Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Brody, Gene H; Murry, Velma McBride; Cleveland, Michael J; Wills, Thomas A
This study examined mediators of the Strong African American Families Program, a randomized, dual-focus prevention trial intended to delay the onset of alcohol use and reduce alcohol consumption among rural African American youths. More specifically, it demonstrated that changes in consumption 2 yrs after the intervention were mediated through 2 different paths, a social reaction path and a reasoned/intention path. The social reaction path provided evidence that relative to the control condition, the intervention decreased children's willingness to drink by making their images of drinkers less favorable. The reasoned/intention path provided evidence that the intervention influenced the children's intentions to drink by increasing targeted parenting behaviors related to alcohol. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that these changes in willingness and intentions were independently associated with alcohol consumption at the follow-up, and they suggest that a dual-process model approach that targets both intentions and willingness can be more successful than either approach alone.
Peetsma, T.; Van der Veen, I.; Schuitema, J.; Kostić, A.; Chadee, D.
Considering the association between time perspective and motivated learning, the authors draw on time perspective theory in the development of an intervention to increase adolescent students’ motivation for school: TIME (Time perspective Intervention of Motivation Enhancement). Four studies centered
Stahl, S M; Lawrie, T; Neill, P; Kelley, C
To evaluate different techniques intended to motivate community residents to have their blood pressures taken, five inner-city target areas with comparable, predominantly Black, populations were selected. A sample of about 200 households in each of four areas were subjected to different motivational interventions; in one of these four areas, households were approached in a series of four sequential steps. The fifth target area served as a control. Findings establish that home visits by community members trained to take blood pressure measurements (BPMs) in the home produces much larger yields of new (previously unknown) hypertensives than more passive techniques such as invitational letters and gift offers. Prior informational letters, including letters specifying time of visit, do not affect refusals or increase the yield. More "passive" motivational techniques yield a higher proportion of previously known hypertensives than the more "active" outreach efforts.
Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.
The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…
Gaspard, H.; Dicke, A.-l.; Flunger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516322; Haefner, I.; Brisson, B. M.; Trautwein, U.; Nagengast, B.
One way to address the leaking pipeline toward STEM-related careers (i.e., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is to intervene on students’ STEM motivation in school. However, a neglected question in intervention research is how such interventions affect motivation in subjects not
Milne, Sarah; Orbell, Sheina; Sheeran, Paschal
This study compared a motivational intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT, Rogers, 1975, 1983) with the same motivational intervention augmented by a volitional intervention based on implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1993). The study had a longitudinal design, involving three waves of data collection over a 2-week period, incorporating an experimental manipulation of PMT variables at Time 1 and a volitional, implementation intention intervention at Time 2. Participants (N=248) were randomly allocated to a control group or one of two intervention groups. Cognitions and exercise behaviour were measured at three time-points over a 2-week period. The motivational intervention significantly increased threat and coping appraisal and intentions to engage in exercise but did not bring about a significant increase in subsequent exercise behaviour. In contrast, the combined protection motivation theory/implementation intention intervention had a dramatic effect on subsequent exercise behaviour. This volitional intervention did not influence behavioural intention or any other motivational variables. It is concluded that supplementing PMT with implementation intentions strengthens the ability of the model to explain behaviour. This has implications for health education programmes, which should aim to increase both participants' motivation and their volition.
Sheftel, Anya; Lindstrom, Lauren; McWhirter, Benedict
Youth with disabilities face both internal and external barriers to career development and often experience poor post school outcomes in comparison to their nondisabled peers. The purpose of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a motivational interviewing-based group career intervention--Motivational Enhancement Group Intervention…
Jessica van Bragt
Abstract The main purpose of this intervention was to measure student’s motivation in English Literature before and after an intervention based Zoltán Dörnyei’s Motivational Self System (2009) and Michael Magid’s (2011) application of the same theory in schools in Singapore. The present
Fatemeh PooraghaRoodbarde; Siavash Talepasand; Issac Rahimian Boogar
Objective: The present study aimed at examining the effect of multidimensional motivation interventions based on Martin's model on cognitive and behavioral components of motivation.Methods: The research design was prospective with pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and 2 experimental groups. In this study, 90 students (45 participants in the experimental group and 45 in the control group) constituted the sample of the study, and they were selected by available sampling method. Motivation inter...
Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia
A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…
This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind” as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to episodes ...
Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molen, H.F. van der
Ergonomical interventions are not automatically adapted by workers or implemented at construction sites. In order to be more successful with implementations in this sector, one must start with its specific characteristics. In this paper these are briefly described. Then several ergonomic
Akioka, Elisabeth; Gilmore, Linda
A repeated measures design, with randomly assigned intervention and control groups and multiple sources of information on each participant, was used to examine whether changing the method of delivery of a school's homework program in order to better meet the students' needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence would lead to more positive…
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at examining the effect of multidimensional motivation interventions based on Martin's model on cognitive and behavioral components of motivation.Methods: The research design was prospective with pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and 2 experimental groups. In this study, 90 students (45 participants in the experimental group and 45 in the control group constituted the sample of the study, and they were selected by available sampling method. Motivation interventions were implemented for fifteen 60-minute sessions 3 times a week, which lasted for about 2 months. Data were analyzed using repeated measures multivariate variance analysis test.Results: The findings revealed that multidimensional motivation interventions resulted in a significant increase in the scores of cognitive components such as self-efficacy, mastery goal, test anxiety, and feeling of lack of control, and behavioral components such as task management. The results of one-month follow-up indicated the stability of the created changes in test anxiety and cognitive strategies; however, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups at the follow-up in self-efficacy, mastery goals, source of control, and motivation.Conclusions: The research evidence indicated that academic motivation is a multidimensional component and is affected by cognitive and behavioral factors; therefore, researchers, teachers, and other authorities should attend to these factors to increase academic motivation.
