotometer characteristics on the in vitro measurement of sunscreens efficiency. (United States)

    Couteau, C; Philippe, A; Vibet, M-A; Paparis, E; Coiffard, L


    All the methods used for the in vitro measurement of the SPF, the universal indicator of sunscreens efficiency, rely on a spectrophotometric analysis. What can vary about the experimental protocol used is mainly the substrate and the type of spectrophotometer chosen. We decided to work with polymethylmetacrylate plates that we analyzed using two spectrophotometers equipped with integrating spheres, the UV1000S and the UV2000 apparatus. Two marketed products were such tested, after spreading 2 mg/cm 2 on the plates, using one apparatus after another. We applied a non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired data to the measures realized on 10 plates (as we systematically used the 2 apparatus), in order to compare the series of measures obtained with the two machines. This way, we were able to show a significant difference between the SPF values respectively obtained with the UV1000S and the UV2000 spectrophotometers. This difference could be explained by the decrease of the stray light in the case of the UV2000 apparatus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Low-cost, digital lock-in module with external reference for coating glass transmission/reflection spectrophotometer (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Villuendas, F.; Borja, J.; Barragán, L. A.; Salinas, I.


    A versatile, low-cost, digital signal processor (DSP) based lock-in module with external reference is described. This module is used to implement an industrial spectrophotometer for measuring spectral transmission and reflection of automotive and architectonic coating glasses over the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelength range. The light beams are modulated with an optical chopper. A digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) is used to lock the lock-in to the chop frequency. The lock-in rejects the ambient radiation and permits the spectrophotometer to work in the presence of ambient light. The algorithm that implements the dual lock-in and the DPLL in the DSP56002 evaluation module from Motorola is described. The use of a DSP allows implementation of the lock-in and DPLL by software, which gives flexibility and programmability to the system. Lock-in module cost, under 300 euro, is an important parameter taking into account that two modules are used in the system. Besides, the algorithms implemented in this DSP can be directly implemented in the latest DSP generations. The DPLL performance and the spectrophotometer are characterized. Capture and lock DPLL ranges have been measured and checked to be greater than the chop frequency drifts. The lock-in measured frequency response shows that the lock-in performs as theoretically predicted.

  17. PHASES: a concept for a satellite-borne ultra-precise spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgo, C del; Prieto, C Allende; Peacocke, T


    The Planet Hunting and Asteroseismology Explorer Spectrophotometer, PHASES, is a concept for a space-borne instrument to obtain flux calibrated spectra and measure micro-magnitude photometric variations of nearby stars. The science drivers are the determination of the physical properties of stars and the characterisation of planets orbiting them, to very high precision. PHASES, intended to be housed in a micro-satellite, consists of a 20 cm aperture modified Baker telescope feeding two detectors: the tracking detector, with a field of 1 degree square, and the science detector for performing spectrophotometry. The optical design has been developed with the primary goal of avoiding stray light on the science detector, while providing spectra in the wavelength range 370-960 nm with a resolving power that ranges from ∼ 900 at 370 nm to ∼ 200 at 960 nm. The signal to noise per resolution element obtained for a V = 10 magnitude star in a 1 minute integration varies between ∼ 35 and 140. An analysis of the light curve constrains the radii of the planets relative to their parent stars' radii, which are, in turn, tightly constrained by the combination of absolute spectrophotometry and trigonometric parallaxes. The provisional optical design satisfies all the scientific requirements, including a ∼ 1% rms flux calibration strategy based on observations of bright A-type stars and model atmospheres, allowing the determination of stellar angular diameters for nearby solar-like stars to 0.5%. This level of accuracy will be propagated to the stellar radii for the nearest stars, with highly reliable Hipparcos parallaxes, and more significantly, to the planetary radii.

  18. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.


    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  19. Comparison between Brewer spectrometer, M 124 filter ozonometer and Dobson spectrophotometer (United States)

    Feister, U.


    Concurrent measurements were taken using the Brewer spectrometer no. 30, the filter ozonometer M 124 no. 200 and the Dobson spectrophotometer no. 71 from September 1987 to December 1988 at Potsdam. The performance of the instrument types and the compatibility of ozone data was checked under the conditions of a field measuring station. Total ozone values derived from Dobson AD direct sun measurements were considered as standard. The Dobson instrument had been calibrated at intercomparisons with the World Standard Dobson instrument no. 83 (Boulder) and with the Regional Standard instrument no. 64 (Potsdam), while the Brewer instrument was calibrated several times with the Travelling Standard Brewer no. 17 (Canada). The differences between individual Brewer DS (direct sun) ozone data and Dobson ADDS are within plus or minus 3 percent with half of all differences within plus or minus 1 percent. Less than 0.7 percent of the systematic difference can be due to atmospheric SO2. Due to inadequate regression coefficients Brewer ZB (zenith blue) ozone measurements are by (3...4) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone values. M124 DS ozone data are systematically by (1...2) percent higher than Dobson ADDS ozone with 50 percent of the differences within plus or minus 4 percent, but with extreme differences up to plus or minus (20...25) percent. M124 ZB ozone values are by (3...5) percent higher than Dobson ADDS with all the differences within plus or minus 10 percent, i.e. the scatter of differences is smaller for ZB than for M 124 DS measurements, Results for differences in the daily mean ozone values are also addressed. The differences include the uncertainties in the ozone values derived from both types of measurements. They provide an indication of the uncertainty in ozone data and the comparability of ozone values derived from different types of instruments.

  20. Comparison of Shade of Ceramic with Three Different Zirconia Substructures using Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Habib, Syed Rashid; Shiddi, Ibraheem F Al


    This study assessed how changing the Zirconia (Zr) substructure affected the color samples after they have been overlaid by the same shade of veneering ceramic. Three commercial Zr materials were tested in this study: Prettau(®) Zirconia (ZirKonZahn, Italy), Cercon (Dentsply, Germany) and InCoris ZI (Sirona, Germany). For each system, 15 disk-shaped specimens (10 × 1 mm) were fabricated. Three shades of A1, A2 and A3.5 of porcelain (IPS e.MaxCeram, IvoclarVivadent, USA) were used for layering the specimens. Five specimens from each type of Zr were layered with same shade of ceramic. Color measurements were recorderd by a spectrophotometer Color-Eye(®) 7000A (X-Rite, Grand Rapids, MI). Mean values of L, a, b color coordinates and ΔE were recorded and comparisons were made. Differences in the ΔE were recorded for the same porcelain shade with different Zr substructures and affected the color of the specimens (p < 0.01, ANOVA). The maximum difference between the ΔE values for the A1, A2 and A3.5 shades with three types of Zr substructures was found to be 1.59, 1.69 and 1.45 respectively. Multiple comparisons of the ΔE with PostHoc Tukey test revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the three types of Zr, except between Type 2 Zr and Type 3 Zr for the Shade A1. The mean values of L, a, b and ΔE for the Prettau(®) Zirconia substructure were found to be the least among the three types. The brand of Zr used influences the final color of the all ceramic Zr based restorations and this has clinical significance.

  1. Measurement of breast milk intake using deuterium oxide and fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, T.; Bansa, D.; Boatin, R.; Vuore, T.; Datohe, D.; Timpo, S.; Asamoa-Tutu, P.


    The measurement of breast milk intake of infants is essential to the estimation of nutrient requirements during infancy and lactation. The conventional method, test-weighing procedure for measuring breast milk is time consuming, most often inaccurate and may interfere with the mother's normal activities. A more practical and accurate method is isotope dilution using stable isotope-labelled water. The accuracy and ready availability of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) have led to its extensive use in measuring body composition and breast milk intake of infants. The D 2 O turnover method was field-tested in 13 lactating Ghanaian mother-baby pairs. Maternal and baby anthropometric measurements were made. Baby milk intake and maternal body composition were measured with the dose-to-mother method. Pre-dose samples of saliva were taken from each mother-baby pair. A measured D 2 O dose (30g) was administered orally to the mother. Post-dose saliva samples were collected from mother and baby on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, and 14. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). The mean ± SD maternal age was 24 ± 5 years. Babies were aged 3.5 months on the average and weighed 6.7 ± 0.7 kg. Mean milk intake of babies was 828 ± 132 ml/day with a range of 610 to 1040 ml/day. Maternal fat free mass and % body fat were 44.8 ± 5.3 kg, 23.1 ± 5.1 respectively. This non-invasive and convenient method has been used successfully to measure breast milk intake of Ghanaian infants. (au)

  2. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Document Server


    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  3. Sensitivity of digital dental photo CIE L*a*b* analysis compared to spectrophotometer clinical assessments over 6 months. (United States)

    Sluzker, Ariel; Knösel, Michael; Athanasiou, Athanasios E


    To assess the sensitivity of digital dental photo CIE L*a*b* analysis compared to clinical spectrophotometer assessments over 6 months. CIE L*a*b* values for the upper right central incisors of 14 predoctoral dental students subjected to certain color-relevant exclusion criteria were recorded at baseline (T0), after 6 months (T1), and 1 week later (T2), using (Method 1) a spectrophotometer and (Method 2) a method of digital photo analysis. Statistical analysis of color and lightness data between both methods and time points were assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), Dahlberg's formula for method error calculation, and paired samples t-tests, adopting a level of significance alpha = 0.05. Between T0 - T1, the spectrophotometer recorded significant changes in lightness (75.51 > 77.75) and color values (a*: 3.25 > 2.38; b*: 18.47 > 17.31), whereas significant changes with Method 2 were only seen for b* (21.51 > 20.57). No significant changes for overall color and lightness changes deltaE to deltaE2 were found for either of the methods. The error of the method (T1-T2) and corresponding correlation coefficients r for values L*a*b* were found to be 1.44 / 0.43 / 0.62 (r: 0.69; P = 0.007/0.64; P = 0.14/0.9; P < 0.001) for Method 1 and 0.97/0.67/1.25 (r : 0.87; P < 0.001/0.63; P = 0.17/0.57, P = 0.04) for Method 2, respectively.

  4. Interexaminer reliability in clinical measurement of L*C*h* values of anterior teeth using a spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Hassel, Alexander J; Grossmann, Anne-christiane; Schmitter, Marc; Balke, Zibandeh; Buzello, Anja M


    The objective of this study was to investigate interexaminer reliability in the clinical measurement of the L*C*h* (lightness/value, chroma, hue) values of anterior teeth using a spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade). The basic color of the maxillary right central incisors and canines of 23 subjects was spectrophotometrically determined by 4 clinicians and an experienced user (development manager) of the spectrophotometer. Also, to analyze the effect of different training with the instrument on interexaminer reliability, 2 of the clinicians were instructed in the use of the spectrophotometer by the experienced examiner, whereas the others instructed themselves by studying the operating manual. Agreement between all examiners was acceptable to excellent (intraclass coefficient > 0.4). The mean value of the measured differences for the central incisors of all subjects for L* values was 5 (for C* = 3.8, h* = 2.7 degrees) and for canines, the mean L* was 4.5 (C* = 3, h* = 1.6 degrees). Results from comparison of the 2 different training methods were inconsistent. Agreement with the experienced examiner ranged from not acceptable (C* values for incisors of self-instructed examiners) to excellent. The distribution of the measurements of 1 subject could lead to deviations in color, probably with clinical impact. For canines, the measurements were at least equally reproducible (in some cases significantly more reproducible) compared to central incisors. Because of the small number of examiners and the inconsistent results, it was not possible to reach a definite conclusion about the effect of different training methods on interexaminer reliability.

  5. Assessing the engagement, learning, and overall experience of students operating an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with remote access technology. (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno


    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of engagement, learning, and overall experience. Feedback from students suggests that the use of remote access technology is effective in teaching students the principles of chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. 45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination. (United States)


    ... underutilized will be reviewed for suitability no earlier than six months prior to the expected date when the... following: (1) The suitability determination for a particular piece of property, and the reasons for that...

  7. Cross-validity of a portable glucose capillary monitors in relation to enzymatic spectrophotometer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Lima


    Full Text Available The glucose is an important substrate utilizaded during exercise. Accurate measurement of glucose is vital to obtain trustworthy results. The enzymatic spectrophotometer methods are generally considered the “goldstandard” laboratory procedure for measuring of glucose (GEnz, is time consuming, costly, and inappropriate for large scale field testing. Compact and portable glucose monitors (GAccu are quick and easy methods to assess glucose on large numbers of subjects. So, this study aimed to test the cross-validity of GAccu. The sample was composed of 107 men (aged= 35.4±10.7 years; stature= 168.4±6.9 cm; body mass= 73.4±11.2 kg; %fat= 20.9±8.3% – by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood for measuring fasting glucose was taken in basilar vein (Genz, Bioplus: Bio-2000 and in ring finger (GAccu: Accu-Chek© Advantage©, after a 12-hour overnight fast. GEnz was used as the criterion for cross-validity. Paired t-test shown differences (p RESUMO A glicose é um substrato importante utilizado durante o exercício físico. Medidas acuradas da glicose são fundamentais para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. O método laboratorial de espectrofotometria enzimática geralmente é considerado o procedimento “padrão ouro” para medir a glicose (GEnz, o qual requer tempo, custo e é inapropriado para o uso em larga escala. Monitores portáteis de glicose (GAccu são rápidos e fáceis para medir a glicose em um grande número de sujeitos. Então, este estudo teve por objetivo testar a validade concorrente do GAccu. A amostra foi composta por 107 homens (idade= 35,4±10,7 anos; estatura= 168,4±6,9 cm; massa corporal= 73,4±11,2 kg; %gordura= 20,9±8,3% – por absortometria de raio-x de dupla energia. O sangue para mensurar a glicose em jejum foi tirado na veia basilar (Genz, Bioplus: Bio-2000 e no dedo anular (GAccu - Accu- Chek© Advantage©, depois de 12h de jejum noturno. O GEnz foi usado como critério para testar a validade

  8. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China]. (United States)

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong


    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    suggested that the soils were not currently suitable for the production of the two ... crop – land suitability analysis has been used for achieving optimum utilization of the available ... Two methods of land suitability evaluation (FAO frame work and parametric) ..... Characterization and Classification of Onwu River Floodplain.

  10. An in vitro comparison of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and spectrophotometer on monitoring artificial white spot lesions. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Kim, Baek-Il


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) compared to a spectrophotometer in monitoring progression of enamel lesions. To generate artificial caries with various severities of lesion depths, twenty bovine specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 40 days. During the production of the lesions, repeat measurements of fluorescence loss (ΔF) and color change (ΔE) were performed in six distinct stages after the demineralization of the specimens: after 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of exposure to the demineralizing solution. Changes in the ΔF values in the lesions were analyzed using the QLF-D, and changes in the ΔE values in lesions were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. The repeated measures ANOVA of ΔF and ΔE values were used to determine whether there are significant differences at different exposure times in the demineralizing solution. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was analyzed between ΔF and ΔE. The ΔF values significantly decreased based on the demineralizing period (pmonitoring color changes. Our findings demonstrate that QLF-D are a more efficient and stable tool for early caries detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of dsDNA using the Hitachi F-7000 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer and PicoGreen dye. (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Cox, Kendra L


    Quantification of DNA, especially in small concentrations, is an important task with a wide range of biological applications including standard molecular biology assays such as synthesis and purification of DNA, diagnostic applications such as quantification of DNA amplification products, and detection of DNA molecules in drug preparations. During this video we will demonstrate the capability of the Hitachi F-7000 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer equipped with a Micro Plate Reader accessory to perform dsDNA quantification using Molecular Probes Quant-it PicoGreen dye reagent kit. The F-7000 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer offers high sensitivity and high speed measurements. It is a highly flexible system capable of measuring fluorescence, luminescence, and phosphorescence. Several measuring modes are available, including wavelength scan, time scan, photometry and 3-D scan measurement. The spectrophotometer has sensitivity in the range of 50 picomoles of fluorescein when using a 300 μL sample volume in the microplate, and is capable of measuring scan speeds of 60,000 nm/minute. It also has a wide dynamic range of up to 5 orders of magnitude which allows for the use of calibration curves over a wide range of concentrations. The optical system uses all reflective optics for maximum energy and sensitivity. The standard wavelength range is 200 to 750 nm, and can be extended to 900 nm when using one of the optional near infrared photomultipliers. The system allows optional temperature control for the plate reader from 5 to 60 degrees Celsius using an optional external temperature controlled liquid circulator. The microplate reader allows for the use of 96 well microplates, and the measuring speed for 96 wells is less than 60 seconds when using the kinetics mode. Software controls for the F-7000 and Microplate Reader are also highly flexible. Samples may be set in either column or row formats, and any combination of wells may be chosen for sample measurements. This allows

  12. Land suitability maps for waste disposal siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasna, M.


    The suitability of geoenvironment for waste disposal depends mainly on its stability and on the danger of groundwater pollution. Besides them, on the land suitability maps for the given purpose also those factors of the factors of the geoenvironment and the landscape should be taken into account, which enable another way of the land use, such as mineral resources, water resources, fertile soils, nature reserves, etc. On the base of the relevant factors influence evaluation - suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable territorial units are delimited on the maps. The different way of various scale maps compilation is applied, taken into account their different representing feasibilities. (authors)

  13. Method development and validation of potent pyrimidine derivative by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Anoop; Verma, Prabhakar Kumar


    A rapid and sensitive ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopic method was developed for the estimation of pyrimidine derivative 6-Bromo-3-(6-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-(morpolinomethylamino) pyrimidine4-yl) -2H-chromen-2-one (BT10M) in bulk form. Pyrimidine derivative was monitored at 275 nm with UV detection, and there is no interference of diluents at 275 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range of 50 to 150 μg/ml. The accuracy and precision were determined and validated statistically. The method was validated as a guideline. The results showed that the proposed method is suitable for the accurate, precise, and rapid determination of pyrimidine derivative. Graphical Abstract Method development and validation of potent pyrimidine derivative by UV spectroscopy.