Lazowski, Rory A.; Hulleman, Chris S.
This meta-analysis provides an extensive and organized summary of intervention studies in education that are grounded in motivation theory. We identified 74 published and unpublished papers that experimentally manipulated an independent variable and measured an authentic educational outcome within an ecologically valid educational context. Our…
Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina
This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…
Lakerveld, J.; IJzelenberg, W.; van Tulder, M.
: the perception of being unhealthy and willingness to change their lifestyle. The main barriers reported by non-participants were financial arguments and time investment. Conclusion. The differences between participants and non-participants in a lifestyle intervention trial are in mainly demographic factors......Background. Non-participants can have a considerable influence on the external validity of a study. Therefore, we assessed the socio-demographic, health-related, and lifestyle behavioral differences between participants and non-participants in a comprehensive CVD lifestyle intervention trial......, and explored the motives and barriers underlying the decision to participate or not. Methods. We collected data on participants (n = 50) and non-participants (n = 50) who were eligible for inclusion in a comprehensive CVD lifestyle interventional trial. Questionnaires and a hospital patient records database...
Biondolillo, Mathew J; Pillemer, David B
This study tested a novel memory-based experimental intervention to increase exercise activity. Undergraduate students completed a two-part online survey ostensibly regarding college activity choices. At Time 1, they completed questionnaires that included assessments of exercise-related attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviours. Next, they described a memory of a positive or negative experience that would increase their motivation to exercise; students in a control condition did not receive a memory prompt. Finally, they rated their intentions to exercise in the future. Eight days following Time 1, students received a Time 2 survey that included an assessment of their self-reported exercise during the prior week. Students in the positive memory condition reported higher levels of subsequent exercise than those in the control condition; students in the negative memory condition reported intermediate levels of exercise. Activating a positive motivational memory had a significant effect on students' self-reported exercise activity even after controlling for prior attitudes, motivation and exercise activity.
Crutzen, Rik; Nurmi, Johanna; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan; Knittle, Keegan; Hankonen, Nelli
Motivation is a proximal determinant of behavior in many psychological theories, and increasing motivation is central to most behavior change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to fill a gap in the literature by identifying features of behavior change interventions associated with favorable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 88 intervention studies (N = ...
Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit
There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M
Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.
Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.
It has been suggested that the motivation to spend effort is decreased in burnout patients, resulting in reduced cognitive performance. A question that remains is whether this decreased motivation can be reversed by motivational interventions. We investigated this by examining the effect of a
Robichaux, Natalie M.; Gresham, Frank M.
Class-wide interventions such as the Mystery Motivator are an easy and effective way to remediate problematic behavior in the classroom and increase the level of classroom management. Multiple procedural variations to the Mystery Motivator intervention have successfully changed student behavior, but a systematic comparison of two procedural…
Tate Deborah F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation
Aneci Sobral Rocha
Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether incentives for practicing regular physical activities in fact help raising the frequency of exercising. Methods: Male and female subjects undergoing two to three assessments in the Check-Up Unit of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE were evaluated by noting any increase in levels of physical activity, improvements in mean metabolic unit numbers, and the sensitization index. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to assess the sample. Results: There were 1,879 subjects – 1,559 (83% males and 320 (17% females – aged 20 to 76 years (mean age = 45.8 years, standard deviation ± 8.8 who underwent a Continued Health Review at the Center for Preventive Medicine of the HIAE, Check-Up Unit, Jardins. Initially, over half of the sample was insufficiently active (sedentary or poorly active; there were more women than men in this group. After the health review, most subjects increased their level of physical activity; this increase was higher among women. Males encouraged three times to exercising showed better results (increased level of physical activity as compared to males encouraged twice for exercising. The best results in females were found in the group that went through two evaluations. This result is due to the fact that the sample of females comprising the group that received incentives on three occasions was small. This was also the only group that showed no increase in mean metabolic units. The sensitization index assessment in the overall sample was very satisfactory, as the expected results were achieved. Conclusions: These results show that motivational interventions are effective for raising the level of physical activity. We concluded that to encourage the practice of regular physical activity through information programs about its health benefits is very important.
Kassaee, Ameneh Mahrou; Rowell, Ginger Holmes
Researchers have confirmed that students' motivation is one of the most important factors educators can target to improve learning (Williams & Williams, 2011). This study explored the role which student's motivation played in the retention of first-time, full-time freshman (FTFTF) STEM majors at University (U) (blinded). Student motivational…
Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; Amorim-de-Sousa, Ana; González-Méijome, José M
To investigate the separated and combined influences of inner zone (IZ) diameter and effective add power of dual-focus contact lenses (CL) in the image quality at distance and near viewing, in a functional accommodating model eye. Computational wave-optics methods were used to define zonal bifocal pupil functions, representing the optic zones of nine dual-focus centre-distance CLs. The dual-focus pupil functions were defined having IZ diameters of 2.10 mm, 3.36 mm and 4.00 mm, with add powers of 1.5 D, 2.0 D and 2.5 D (dioptres), for each design, that resulted in a ratio of 64%/36% between the distance and treatment zone areas, bounded by a 6 mm entrance pupil. A through-focus routine was implemented in MATLAB to simulate the changes in image quality, calculated from the Visual Strehl ratio, as the eye with the dual-focus accommodates, from 0 to -3.00 D target vergences. Accommodative responses were defined as the changes in the defocus coefficient, combined with a change in fourth and sixth order spherical aberration, which produced a peak in image quality at each target vergence. Distance viewing image quality was marginally affected by IZ diameter but not by add power. Near image quality obtained when focussing the image formed by the near optics was only higher by a small amount compared to the other two IZ diameters. The mean ± standard deviation values obtained with the three adds were 0.28 ± 0.02, 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.22 ± 0.02, for the small, medium and larger IZ diameters, respectively. On the other hand, near image quality predicted by focussing the image formed by the distance optics was considerably lower relatively to the other two IZ diameters. The mean ± standard deviation values obtained with the three adds were 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.38 ± 0.00 and 0.54 ± 0.01, for the small, medium and larger IZ diameters, respectively. During near viewing through dual-focus CLs, image quality depends on the diameter of the most inner zone of the CL, while add power
This study adds to the knowledge on smoking behavior among college students. Preliminary evidence indicates that text message-based motivational interviewing and smoking cessation self-efficacy may help guide successful smoking behavior interventions for college students.
Hawkins, Jemma L.; Bravo, Paulina; Gobat, Nina; Rollnick, Stephen; Jerzembek, Gabrielle; Whitehead, Sarah; Chanon, Sue; Kelson, Mark; Adams, Orla; Murphy, Simon
Objective: In the light of the shortcomings of curriculum-based health promotion in secondary schools, group motivational interviewing provides a potential alternative approach. This two-phase study set out to establish the key components, feasibility and acceptability of a group motivational interviewing intervention, focused on alcohol…
Shrier, Lydia A; Rhoads, Amanda M; Fredette, Meghan E; Burke, Pamela J
Previous interventions for marijuana use have been administered out of the real-life contexts in which use occurs. In 2010, we interviewed youth aged 15-24 years who use marijuana frequently (n = 8) and providers who treat them (n = 6) on the acceptability and utility of a mobile intervention involving momentary self-monitoring of use-related contexts and responsive motivational messaging following clinic-based brief motivational enhancement therapy. Thematic analysis was used to examine youth and provider perspectives on the mobile intervention. Results suggest that mobile technology is a promising tool for brief interventions to reduce youth marijuana use and warrants further development.
Lhakhang, Pempa; Lippke, Sonia; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf
Frequent handwashing can prevent infections, but non-compliance to hand hygiene is pervasive. Few theory- and evidence-based interventions to improve regular handwashing are available. Therefore, two intervention modules, a motivational and a self-regulatory one, were designed and evaluated. In a longitudinal study, 205 young adults, aged 18 to 26 years, were randomized into two intervention groups. The Mot-SelfR group received first a motivational intervention (Mot; risk perception and outcome expectancies) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (SelfR; perceived self-efficacy and planning) 17 days later. The SelfR-Mot group received the same two intervention modules in the opposite order. Follow-up data were assessed 17 and 34 days after the baseline. Both intervention sequences led to an increase in handwashing frequency, intention, self-efficacy, and planning. Also, overall gains were found for the self-regulatory module (increased planning and self-efficacy levels) and the motivational module (intention). Within groups, the self-regulatory module appeared to be more effective than the motivational module, independent of sequence. Self-regulatory interventions can help individuals to exhibit more handwashing. Sequencing may be important as a motivation module (Mot) first helps to set the goal and a self-regulatory module (SelfR) then helps to translate this goal into actual behavior, but further research is needed to evaluate mechanisms.
Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Brisson, Brigitte M; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich
Using a cluster randomized field trial, the present study tested whether 2 relevance interventions affected students' value beliefs, self-concept, and effort in math differently depending on family background (socioeconomic status, family interest (FI), and parental utility value). Eighty-two classrooms were randomly assigned to either 1 of 2 intervention conditions or a control group. Data from 1,916 students (M age = 14.62, SD age = 0.47) and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents were obtained via separate questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses with cross-level interactions were used to investigate differential intervention effects on students' motivational beliefs 6 weeks and 5 months after the intervention. Socioeconomic status, FI, and parental utility values were investigated as moderators of the intervention effects. The intervention conditions were especially effective in promoting students' utility, attainment, intrinsic value beliefs, and effort 5 months after the intervention for students whose parents reported lower levels of math interest. Furthermore, students whose parents reported low math utility values especially profited in terms of their utility and attainment math values 5 months after the intervention. No systematic differential intervention effects were found for socioeconomic status. These results highlight the effectiveness of relevance interventions in decreasing motivational gaps between students from families with fewer or more motivational resources. Findings point to the substantial importance of motivational family resources, which have been neglected in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation.
Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187
Swanson, Regina Christian
Students who are removed from the regular school setting receive referrals to disciplinary alternative education programs (DAEPs), which focus on behavior management. Because students enroll for less than 30 days, it is important to quickly determine students' level of motivation to change, as doing so allows for immediate connection to…
Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim
Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Pepler, Debra; Cummings, Joanne G.; Craig, Wendy
The aim of the current study was to explore bystander experiences during bullying episodes among children and youth attending a residential summer camp by investigating rates of witnessing and intervention, as well as individual motivations and characteristics associated with bystander intervention. The majority of children had witnessed bullying…
Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke
The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…
Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.
The majority of Tier 2 interventions are facilitated by specialized instructional support personnel, such as a school psychologists, school social workers, school counselors, or behavior consultants. Many professionals struggle to involve parents and teachers in Tier 2 behavior interventions. However, attention to the motivational issues for…
Bouma, Adrie; van Wilgen, C. Paul; Baarveld, Frank; Lemmink, Koen; Diercks, Ron; Dijkstra, Arie
Poster presentation. There still is little empirical evidence on factors that influence GPs’ referral behavior to lifestyle interventions. The aim was to explore 1) GPs´ motivation to refer to lifestyle interventions and to investigate the association between GPs’ own lifestyle-behaviors and their
Full Text Available Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA and healthy nutrition (NUTR. Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.
Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi
Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.