  14. Total ozone derived from UV spectrophotometer measurements on the NASA CV-990 aircraft for the fall 1976 latitude survey flights (United States)

    Hanser, F. A.


    An ultraviolet interference filter spectrophotometer was modified to use a photodiode and was flown on latitude survey flights in the fall of 1976. Comparison with Dobson station total ozone values shows agreement between UVS and Dobson total ozone of + or - 2 percent. The procedure used to convert UVS measured ozone above the aircraft altitude to total ozone above ground level introduces an additional 2 percent deviation for very high altitude UVS ozone data. Under stable aircraft operating conditions, the UVS derived ozone values have a variability, or reproducibility, of better than + or -1 percent. The UVS data from the latitude survey flights yield a detailed latitude profile of total ozone over the Pacific Ocean during November 1976. Significant latitudinal structure in total ozone is found at the middle latitudes (30 deg to 40 deg N and S).

  15. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements (United States)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.


    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  16. A New High-sensitivity solar X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX:early operations and databases (United States)

    Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr; Trzebinski, Witold; Plocieniak, Stefan; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument operating aboard Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite. A short description of this unique instrument will be presented and its unique capabilities discussed. SphinX is presently the most sensitive solar X-ray spectrophotometer measuring solar spectra in the energy range above 1 keV. A large archive of SphinX mea-surements has already been collected. General access to these measurements is possible. The SphinX data repositories contain lightcurves, spectra, and photon arrival time measurements. The SphinX data cover nearly continuously the period since the satellite launch on January 30, 2009 up to the end-of November 2009. Present instrument status, data formats and data access methods will be shown. An overview of possible new science coming from SphinX data analysis will be discussed.

  17. Use of Fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for determination of breastmilk output by the deuterium dilution method among Senegalese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Diaham, Babou; Dossou, Nicole; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Wade, Salimata; Bluck, Leslie


    Breastmilk output can be estimated from the mother's total body water and water turnover rates after oral administration of deuterium oxide. Usually the deuterium enrichments are determined using a isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which is expensive and requires a specialist for operation and maintenance. Such equipment is dfficult to set up in developing countries. A less expensive method was developed which uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for deuterium enrichment analysis. This study evaluated the constraints of using FTIR to study lactating women in Senegal. The deuterium isotope method was found to be adequate for free living subjects and presented few constraints except for the duration of the saliva sampling (14 days). The method offers the opportunity to determine simultaneously breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and breastfeeding practices. Deuterium sample enrichments measured with FTIR were fast and easy, but for spectrum quality some environmental control is required to optimize the results. (Authors)

  18. infrared spectrophotometer for simultaneous detection of traces of heavy water and indocyanine green in flowing blood. In vivo experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitini, R.; Roveyaz, P.


    We have developed an infrared absorption method for the pulmonary extravascular water and cardiac output determination by the multiple indicator technique. This led us to construct an original double differential spectrophotometer (DUPLEX) for simultaneous detection of traces of heavy water (D 2 O) and indocyanine green (ICG) in circulating blood in a single absorption cell. This DUPLEX is connected to a computer and results are treated on line. D 2 O and ICG are used as non toxic diffusible and vascular tracers respectively. Performances of the DUPLEX are given and show a high accuracy with D 2 O (x 10) and ICG (x 2) compared with the commercial optical analysers. We show the validity of the method for determining the cardiac output and the pulmonary extravascular water in the course of numerous experiments on human and rats subjects. Preliminary results concerning the measurement of global water on rats are also given [fr

  19. Method for improving the use of PASCO brand spectrophotometer using DataStudio program applied to radiometric surveys for LAFTLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos Rodriguez, Gary


    Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica at the Universidad de Costa Rica has developed a procedure for the improved use of a PASCO brand Spectrophotometer of the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada. The program has used DataStudio for the application in radiometric surveys in LAFTLA. Important conclusions have been obtained by the assembly of optical experiments, software and data collection and analysis, such as the behavior of a emitting source radiation known as black body and its relation to the temperature, wavelength and intensity of light. The user guide has been detailed exposing calibrations of the sensors, the definition of constants needed for obtaining parameters and assembly and commissioning of the equipment. (author) [es

  20. Concentration determination of nucleic acids and proteins using the micro-volume BioSpec-nano-spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja


    Nucleic acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells.

  1. Analysis of Shade Matching in Natural Dentitions Using Intraoral Digital Spectrophotometer in LED and Filtered LED Light Sources. (United States)

    Chitrarsu, Vijai Krishnan; Chidambaranathan, Ahila Singaravel; Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar


    To evaluate the shade matching capabilities in natural dentitions using Vita Toothguide 3D-Master and an intraoral digital spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0) in various light sources. Participants between 20 and 40 years old with natural, unrestored right maxillary central incisors, no history of bleaching, orthodontic treatment, or malocclusion and no rotations were included. According to their shades, subjects were randomly selected and grouped into A1, A2, and A3. A total of 100 participants (50 male and 50 female) in each group were chosen for this study. Shade selection was made between 10 am and 2 pm for all light sources. The same examiner selected the shade of natural teeth with Vita Toothguide 3D-Master under natural light within 2 minutes. Once the Vita Toothguide 3D-Masterwas matched with the maxillary right central incisor, the L*, a*, and b* values, chroma, and hue were recorded with Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0 by placing it on the shade tab under the same light source. The values were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test with SPSS v22.0 software. The mean ∆E* ab values for shades A1, A2, and A3 for groups 1, 2, and 3 were statistically significantly different from each other (p spectrophotometer showed statistically significant differences in shade matching compared to Vita Toothguide 3D-Master. Incandescent light showed more accurate shade matching than the filtered LED, LED, and daylight. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Spectrophotometer is useful for assessing vitiligo and chemical leukoderma severity by quantifying color difference with surrounding normally pigmented skin. (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Okamura, K; Araki, Y; Suzuki, M; Tanaka, T; Abe, Y; Nakano, S; Yoshizawa, J; Hozumi, Y; Inoie, M; Suzuki, T


    Acquired skin hypopigmentation has many etiologies, including autoimmune melanocyte destruction, skin aging, inflammation, and chemical exposure. Distinguishing lesions from normally pigmented skin is clinically important to precisely assess disease severity. However, no gold standard assessment method has been reported. We aimed to investigate whether spectrophotometers are useful for assessing vitiligo and rhododendrol (4-(4-hydroxyphenol)-2-butanol) (Rhododenol ® )-induced leukoderma disease severity by quantifying skin color. Mexameter ® MX18 and CM-700d spectrophotometer were used for assessing vitiligo/leukoderma by measuring melanin index, L*a*b* color space, and ΔE*ab value, which represents the color difference between two subjects and is calculated by the values of L*a*b*. MX18 and CM-700d can quantitatively distinguish vitiligo/leukoderma from normally pigmented skin based on melanin index. CM-700d consistently quantified the color of vitiligo/leukoderma lesions and surrounding normally pigmented skin in L*a*b* color spaces and ΔE*ab. ΔE*ab is well correlated with melanin index and clinical appearance. ΔE*ab has been frequently used in aesthetic dentistry; however, current study is the first to use it in the measurement of skin color. ΔE*ab seems to be a useful parameter to evaluate the color contrast between vitiligo/leukoderma and surrounding normally pigmented skin and can be used to evaluate disease severity and patient's quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Concentration Determination of Nucleic Acids and Proteins Using the Micro-volume Bio-spec Nano Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja


    Nucleic Acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected1. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/ mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells. PMID:21372788

  4. Measurements in interplanetary space and in the Martian upper atmosphere with a hydrogen absorption-cell spectrophotometer for Lα-radiation on-board Mars 4 - 7 spaceprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichenko, S.I.; Deregusov, E.V.; Kurt, V.G.; Romanova, N.N.; Skljankin, V.A.; Smirnov, A.S.; Bertaux, J.J.; Blamont, J.


    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer UFS-2, designed to measure radiation of atomic hydrogen in the Lα-line, was installed onboard the interplanetary Mars 4 - 7 spaceprobes launched in August 1973. The absorption cell which was used for the first time outside the hydrogen geocorona allowed direct temperature measurements of neutral interstellar hydrogen near the Sun and in the upper Martian atmosphere. (Auth.)

  5. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis (United States)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.


    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  6. Deconvolution of ferredoxin, plastocyanin, and P700 transmittance changes in intact leaves with a new type of kinetic LED array spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich


    A newly developed compact measuring system for assessment of transmittance changes in the near-infrared spectral region is described; it allows deconvolution of redox changes due to ferredoxin (Fd), P700, and plastocyanin (PC) in intact leaves. In addition, it can also simultaneously measure chlorophyll fluorescence. The major opto-electronic components as well as the principles of data acquisition and signal deconvolution are outlined. Four original pulse-modulated dual-wavelength difference signals are measured (785-840 nm, 810-870 nm, 870-970 nm, and 795-970 nm). Deconvolution is based on specific spectral information presented graphically in the form of 'Differential Model Plots' (DMP) of Fd, P700, and PC that are derived empirically from selective changes of these three components under appropriately chosen physiological conditions. Whereas information on maximal changes of Fd is obtained upon illumination after dark-acclimation, maximal changes of P700 and PC can be readily induced by saturating light pulses in the presence of far-red light. Using the information of DMP and maximal changes, the new measuring system enables on-line deconvolution of Fd, P700, and PC. The performance of the new device is demonstrated by some examples of practical applications, including fast measurements of flash relaxation kinetics and of the Fd, P700, and PC changes paralleling the polyphasic fluorescence rise upon application of a 300-ms pulse of saturating light.

  7. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan


    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i

  8. Obtaining shale oil suitable for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudel, M


    Treats with sulphuric acid and then with soda, obtaining 57 per cent of products suitable for lighting in place of the usual 35 to 40 per cent as obtained by present processes. The product has a less disagreeable odor.

  9. Using Machine Learning for Land Suitability Classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. ... evidence for the utility of machine learning methods in land suitability classification especially MCS methods. ... Artificial intelligence tools. ..... Numerical values of index for the various classes.

  10. Random laser emission at dual wavelengths in a donor-acceptor dye mixture solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Kedia

    Full Text Available The work was aimed to generate random laser emissions simultaneously at two wavelengths in a weakly scattering system containing mixture of binary dyes, rhodamine-B (Rh-B and oxazine-170 (O-170 dispersed with ZnO nano-particles serving as scattering centres. Random lasing performances for individual Rh-B dye were extensively studied for varying small signal gain/scatterer density and we found lasing threshold to significantly depend upon number density of dispersed nano-particles. In spite of inefficient pumping, we demonstrated possibility of random lasing in O-170 dye solution on account of resonance energy transfer from Rh-B dye which served as donor. At optimum concentrations of fluorophores and scatterer in dye mixture solution, incoherent random lasing was effectively attained simultaneously at two wavelengths centered 90 nm apart. Dual-emission intensities, lasing thresholds and rate of amplifications could be controlled and made equivalent for both donor and acceptor in dye mixture solution by appropriate choice of concentrations of dyes and scatterers. Keywords: Random lasing, Energy transfer, Rhodamine-B, Oxazine-170, Zinc oxide

  11. Dual-wavelength millimeter-wave radar measurements of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)


    In April 1994, the University of Massachusetts` 33-GHz/95-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) participated in the multi-sensor Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Operation Period (IOP), which was conducted at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART). During the 3-week experiment, CPRS measured a variety of cloud types and severe weather. In the context of global warming, the most significant measurements are dual-frequency observations of cirrus clouds, which may eventually be used to estimate ice crystal size and shape. Much of the cirrus data collected with CPRS show differences between 33-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity measurements that are correlated with Doppler estimates of fall velocity. Because of the small range of reflectivity differences, a precise calibration of the radar is required and differential attenuation must also be removed from the data. Depolarization, which is an indicator of crystal shape, was also observed in several clouds. In this abstract we present examples of Mie scattering from cirrus and estimates of differential attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen that were derived from CART radiosonde measurements.

  12. Dual-wavelength differential spectroscopic imaging for diagnostics of laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V., E-mail: [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Ma, Q.L. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Gregoire, S. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Lei, W.Q.; Wang, X.C. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Pelascini, F.; Surma, F. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Detalle, V. [Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Yu, J. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France)


    A specific configuration for plasma fast spectroscopic imaging was developed, where a pair of narrowband filters, one fitting an emission line of a species to be studied and the other out of its emission line, allowed double images to be taken for a laser-induced plasma. A dedicated software was developed for the subtraction between the double images. The result represents therefore the monochromatic emission image of the species in the plasma. We have shown in this work that such configuration is especially efficient for the monitoring of a plasma generated under the atmospheric pressure at very short delays after the impact of the laser pulse on the target, when a strong continuum emission is observed. The efficiency of the technique has been particularly demonstrated in the study of laser-induced plasma on a polymer target. Molecular species, such as C{sub 2} and CN, as well as atomic species, such as C and N, were imaged starting from 50 ns after the laser impact. Moreover space segregation of different species, atomic or molecular, inside of the plasma was clearly observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging to study species with time and space resolution in laser induced plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Image display of multiple species is proposed based on RGB color model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular emission (CN and C{sub 2}) is observed at very short delays (50 ns). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Segregation of different species inside the plasma is clearly established.

  13. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy (United States)

    This study evaluated ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together for their efficacy at inactivating Escherichia. coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores; research in...

  14. A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a...

  15. Enhanced Deformation of Azobenzene-Modified Liquid Crystal Polymers under Dual Wavelength Exposure: A Photophysical Model (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Onck, Patrick R.


    Azobenzene-embedded liquid crystal polymers can undergo mechanical deformation in response to ultraviolet (UV) light. The natural rodlike trans state azobenzene absorbs UV light and isomerizes to a bentlike cis state, which disturbs the order of the polymer network, leading to an anisotropic deformation. The current consensus is that the magnitude of the photoinduced deformation is related to the statistical building up of molecules in the cis state. However, a recent experimental study [Liu and Broer, Nat. Commun. 6 8334 (2015)., 10.1038/ncomms9334] shows that a drastic (fourfold) increase of the photoinduced deformation can be generated by exposing the samples simultaneously to 365 nm (UV) and 455 nm (visible) light. To elucidate the physical mechanism that drives this increase, we develop a two-light attenuation model and an optomechanical constitutive relation that not only accounts for the statistical accumulation of cis azobenzenes, but also for the dynamic trans-cis-trans oscillatory isomerization process. Our experimentally calibrated model predicts that the optimal single-wavelength exposure is 395 nm light, a pronounced shift towards the visible spectrum. In addition, we identify a range of optimal combinations of two-wavelength lights that generate a favorable response for a given amount of injected energy. Our model provides mechanistic insight into the different (multi)wavelength exposures used in experiments and, at the same time, opens new avenues towards enhanced, multiwavelength optomechanical behavior.

  16. Dual-Modulation, Dual-Wavelength, Optical Polarimetry System for Glucose Monitoring (United States)


    bandwidth transimpedance amplifier (CVI Melles Griot, Albuquerque, NM, USA) and fed into two lock-in amplifiers (Stanford Research Systems, Sunnyvale...were modulated using synchronous sinusoidal signals and linear amplifiers (carrier frequencies: 1 2=45 82c cf kHz f kHz, ). The sinusoidal signals...ferrite core was powered with an audio amplifier (Radio Shack, Fort Worth, TX, USA) connected in series with a 0.18 µF capacitor in order to achieve

  17. Single-shot dual-wavelength in-line and off-axis hybrid digital holography (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie


    We propose an in-line and off-axis hybrid holographic real-time imaging technique. The in-line and off-axis digital holograms are generated simultaneously by two lasers with different wavelengths, and they are recorded using a color camera with a single shot. The reconstruction is carried using an iterative algorithm in which the initial input is designed to include the intensity of the in-line hologram and the approximate phase distributions obtained from the off-axis hologram. In this way, the complex field in the object plane and the output by the iterative procedure can produce higher quality amplitude and phase images compared to traditional iterative phase retrieval. The performance of the technique has been demonstrated by acquiring the amplitude and phase images of a green lacewing's wing and a living moon jellyfish.

  18. Eye safety report 1 (dual wavelength). Human risk analysis simulator for space lidars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.; Mellerio, J.; Sonneck, G.


    This report contains the results of a risk study for a satellite based lidar mission that uses two different laser wavelengths to measure atmospheric properties. A lidar can be considered as a laser radar and is an acronym for light detection and ranging. The lidar measures properties of the atmosphere by analysis of laser radiation that is directed back to the lidar. As only part of the laser radiation is scattered ir absorbed by the atmosphere, the remaining laser radiation emitted from the spacecraft is incident on the earth's surface, where it might lead to injuries, especially to the eye, if biological thresholds are exceeded. For the analysed mission there is no hazard to the skin, only a potential one to the eye. Because the footprint of the satellite's laser beam on the surface of the earth is so small and it moves so fast, the chance of the naked eye being exposed to the laser is small. Because of the magnification provided by an optical instrument, and the concomitant reduction in the field of view, the probability of exposure of an eye that is using such an instrument decreases with increasing optical power. However, because an increased optical power implies increased diameter of the light gathering optics, the laser energy delivered to an eye increases with instrument size so that if exposure did occur, the probability of delivering energy to the eye that exceeds the threshold for damage increases. There are thus two conflicting processes at work for viewing with optical instruments: an increase in diameter increases the energy delivered but reduces the probability of lidar beam interception. Energy delivered to the eye is such that damage thresholds will not be exceeded for naked eye viewing or for the use of small optical instruments. Exposure via telescopes with diameter larger than 12 cm could result in retinal damage of the exposed eye. (author)

  19. Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povaay, B.; Müller, André


    We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion......-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior...... eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness....

  20. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.


    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  1. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (United States)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.


    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  2. Influence of surface layer removal of shade guide tabs on the measured color by spectrophotometer and spectroradiometer. (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Cheol; Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun


    To determine the changes in color parameters of Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide tabs by a spectrophotometer (SP) or a spectroradiometer (SR), and by the removal of the surface layer of the tabs that was performed to make a flat measuring surface for the SP color measurement. Color of the shade tabs was measured before and after removing the surface layer of the tabs using SP and SR. Correlations between the color parameters between the original (OR) and the surface layer removed (RM) tabs and between the SP and the SR measurements were determined (alpha=0.05). Based on SP, the lightness, chroma, CIE a* and b* values measured after the surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases. Based on SR, the chroma and CIE a* and b* values measured after surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases; however, in case of the lightness, the changes varied by the shade designation. Type of instrument influenced the changes in color parameters based on paired t-test (pspectrophotometer or a spectroradiometer, measurement protocols should be specified because color difference by the surface layer removal and the instrument was high.

  3. Direct measurement of the fluorescence characteristics of aquatic humic substances by a three-dimensional fluorescence spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Seiya; Senoo, Muneaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hiraki, Keizo.


    Humic substances play an important role in the transport of trace metals and insoluble organic materials. They are also considered to be precursors of trihalomethane in aquatic environments. The direct measurement of humic substances was carried out with a three-dimensional fluorescence spectrophotometer after filtering natural-water samples through a GF/F glass fiber filter. Because the influence of the humic concentration, pH and ionic strength on the three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectra is negligible, the proposed method can be directly applied to the characterization of humic substances in freshwater samples (humic concentration 0.5-10 mg 1 -1 , pH6-9 and ionic strength <0.04 M) and sea-water samples (ionic strength 0.75 M). Humic substances in river, lake and pore water samples exhibit 2-3 peaks at excitation 305-340 nm/emission 415-440 nm and excitation 250-270 nm/emission 440-450 nm. These peak positions correspond to those of fulvic acids isolated from soil. (author)

  4. Influence of Iatrogenic Gaps, Cement Type, and Time on Microleakage of Cast Posts Using Spectrophotometer and Glucose Filtration Measurements. (United States)

    Al-Madi, Ebtissam M; Al-Saleh, Samar A; Al-Khudairy, Reem I; Aba-Hussein, Taibah W


    To determine the influence of iatrogenic gaps, type of cement, and time on microleakage of cast posts using spectrophotometer and glucose filtration measurements. Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into eight groups of six teeth each. Teeth were instrumented and obturated, and a cast post was fabricated. In addition to two control groups (positive and negative), a total of six groups were prepared: In four groups, an artificial 2- to 3-mm gap was created between post and residual gutta percha (GP), and two groups were prepared with intimate contact between post and residual GP. Posts were cemented with either zinc phosphate cement or resin cement. Leakage through the post after 1, 8, 14, and 20 days was measured using a glucose penetration model with two different reading methods. Mixed analysis of variance tests were performed to analyze the data. The presence of a gap between the apical end of the post and the most coronal portion of the GP remaining in the root canal after post space preparation increased microleakage significantly. However, microleakage was significantly less when the gap was refilled with GP compared to no gap. There was no difference in leakage between luting cements used. It was concluded that none of the cements were able to prevent microleakage. However, the addition of GP to residual GP did increase the sealing ability.

  5. Loop system for creating jet fuel vapor standards used in the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and gas chromatographs. (United States)

    Reboulet, James; Cunningham, Robert; Gunasekar, Palur G; Chapman, Gail D; Stevens, Sean C


    A whole body inhalation study of mixed jet fuel vapor and its aerosol necessitated the development of a method for preparing vapor only standards from the neat fuel. Jet fuel is a complex mixture of components which partitions between aerosol and vapor when aspirated based on relative volatility of the individual compounds. A method was desired which could separate the vapor portion from the aerosol component to prepare standards for the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and a head space gas chromatography system. A re-circulating loop system was developed which provided vapor only standards whose composition matched those seen in an exposure system. Comparisons of nominal concentrations in the exposure system to those determined by infrared spectrophotometry were in 92-95% agreement. Comparison of jet fuel vapor concentrations determined by infrared spectrophotometry compared to head space gas chromatography yielded a 93% overall agreement in trial runs. These levels of agreement show the loop system to be a viable method for creating jet fuel vapor standards for calibrating instruments.

  6. [Ecology suitability study of Ephedra intermedia]. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hui; Lu, You-Yuan; Huang, De-Dong; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Lv, Pei-Lin; Jin, Ling


    The study aims at predicting ecological suitability of Ephedra intermedia in China by using maximum entropy Maxent model combined with GIS, and finding the main ecological factors affecting the distribution of E. intermedia suitability in appropriate growth area. Thirty-eight collected samples of E. intermedia and E. intermedia and 116 distribution information from CVH information using ArcGIS technology were analyzed. MaxEnt model was applied to forecast the E. intermedia in our country's ecology. E. intermedia MaxEnt ROC curve model training data and testing data sets the AUC value was 0.986 and 0.958, respectively, which were greater than 0.9, tending to be 1.The calculated E. intermedia habitat suitability by the model showed a high accuracy and credibility, which indicated that MaxEnt model could well predict the potential distribution area of E. intermedia in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Additional media studies for site suitability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donich, T.R.; Kaufman, A.M.; Sauter, G.D.; Steinborn, T.L.; Towse, D.F.


    Site suitability studies have been made previously at LLL on bedded salt and shale. In the present study domed salt, basalt, and crystalline rock are compared with bedded salt and shale and with each other as possible repositories. The level of effort required to develop models for these media that are similar in quality to those available for bedded salt and shale is evaluated. The effort necessary to develop data bases on the physical and chemical properties comparable to that available for bedded salt and shale is also estimated. Each medium is evaluated as a suitable repository environment. The funding necessary for model and data base development is estimated

  8. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc


    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. A new colorimetric DPPH• scavenging activity method with no need for a spectrophotometer applied on synthetic and natural antioxidants and medicinal herbs. (United States)

    Akar, Zeynep; Küçük, Murat; Doğan, Hacer


    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging, the most commonly used antioxidant method with more than seventeen thousand articles cited, is very practical; however, as with most assays, it has the major disadvantage of dependence on a spectrophotometer. To overcome this drawback, the colorimetric determination of the antioxidant activity using a scanner and freely available Image J software was developed. In this new method, the mixtures of solutions of DPPH • and standard antioxidants or extracts of common medicinal herbs were dropped onto TLC plates, after an incubation period. The spot images were evaluated with Image J software to determine CSC 50 values, the sample concentrations providing 50% colour reduction, which were very similar with the SC 50 values obtained with spectrophotometric method. The advantages of the new method are the use of lower amounts of reagents and solvents, no need for costly spectrophotometers, and thus significantly lowered costs, and convenient implementation in any environment and situation.

  10. Web page classification on child suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen)


    htmlabstractChildren spend significant amounts of time on the Internet. Recent studies showed, that during these periods they are often not under adult supervision. This work presents an automatic approach to identifying suitable web pages for children based on topical and non-topical web page

  11. Suitability of obstetric ultrasonographic parameters in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: A prospective study aimed at assessing the suitability of Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Femoral Length (FL), Transverse abdominal Diameter (TAD) and Composite value by ultrasonography, in determining foetal or gestational age derived by last menstrual period (LMP) in our environment was undertaken.

  12. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina (United States)

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime A.


    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT JUICE AS A SUBSTRATE FOR WINE FERMENTATION. ... The analysis of the sugars showed glucose, fructose and sucrose as the predominant sugars present. Vitamin C content was substantially high (35 mg/100 g), but fat content was low (0.25%).

  14. Design of a Simple UV Double Beam Spectrophotometer Detector Based on a High Gain Trans Impedance Operational Amplifiers for RNA Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakhib Ibrahim Abdelbary


    Full Text Available In this work a simple double beam spectrophotometer detector for the nucleic acid detection has been designed. The developed system contains photodiodes as a sensor, logarithamatic transimpedance amplifier circuit and filter circuit.The developed prototype design accuracy is validated by running a RNA sample and the result shows that our simplified developed setup detects the present of RNA in the sample.

  15. Geospatial distribution modeling and determining suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation purpose using geospatial methods and water quality index (WQI) in Northern Ethiopia (United States)

    Gidey, Amanuel


    Determining suitability and vulnerability of groundwater quality for irrigation use is a key alarm and first aid for careful management of groundwater resources to diminish the impacts on irrigation. This study was conducted to determine the overall suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation use and to generate their spatial distribution maps in Elala catchment, Northern Ethiopia. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected to analyze and map the water quality variables. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, titration and calculation methods were used for laboratory groundwater quality analysis. Arc GIS, geospatial analysis tools, semivariogram model types and interpolation methods were used to generate geospatial distribution maps. Twelve and eight water quality variables were used to produce weighted overlay and irrigation water quality index models, respectively. Root-mean-square error, mean square error, absolute square error, mean error, root-mean-square standardized error, measured values versus predicted values were used for cross-validation. The overall weighted overlay model result showed that 146 km2 areas are highly suitable, 135 km2 moderately suitable and 60 km2 area unsuitable for irrigation use. The result of irrigation water quality index confirms 10.26% with no restriction, 23.08% with low restriction, 20.51% with moderate restriction, 15.38% with high restriction and 30.76% with the severe restriction for irrigation use. GIS and irrigation water quality index are better methods for irrigation water resources management to achieve a full yield irrigation production to improve food security and to sustain it for a long period, to avoid the possibility of increasing environmental problems for the future generation.

  16. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi


    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  17. An in-line spectrophotometer on a centrifugal microfluidic platform for real-time protein determination and calibration. (United States)

    Ding, Zhaoxiong; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Guanghui; Tang, Minghui; Dong, Yumin; Zhang, Yixin; Ho, Ho-Pui; Zhang, Xuping


    In this paper, an in-line, low-cost, miniature and portable spectrophotometric detection system is presented and used for fast protein determination and calibration in centrifugal microfluidics. Our portable detection system is configured with paired emitter and detector diodes (PEDD), where the light beam between both LEDs is collimated with enhanced system tolerance. It is the first time that a physical model of PEDD is clearly presented, which could be modelled as a photosensitive RC oscillator. A portable centrifugal microfluidic system that contains a wireless port in real-time communication with a smartphone has been built to show that PEDD is an effective strategy for conducting rapid protein bioassays with detection performance comparable to that of a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The choice of centrifugal microfluidics offers the unique benefits of highly parallel fluidic actuation at high accuracy while there is no need for a pump, as inertial forces are present within the entire spinning disc and accurately controlled by varying the spinning speed. As a demonstration experiment, we have conducted the Bradford assay for bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration calibration from 0 to 2 mg mL(-1). Moreover, a novel centrifugal disc with a spiral microchannel is proposed for automatic distribution and metering of the sample to all the parallel reactions at one time. The reported lab-on-a-disc scheme with PEDD detection may offer a solution for high-throughput assays, such as protein density calibration, drug screening and drug solubility measurement that require the handling of a large number of reactions in parallel.

  18. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique. (United States)

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip


    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.


    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  20. Projective synchronization based on suitable separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohui; Xiong Chuan; Sun Xiaonan


    A new approach for constructing a projective-synchronized chaotic slave system is proposed in this paper. This method is based on suitable separation by decomposing the system as the linear part and the nonlinear one. From matrix measure theory, some simple but efficient criteria are derived for projective synchronization of chaotic system. Numerical simulations for the Lorenz system show that this control method works very well

  1. Improved fiberoptic spectrophotometer (United States)

    Tans, P.P.; Lashof, D.A.


    The present invention allows for accurate spectrophotmetric comparison of the Raman scattering from a sample gas with the Raman scattering from a known gas via a novel fiber optic network. The need for complicated electronic of optical circuit balancing, control, or error compensation circuitry is eliminated. The laser cavity is split into two regions, one of which houses the plasma discharge and produces laser power, and the other of which is adapted to house tubes containing the gas samples. Light from the laser source is beamed simultaneously through samples of the reference gas and the unknown gas, and Raman-scattered light is emitted. The Raman-scattered light from the known and unknown mixtures is then alternately passed through a fiber optic network where the various wavelengths are spatially mixed. The mixed light is then passed into a system of light detectors, each of which are adapted to measure one of the wavelengths of light representing a constituent element of the gases. When the test is complete, each gas sample can be assigned a Raman-scattered profile from the data consisting of the ratios each of the constituent elements bear to each other. (LEW)

  2. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  3. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad


    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  4. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, María P


    The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network's modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years and leaves

  5. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network's modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years

  6. A passive radon dosemeter suitable for workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, C.; Orlando, P.; Patrizii, L.; Tommasino, L.; Tonnarini, S.; Trevisi, R.; Viola, P.


    The results obtained in different international intercomparisons on passive radon monitors have been analysed with the aim of identifying a suitable radon monitoring device for workplaces. From this analysis, the passive radon device, first developed for personal dosimetry in mines by the National Radiation Protection Board, UK (NRPB), has shown the most suitable set of characteristics. This radon monitor consists of a diffusion chamber, made of conductive plastic with less than 2 cm height, containing a CR-39 film (Columbia Resin 1939), as track detector. Radon detectors in workplaces may be exposed only during the working hours, thus requiring the storage of the detectors in low-radon zones when not exposed. This paper describes how this problem can be solved. Since track detectors are also efficient neutron dosemeters, care should be taken when radon monitors are used in workplaces, where they may be exposed to neutrons, such as on high altitude mountains, in the surroundings of high energy X ray facilities (where neutrons are produced by (gamma, n) reactions) or around high energy particle accelerators. To this end, the response of these passive radon monitors to high energy neutron fields has been investigated. (author)

  7. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman


    Fluorine was determined via the rotational molecular absorption line of aluminum mono fluoride (AlF) generated in C(2)H(2)/N(2)O flame at 227.4613 nm using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HR-CS-FAAS). The effects of AlF wavelength, burner height, fuel rate (C(2)H(2)/N(2)O) and amount of Al on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity were investigated and optimized. The Al-F absorption band at 227.4613 nm was found to be the most suitable analytical line with respect to sensitivity and spectral interferences. Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing spiked samples and waste water certified reference material. The results were in good agreement with the certified and spiked amounts as well as the precision of several days during this study was satisfactory (RSD<10%). The limit of detection and characteristic concentration of the method were 5.5 mg L(-1) and 72.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems. (United States)

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D


    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. In vitro kinetics of P700+ reduction of Thermosynechococcus elongatus trimeric Photosystem I complexes by recombinant cytochrome c 6 using a Joliot-type LED spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Vaughn, Michael; Frymier, Paul; Bruce, Barry D


    The reduction rate of photo-oxidized Photosystem I (PSI) with various natural and artificial electron donors have been well studied by transient absorption spectroscopy. The electron transfer rate from various donors to P 700 + has been measured for a wide range of photosynthetic organisms encompassing cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. PSI can be a limiting component due to tedious extraction and purification methods required for this membrane protein. In this report, we have determined the in vivo, intracellular cytochrome c 6 (cyt c 6 )/PSI ratio in Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T.e.) using quantitative Western blot analysis. This information permitted the determination of P 700 + reduction kinetics via recombinant cyt c 6 in a physiologically relevant ratio (cyt c 6 : PSI) with a Joliot-type, LED-driven, pump-probe spectrophotometer. Dilute PSI samples were tested under varying cyt c 6 concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength, each of which shows similar trends to the reported literature utilizing much higher PSI concentrations with laser-based spectrophotometer. Our results do however indicate kinetic differences between actinic light sources (laser vs. LED), and we have attempted to resolve these effects by varying our LED light intensity and duration. The standardized configuration of this spectrophotometer will also allow a more uniform kinetic analysis of samples in different laboratories. We can conclude that our findings from the LED-based system display an added total protein concentration effect due to multiple turnover events of P 700 + reduction by cyt c 6 during the longer illumination regime.