Qian, Feng; Phelps, Charles E; Ling, Frederick S; Hannan, Edward L; Veazie, Peter J
The safety of drug-eluting stent (DES) use was called into question in 2006. However, the attitudes towards DES use after DES safety concerns were expressed and the distribution of chronic motivation type among interventional cardiologists are unknown. This study aims to examine the current attitudes towards DES use among interventional cardiologists and to investigate the distribution of chronic motivation type among these doctors. A questionnaire survey of interventional cardiologists was conducted in New York State from October 2008 to April 2009. The questionnaire included face valid items to measure the attitudes towards DES use, valid Regulatory Focus Questionnaire to measure the chronic motivation type, and items collecting demographic information. A total of 119 valid responses were received (response rate: 47%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the demographic factors between the respondents and the non-respondents. The vast majority of interventional cardiologists (92%) agreed that 'DES is a revolutionary technology' and that 'DES use will increase in the future' (70%). The chronic motivation type of the respondents was predominantly sensitive to positive outcomes (89%). Interventional cardiologists had a very positive attitude regarding DES technology and predicted future growth of DES use. The vast majority of interventional cardiologists were found to be concerned about achieving positive outcomes and wanted to prevent errors of omission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the distribution of chronic motivation type among doctors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf
Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.
Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)
Zarani, Fariba; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Sarami, Gholamreza; Sadeghian, Saeed
In order to benefit from a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, patients must adhere to medical recommendations and health advices. Despite the importance of adherence in CABG patients, adherence rates are disappointingly low. Despite the low adherence rates, very few articles regarding adherence-enhancing intervention among heart patients have been published. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model-based intervention on the IMB model constructs among patients undergoing CABG and to evaluate the relationship of information, motivation, and behavioral skills with adherence. A total of 152 CABG patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a standard care control group. Participants completed pretest measures and were reassessed 1 month later. Findings showed mixed support for the effectiveness of the intervention. There was a significant effect of IMB intervention on information and motivation of patients, but no significant effect on behavioral skills. Furthermore, the results revealed that intervention constructs (information, motivation, and behavioral skills) were significantly related to patients' adherence. Findings provided initial evidence for the effectiveness of IMB-based interventions on the IMB constructs and supported the importance of these constructs to improve adherence; however, there are additional factors that need to be identified in order to improve behavioral skills more effectively.
Spoelstra, Sandra L; Schueller, Monica; Hilton, Melissa; Ridenour, Kimberly
This article presents an integrative review of the evidence for combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions that promote medication adherence. We undertook this review to establish a scientific foundation for development of interventions to promote medication adherence and to guide clinical practice. The World Health Organization has designated medication adherence as a global problem. Motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour interventions have been found to individually promote medication adherence. However, there is a gap in the literature on the effect of combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural approaches to promote medication adherence. Integrative review. COCHRANE, PubMed and CINAHL were searched to access relevant studies between 2004-2014. Inclusion criteria were interventions combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy with medication adherence as the outcome. Articles were assessed for measures of adherence and methodological rigour. Analysis was performed using an integrative review process. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. A randomised controlled trial reported pretreatment missed doses of 5·58 and post-treatment of 0·92 and trended towards significance. Four cohort studies had effect sizes of 0·19-0·35 (p motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions, five out of six were effective at improving medication adherence. Future studies with large rigorous randomised trials are needed. This review provides clinicians with the state of the science in relation to combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy interventions that promote medication adherence. A summary of intervention components and talking points are provided to aid nurses in informing decision-making and translating evidence into practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.
This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…
Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael
Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.
Yeom, Hye-A; Fleury, Julie
There has been limited empirical support for interventions designed to promote physical activity targeting mobility in racially diverse older adults. This study aims to examine the effects of a Motivational Physical Activity Intervention (MPAI) on social resource, behavioral change process, physical activity, and mobility variables in sedentary older Korean Americans. A quasi-experimental, repeated-measure, pre- and post-tests design was used. Sixty-four community-dwelling, sedentary older Korean Americans (n = 33 for MPAI group, n = 31 for Attention Control group) participated in the study. There were significant improvements in social resources, including social support from family and friends; behavioral change process variables, including self-efficacy; motivational appraisal; and self-regulation for physical activity. There were significant intervention effects on physical activity, walking endurance, and flexibility. The MPAI is supported as improving mobility and physical activity, as well as increasing motivation for physical activity in older Korean Americans. © The Author(s) 2013.
Masterson Creber, Ruth; Patey, Megan; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; DeCesaris, Marissa; Riegel, Barbara
Lack of engagement in self-care is common among patients needing to follow a complex treatment regimen, especially patients with heart failure who are affected by comorbidity, disability and side effects of poly-pharmacy. The purpose of Motivational Interviewing Tailored Interventions for Heart Failure (MITI-HF) is to test the feasibility and comparative efficacy of an MI intervention on self-care, acute heart failure physical symptoms and quality of life. We are conducting a brief, nurse-led motivational interviewing randomized controlled trial to address behavioral and motivational issues related to heart failure self-care. Participants in the intervention group receive home and phone-based motivational interviewing sessions over 90-days and those in the control group receive care as usual. Participants in both groups receive patient education materials. The primary study outcome is change in self-care maintenance from baseline to 90-days. This article presents the study design, methods, plans for statistical analysis and descriptive characteristics of the study sample for MITI-HF. Study findings will contribute to the literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing to promote heart failure self-care. We anticipate that using an MI approach can help patients with heart failure focus on their internal motivation to change in a non-confrontational, patient-centered and collaborative way. It also affirms their ability to practice competent self-care relevant to their personal health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laura D. Crocker
Full Text Available Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. This paper reviews and integrates some of the growing evidence for cognitive biases and deficits in depression and anxiety, how these disruptions interact with emotional and motivational processes, and what brain mechanisms appear to be involved. This integration sets the stage for understanding the role of neuroplasticity in implementing change in cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in psychopathology as a function of intervention.