  10. Comparative Study of the Gross Interpretation of Phototesting and Objective Measurement with Using a Spectrophotometer for Patients with Psoriasis and Vitiligo Treated with Narrow-band UVB. (United States)

    Choi, Kyu-Won; Kim, Ki-Ho; Kim, Young-Hun


    Determination of the minimal erythema dose (MED) is important for developing a phototherapy protocol and to diagnosis photosensitivity disorders. But obtaining a precise and reproducible MED is quite difficult because a phototest for erythema is based on subjective assessment. The objective of our study was to compare the gross interpretation of a phototest and the objective measurement using a spectrophotometer for determining the parameters of cutaneous narrow-band UVB (NBUVB) therapy. A total of 14 psoriasis and 10 vitiligo patients who receiving NBUVB phototherapy with skin types III and IV were selected for this study. To perform phototesting, ten sites on the skin of the back were vertically exposed to a series of 10 NBUVB doses among 14 doses between 340 and 1,400 mJ/cm(2). We interpreted the gross findings of erythema and measured the L*a*b* values with using a spectrophotometer at each phototest spot and at the control skin. Also, we evaluate the relationship between the gross presentation and the spectrophotometric analysis by delta E for the assessment of the minimal perceptible erythema (MPE) and MED. For all the subjects, the MEDs were measured in the 490~1,000 mJ/cm(2) range. The average of the colorimetric values for the control skin were L*: 64.8, a*: 7.9 and b*: 19.8. Among them, the L* value and MED value were shown to be inversely correlated, and as the L* value was decreased, the MED was increased. For the MPE, the delta E, which was the color difference of the normal skin and the phototest area, was within the range of 1.5~3.0 in 17 of the 21 patients, and 4 patients were within the range of 1.0~1.5. For the MED, among the 21 patients, the delta E of 17 patients was within the range of 3.0~6.0, and 4 patients were within the range of 6.0~12.0. A spectrophotometer enables UV erythema to be assessed objectively and quantitatively, and this can compensate for the disadvantages of subjective gross interpretation when determining the MED. Delta E is

  11. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography


    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  12. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne


    Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...... of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses....

  13. Glass compositions suitable for PFR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boult, K.A.; Dalton, J.T.; Eccles, E.W.; Hough, A.; Marples, J.A.C.; Paige, E.L.; Sutcliffe, P.W.


    Previous work had identified glass compositions that were suitable for vitrifying current and future high level wastes from the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) fuel reprocessing plant. Further work on these glasses has shown that: a) Foaming and crystallisation can occur under certain conditions, both probably associated with the presence of iron in the waste. Either of these could lead to greater difficulties in processing. b) Inconel 690, the preferred JCM (Joule-heated Ceramic Melter) electrode material has an acceptable corrosion rate at 1200 0 C: ca 0.6mm.y -1 . c) The leach rates are unaffected by radiation damage. The density of the glass decreases slightly with α-dose, with a dependency that extrapolates, at infinite time, to an 0.13% linear expansion. d) The concentrations of the radiologically important elements Tc, Np, Pu and Am, observed in a 'repository simulation' leach test, were satisfactorily low. (author)

  14. Land Suitability Assessment And Precision Farming Prospects For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils on the farm were sampled and profiles classified using South African Binomial system of soil classification. The farm was divided into suitability classes of highly suitable (S1), suitable (S2), and unsuitable (N1), and permanently unsuitable (N2) classes. Maize-soybean suitability maps were produced based on soil ...

  15. [The study of the colorimetric characteristics of the cobalt-chrome alloys abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns by using dental spectrophotometer]. (United States)

    Chen, Yifan; Liu, Hongchun; Meng, Yukun; Chao, Yonglie; Liu, Changhong


    This study aims to evaluate the optical data of the different sites of the cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns and the color difference between the crowns and target tab using a digital dental spectrophotometer. Ten Co-Cr alloy abutments were made and tried in four different groups of all-ceramic crowns, namely, Procera aluminia, Procera zirconia, Lava zirconia (Lava-Zir), and IPS E.max glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic. The color data of the cervical, body, and incisal sites of the samples were recorded and analyzed by dental spectrophotometer. The CIE L*, a*, b* values were again measured after veneering. The color difference between the abutments covered by all-ceramic crowns and A2 dentine shade tab was evaluated. The L* and b* values of the abutments can be increased by all of the four groups of all-ceramic copings, but a* values were decreased in most groups. A statistical difference was observed among four groups. After being veneered, the L* values of all the copings declined slightly, and the values of a*, b* increased significantly. When compared with A2 dentine shade tab, the ΔE of the crowns was below 4. Four ceramic copings were demonstrated to promote the lightness and hue of the alloy abutments effecttively. Though the colorimetric baseline of these copings was uneven, veneer porcelain can efficiently decrease the color difference between the samples and thee target.

  16. Protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid in bladder cancer cells in voided urine can be extracorporeally quantified using a spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Anai, Satoshi; Onishi, Sayuri; Masaomi, Kuwada; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Makito; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kiyohide


    We evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer by spectrophotometric analysis of voided urine samples after extracorporeal treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Sixty-one patients with bladder cancer, confirmed histologically after the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, were recruited as the bladder cancer group, and 50 outpatients without history of urothelial carcinoma or cancer-related findings were recruited as the control group. Half of the voided urine sample was incubated with ALA (ALA-treated sample), and the rest was incubated without treatment (ALA-untreated sample). For detecting cellular protoporphyrin IX levels, intensity of the samples at the excitation wavelength of 405 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. The difference between the intensity of the ALA-treated and ALA-untreated samples at 635 nm was calculated. The differences in the bladder cancer group were significantly greater than those in the control group (p spectrophotometer in patients with bladder cancer. Therefore, this cancer detection system has a potential for clinical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.


    The new version MS2 of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source supports the concurrent acquisition of Raman, resonance Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectra along with diffraction data. The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years

  18. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos


    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. - Highlights: • We analysed P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus muscle from Mid-Atlantic. • We determined stable isotopes, trophic ecology and heavy metal content. • Results reflect bioaccumulation for As and Hg. • Oxyrinchus already presented Hg values above regulatory limits. • Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs appear to be effective metal bioindicators.

  19. Selecting suitable enclosures for digitally printed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, D; Rima, L


    It cannot be assumed that storage enclosures considered safe for traditionally printed images and documents are suitable for modern, digitally printed materials. In this project, a large variety of digital print types were tested using a modified version of the ISO 18916 Imaging materials-Processed imaging materials-Photographic activity test for enclosure materials standard to assess the risk to digital prints by paper enclosures known to be inert or reactive with traditional photographic prints. The types of enclosures tested included buffered and non-buffered cotton papers, and groundwood paper. In addition, qualitative filter paper that had been wetted and dried with either an acidic or basic solution was also tested to determine the effects of enclosure pH on digitally printed materials. It was determined that, in general, digital prints tended to be less reactive with various enclosure types than traditional prints. Digital prints were most sensitive to paper that contained groundwood. The enclosure reactivity test results were then integrated with previous published work on the tendencies of various enclosure types to abrade, ferrotype, or block to digital prints in order to create a comprehensive set of recommendations for digital print storage enclosures.

  20. Perspective in site-suitability modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.


    The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency decided in April 1981 to set up a Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) with the objective of reinforcing the scientific basis of future assessments of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site to be made under the NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism. A major component of the initial CRESP plan was the development of a site-specific model to predict radionuclide transfer rates and patterns in the marine environment. A new general approach to the design of such a site-specific model is discussed.Although this approach originates partly from methodologies presented in GESAMP partly from an approach put forward within the NEA Seabed Working Group/Geochemical and Physical Oceanography Task Group and partly from methods previously agreed by the CRESP Modelling Task Group, the modelling philosophy developed in the text expressed the personal viewpoint of the author. This text aims to state the present methods of modelling the marine transfer of radionuclides and to anticipate modelling strategies which may be adopted in the future (in France for example), but it does not necessarily meet present NEA viewpoints and the philosophy of other CRESP participating countries

  1. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation. (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J


    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  2. Characteristics and suitability of waste dump sites in Owerri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five point criteria screening of the three major waste dumpsites in Owerri Municipality was identified, and a ranking procedure adopted to determine the suitability or otherwise of the dumpsites. The sites were screened and ranked hydro-geologically and geo-technically in order of suitable, moderately suitable, and not ...

  3. Selection of suitable sites for NPP in Slovenia (stage 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, M.; Fabjan, L.; Premru, U.


    Selection of suitable sites for nuclear power plants in Slovenia is considered. This includes the studies of available data on regional and local characteristics specified in general site suitability criteria for NPP. The most suitable selected sites will be included into land use urbanistic planning of Slovenia

  4. Instrument workstation for the EGSE of the Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission (United States)

    Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Conforti, V.; Franceschi, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Maiorano, E.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Zoli, A.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Bonino, D.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Capobianco, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Corcione, L.; Debei, S.; De Rosa, A.; Dusini, S.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Guizzo, G. P.; Ligori, S.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Morgante, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sortino, F.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.


    The NISP instrument on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at different levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. The NISP Instrument Workstation (NI-IWS) will be part of the EGSE configuration that will support the NISP AIV/AIT activities from the NISP Warm Electronics level up to the launch of Euclid. One workstation is required for the NISP EQM/AVM, and a second one for the NISP FM. Each workstation will follow the respective NISP model after delivery to ESA for Payload and Satellite AIV/AIT and launch. At these levels the NI-IWS shall be configured as part of the Payload EGSE, the System EGSE, and the Launch EGSE, respectively. After launch, the NI-IWS will be also re-used in the Euclid Ground Segment in order to support the Commissioning and Performance Verification (CPV) phase, and for troubleshooting purposes during the operational phase. The NI-IWS is mainly aimed at the local storage in a suitable format of the NISP instrument data and metadata, at local retrieval, processing and display of the stored data for on-line instrument assessment, and at the remote retrieval of the stored data for off-line analysis on other computers. We describe the design of the IWS software that will create a suitable interface to the external systems in each of the various configurations envisaged at the different levels, and provide the capabilities required to monitor and verify the instrument functionalities and performance throughout all phases of the NISP lifetime.

  5. Characterization of near-infrared nonmetal atomic emission from an atmospheric helium microwave-induced plasma using a Fourier transform spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.; Van Tra, H.; Chi Tran, K.; Baudais, F.L.


    A new approach for using Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) for the detection of atomic emission from an atmospheric helium plasma has been developed and the results obtained are described. Among the different types of plasma source available, the atmospheric pressure microwave helium plasma appears to be an efficient excitation source for the determination of nonmetal species. The more complete microwave plasma emission spectra of Cl, Br, I, S, O, P, C, N, and He in the near-infrared region were obtained and their corrected relative emission intensities are reported. This makes qualitative identification simple, and aids in the quantitative analysis of atomic species. The accuracy of the emission wavelengths obtained with the Fourier transform spectrophotometer was excellent and the resolution provided by the FTS allowed certain adjacent emission lines to be adequate for analytical applications

  6. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source. (United States)

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R


    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  7. Aqueous photochemical reactions of chloride, bromide, and iodide ions in a diode-array spectrophotometer. Autoinhibition in the photolysis of iodide ions. (United States)

    Kalmár, József; Dóka, Éva; Lente, Gábor; Fábián, István


    The aqueous photoreactions of three halide ions (chloride, bromide and iodide) were studied using a diode array spectrophotometer to drive and detect the process at the same time. The concentration and pH dependences of the halogen formation rates were studied in detail. The experimental data were interpreted by improving earlier models where the cage complex of a halogen atom and an electron has a central role. The triiodide ion was shown to exert a strong inhibiting effect on the reaction sequence leading to its own formation. An assumed chemical reaction between the triiodide ion and the cage complex interpreted the strong autoinhibition effect. It is shown that there is a real danger of unwanted interference from the photoreactions of halide ions when halide salts are used as supporting electrolytes in spectrophotometric experiments using a relatively high intensity UV light source.

  8. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source (United States)

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.


    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years. PMID:23955041

  9. The study of temperature and UV light effect in anthocyanin extract from dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) rind using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (United States)

    Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Aprilia, Anisa Cahyani; Fauzi'ah, Lina


    This study aimed to determine the total of anthocyanin content in ethanol extract from super red dragon fruit rind. The extraction was affected by temperature and light conditions. The determination of anthocyanin's total content was performed with a variation of pH and analyzed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that the average contained total anthocyanins obtained at room temperature, 40 and 60 °C were 4.6757, 5.6108, 21.9757 mg/L, respectively. In higher temperatures, it was observed the more anthocyanin extracted. The concentration of anthocyanin extract without UV light was 2.5716 mg/L, it was less than UV light assisted extract, i.e. 5.3770 mg / L.

  10. Application of the correction's system of bottom by deuterium's lamp of a spectrophotometer of atomic absorption to the obtaining of ultraviolet spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Chaves, Alberto Enrique


    The correction system of bottom by lamp of deuterium's arch of a spectrophotometer of atomic absorption has been utilized with sweep's capacity of wavelength to get spectrums of ultraviolet absorption of samples in gaseous phase, whether in presence as in absence of flame, in the region between 200 nm and 365 nm. The spectral information was obtained after of a process of electronic subtraction of the source's signal, except for the source's signal plus the sample and its subsequent analysis by a programmed data's processor to give a report in terms of wavelength. The spectrums obtained in absence of flame were practiced in samples contained in a gas's sell for infrared spectroscopy with polyethylene's windows, it is located of the burner and directly in front to the radiation's beam, comparable spectrums with the reported in the literature were obtained and with a bigger resolution than the measure with an conventional ultraviolet absorption's spectrophotometer utilized like reference. The spectrums in presence of flame have been of flame have been obtained from dissolved samples and directly suctioned, it achieves to obtain spectral information that is normally not detected conveniently when it performs qualitative analysis by emission of flame in elements such like zinc, lead, cobalt, mercury and nickel among other. The information obtained on this way has been utilized like an alternative method to the elemental analysis by humid way with a view to increase the reliability of the results that have been utilized like basis in the determination of the tariff classification of imported or exported products. (Author) [es

  11. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David


    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  12. Study of the reaction between Uranium(III) and Lanthanide oxide by using the UV-VIS spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tack-Jin; Cho, Young-Hwan; Choi, In-Kyu; Choi, Kwang-Soon; Jee, Kwang-Yong


    Recently, ionic melts have become attractive reaction media in many fields. Molten salt based electrochemical processes have been proposed as a promising method for future nuclear programs and more specifically for spent fuel processing. Molten alkaline chloride based melts are considered as a promising reaction media. For this, it is interesting to understand the chemical nature of the actinides and lanthanides in high-temperature melt. Some spectroscopy provides essential information on the exact nature of f-block elements LiCl-KCl melt system. The knowledge on the basic chemical properties of these lanthanide oxides and U(III) in molten salt media is essential for developing suitable processes. However, few studies have been reported until now on the interaction between U metal and lanthanide oxides in LiCl-KCl melt. So, we studied the interaction between U(III) and Ln(III) by using the UV-VIS spectra. UV-vis spectrometry is a strong analytical technique for characterizing chemical species and their behavior in molten salt

  13. Agreement between digital image analysis and clinical spectrophotometer in CIEL*C*h° coordinate differences and total color difference (ΔE) measurements of dental ceramic shade tabs. (United States)

    Farah, Ra'fat I


    The objectives of this in vitro study were: 1) to test the agreement among color coordinate differences and total color difference (ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔE) measurements obtained by digital image analysis (DIA) and spectrophotometer, and 2) to test the reliability of each method for obtaining color differences. A digital camera was used to record standardized images of each of the 15 shade tabs from the IPS e.max shade guide placed edge-to-edge in a phantom head with a reference shade tab. The images were analyzed using image-editing software (Adobe Photoshop) to obtain the color differences between the middle area of each test shade tab and the corresponding area of the reference tab. The color differences for the same shade tab areas were also measured using a spectrophotometer. To assess the reliability, measurements for the 15 shade tabs were repeated twice using the two methods. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the Dahlberg index were used to calculate agreement and reliability. The total agreement of the two methods for measuring ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔE, according to the ICC, exceeded 0.82. The Dahlberg indices for ΔL* and ΔE were 2.18 and 2.98, respectively. For the reliability calculation, the ICCs for the DIA and the spectrophotometer ΔE were 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. High agreement was obtained between the DIA and spectrophotometer results for the ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔE measurements. Further, the reliability of the measurements for the spectrophotometer was slightly higher than the reliability of all measurements in the DIA.

  14. Assessment of Climate Suitability of Maize in South Korea (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Choi, D.; Seo, B.


    Assessing suitable areas for crops would be useful to design alternate cropping systems as an adaptation option to climate change adaptation. Although suitable areas could be identified by using a crop growth model, it would require a number of input parameters including cultivar and soil. Instead, a simple climate suitability model, e.g., EcoCrop model, could be used for an assessment of climate suitability for a major grain crop. The objective of this study was to assess of climate suitability for maize using the EcoCrop model under climate change conditions in Korea. A long term climate data from 2000 - 2100 were compiled from weather data source. The EcoCrop model implemented in R was used to determine climate suitability index at each grid cell. Overall, the EcoCrop model tended to identify suitable areas for maize production near the coastal areas whereas the actual major production areas located in inland areas. It is likely that the discrepancy between assessed and actual crop production areas would result from the socioeconomic aspects of maize production. Because the price of maize is considerably low, maize has been grown in an area where moisture and temperature conditions would be less than optimum. In part, a simple algorithm to predict climate suitability for maize would caused a relatively large error in climate suitability assessment under the present climate conditions. In 2050s, the climate suitability for maize increased in a large areas in southern and western part of Korea. In particular, the plain areas near the coastal region had considerably greater suitability index in the future compared with mountainous areas. The expansion of suitable areas for maize would help crop production policy making such as the allocation of rice production area for other crops due to considerably less demand for the rice in Korea.

  15. suitability of burnt and crushed cow bones as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    3 mix ratio measuring 150x150x150mm were tested for the compressive strength at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. ... the suitability of using waste products to produce lightweight ... suitability of machine crushed animal bones as partial or.