Crocker, Laura D; Heller, Wendy; Warren, Stacie L; O'Hare, Aminda J; Infantolino, Zachary P; Miller, Gregory A
Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. This paper reviews and integrates some of the growing evidence for cognitive biases and deficits in depression and anxiety, how these disruptions interact with emotional and motivational processes, and what brain mechanisms appear to be involved. This integration sets the stage for understanding the role of neuroplasticity in implementing change in cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in psychopathology as a function of intervention.
Stavropoulos, Katherine K M; Carver, Leslie J
The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms 'oxytocin' and 'autism'; the same databases were used for separate searches for 'joint attention', 'intervention', and 'autism', using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and neurotypical individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile experimental direction to improve understanding of the role of oxytocin in ASD
Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.
Background and Scope The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Methods Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms “oxytocin”, and “autism”; the same databases were used for separate searches for “joint attention”, “intervention”, and “autism”, using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Findings Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. Conclusions The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile
Pinto, B M; Lynn, H; Marcus, B H; DePue, J; Goldstein, M G
In theory-based interventions for behavior change, there is a need to examine the effects of interventions on the underlying theoretical constructs and the mediating role of such constructs. These two questions are addressed in the Physically Active for Life study, a randomized trial of physician-based exercise counseling for older adults. Three hundred fifty-five patients participated (intervention n = 181, control n = 174; mean age = 65.6 years). The underlying theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the constructs of decisional balance (benefits and barriers), self-efficacy, and behavioral and cognitive processes of change. Motivational readiness for physical activity and related constructs were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 8 months. Linear or logistic mixed effects models were used to examine intervention effects on the constructs, and logistic mixed effects models were used for mediator analyses. At 6 weeks, the intervention had significant effects on decisional balance, self-efficacy, and behavioral processes, but these effects were not maintained at 8 months. At 6 weeks, only decisional balance and behavioral processes were identified as mediators of motivational readiness outcomes. Results suggest that interventions of greater intensity and duration may be needed for sustained changes in mediators and motivational readiness for physical activity among older adults.
Ingersoll, Karen S; Ceperich, Sherry D; Hettema, Jennifer E; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Penberthy, J Kim
Alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a leading cause of preventable birth defects. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that multi-session motivational interviewing-based interventions reduce AEP risk, a one-session intervention could facilitate broader implementation. The purposes of this study were to: (1) test a one-session motivational AEP prevention intervention for community women and (2) compare outcomes to previous RCTs. Participants at risk for AEP (N=217) were randomized to motivational interviewing+assessment feedback (EARLY), informational video, or informational brochure conditions. Outcomes were drinks per drinking day (DDD), ineffective contraception rate, and AEP risk at 3 and 6 months. All interventions were associated with decreased DDD, ineffective contraception rate, and AEP risk. Participants who received EARLY had larger absolute risk reductions in ineffective contraception and AEP risk, but not DDD. Effect sizes were compared to previous RCTs. The one-session EARLY intervention had less powerful effects than multi-session AEP prevention interventions among community women, but may provide a new option in a continuum of preventive care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benzo, Roberto; Vickers, Kristin; Ernst, Denise; Tucker, Sharon; McEvoy, Charlene; Lorig, Kate
BACKGROUND Self-management (SM) is proposed as the standard of care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but details of the process and training required to deliver effective SM are not widely available. In addition, recent data suggest that patient engagement and motivation are critical ingredients for effective self-management. This manuscript carefully describes a self-management intervention using Motivational Interviewing skills, aimed to increase engagement and commitment in severe COPD patients. METHODS The intervention was developed and pilot tested for fidelity to protocol, for patient and interventionist feedback (qualitative) and effect on quality of life. Engagement between patient and interventionists was measured by the Working Alliance Inventory. The intervention was refined based in the results of the pilot study and delivered in the active arm of a prospective randomized study. RESULTS The pilot study suggested improvements in quality of life, fidelity to theory and patient acceptability. The refined self-management intervention was delivered 540 times in the active arm of a randomized study. We observed a retention rate of 86% (patients missing or not available for only 14% the scheduled encounters). CONCLUSIONS A self-management intervention, that includes motivational interviewing as the way if guiding patient into behavior change, is feasible in severe COPD and may increase patient engagement and commitment to self-management. This provides a very detailed description of the SM process for (the specifics of training and delivering the intervention) that facilitates replicability in other settings and could be translated to cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:23434613
Full Text Available Using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we have analyzed the adsorption of three human blood serum proteins, namely serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein E4, onto polymer-coated, fluorescently labeled FePt nanoparticles (~12 nm diameter carrying negatively charged carboxyl groups on their surface. For all three proteins, a step-wise increase in hydrodynamic radius with protein concentration was observed, strongly suggesting the formation of protein monolayers that enclose the nanoparticles. Consistent with this interpretation, the absolute increase in hydrodynamic radius can be correlated with the molecular shapes of the proteins known from X-ray crystallography and solution experiments, indicating that the proteins bind on the nanoparticles in specific orientations. The equilibrium dissociation coefficients, measuring the affinity of the proteins to the nanoparticles, were observed to differ by almost four orders of magnitude. These variations can be understood in terms of the electrostatic properties of the proteins. From structure-based calculations of the surface potentials, positively charged patches of different extents can be revealed, through which the proteins interact electrostatically with the negatively charged nanoparticle surfaces.
Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Sato, Takashi; Gonda, Kohsuke; Higuchi, Hideo
Dual-focus imaging optics for three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots has been developed to study the molecular mechanisms of motor proteins in cells. The new system has a high spatial and temporal precision, 2 nm in the x-y sample plane and 5 nm along the z-axis at a frame time of 2 ms. Three-dimensional positions of the vesicles labeled with quantum dots were detected in living cells. Vesicles were transported on the microtubules using 8-nm steps towards the nucleus. The steps had fluctuation of ∼20 nm which were perpendicular to the axis of the microtubule but with the constant distance from the microtubule. The most of perpendicular movement was not synchronized with the 8-nm steps, indicating that dynein moved on microtubules without changing the protofilaments. When the vesicles changed their direction of movement toward the cell membrane, they moved perpendicular with the constant distance from the microtubule. The present method is powerful tool to investigate three dimensional movement of molecules in cells with nanometer and millisecond accuracy
Siegmund, Lee Anne; Ahmed, Haitham M; Crawford, Michael Todd; Bena, James Frank
While cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to be effective at improving coronary heart disease (CHD), participation is generally poor. Attempts to increase uptake and adherence often fail. Use of a Facebook intervention for this population may be a unique opportunity to support self-determined motivation and affect adherence. To evaluate the impact of a Facebook intervention on motivation for exercise and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with CHD during a 12-week, Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. A prospective, randomized controlled pilot study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory, will be conducted. Participants will be recruited from inpatient, or the intake visit to outpatient, cardiac rehabilitation, and then randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison group. Participants in the intervention group will take part in a private Facebook group. Weekly posts will be designed to support self-determined motivation, measured at baseline and postcardiac rehabilitation by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-3 (BREQ-3). The Psychological Need Satisfaction for Exercise (PNSE) scale will measure fulfillment of needs that affect motivation. Participants in the comparison group will be given the same materials, but these will be supplied via handouts and email. The number of sessions attended will be tallied and analyzed using t tests. Overall motivation will be evaluated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. Multivariate analysis of variance models will be used to evaluate differences in the change across motivation subtypes. If significant, ANCOVA models for each subtype will be fit. ANCOVA models will be used to compare changes in needs satisfaction, overall and separately among the three subscales, between groups. Engagement in the Facebook group will be measured by number of "likes" and self-report of weekly visits to the group. This project was funded in July 2017 and recruitment is currently underway. The
Nathan C. Hall
Full Text Available College students in STEM disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52 to consider the importance of downgrading one’s expectations in response to academic setbacks. Contrary to study hypotheses, the results showed intervention participants to report significantly higher expectations and optimism on post-test measures administered four months later, no significant gains in emotional well-being or achievement goal orientations, and lower GPAs over five subsequent semesters. These paradoxical effects underscore the need for additional larger-scale research on the nature of students’ responses to potentially ego-threatening motivational programs in STEM disciplines so as to minimize achievement deficits at the expense of preserving motivational resources.
Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina
mass index ≥29 kg/m(2). The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether...
Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent
A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…
Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf
Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2…
Beeks, Amirah; Graves, Scott, Jr.
The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of the implementation of the Mystery Motivator intervention as an interdependent group contingency to decrease disruptive behavior in an urban eighth-grade general education science classroom. The study was conducted using an A-B changing criterion design. The effectiveness of the intervention…
Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina
mass index ≥29 kg/m2. The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether...
Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.
Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…
Corkin, Danya M.; Horn, Catherine; Pattison, Donna
This study examined differences in students' classroom motivational climate perceptions and motivational beliefs between those enrolled in undergraduate Biology courses that implemented an innovative, active learning intervention and those enrolled in traditional Biology courses (control group). This study also sought to determine whether…
Hanna, Rana; Fiedler, Rolf G; Dietrich, Hilke; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon
Work motivation, mental well-being and competencies of self-regulation are linked to successful job-related reintegration after rehabilitation. Based on the Diagnostical Instrument to assess Work motivation (Diagnostikinstrument für Arbeitsmotivation DIAMO) and existing training programs, a new group intervention, the goal analysis and goal operationalization, was developed and evaluated. The objective of this intervention, designed for participants of a rehabilitation program was to enhance work motivation and volitional control processes (self-regulation and self-control), to encourage job-related goal orientation and to thereby increase the probability of goal achievement. In a quasi-experimental longitudinal design 207 patients (111 experimental group/96 control group) were tested. The experimental group took part in the job-related training (ZAZO) in addition to the usual rehabilitation. The evaluation was conducted through various scales at t0 (beginning) and t1 (end of the training). Scales for the measurement of work motivation, mental well-being, status of rehabilitation, competencies of self-regulation and the subjective prognosis of the ability to work were used. As direct effects of the training an enhancement of work motivation and of an improved subjective prognosis of the ability to work were expected. Accordingly, a positive influence on the subjective well-being as indirect effects, were anticipated in the long run, the experimental group should also show an enhanced job-related reintegration. Participants of the experimental group showed significantly higher values on particular scales of the Diagnostical Instrument of Work motivation as opposed to the control group (curiosity motive, attitudes to work and contact motive). Most notably, significant interactional effects could be found on the scale for the subjective prognosis of the ability to work, which is a highly reliable instrument and important predictor for prospective job
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Bond, Ashley; Burkitt, Michael D; Cox, Trevor; Smart, Howard L; Probert, Chris; Haslam, Neil; Sarkar, Sanchoy
In the UK, the majority of diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopies are a result of direct-to-test referral from the primary care physician. The diagnostic yield of these tests is relatively low, and the burden high on endoscopy services. Dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy is expected to improve detection and classification of UGI mucosal lesions and also help minimize biopsies by allowing better targeting. This is a retrospective study of patients attending for direct-to-test UGI endoscopy from January 2015 to June 2015. The primary outcome of interest was the identification of significant pathology. Detection of significant pathology was modelled using logistic regression. 500 procedures were included. The mean age of patients was 61.5 (±15.6) years; 60.8% of patients were female. Ninety-four gastroscopies were performed using dual-focus magnification high-definition endoscopy. Increasing age, male gender, type of endoscope, and type of operator were all identified as significant factors influencing the odds of detecting significant mucosal pathology. Use of dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy was associated with an odds ratio of 1.87 (95%CI 1.11-3.12) favouring the detection of significant pathology. Subsequent analysis suggested that the increased detection of pathology during dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy also influenced patient follow-up and led to a 3.0 fold (p=0.04) increase in the proportion of patients entered into an UGI endoscopic surveillance program. Dual-focus magnification, high-definition endoscopy improved the diagnostic yield for significant mucosal pathology in patients referred for direct-to-test endoscopy. If this finding is recapitulated elsewhere it will have substantial impact on the provision of UGI endoscopic services.