  16. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and delineating the suitable sites for Yam, Rice and Cotton production in Adamawa State. Site suitability mapping is necessary to create data bank and to guide the farmers in decision making on sites for crop production in the state. The use of GIS for this ...

  17. Comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model about Carya cathayensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Sheng, W.; Li-Juan, L.; Qin-Fen, Y.


    On the relation between the suitable environment and the distribution areas of Carya cathayensis Sarg., the current studies are mainly committed to qualitative descriptions, but did not consider quantitative models. The objective of this study was to establish a environment-suitability evaluation model which used to predict potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis. Firstly, the 3 factor data of soil type, soil parent material and soil thickness were obtained based on 2-class forest resource survey, and other factor data, which included elevation, slope, aspect, surface curvature, humidity index, and solar radiation index, were extracted from DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Additionally, the key affecting factors were defined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the weights of evaluation factors were determined by AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process) and the quantitative classification of single factor was determined by membership function with fuzzy mathematics. Finally, a comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model was established and which was also used to predict the potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis in Daoshi Town in the study region. The results showed that 85.6% of actual distribution areas were in the most suitable and more suitable regions and 11.5% in the general suitable regions

  18. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.


    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied

  19. Land Suitability Assessment for Pineapple Production in the A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linking land resources assessment to any land use decision-making process. like elsewhere, land ... managers as decision-support tools, for instance, to outline the most suitable land areas for subsidy ...... increase rational decisions. In this ..... essentially dynamic. it is pertinent that land suitability analysis is framed within an ...

  20. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  1. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. (United States)

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma


    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of didactic suitability indicators from curricular orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arteaga


    Full Text Available Assessment of didactic suitability of mathematics teaching and learning processes requires suitable instruments to guide and support it. This paper presents a methodology for progressive improvement of such instruments to evaluate the suitability of mathematical instruction processes based on the analysis of curricular orientations. Analysis units are classifi ed according to the facets and components proposed by the Didactic Suitability Theory to identify norms and suitability indicators,which are compared with the system proposed by this theory, in order to point out agreements and complementarities. This methodology is exemplified through its application to the principles and standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM in the statistics content area at the level K-8.

  3. Field measurements of the global UV-B radiation: a comparison between a broad-band radiometer and a Brewer spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anav, A.; Moriconi, M.L.; Di Menno, M.; Giannoccolo, S.


    The spectral responsivity shape plays an important role in the prospect of a wide use of broad-band meters in the UV-B monitoring. As most UV-B broad-band meters have a responsivity approximating an erythemal action spectrum, a measurement campaign was planned to verify if such an instrument could be successfully used to measure the unfiltered global irradiance. A Yankee radiometer mod. UV-B 1 and a Brewer spectrophotometer, considered as a reference meter, were compared for this purpose. A short theoretical treatment of the Yankee radiometer response and some results of the comparison are shown. Only clear-sky days data are selected so that the UV-B radiation reaching the ground could be modelled as the sum of the direct and isotropic diffuse components. The comparison results show a good agreement between the two instruments and confirm the capability of a broad-band UV-B radiometer of correctly measuring the global irradiance

  4. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study. (United States)

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir; Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources.

  5. [Variation in soil Mn fractions as affected by long-term manure amendment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in a typical grassland of inner Mongolia]. (United States)

    Fu, Ming-ming; Jiang, Yong; Bai, Yong-fei; Zhang, Yu-ge; Xu, Zhu-wen; Li, Bo


    The effect of sheep manure amendment on soil manganese fractions was conducted in a 11 year experiment at inner Mongolia grassland, using sequential extraction procedure in modified Community Bureau of Reference, and determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Five treatments with dry sheep manure addition rate 0, 50, 250, 750, and 1500 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), respectively, were carried out in this experiment. Results showed that the recovery rate for total Mn was 91.4%-105.9%, as the percentage recovered from the summation of the improved BCR results with aqua regia extractable contents, and it was 97.2%-102.9% from certified soil reference materials. Plant available exchangeable Mn could be enhanced by 47.89%, but reducible and total Mn contents decreased significantly under heavy application of manure at depth of 0-5 cm. The effect of manure amendment on Mn fractions was greater in 0-5 cm than in 5-10 cm soil layer. The results are benefit to micronutrient fractions determination and nutrient management in grassland soils.

  6. iHWG-μNIR: a miniaturised near-infrared gas sensor based on substrate-integrated hollow waveguides coupled to a micro-NIR-spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Rohwedder, J J R; Pasquini, C; Fortes, P R; Raimundo, I M; Wilk, A; Mizaikoff, B


    A miniaturised gas analyser is described and evaluated based on the use of a substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) coupled to a microsized near-infrared spectrophotometer comprising a linear variable filter and an array of InGaAs detectors. This gas sensing system was applied to analyse surrogate samples of natural fuel gas containing methane, ethane, propane and butane, quantified by using multivariate regression models based on partial least square (PLS) algorithms and Savitzky-Golay 1(st) derivative data preprocessing. The external validation of the obtained models reveals root mean square errors of prediction of 0.37, 0.36, 0.67 and 0.37% (v/v), for methane, ethane, propane and butane, respectively. The developed sensing system provides particularly rapid response times upon composition changes of the gaseous sample (approximately 2 s) due the minute volume of the iHWG-based measurement cell. The sensing system developed in this study is fully portable with a hand-held sized analyser footprint, and thus ideally suited for field analysis. Last but not least, the obtained results corroborate the potential of NIR-iHWG analysers for monitoring the quality of natural gas and petrochemical gaseous products.

  7. Effect of vital bleaching with solutions containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract as an additive on human enamel using reflectance spectrophotometer: An in vitro study. (United States)

    Vejai Vekaash, Chitra Janardhanan; Kumar Reddy, Tripuravaram Vinay; Venkatesh, Kondas Vijay


    This study aims to evaluate the color change in human enamel bleached with three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, containing pineapple extract as an additive in two different timings, using reflectance spectrophotometer. The study aimed to investigate the bleaching efficacy on natural teeth using natural enzymes. Baseline color values of 10 randomly selected artificially stained incisors were obtained. The specimens were divided into three groups of 20 teeth each: Group 1 - 30% hydrogen peroxide, Group II - 20% hydrogen peroxide, and Group III - 10% hydrogen peroxide. One half of the tooth was bleached with hydrogen peroxide, and other was bleached with hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract for 20 min (Subgroup A) and 10 min (Subgroup B). The results were statistically analyzed using student's t -test. The mean ΔE values of Group IA (31.62 ± 0.9), Group IIA (29.85 ± 1.2), and Group IIIA (28.65 ± 1.2) showed statistically significant higher values when compared to the mean Δ E values of Group 1A (25.02 ± 1.2), Group IIA (22.86 ± 1.1), and Group IIIA (16.56 ± 1.1). Identical results were obtained in Subgroup B. The addition of pineapple extract to hydrogen peroxide resulted in effective bleaching.

  8. In situ analysis of proteins at high temperatures mediated by capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer with a water-soluble chromogenic reagent. (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Nagayoshi, Hiroki; Yao, Toshio


    In situ monitoring of quantities, interactions, and conformations of proteins is essential for the study of biochemistry under hydrothermal environments and the analysis of hyperthermophilic organisms in natural hydrothermal systems on Earth. We have investigated the potential of a capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer (CHUS) for performing in situ measurements of proteins and determining their behavior at extremely high temperatures, in combination with a chromogenic reagents probe, which interacts with the proteins. The spectral shift obtained using a combination of water-soluble porphyrin (TPPS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the best among the spectral shifts obtained using different combinations of chromogenic reagents and proteins. The association behavior of TPPS with BSA was investigated in detail using CHUS at temperatures up to 175 degrees C and the association constant (K(ass)) of TPPS with BSA was successfully determined at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. The lnK(ass) values were inversely proportional to the T(-1) values in the temperature range 50-100 degrees C. These analyses showed for the first time that the decrease of association of TPPS with BSA is due to the conformational change, fragmentation, and/or denaturing of BSA rather than the decrease of the hydrophobic association between TPPS and BSA. This study conclusively demonstrates the usability of the CHUS system with a chromogenic reagent as an in situ detection and measurement system for thermostable proteins at extremely high temperatures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of model photo-receptors: validation of a nanosecond time-resolved micro-spectrophotometer design using photoactive yellow protein and α-phycoerythrocyanin. (United States)

    Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh; Schmidt, Marius


    Time-resolved spectroscopic experiments have been performed with protein in solution and in crystalline form using a newly designed microspectrophotometer. The time-resolution of these experiments can be as good as two nanoseconds (ns), which is the minimal response time of the image intensifier used. With the current setup, the effective time-resolution is about seven ns, determined mainly by the pulse duration of the nanosecond laser. The amount of protein required is small, on the order of 100 nanograms. Bleaching, which is an undesirable effect common to photoreceptor proteins, is minimized by using a millisecond shutter to avoid extensive exposure to the probing light. We investigate two model photoreceptors, photoactive yellow protein (PYP), and α-phycoerythrocyanin (α-PEC), on different time scales and at different temperatures. Relaxation times obtained from kinetic time-series of difference absorption spectra collected from PYP are consistent with previous results. The comparison with these results validates the capability of this spectrophotometer to deliver high quality time-resolved absorption spectra.

  10. Determination of arsenic concentration in tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber and indian halibut (Psettodes erumei using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rahimi


    Full Text Available Heavy metal contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of their potential risk to human. This study was undertaken to determine the levels of arsenic in two fish type including tiger tooth croaker and Indian halibut  in Esfahan. A total of 42 fish samples including 28 tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber and 14 Indian halibut (Psettodes erumei were collected from retails of Esfahan from May 2010 to January 2011. For detection of arsenic contamination, the edible muscles of  fish samples were analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The arsenic contamination in fish samples were found to be in the range of 11 to 98 µg/kg. Concentration of arsenic in tiger tooth croaker and Indian halibut was 11-56 and 32-98 µg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were below the limit was acceptable to the World Health Organization. According to the results, the concentration of arsenic did not exceed the maximum acceptable intake limit.

  11. Laser Spot Welding of Copper-aluminum Joints Using a Pulsed Dual Wavelength Laser at 532 and 1064 nm (United States)

    Stritt, Peter; Hagenlocher, Christian; Kizler, Christine; Weber, Rudolf; Rüttimann, Christoph; Graf, Thomas

    A modulated pulsed laser source emitting green and infrared laser light is used to join the dissimilar metals copper and aluminum. The resultant dynamic welding process is analyzed using the back reflected laser light and high speed video observations of the interaction zone. Different pulse shapes are applied to influence the melt pool dynamics and thereby the forming grain structure and intermetallic phases. The results of high-speed images and back-reflections prove that a modulation of the pulse shape is transferred to oscillations of the melt pool at the applied frequency. The outcome of the melt pool oscillation is shown by the metallurgically prepared cross-section, which indicates different solidification lines and grain shapes. An energy-dispersivex-ray analysis shows the mixture and the resultant distribution of the two metals, copper and aluminum, within the spot weld. It can be seen that the mixture is homogenized the observed melt pool oscillations.

  12. Portable dual field gradient force multichannel flow cytometer device with a dual wavelength low noise detection scheme (United States)

    James, Conrad D; Galambos, Paul C; Derzon, Mark S; Graf, Darin C; Pohl, Kenneth R; Bourdon, Chris J


    Systems and methods for combining dielectrophoresis, magnetic forces, and hydrodynamic forces to manipulate particles in channels formed on top of an electrode substrate are discussed. A magnet placed in contact under the electrode substrate while particles are flowing within the channel above the electrode substrate allows these three forces to be balanced when the system is in operation. An optical detection scheme using near-confocal microscopy for simultaneously detecting two wavelengths of light emitted from the flowing particles is also discussed.

  13. Spectrophotometric estimation of ethamsylate and mefenamic Acid from a binary mixture by dual wavelength and simultaneous equation methods. (United States)

    Goyal, Anju; Singhvi, I


    Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid in combined tablet dosage form have been developed. The first developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equation using 287.6 nm and 313.2 nm as two wavelengths. Second developed method is based on two wavelength calculation. Two wavelengths selected for estimation of ethamsylate were 274.4 nm and 301.2 nm while that for mefenamic acid were 304.8 nm and 320.4 nm. Both the developed methods obey Beer's law in the concentration ranges employed for the respective methods. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  14. Spectrophotometric estimation of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid from a binary mixture by dual wavelength and simultaneous equation methods


    Goyal Anju; Singhvi I


    Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid in combined tablet dosage form have been developed. The first developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equation using 287.6 nm and 313.2 nm as two wavelengths. Second developed method is based on two wavelength calculation. Two wavelengths selected for estimation of ethamsylate were 274.4 nm and 301.2 nm...

  15. Multimodal label-free ex vivo imaging using a dual-wavelength microscope with axial chromatic aberration compensation. (United States)

    Filippi, Andrea; Dal Sasso, Eleonora; Iop, Laura; Armani, Andrea; Gintoli, Michele; Sandri, Marco; Gerosa, Gino; Romanato, Filippo; Borile, Giulia


    Label-free microscopy is a very powerful technique that can be applied to study samples with no need for exogenous fluorescent probes, keeping the main benefits of multiphoton microscopy, such as longer penetration depths and intrinsic optical sectioning while enabling serial multitechniques examinations on the same specimen. Among the many label-free microscopy methods, harmonic generation (HG) is one of the most intriguing methods due to its generally low photo-toxicity and relative ease of implementation. Today, HG and common two-photon microscopy (TPM) are well-established techniques, and are routinely used in several research fields. However, they require a significant amount of fine-tuning to be fully exploited, making them quite difficult to perform in parallel. Here, we present our designed multimodal microscope, capable of performing simultaneously TPM and HG without any kind of compromise thanks to two, separate, individually optimized laser sources with axial chromatic aberration compensation. We also apply our setup to the examination of a plethora of ex vivo samples to prove its capabilities and the significant advantages of a multimodal approach. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  16. Liquid level and temperature sensing by using dual-wavelength fiber laser based on multimode interferometer and FBG in parallel (United States)

    Sun, Chunran; Dong, Yue; Wang, Muguang; Jian, Shuisheng


    The detection of liquid level and temperature based on a fiber ring cavity laser sensing configuration is presented and demonstrated experimentally. The sensing head contains a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a single-mode-cladding-less-single-mode multimode interferometer, which also functions as wavelength-selective components of the fiber laser. When the liquid level or temperature is applied on the sensing head, the pass-band peaks of both multimode interference (MMI) filter and FBG filter vary and the two output wavelengths of the laser shift correspondingly. In the experiment, the corresponding sensitivities of the liquid level with four different refractive indices (RI) in the deep range from 0 mm to 40 mm are obtained and the sensitivity enhances with the RI of the liquid being measured. The maximum sensitivity of interferometer is 106.3 pm/mm with the RI of 1.391. For the temperature measurement, a sensitivity of 10.3 pm/°C and 13.8 pm/°C are achieved with the temperature ranging from 0 °C to 90 °C corresponding to the two lasing wavelengths selective by the MMI filter and FBG, respectively. In addition, the average RI sensitivity of 155.77 pm/mm/RIU is also obtained in the RI range of 1.333-1.391.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of a 1550nm/1927nm Dual Wavelength Laser for the Treatment of Photodamaged Skin. (United States)

    Narurkar, Vic A; Alster, Tina S; Bernstein, Eric F; Lin, Tina J; Loncaric, Anya


    BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis (FP) is a popular treatment option for photodamaged skin and addresses shortcomings of ablative skin resurfacing and nonablative dermal remodeling. Previous studies have demonstrated that FP using the 1550nm wavelength has led to improvement of ultrastructural changes and clinical effects associated with photodamaged skin in the deeper dermal structures, while treatment with the 1927nm wavelength has shown clinical effects in the superficial dermis. Both wavelengths produce precise microscopic treatment zones (MTZs) in the skin. The two wavelengths used in combination may optimize the delivery of fractional nonablative resurfacing intended for dermal and epidermal coagulation of photodamage skin. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 1550/1927 Laser System (Fraxel Dual, Solta), using both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths in combination for treatment of facial and non-facial photodamage. METHODS: Prospective, multi-center, post-market study in subjects with clinically identifiable photodamage (N=35) (Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV). Both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths were used at each treatment visit. Investigator assessment of the affected area(s) occurred at one week, one month and 3 months after a series of up to four treatments. Severity of adverse events (AEs) were assessed using a 4-point scale (where 0=none and 3=marked). Assessments included erythema, edema, hyperkeratosis, hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, scarring, itchiness, dryness, and flaking. Severity of photoaging, fine and coarse wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, sallowness, and tactile roughness at baseline was assessed using the same scale. Investigators and subjects assessed overall appearance of photodamage and pigmentation based on a 5-point quartile improvement scale at all follow-up visits (where 0=no improvement and 4=very significant improvement [76%-100%]). RESULTS: There was a positive treatment effect at all study visits, with moderate improvement (average reduction in severity of 21%-43%) observed 3-months after final treatment. Greatest reduction in severity of other benefit areas was at the 3-month follow-up visit, with a 21% and 30% decrease in severity in fine wrinkling and tactile roughness. No AEs or serious AEs were reported. Pain sensation during treatment was tolerable. Anticipated moderate erythema (mean score 1.6±0.5) and mild edema (mean score 0.8±0.7) were transient and resolved within 7-10 days. Anticipated and transient mild dryness (52% of subjects) and flaking (30%) were reported at the 1-week follow-up. There were no incidences of hyperkeratosis, scarring, or itchiness. CONCLUSION: Treatments using both wavelengths associated with the combined 1550/1927 Laser System were well tolerated with limited, transient anticipated side effects and no serious AEs. Clinical efficacy in the appearance of photodamage and pigmentation was greatest following a series of up to 3 treatments. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):41-46..