Over 5 million adults in the United States have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (self-help) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City (NYC) in 1998 and following them up for 2 years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer-reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample's characteristics were as follows: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder, 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several "common" therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation and social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy and reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach.
Moller, Arlen C.; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect). We assessed participants' context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (α = .97). Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, t(165) = 2.15, P = .04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, t(160) = 2.42, P = .016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed. PMID:22548152
Arlen C. Moller
Full Text Available Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect. We assessed participants’ context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (=.97. Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, (165=2.15, =.04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, (160=2.42, =.016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002 was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45 and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70. The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week. It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions. A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.
Claver, Fernando; Jiménez, Ruth; Gil-Arias, Alexander; Moreno, Alberto; Moreno, M Perla
This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002) was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45) and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70). The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week). It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives) and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions). A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control) x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test) was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group) in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.
McGrane, N; Galvin, R; Cusack, T; Stokes, E
Incontestable epidemiological trends indicate that, for the foreseeable future, mortality and morbidity will be dominated by an escalation in chronic lifestyle-related diseases. International guidelines recommend the implementation of evidence-based approaches to bring about health behaviour changes. Motivational interventions to increase adherence and physical activity are not part of traditional physiotherapy for any condition. To evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of adding motivational interventions to traditional physiotherapy to increase physical activity and short- and long-term adherence to exercise prescriptions. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and Allied Health Evidence database using keywords and subject headings. Only randomised controlled trials comparing two or more arms, with one arm focused on motivational interventions influencing exercise and one control arm, were included. The search identified 493 titles, of which 14 studies (comprising 1504 participants) were included. The principal investigator extracted data that were reviewed independently by another author. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two authors using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the PEDro scale. Outcomes were measured at the level of impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction. The standardised mean difference between the control and intervention groups at follow-up time points was used as the mode of analysis. I2≤50% was used as the cut-off point for acceptable heterogeneity, above which a random effects model was applied. Exercise attendance was measured in six studies (n=378), and the results indicate that there was no significant difference in exercise attendance between the groups (Random effects model, standardised mean difference 0.33, 95% confidence interval -0.03 to 0.68, I2 62%). Perceived self-efficacy results were pooled from six studies (n=722), and a significant difference was
Karen S. Ingersoll
Full Text Available While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes, DD.com, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to DD.com plus MI vs. DD.com only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df = −2.25; p < .03 and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df = −1.69; p < .10 or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data.
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Okyere, Paul; Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth
The study sought to assess the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions in reducing alcohol consumption among college students, as compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. It also sought to identify the potential moderators to MI intervention effects. Database sources consulted included Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLE, PsycLIT, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Included studies were (1) underpinned by experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental designs; (2) studies in which participants were either college males only or females only or both; and (3) studies in which adaptations of MI were based on key MI principles. Excluded studies were (1) non-English language studies; (2) studies not published from 2000-2012; (3) studies in which participants were not college students; (4) studies in which intervention was not delivered by face-to-face approach; and (5) studies that failed to embark on postintervention follow-ups. A total of 115 abstracts were screened. These were narrowed down to 13 studies from which data for the study were extracted. Selected studies were underpinned by experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental designs. Owing to the heterogeneity in selected studies, a narrative synthesis was used. MI interventions were found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption among college students, when compared to alternative interventions or no intervention. Potential moderators of MI intervention effects were identified to include practitioner's adherence to MI techniques and individual's drinking motives. MI presents itself as a promising tool that can augment the many existing social-environmental strategies of health promotion.
Jensen, Ulrich Thy
are based on combinations of survey and administrative data and the dissertation employs a variety of designs such as repeated measures across time and an experiment to advance insights into the effects of organizational leadership and national policies on individuals’ PSM and the behavioral implications...... interventions as causes of PSM and the implications of PSM for public service behaviors and contributes not only to our understanding of PSM as motivational lever for public service improvements but also offers answers to the question of how PSM is shaped in organizational contexts. The empirical results...... of PSM for the provision of public services to citizens. The dissertation disentangles causes and consequences of PSM and is of interest to people who wish to understand how governance interventions (including policies and leadership) can influence employee public service motivation and how this kind...
McClendon, B T; Prentice-Dunn, S
Caucasian college students who intentionally tanned participated in a brief skin cancer intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT). This intervention targeted skin appearance and consisted of brief lectures, a comprehensive essay, video clips about a young man who died of melanoma, and short discussions. Compared to a waitlist control group, the intervention group showed increases on PMT variables and intentions at post-test. The waitlist group later received the intervention and showed similar increases. Additionally, all but one PMT variable maintained post-test levels at a one-month follow-up. Photographs taken at post-test and at the one-month follow-up were judged by raters blind to the hypothesis. Seventy-two percent of participants were judged to have lighter skin whereas only 16 percent had darker skin. These results provide additional support for theory-based methods for changing maladaptive attitudes and behaviors associated with skin cancer risk.