  18. Evaluation of a noninvasive, dual-wavelength laser-suction and massage device for the regional treatment of cellulite. (United States)

    Kulick, Michael I


    Cellulite is a condition usually limited to women. The most common location for this surface irregularity is the thigh. Evaluation of treatment efficacy is difficult because of the reliance on patient satisfaction surveys and flash photography, which can "flatten" surface texture. Reproducibility of photographs is also difficult, as subtle changes in body position can affect appearance. Twenty women with mild to moderate cellulite of their lateral thighs were enrolled. Pretreatment and posttreatment assessment included patient weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, standard digital photographs, VECTRA three-dimensional images, and patient questionnaire. Patients received two treatments per week for 4 weeks. Treatment time was 15 minutes per thigh using the SmoothShapes device. Patients were evaluated 1, 3, and 6 months after their last treatment. To be considered improved after treatment, both thighs needed clear improvement in contour as determined by the "untextured" images obtained with the VECTRA camera system. This device depicts skin contour independent of incident lighting. There were no complications. Seventeen patients had complete data for analysis. Ninety-four percent of the patients felt their cellulite was improved. VECTRA analysis showed 82 percent improvement at 1 month, 76 percent improvement at 3 months, and 76 percent improvement at 6 months. Initial cellulite irregularities and improvement were more difficult to discern using standard digital photographs. There was an average increase in patient weight, body mass index, and percentage body fat at 6 months. The SmoothShapes device provided improvement in surface contour (cellulite) 6 months after the last treatment in the majority of the patients based on patient survey and VECTRA analysis.

  19. A novel dual-wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond-domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos. (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin T; Basilavecchio, Lisa D; Plugis, Jessica M; Bhawalkar, Jayant D


    Although nanosecond-domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q-switched lasers that generate picosecond-domain pulses. A picosecond-domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency-doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper- or hypo-pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dual-wavelength recording, a simple algorithm to eliminate interferences due to UV-absorbing substances in capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Seaux, Liesbeth; Van Houcke, Sofie; Dumoulin, Els; Fiers, Tom; Lecocq, Elke; Delanghe, Joris R


    Analytical interferences have been described due to the presence of various exogenous UV-absorbing substances in serum. Iodine-based X-ray contrast agents and various antibiotics have been reported to interfere with interpretation of serum protein pherograms, resulting in false diagnosis of paraproteinemia. In the present study, we have explored the possibility of measuring UV absorbance at two distinct wavelengths (210 and 246 nm) to distinguish between true and false paraproteins on a Helena V8 clinical electrophoresis instrument. This study demonstrates that most substances potentially interfering with serum protein electrophoresis show UV-absorption spectra that are distinct from those of serum proteins. Scanning at 246 nm allows detection of all described interfering agents. Comparing pherograms recorded at both wavelengths (210 and 246 nm) enables to distinguish paraproteins from UV-absorbing substances. In case of a true paraprotein, the peak with an electrophoretic mobility in the gamma-region decreases, whereas the X-ray contrast media and antibiotics show an increased absorption when compared to the basic setting (210 nm). The finding of iodine-containing contrast media interfering with serum protein electrophoresis is not uncommon. In a clinical series, interference induced by contrast media was reported in 54 cases (of 13 237 analyses), corresponding with a prevalence of 0.4%. In the same series, 1631 true paraproteins (12.3%) were detected. Implementation of the proposed algorithm may significantly improve the interpretation of routine electrophoresis results. However, attention should still be paid to possible interference due to presence of atypical proteins fractions (e.g., tumor markers, C3). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation (United States)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.


    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  2. Dual-wavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for cells with gold nanoparticle bioconjugates in three-dimensional cultures (United States)

    Lee, Po-Yi; Liu, Wei-Wen; Chen, Shu-Ching; Li, Pai-Chi


    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models bridge the gap between typical two-dimensional cultures and in vivo conditions. However, conventional optical imaging methods such as confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy cannot accurately depict cellular processing in 3D models due to limited penetration of photons. We developed a dualwavelength optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), which provides sufficient penetration depth and spatial resolution, for studying CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) trafficking in an in vitro 3D tumor microenvironment. CTLs play a cardinal role in host defense against tumor. Efficient trafficking of CTLs to the tumor microenvironment is a critical step for cancer immunotherapy. For the proposed system, gold nanospheres and indocyanine green (ICG) have been remarkable choices for contrast agents for photoacoustic signals due to their excellent biocompatibility and high optical absorption. With distinct absorption spectrums, targeted cells with gold nanospheres and ICG respectively can be identified by switching 523-nm and 800-nm laser irradiation. Moreover, we use an x-y galvanometer scanner to obtain high scanning rate. In the developed system, lateral and axial resolutions were designed at 1.6 μm and 5 μm, respectively. We successfully showed that dual-spectral OR-PAM can map either the distribution of CTLs with gold nanospheres at a visible wavelength of 523 nm or the 3D structure of tumor spheres with ICG in an in vitro 3D microenvironment. Our OR-PAM can provide better biological relevant information in cellular interaction and is potential for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  3. [Ecology suitability study of Chinese materia medica Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix]. (United States)

    Lu, You-Yuan; Yang, Yan-Mei; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Jin, Ling


    This paper is aimed to predict ecology suitability distribution of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix and search the main ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution. The 313 distribution information about G. macrophylla, 186 distribution information about G. straminea, 343 distribution information about G. dauricaand 131 distribution information about G. crasicaulis were collected though investigation and network sharing platform data . The ecology suitable distribution factors for production Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was analyzed respectively by the software of ArcGIS and MaxEnt with 55 environmental factors. The result of MaxEnt prediction was very well (AUC was above 0.9). The results of predominant factors analysis showed that precipitation and altitude were all the major factors impacting the ecology suitable of Getiana Macrophylla Radix production. G. macrophylla ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south of Gansu, Shanxi, central of Shaanxi and east of Qinghai provinces. G. straminea ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, north and northwest of Sichuan, east of Xizang province. G. daurica ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south and southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, Shanxi and north of Shaanxi province. G. crasicaulis ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in Sichuan and north of Yunnan, east of Xizang, south of Gansu and east of Qinghai province. The ecological suitability distribution result of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was consistent with each species actual distribution. The study could provide reference for the collection and protection of wild resources, meanwhile, provide the basis for the selection of cultivation area of Gentiana Macrophylla Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults. (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly


    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  5. The Importance of Selecting Suitable Components and Apparatus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 1. The Importance of Selecting Suitable Components and Apparatus in Physics Laboratories. Vijay H Raybagkar. Classroom Volume 15 Issue 1 January 2010 pp 76-82 ...

  6. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanum, Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; van Vliet, Frank Edward


    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are

  7. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana. ... In the event of shortages in petroleum products, these power plants will have ... Layers of these criteria setting were combined using the overlay function in a GIS environment.

  8. In situ determination of the reduction levels of cytochromes b and c in growing bacteria : a case study with N2-fixing Azorhizobium caulinodans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.F.; Boogerd, F C; Stoof, C.; Oltmann, L F; Stouthamer, A.H.; van Verseveld, H W


    The determination of the in situ reduction levels of cytochromes b and c in growing bacteria is achieved by coupling a chemostat with a dual wavelength spectrophotometer. Visible light absorption spectra of cytochromes present in bacterial cells actively growing in a chemostat at a specific growth


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bucci


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a recursive algorithm suitable for realtime measurement applications, based on an indirect technique, useful in those applications where the required quantities cannot be measured in a straightforward way. To cope with time constraints a parallel formulation of it, suitable to be implemented on multiprocessor systems, is presented. The adopted concurrent implementation is based on factorization techniques. Some experimental results related to the application of the system for carrying out measurements on synchronous motors are included.

  10. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceola


    Full Text Available In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta. Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region, for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90 are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  11. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.


    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  12. Selection of the most suitable method for the extraction of DNA from foods and feeds for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Nesvadbová


    Full Text Available High quality and purity of DNA isolated from food and feed is essential for species identification and has unpredictable influences an effect of analysis. In this study, the efficiency of eight different methods for DNA isolation was investigated. For DNA extraction, the raw chicken meet, ham, sausages, tinned lunch meat, pate, tinned feeds for dogs, complete granulated feeds for dogs and chicken flour were used. Kits of several different producers, i.e.: NucleoSpin Food (Marchery-Nagel, Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Invisorb Spin Food Kit I (Invitek, Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System (Promega, JetQuick Tissue DNA Spin Kit (Genomed, RNA Blue (Top-Bio, JetQuick Blood & Cell Culture Kit (Genomed, QIAamp DNA Mini Kit and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen were employed in the study. Gel agarose electrophoresis for primary verification of DNA quality was performed. The isolates were subsequently assessed for quantity and quality using by spectrophotometer Nanodrop 2000 (Thermo Scientific. To verify of template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used.Differences between isolated DNA from tinned products and meat, ham, sausage, granulated dog feed and chicken flour were found. In tinned food and feed, the DNA was more degraded, DNA content and DNA purity was lower and also PCR amplification was the most difficult. Overall DNA yield and quality have important influence on PCR products amplification. The best results were obtained with NucleoSpin Food and JetQuick Tissue DNA Spin Kit. DNA extracted by these methods proved highest yields, purity and template quality in all foods and feeds and the results of PCR analysis are excellent reproducible. Analyses showed that results depended on different food or feed using and dif­fe­rent isolation system.The results of this work will be utilized to choose the suitable isolating kit for educational course, which is designed for students and

  13. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software. (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom


    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Online identification of the antioxidant constituents of traditional Chinese medicine formula Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San by LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and microplate spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Heng; Zou, Guo-An; Preiss, Alfred; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Zou, Zhong-Mei


    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula containing seven herbal medicines, has been used in treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome and depression clinically. However, the chemical constituents in CSGS had not been studied so far. To quickly identify the chemical constituents of CSGS and to understand the chemical profiles related to antioxidant activity of CSGS, liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap (LC-LTQ-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry has been applied for online identification of chemical constituents in complex system, meanwhile, antioxidant profile of CSGS was investigated by the fraction collecting and microplate reading system. As a result, 33 chemical constituents in CSGS were identified. Among them, 13 components could be detected both in positive and in negative ion modes, 20 constituents were determined only in positive ion mode and 2 components were only detected in negative ion mode. Meanwhile, the potential antioxidant profile of CSGS was also characterized by combination of 96-well plate collection of elutes from HPLC analysis and microplate spectrophotometer, in which the scavenging activities of free radical produced by DPPH of each fraction could be directly investigated by the analysis of microplate reader. This study quickly screened the contribution of CSGS fractions to the antioxidant activity and online identified the corresponding active constituents. The results indicated that the combination of LC-MS(n) and 96-well plate assay system established in this paper would be a useful strategy for correlating the chemical profile of TCMs with their bioactivities without isolation and purification. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Photosystem I Donor and Acceptor Sides with a New Type of Online-Deconvoluting Kinetic LED-Array Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Klughammer, Christof


    The newly developed Dual/KLAS-NIR spectrophotometer, technical details of which were reported very recently, is used in measuring redox changes of P700, plastocyanin (PC) and ferredoxin (Fd) in intact leaves of Hedera helix, Taxus baccata and Brassica napus An overview of various light-/dark-induced changes of deconvoluted P700 + , PC + and Fd - signals is presented demonstrating the wealth of novel information and the consistency of the obtained results. Fd - changes are particularly large after dark adaptation. PC oxidation precedes P700 oxidation during dark-light induction and in steady-state light response curves. Fd reoxidation during induction correlates with the secondary decline of simultaneously measured fluorescence yield, both of which are eliminated by removal of O 2 By determination of 100% redox changes, relative contents of PC/P700 and Fd/P700 can be assessed, which show considerable variations between different leaves, with a trend to higher values in sun leaves. Based on deconvoluted P700 + signals, the complementary quantum yields of PSI, Y(I) (photochemical energy use), Y(ND) (non-photochemical loss due to oxidized primary donor) and Y(NA) (non-photochemical loss due to reduced acceptor) are determined as a function of light intensity and compared with the corresponding complementary quantum yields of PSII, Y(II) (photochemical energy use), Y(NPQ) (regulated non-photochemical loss) and Y(NO) (non-regulated non-photochemical loss). The ratio Y(I)/Y(II) increases with increasing intensities. In the low intensity range, a two-step increase of PC + is indicative of heterogeneous PC pools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  16. Method Performance of Total Mercury (Hg) Testing in the Biological Samples by Using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (CV-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna TS; Samin


    Method performance (validation) of total mercury (Hg) testing in the biological samples by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS) has been done. The objective of this research is to know the method performance of CV-AAS as one of points for the accreditation testing of laboratory according IS0/IEC 17025-2005. The method performance covering limit of detection (LOD), accuracy, precision and bias. As a standard material used SRM Oyster Tissue 15660 from Winopal Forshung Germany, whereas the biological samples were human hair. In principle of mercury testing for solid samples using CV-AAS is dissolving this sample and standard with 10 mL HNO 3 supra pure into a closed quartz tube and heating at 150 °C for 4 hours. The concentration of mercury in each samples was determined at the condition of operation were stirring time (T 1 ) 70 seconds, delay time (T 2 ) 15 seconds, heating time (T 3 ) 13 seconds and cooling time (T 4 ) of 25 seconds. Mercury ion in samples are reduced with SnCl 2 10 % in H 2 SO 4 20 %, and then the vapour of mercury from reduction is passed in NaOH 20 % solution and aquatridest. The result of method performance were: limit of detection (LOD) = 0.085 ng, accuracy 99.70 %, precision (RSD) = 1.64 % and bias = 0.30 %. From the validation result showed that the content of mercury total was in the range of certified values. The total mercury content (Hg) in human hair were varied from 406.93 - 699.07 ppb. (author)

  17. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]? (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro


    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  18. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus? (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro


    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  19. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.


    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  20. [Study on ecological suitability regionalization of Eucommia ulmoides in Guizhou]. (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Wang, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Xie, Yu


    To study the ecological suitability regionalization of Eucommia ulmoides, for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material purchase area of the herb in Guizhou. Based on the investigation of 14 Eucommia ulmoides producing areas, pinoresinol diglucoside content and ecological factors were obtained. Using spatial analysis method to carry on ecological suitability regionalization. Meanwhile, combining pinoresinol diglucoside content, the correlation of major active components and environmental factors were analyzed by statistical analysis. The most suitability planting area of Eucommia ulmoides was the northwest of Guizhou. The distribution of Eucommia ulmoides was mainly affected by the type and pH value of soil, and monthly precipitation. The spatial structure of major active components in Eucommia ulmoides were randomly distributed in global space, but had only one aggregation point which had a high positive correlation in local space. The major active components of Eucommia ulmoides had no correlation with altitude, longitude or latitude. Using the spatial analysis method and statistical analysis method, based on environmental factor and pinoresinol diglucoside content, the ecological suitability regionalization of Eucommia ulmoides can provide reference for the selection of suitable planting area, artificial planting base and directing production layout.

  1. asan alternative to conventional spectrophotometers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    signal whi:h can be processd in a multitude of increasingly complex ways in order to cxtraet as much ehemical information as possible. Apart from the fact that the LEDs are cheap. copact and commercially available, equipment constructed from this system have smalt size. fight weight. low power consumption and negligible ...

  2. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Stephenson, David


    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements (United States)


    equipment. There are several American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ) chapters covering the use of spectrometers for color measurements (refs. 3...Perkin Elmer software and procedures described in ASTM chapter E308 (ref. 3). All spectral data was stored on the computer. A summary of the color...similarity, or lack thereof, between two colors (ref. 5). In this report, the Euclidean distance metric, E, is used and recommended in ASTM D2244

  4. Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.; Proestos, A.


    This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is suitable for emissions trading are proposed. The suitability for emissions trading is assessed for: methane (CH4) from oil and gas production; CH4 from coal mines; CH4 from landfills; CH4 from wastewater treatment; CH4 from enteric fermentation; CH4 from livestock manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) from adipic acid production; N2O from fertilizer use; N2O from nitric acid production, carbon dioxide (CO2) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) from aluminum smelting; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from magnesium smelting and die casting; HFCs from HCFC production, other uses of SF6, PFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); CO2 from ammonia production; lime and cement production, and iron ore reduction

  5. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas. (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella


    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A conceptual framework for evaluating data suitability for observational studies. (United States)

    Shang, Ning; Weng, Chunhua; Hripcsak, George


    To contribute a conceptual framework for evaluating data suitability to satisfy the research needs of observational studies. Suitability considerations were derived from a systematic literature review on researchers' common data needs in observational studies and a scoping review on frequent clinical database design considerations, and were harmonized to construct a suitability conceptual framework using a bottom-up approach. The relationships among the suitability categories are explored from the perspective of 4 facets of data: intrinsic, contextual, representational, and accessible. A web-based national survey of domain experts was conducted to validate the framework. Data suitability for observational studies hinges on the following key categories: Explicitness of Policy and Data Governance, Relevance, Availability of Descriptive Metadata and Provenance Documentation, Usability, and Quality. We describe 16 measures and 33 sub-measures. The survey uncovered the relevance of all categories, with a 5-point Likert importance score of 3.9 ± 1.0 for Explicitness of Policy and Data Governance, 4.1 ± 1.0 for Relevance, 3.9 ± 0.9 for Availability of Descriptive Metadata and Provenance Documentation, 4.2 ± 1.0 for Usability, and 4.0 ± 0.9 for Quality. The suitability framework evaluates a clinical data source's fitness for research use. Its construction reflects both researchers' points of view and data custodians' design features. The feedback from domain experts rated Usability, Relevance, and Quality categories as the most important considerations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Andrew P. [PPPL; Bloom, Josh [PPPL; Albertson, Robert [PPPL; Gershman, Sophia [PPPL


    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  8. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance (United States)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  9. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer]. (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin


    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  10. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.


    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  11. What makes a thermal plasma suitable for hazardous waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benocci, R.; Florio, R.; Galassi, A.; Paolicchio, M.; Sindoni, E.


    The basic transport and thermodynamic characteristic of a thermal plasma are analysed in order to emphasize those properties that make a high-temperature source profitable and suitable over the conventional devices for hazardous waste treatment. In addition a survey of the basic reaction sequence and apparatus units is made together with the different approaches to thermal plasma waste treatments

  12. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  13. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  14. Suitable or optimal noise benefits in signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shujun; Yang, Ting; Tang, Mingchun; Wang, Pin; Zhang, Xinzheng


    Highlights: • Six intervals of additive noises divided according to the two constraints. • Derivation of the suitable additive noise to meet the two constraints. • Formulation of the suitable noise for improvability or nonimprovability. • Optimal noises to minimize P FA , maximize P D and maximize the overall improvement. - Abstract: We present an effective way to generate the suitable or the optimal additive noises which can achieve the three goals of the noise enhanced detectability, i.e., the maximum detection probability (P D ), the minimum false alarm probability (P FA ) and the maximum overall improvement of P D and P FA , without increasing P FA and decreasing P D in a binary hypothesis testing problem. The mechanism of our method is that we divide the discrete vectors into six intervals and choose the useful or partial useful vectors from these intervals to form the additive noise according to different requirements. The form of the optimal noise is derived and proven as a randomization of no more than two discrete vectors in our way. Moreover, how to choose suitable and optimal noises from the six intervals are given. Finally, numerous examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical analysis, where the background noises are Gaussian, symmetric and asymmetric Gaussian mixture noise, respectively.

  15. Determining the most suitable method of otolith preparation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares sectioned and whole lapillus and asterisci otoliths as suitable structures for ageing tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus. Fifty tigerfish were collected from the Pongolapoort Dam, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Growth zone counts on sectioned lapilli showed the greatest percentage agreement (52%) and highest ...

  16. Otoliths versus scales: evaluating the most suitable structure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of scales for ageing Micropterus salmoides was determined by comparing the precision of growth zone counts on scales with those obtained from sectioned sagittal otoliths from a sample of 496 fish collected from Wriggleswade and Mankazana Impoundments in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Otoliths (1.4% ...

  17. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children


    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin


    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  18. suitability of polyvinyl waste powder as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    as partial replacement of cement in the production o. PWP at interval ... conducted to assess the suitability of polyvinyl waste p polyvinyl waste p .... pose a serious environmental threat because of the fact that they ... served as the control. 2.2.3.

  19. A Logarithmic Detection System Suitable for a 4π Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, G.D.; Yurkon, J.E.; Plicht, J. van der; Koenig, Z.M.; Jacak, B.V.; Fox, R.; Crawley, G.M.; Maier, M.R.; Hasselquist, B.E.; Tickle, R.S.; Horn, D.


    A low pressure multiwire proportional counter, a Bragg curve counter, and an array of CaF2/plastic scintillator telescopes have been developed in a geometry suitable for close packing into a 4π detector designed to study nucleus-nucleus reactions at 100-200 MeV/nucleon. The multiwire counter is

  20. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  1. Apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women with the prevalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition ... women. Thus, this study aimed at assessing apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women .... create a balance on other body shapes to be ... composition in the work of a designer by ..... and flared skirt) were found to maintain the.

  2. Suitability of an artificial diet for rape aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... Brevicoryne brassicae, using life table parameters. A. Balvasi1* ... In this work, suitability of an artificial diet was studied through age-specific life tables. Development ... In large measure, the success of entomology over the past century is ..... balance on the improvement of an artificial diet for a biotype of.

  3. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  4. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test for...

  5. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of a medical history, tests, and...

  6. Soil physical criteria for evaluating irrigation suitability of Okija ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitability of upland soils of Anigbo Okija for irrigation was assessed using soil physical criteria of texture, depth, pore type, slope percent colour and soil structure for the purpose of estimating season farming and rainy season drought. Soils were classified using Soil Taxonomy and FAO/UNESCO legend. Mapping was ...

  7. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux


    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  8. On the suitability of BPMN for business process modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohed, P.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dumas, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Dustdar, S.; Fiadeiro, J.L.; Sheth, A.


    In this paper we examine the suitability of the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) for business process modelling, using the Workflow Patterns as an evaluation framework. The Workflow Patterns are a collection of patterns developed for assessing control-flow, data and resource capabilities

  9. Selecting Suitable Drainage Pattern to Minimize Flooding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water shed analysis is a geographic information system (GIS) based technique designed to model the way surface water flows on the earth surface. This was the method adopted to select suitable drainage pattern to minimized flood in some parts of sangere. The process of watershed computes the local direction of flow ...

  10. Regional technical innovation suitability and economic growth in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Dan; Brouwers-Ren, Liqin


    This paper aims to use quantitative method to analyse the suitability of regional technical innovation and further compare its influence to regional economic growth in China. Based on literature review, the authors develop an evaluation index system containing four aspects (namely, innovators,

  11. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets


    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.


    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  12. Determining suitable pedagogical approaches to the application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this pilot action research study was to document the process of choosing a suitable pedagogical approach that best fits a participant. Three pedagogical approaches as described by Ware were chosen: mechanistic, holistic and eclectic (a combination of mechanistic and holistic). Results indicated that each ...

  13. Ecological variables governing habitat suitability and the distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    governed by soil particle size distribution), in combination with the cover provided by trees, as the two ecological factors that best explained habitat suitability for Juliana's golden mole at the three localities. An IndVal analysis failed to identify ...

  14. Assessment of Suitability of Wood Fibres of Four Nigerian Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood fibres of four fruit trees of Nigeria commonly found in Nsukka metropolis were studied and assessed for their suitability for paper-making. These trees include Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Persea americana and Dacryodes edulis. The parameters used in the study were the fibre dimensions and derived ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đurđević


    Full Text Available A total of 17404 soil samples (2003rd-2009th year were analysed in the eastern Croatia. The largest number of soil samples belongs to the Osijek-Baranya county, which together with both Eastern sugar beet Factories (Osijek and Županja, conduct the soil fertility control (~4200 samples/yr.. Computer model suitability assessment for crops, supported by GIS, proved to be fast, efficient enough reliable in terms of the number of analyzed soil samples. It allows the visualization of the agricultural area and prediction of its production properties for the purposes of analysis, planning and rationalization of agricultural production. With more precise data about the soil (soil, climate and reliable Digital Soil Map of Croatia, the model could be an acceptable, not only to evaluate the suitability for growing different crops but also their need for fertilizer, necessary machinery, repairs (liming, and other measures of organic matter input. The abovementioned aims to eliminate or reduce effects of limiting factors in primary agricultural production. Assessment of the relative benefits of soil presented by computer model for the crops production and geostatistical method kriging in the Osijek-Baranya county showed: 1 Average soil suitability being 60.06 percent. 2 Kriging predicted that 51751 ha (17.16% are of limited resources (N1 for growing crops whereas a 86142 ha (28.57% of land is limited suitably (S3, b 132789 ha (44.04% are moderately suitable (S2 and c 30772 ha (10.28% are of excellent fertility (S1. A large number of eastern Croatian land data showed that the computer-geostatistical model for determination of soil benefits for growing crops was automated, fast and simple to use and suitable for the implementation of GIS and automatically downloading the necessary benefit indicators from the input base (land, analytical and climate as well as data from the digital soil maps able to: a visualize the suitability for soil tillage, b predict the

  16. Readability, complexity, and suitability analysis of online lymphedema resources. (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Lee, Bernard T; Rudd, Rima; Singhal, Dhruv


    Over 72% of Americans use online health information to assist in health care decision-making. Previous studies of lymphedema literature have focused only on reading level of patient-oriented materials online. Findings indicate they are too advanced for most patients to comprehend. This, more comprehensive study, expands the previous analysis to include critical elements of health materials beyond readability using assessment tools to report on the complexity and density of data as well as text design, vocabulary, and organization. The top 10 highest ranked websites on lymphedema were identified using the most popular search engine (Google). Website content was analyzed for readability, complexity, and suitability using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, PMOSE/iKIRSCH, and Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), respectively. PMOSE/iKIRSCH and SAM were performed by two independent raters. Fleiss' kappa score was calculated to ensure inter-rater reliability. Online lymphedema literature had a reading grade level of 14.0 (SMOG). Overall complexity score was 6.7 (PMOSE/iKIRSCH) corresponding to "low" complexity and requiring a 8th-12th grade education. Fleiss' kappa score was 80% (P = 0.04, "substantial" agreement). Overall suitability score was 45% (SAM) correlating to the lowest level of "adequate" suitability. Fleiss' kappa score was 76% (P = 0.06, "substantial" agreement). Online resources for lymphedema are above the recommended levels for readability and complexity. The suitability level is barely adequate for the intended audience. Overall, these materials are too sophisticated for the average American adult, whose literacy skills are well documented. Further efforts to revise these materials are needed to improve patient comprehension and understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..


    -layer detector stack: first two layers consist of silicon detectors; the third one is based on the p-terphenyl scintillation detector coupled with pixelated silicon photomultiplier. Coincidence logic allows collecting systematic data on particle variety and their energy with 1 and/or 10 s time resolutions. Digital processing unit is constructed based on FPGA Actel ProAsic M1A3PE1500, and contains each event processing logic, forms telemetry data and housekeeping frames, communicates with ChemiX digital processing unit and executes received telecommands. In order to increase the reliability and time resource of the BPM its digital processing unit and secondary power supply unit has backup sets. Switching between backup sets is commanded by externally orders. The BPM is capable to sort out in situ abundances of individual particle constituents from electrons up to oxygen nuclei. 1. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, V.O.Tarasov, L.A.Andryushenko, I.L.Zajtsevsky, J.Sylwester, J.Bąkala, M.Kowaliński. Background particle detector for the solar X-ray photometer ChemiX of space mission "Interhelioprobe": an adjustment of breadboard model modules (in Russian) / ISSN 1561-8889: Kosmichna Nauka I Tekhnologiya, 2015, Vol.21, No.2, P.3-14. 2. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, J.Sylwester, M.Siarkowski, P.Podgórski, M.Kowaliński. Background Particle Monitor - a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX: principles of the operation and construction / in: Abstracts of 15th Ukrainian conference on space research, Odesa, Ukraine, August 24-28, 2015, P.80, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2284.2649. 3. O.V.Dudnik, E.V.Kurbatov, M.Kowaliński, M.Siarkowski, P.Podgórski, J.Sylwester. Operational features of Background Particle Monitor, a vital part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX / in: Abstract book of the Conference "Progress on EUV&X-ray spectroscopy and imaging II", Wroclaw, Poland, November 17 19, 2015, P.9, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.1184.3604.

  18. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T J; Conklin, J. C.; Thomas, John F.; Armstrong, T. R.


    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  19. [Research on climatic factors of ecology suitability regionalization of atractylodis]. (United States)

    Tan, Zhe-tian; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Shou-dong; Yan, Yu-ping; Guo, Lan-ping; Zheng, Yu-guang


    Through study on the correlation between atractylodis lactones ingredient content and climatic factors, we research regionalization from climatic of five main producing provinces of the country, in order to provide a scientific basis for atractylodis' conscious cultivation. By sampling from 40 origins which from five main producing provinces of the country, we use SPSS to analysis variation of atractylodis lactones ingredient content in different conditions of climatic factors and the effect of each factors. Then according to the relationship between atractylodis lactones ingredient content and climatic factors, we use ArcGIS to conduct ecological suitability regionalization based on climatic factors. The most suitable climatic condition for cultivation of atractylodis: the wettest month precipitation 220-230 mm, the warmest average temperature 25 degrees C, the average temperature of driest season 10 degrees C.

  20. Suitability of NAA for certification of reference materials for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling


    Certifications of trace elements in existing CRMs, especially biological CRMs, are far from satisfactory. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) for its inherent advantages combined with newly established parametric standardization, may contribute to improve this situation. The continuing progress of the hybrid extended k 0 -relative NAA technique developed in our laboratory is discussed. Examples are given to show the reliability of the method in certification of multielements. RNAA is still one of the best methods, or even the method of choice, in analysis at sub-μg/g concentration levels. The suitability of the technique for this purpose has been studied through the determination of rare earth elements at ng/g concentration level in two Chinese biological CRMs using both RNAA and ICPMS. Sampling behaviors of multielements in CRMs have been studied by INAA in an effort to develop CRMs suitable for analysis with small sample sizes. (author)

  1. Suitability of commercial transport for a shift to electric mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, Ole; Klauenberg, Jens


    the travel range of large vans is an important barrier for electrification due to the battery weight and the limitation of 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle weight for driving with a normal driving licence. The rule needs amendments for electric vehicles, as has been done in Germany. The paper recommends EU countries......This paper identifies commercial sectors suitable for a shift to electric mobility. The paper concludes that the construction and the health care service sectors are the most suitable for electric mobility because many vehicles are registered in these sectors and daily mileage is reasonably low....... They should be primary target groups of specific policy measures to promote the use of electric vehicles. Denmark has only had a few incentives to promote the use of commercial electric vehicles. Until now electric vehicles do generally not show economic benefits unless travel distance is high. However, today...

  2. [Quality Suitability of Magnolia officinalis in China Based on GIS]. (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Cheng-cheng; Ming, Meng-die; Guo, Lan-ping; Zhu, Shou-dong; Yang, Hong-bing


    To study the quality suitability rank dividing of Magnolia officinalis on the basis of investigation on the correlation between the ratio of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and ecological factors, in order to provide scientific basis for its planting area of high-quality medicinal materials. Based on the samples' quality analysis of 43 sampling points of Magnolia officinalis,the relationship between the ratio of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae officinalis Cortex and ecological factors was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information system(GIS) was applied to assess the quality suitability rank dividing of Magnolia officinalis in China. There were 12 ecological factors mainly affecting the quality of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex; The ratio of magnolol and honokiol had obvious characteristics of regional quality. Conclusion: Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex which produced in Hubei and Chongqing is dao-di herbs.

  3. Whole-blood donation: blood donor suitability and adverse events. (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H


    Approximately 3% to 3.5% of the US population donates whole blood each year. Physicians might be approached by a blood donor because of a donor suitability issue, a positive postdonation test, or a donation-related complication. Approximately 83% of blood donors successfully donate; but 13% are rejected because of a donor suitability issue; 1% have a positive test, which is often nonspecific or false-positive; and 2% to 4% of the phlebotomies are not successful. The most common adverse physical events based on donor interviews are bruise (23%), sore arm (10%), fatigue (8%), and vasovagal reaction (7%), while uncommon events include nerve irritation (0.9%), syncope (0.1-0.3%), and arterial puncture (0.01%). One in 3400 donors (0.033%) report seeking outside medical care. Serious injuries occur but are very rare. More often, blood donors do well and feel satisfied with the blood donation experience.

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on fish habitat suitability index models (United States)

    Terrell, James W.


    One of the habitat-based methodologies for impact assessment currently in use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980). HEP is based on the assumption that the quality of an area as wildlife habitat at a specified target year can be described by a single number, called a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI). An HSI of 1.0 represents optimum habitat: an HSI of 0.0 represents unsuitable habitat. The verbal or mathematical rules by which an HSI is assigned to an area are called an HSI model. A series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, described by Schamberger et al. (1982), have been published to assist users in applying HEP. HSI model building approaches are described in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1981). One type of HSI model described in detail requires the development of Suitability Index (SI) graphs for habitat variables believed to be important for the growth, survival, standing crop, or other measure of well-being for a species. Suitability indices range from 0 to 1.0, with 1.0 representing optimum conditions for the variable. When HSI models based on suitability indices are used, habitat variable values are measured, or estimated, and converted to SI's through the use of a Suitability Index graph for each variable. Individual SI's are aggregated into an HSI. Standard methods for testing this type of HSI model did not exist at the time the studies reported in this document were performed. A workshop was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, February 14-15, 1983, that brought together biologists experienced in the use, development, and testing of aquatic HSI models, in an effort to address the following objectives: (1) review the needs of HSI model users; (2) discuss and document the results of aquatic HSI model tests; and (3) provide recommendations for the future development, testing, modification, and use of HSI models. Individual presentations, group discussions, and group

  5. Land use suitability screening for power plant sites in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.


    Since 1974 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing an automated procedure for land use suitability screening. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has funded the project to aid in the selection of power plant sites in Maryland. Its purpose is to identify candidate areas from which specific candidate sites can be chosen for detailed analyses. The ORNL approach assures that certain key variables are examined empirically for every cell in the study region before candidate sites are selected. Each variable is assigned an importance weight and compatibility score based upon its effect on the economic, social, or ecologic costs associated with construction in a given cell. The weighted scores for each variable are aggregated and output as a suitability score for each cell

  6. Predicting Software Suitability Using a Bayesian Belief Network (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.; Berrios, Joseph S.


    The ability to reliably predict the end quality of software under development presents a significant advantage for a development team. It provides an opportunity to address high risk components earlier in the development life cycle, when their impact is minimized. This research proposes a model that captures the evolution of the quality of a software product, and provides reliable forecasts of the end quality of the software being developed in terms of product suitability. Development team skill, software process maturity, and software problem complexity are hypothesized as driving factors of software product quality. The cause-effect relationships between these factors and the elements of software suitability are modeled using Bayesian Belief Networks, a machine learning method. This research presents a Bayesian Network for software quality, and the techniques used to quantify the factors that influence and represent software quality. The developed model is found to be effective in predicting the end product quality of small-scale software development efforts.

  7. Suitability of the thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.


    Irradiated foods can be detected by thermoluminescence (TL) of contaminating minerals. Altogether about 300 lots of herbs, spices, berries, mushrooms and seafood were studied by the TL method. Irradiated herbs and spices were easily differentiated from unirradiated ones two years after irradiation of a 10 kGy dose. The mineral composition of seafood was variable; and while calcite was suitable for the TL analysis, aragonite and smectite gave unreliable results. Control analyses during two years confirmed the reliability of TL method. (author)

  8. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S [San Antonio, TX; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry [San Antonio, TX; Liang, Wuwei [Austin, TX


    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-winged blackbird (United States)

    Short, Henry L.


    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.


    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  11. Reference model analysis of suitability for logistics management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Mańkowski


    Full Text Available Reference models are one of the many instruments aspiring to find into a set of different concepts, methods and techniques used in managing the logistics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present the results of assessing the suitability of reference models for solving logistical problems. This evaluation indicates that they are universal, support the realization of all the logistics management function in various areas, such as logistics of manufacturing glass products.

  12. Comparison of topologies suitable for Capacitor Charging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Cravero, JM


    This paper presents a comparison between topologies suitable for capacitor charging systems. The topologies under evaluation are a flyback converter, a half-bridge series resonant converter and a full-bridge phase-shifted converter. The main features of these topologies are highlighted, which allows the proper topology selection according to the application requirements. Moreover, the performed analysis permits to characterize the operational range of the main components thus allowing their appropriate sizing and selection. Simulation results are provided.

  13. Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan


    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation.

  14. Clay sealing for dumps - new findings from suitability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, L.; Kuntsche, K.; Duellmann, H.


    Extensive suitability tests were carried out in the laboratory and field on various clays of the Lower-Rhineland brown coal mining area. The purpose of these tests was to determine the basic suitability of these clays for use as sealing layers for residue dumps. The tests also furnished criteria according to which a specific imperviousness can be achieved. The results of the tests can be summed up as follows: Since the material properties of the in-situ clays vary widely, not only mean values but also corresponding variation coefficients must be adhered to. For the purpose of checking the quality - contrary to the hitherto applied assessment practice - the decisive factor is not the testing of the dry density as compared to the Proctor density, but the homogeneity of the sealing layer that is achieved as a result of the size reduction and compaction of the pseudo-granular structure. Using suitable equipment, homogeneities, for which permeability coefficients of k less than or equal to 10/sup -9/ m/s in the dump sealing are obtained can be achieved with the clays that were examined.

  15. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  16. Suitability of different formulated carriers for sustaining microbial shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassam, T.; Ali, A.


    Non-availability of a suitable carrier for bioinnoculant is a serious constraint for dissemination of biofertilizer technology in Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate a suitable carrier from locally available cheap material and evaluate for shelf life by using locally isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among different carrier tested the FC-4 supported the maximum population of 33.5x10- 10.8x10 cfu g for MR-8 and 32.6x10 - 7.2x10 cfu g for MR-5. Results showed that the required population of PGPR was sustained in all the formulation tested up to six months of storage period. (author)

  17. Footwear suitability in Turkish preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz


    Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  18. Implications of the timing of the preliminary determination of suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.


    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires that the Enviromental Impact Statement prepared for the recommendation of a repository site must consider three sites -- the one selected for the repository and at least two alternatives. All of these sites must have been characterized, and the Secretary of Energy must have made a preliminary determination that each is suitable for development as a repository. There is great disagreement about whether that ''preliminary determination of suitability'' is to be made before or after site characterization. If the Act is interpreted as requiring the determination to be made after characterization is completed, DOE cannot recommend the first site for licensing until it has three sites that appear suitable after full characterization; if the determination can be made before characterization, DOE can proceed to licensing even if only one site survives characterization. While DOE plans to make the preliminary determination before starting characterization, the uncertainty about how a court might ultimately interpret the Act injects a significant institutional uncertainty into the schedule for the repository, and complicates contingency planning for the siting process. Early resolution of the interpretation would greatly aid DOE's planning for the siting program

  19. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia


    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  20. Modified spectrophotometer for multi-dimensional circular dichroism/fluorescence data acquisition in titration experiments: application to the pH and guanidine-HCI induced unfolding of apomyoglobin. (United States)

    Ramsay, G; Ionescu, R; Eftink, M R


    In a previous paper (Ramsay and Eftink, Biophys. J. 66:516-523) we reported the development of a modified spectrophotometer that can make nearly simultaneous circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence measurements. This arrangement allows multiple data sets to be collected during a single experiment, resulting in a saving of time and material, and improved correlation between the different types of measurements. The usefulness of the instrument was shown by thermal melting experiments on several different protein systems. This CD/fluorometer spectrophotometer has been further modified by interfacing with a syringe pump and a pH meter. This arrangement allows ligand, pH, and chemical denaturation titration experiments to be performed while monitoring changes in the sample's CD, absorbance, fluorescence, and light scattering properties. Our data acquisition program also has an ability to check whether the signals have approached equilibrium before the data is recorded. For performing pH titrations we have developed a procedure which uses the signal from a pH meter in a feedback circuit in order to collect data at evenly spaced pH intervals. We demonstrate the use of this instrument with studies of the unfolding of sperm whale apomyoglobin, as induced by acid pH and by the addition of guanidine-HCI. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8527683

  1. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria. (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M


    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  2. Modelling recent and future climatic suitability for fasciolosis in Europe. (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; van Dijk, Jan; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana


    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic worm responsible for fasciolosis in grazed ruminants in Europe. The free-living stages of this parasite are sensitive to temperature and soil moisture, as are the intermediate snail hosts the parasite depends on for its life-cycle. We used a climate-driven disease model in order to assess the impact of recent and potential future climate changes on the incidence of fasciolosis and to estimate the related uncertainties at the scale of the European landmass. The current climate appears to be highly suitable for fasciolosis throughout the European Union with the exception of some parts of the Mediterranean region. Simulated climatic suitability for fasciolosis significantly increased during the 2000s in central and northwestern Europe, which is consistent with an observed increased in ruminant infections. The simulation showed that recent trends are likely to continue in the future with the estimated pattern of climate change for northern Europe, possibly extending the season suitable for development of the parasite in the environment by up to four months. For southern Europe, the simulated burden of disease may be lower, but the projected climate change will increase the risk during the winter months, since the simulated changes in temperature and moisture support the development of the free-living and intra-molluscan stages between November and March. In the event of predicted climate change, F. hepatica will present a serious risk to the health, welfare and productivity of all ruminant livestock. Improved, bespoke control programmes, both at farm and region levels, will then become imperative if problems, such as resistance of the parasite associated with increased drug use, are to be mitigated.

  3. Suitable reference tissues for quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain. (United States)

    Straub, Sina; Schneider, Till M; Emmerich, Julian; Freitag, Martin T; Ziener, Christian H; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Laun, Frederik B


    Since quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantifies magnetic susceptibility relative to a reference value, a suitable reference tissue has to be available to compare different subjects and stages of disease. To find such a suitable reference tissue for QSM of the brain, melanoma patients with and without brain metastases were measured. Twelve reference regions were chosen and assessed for stability of susceptibility values with respect to multiple intra-individual and inter-individual measurements, age, and stage of disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the internal capsule and one region in the splenium of the corpus callosum are the regions with the smallest standard deviations of the mean susceptibility value. The mean susceptibility is 0.010 ± 0.014 ppm for CSF in the atrium of the lateral ventricles (csf post ), -0.060 ± 0.019 ppm for the posterior limb of the internal capsule (ci2), and -0.008 ± 0.019 ppm for the splenium of the corpus callosum. csf post and ci2 show nearly no dependence on age or stage of disease, whereas some other regions, e.g., the red nucleus, show moderate dependence on age or disease. The internal capsule and CSF appear to be the most suitable reference regions for QSM of the brain in the melanoma patients studied. Both showed virtually no dependence on age or disease and small variations among patients. Magn Reson Med 78:204-214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Midyear FY 1983 Richton Dome screening and suitability review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The NWTS screening of Gulf Coast salt domes for suitable nuclear waste repository sites identified three candidate domes. These are, in order of preference, Richton Dome, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. A qualitative review of information obtained since this initial ranking gives no basis for revising this ranking. A review of unresolved siting issues at Richton Dome shows siting concerns presently center on the geologic stability and hydrology suitability of Richton Dome and vicinity. Tectonic concerns of regional uplift and faulting are examined, as are salt tectonic concerns related to salt dome movement and dissolution. Both geologic and geodetic data suggest the Mississippi Salt Basin is experiencing uplift. However, uplift rates estimated from geologic evidence are an order of magnitude less than rates estimated from releveling data. Faults are present throughout much of the basin, and most are the result of horizontal and vertical movements of the Louann Salt during the Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. Several faults are present in the sediments surrounding Richton Dome, but current evidence suggests no movements have occurred since the Miocene. Richton Dome's hydrologic suitability is considered in analysis of the regional ground-water flow system. A three-dimensional, ground-water flow model has been utilized to calculate travel paths and travel times for releases of contaminants from various points on the dome. Based on model analyses, a release at repository level would take nearly 39,000 years to reach the upper aquifer and would eventually discharge into the Leaf River or upper reaches of the Pascagoula River over 50 km from the dome. This estimate of travel time greatly exceeds the minimum 1000 year travel time required by proposed Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. 76 references

  5. Transferability of habitat suitability criteria for fishes in warmwater streams (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Bowen, Z.H.; Crance, J.H.


    We developed habitat suitability criteria and tested their transferability for nine fishes inhabiting unregulated Piedmont and Coastal Plain streams in Alabama. Cr iteria for optimal habitat were defined as ranges of depth, velocity, substrate type and cover type for which a species' suitability index (proportional abundance divided by proportional habitat availability, scaled from 0 to 1) equalled or exceeded 0.4. We evaluated the transferability of criteria between study sites by testing the null hypothesis that species occurrence in a sample was independent of whether or not the sample was taken in optimal habitat. We also tested criteria transference to a large, flow-regulated river sampled during low flow periods. Depth, velocity and most substrate criteria developed for the bronze darter Percina palmaris successfully transferred between unregulated streams and to the flow-regulated river samples. All criteria developed for a pair of closely related, allopatric darter species, Etheostoma chuckwachattee and E. jordani, transferred sucessfully when applied between species (in the unregulated sites) and to the regulated river samples. In contrast, criteria for the Alabama shiner Cyprinella callistia failed nearly all tests of transferability. Criteria for E. stigmaeum, P. nigrofasciata, an undescribed Percina species, and a pair of related, allopatric Cyprinella species transferred inconsistently. The species with good criteria transference had high suitability indices for shallow depths, fast current velocities and coarse substrates, characteristic of riffle species. We suggest that microhabitat criteria for riffle fishes are more likely to provide a transferable measure of habitat quality than criteria for fishes that, although restricted to fluvial habitats, commonly occupy a variety of pool and riffle habitats.

  6. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf


    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  7. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan


    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  8. Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej WINKLER


    Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.

  9. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen


    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  10. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.


    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  11. A new methodology for repository site suitability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.; Kossik, R.; Cunnane, M.


    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. The major portion of the software is the performance assessment model, which consists of a series of coupled component models for radionuclide transfer. The performance model itself is embedded within a decision analysis model which allows the user to evaluate alternative site characterization strategies. This paper provides an overview of the methodology, and summarizes the basic concepts of RIP

  12. Profiling coaching training: what is a suitable coaching training curricula?


    Farinha, Carolina Gomes


    This study aims to shed some light into the debate of what is a suitable coaching training curricula, specifically in Portugal. We conducted a Delphi study with 5 coaching experts to analyse: i) what is the minimum academic training for a future coach, ii) what is the minimum of hours required for a coaching training program, iii) which competencies should it develop, iv) which contents should the training address, v) which are the requisites for one to be a coaching trainer and, vi) what ...

  13. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh. (United States)

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A


    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  14. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, T; Suzuki, T


    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  15. Suitability of digital camcorders for virtual reality image data capture (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola; Maas, Hans-Gerd


    Today's consumer market digital camcorders offer features which make them appear quite interesting devices for virtual reality data capture. The paper compares a digital camcorder with an analogue camcorder and a machine vision type CCD camera and discusses the suitability of these three cameras for virtual reality applications. Besides the discussion of technical features of the cameras, this includes a detailed accuracy test in order to define the range of applications. In combination with the cameras, three different framegrabbers are tested. The geometric accuracy potential of all three cameras turned out to be surprisingly large, and no problems were noticed in the radiometric performance. On the other hand, some disadvantages have to be reported: from the photogrammetrists point of view, the major disadvantage of most camcorders is the missing possibility to synchronize multiple devices, limiting the suitability for 3-D motion data capture. Moreover, the standard video format contains interlacing, which is also undesirable for all applications dealing with moving objects or moving cameras. Further disadvantages are computer interfaces with functionality, which is still suboptimal. While custom-made solutions to these problems are probably rather expensive (and will make potential users turn back to machine vision like equipment), this functionality could probably be included by the manufacturers at almost zero cost.

  16. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  17. Thermogravimetric evaluation of the suitability of precursors for MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, G V; Shivashankar, S A; Umarji, A M


    A method based on the Langmuir equation for the estimation of vapour pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of subliming compounds is described. The variable temperature thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) curve of benzoic acid is used to arrive at the instrument parameters. Employing these parameters, the vapour pressure–temperature curves are derived for salicylic acid and camphor from their TG/DTG curves. The values match well with vapour pressure data in the literature, obtained by effusion methods. By employing the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, the enthalpy of sublimation could be calculated. Extending the method further, two precursors for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of titanium oxide bis-isopropyl bis tert-butyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, Ti(O i Pr) 2 (tbob) 2 , and bis-oxo-bis-tertbutyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, [TiO(tbob) 2 ] 2 , have been evaluated. The complex Ti(O i Pr) 2 (tbob) 2 is found to be a more suitable precursor. This approach can be helpful in quickly screening for the suitability of a compound as a CVD precursor

  18. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  19. QFD Based Benchmarking Logic Using TOPSIS and Suitability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho


    Full Text Available Users’ satisfaction on quality is a key that leads successful completion of the project in relation to decision-making issues in building design solutions. This study proposed QFD (quality function deployment based benchmarking logic of market products for building envelope solutions. Benchmarking logic is composed of QFD-TOPSIS and QFD-SI. QFD-TOPSIS assessment model is able to evaluate users’ preferences on building envelope solutions that are distributed in the market and may allow quick achievement of knowledge. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution provides performance improvement criteria that help defining users’ target performance criteria. SI (Suitability Index allows analysis on suitability of the building envelope solution based on users’ required performance criteria. In Stage 1 of the case study, QFD-TOPSIS was used to benchmark the performance criteria of market envelope products. In Stage 2, a QFD-SI assessment was performed after setting user performance targets. The results of this study contribute to confirming the feasibility of QFD based benchmarking in the field of Building Envelope Performance Assessment (BEPA.

  20. Pastoral suitability driven by future climate change along the Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dibari


    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the impacts of climate change on pastoral resources located along the Apennines chain. To this end, random forest machine learning model was first calibrated for the present period and then applied to future conditions, as projected by HadCM3 general circulation model, in order to simulate possible spatial variation/shift of pastoral areas in two time slices (centred on 2050 and 2080 under A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Pre-existent spatial database, namely Corine land cover map and WorldClim, were integrated and harmonised in a GIS environment in order to extract climate variables (mean seasonal precipitation, mean maximum temperature of the warmest month and minimum temperature of the coldest month and response variables (presence/absence of pastures to be used as model predictors. Random forest model resulted robust and coherent to simulate pastureland suitability under current climatology (classification accuracy error=19%. Accordingly, results indicated that increases in temperatures coupled with decreases in precipitation, as simulated by HadCM3 in the future, would have impacts of great concern on potential pasture distribution. In the specific, an overall decline of pasturelands suitability is predicted by the middle of the century in both A2 (–46% and B2 (–41% along the entire chain. However, despite alarming reductions in pastures suitability along the northern (–69% and –71% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively and central Apennines (–90% under both scenarios by the end of the century, expansions are predicted along the southern areas of the chain (+96% and +105% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. This may be probably due to expansions in pastures dominated by xeric and thermophiles species, which will likely benefit from warmer and drier future conditions predicted in the southern zone of the chain by the HadCM3. Hence, the expected climate, coupled with an increasing abandonment of the