Shepard, Donald S; Lwin, Aung K; Barnett, Nancy P; Mastroleo, Nadine; Colby, Suzanne M; Gwaltney, Chad; Monti, Peter M
To estimate the incremental cost, cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratio of incorporating a significant other (SO) into motivational intervention for alcohol misuse. We obtained economic data from the one year with the intervention in full operation for patients in a recent randomized trial. The underlying trial took place at a major urban hospital in the United States. The trial randomized 406 (68.7% male) eligible hazardous drinkers (196 during the economic study) admitted to the emergency department or trauma unit. The motivational interview condition consisted of one in-person session featuring personalized normative feedback. The significant other motivational interview condition comprised one joint session with the participant and SO in which the SO's perspective and support were elicited. We ascertained activities across 445 representative time segments through work sampling (including staff idle time), calculated the incremental cost in per patient of incorporating an SO, expressed the results in 2014 US$, incorporated quality and mortality effects from a closely related trial and derived the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. From a health system perspective, the incremental cost per patient of adding an SO was $341.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) = $244.44-437.74]. The incremental cost per year per hazardous drinker averted was $3623 (CI = $1777-22,709), the cost per QALY gained $32,200 (CI = $15,800-201,700), and the benefit-cost ratio was 4.73 (95% CI = 0.7-9.66). If adding an SO into the intervention strategy were concentrated during the hours with highest risk or in a trauma unit, it would become even more cost-beneficial. Using criteria established by the World Health Organization (cost-effectiveness below the country's gross domestic product per capita), incorporating a significant other into a patient's motivational intervention for alcohol misuse is highly cost-effective. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License
Friederichs, Stijn; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Guyaux, Janneke; Lechner, Lilian
Developing Web-based physical activity (PA) interventions based on motivational interviewing (MI) could increase the availability and reach of MI techniques for PA promotion. Integrating an avatar in such an intervention could lead to more positive appreciation and higher efficacy of the intervention, compared to an intervention that is purely text-based. The present study aims to determine whether a Web-based PA intervention based on MI with an avatar results in more positive appreciation and higher effectiveness of the intervention, when compared to an intervention that is purely text-based. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted, containing the following research conditions: (1) a Web-based PA intervention based on MI with an avatar, (2) a content-identical intervention without an avatar, and (3) a control condition that received no intervention. Measurements included PA behavior and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1 month post intervention. Both interventions significantly increased self-reported PA at 1 month, compared to the control condition (beta(AVATARvsCONTROL)=.39, P=.011; beta(TEXTvsCONTROL)=.44, P=.006). No distinctions were found regarding intervention effect on PA between both interventions. Similarly, the results of the process evaluation did not indicate any significant differences between both interventions. Due to the limited relational skills of the avatar in this study, it probably did not succeed in forming a stronger relationship with the user, over and above text alone. The findings suggest that avatars that do not strengthen the social relationship with the user do not enhance the intervention impact. Future research should determine whether Web-based PA interventions based on MI could benefit from inclusion of a virtual coach capable of more complex relational skills than used in the current study, such as responding in gesture to the user's state and input. Dutch Trial
Jochems, Eline C; Mulder, Cornelis L; van Dam, Arno; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Scheffer, Sylvia C M; van der Spek, Willem; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M
Treatment disengagement and non-completion poses a major problem for the successful treatment of patients with severe mental illness. Motivation for treatment has long been proposed as a major determinant of treatment engagement, but exact mechanisms remain unclear. This current study serves three purposes: 1) to determine whether a feedback intervention based on the patients' motivation for treatment is effective at improving treatment engagement (TE) of severe mentally ill patients in outpatient psychiatric treatment, 2) to gather insight into motivational processes and possible mechanisms regarding treatment motivation (TM) and TE in this patient population and 3) to determine which of three theories of motivation is most plausible for the dynamics of TM and TE in this population. The Motivation and Treatment Engagement Intervention Trial (MotivaTe-IT) is a multi-center cluster randomized trial investigating the effectiveness of feedback generated by clinicians regarding their patients' treatment motivation upon the patients' TE. The primary outcome is the patients' TE. Secondary outcomes are TM, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Patients whose clinicians generate monthly motivation feedback (additional to treatment as usual) will be compared to patients who receive treatment as usual. An estimated 350 patients, aged 18 to 65 years, with psychotic disorders and/or severe personality disorders will be recruited from outpatient community mental health care. The randomization will be performed by a computerized randomization program, with an allocation ratio of 1:1 (team vs. team or clinician vs. clinician) and patients, but not clinicians, will be blind to treatment allocation at baseline assessment. Due to the nature of the trial, follow-up assessment can not be blinded. The current study can provide important insights regarding motivational processes and the way in which motivation influences the treatment engagement and clinical outcomes. The
Miller, Jonathan M; Wolfson, Julian; Laska, Melissa N; Nelson, Toben F; Pereira, Mark A
To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. Natural experiment. Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing. Pretest and posttest surveys measured self-determination theory outcomes: intrinsic exercise motivation, intrinsic ski motivation, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Hierarchical linear regression models tested treatment effects controlled for grade, race, sex, and baseline measures of the outcomes. Minne-Loppet program students showed significantly greater motivation to ski (β = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.75) and significantly greater perceived competence (β = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.06-1.50) than students in control classrooms. Treatment effects for general exercise motivation and perceived competence differed by race. African American students in Minne-Loppet classes showed significantly greater general exercise motivation (β = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.03-2.14) and perceived competence (β = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.91-2.99) than African American students in control classes. The Minne-Loppet program promoted perceived competence and motivation to ski. Future improvements to the Minne-Loppet and similar interventions should aim to build general motivation and provide support needed to better engage all participants.
Serafini, Kelly; Shipley, Leandra; Stewart, David G
The stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance) have been well studied in adult populations. However, fewer studies have examined how the stages of change are related to adolescent substance use. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have examined how the stages of change relate to outcomes in a school-based intervention. To better capture adolescent motivation, we added an additional group to the Transtheoretical Model of Change, which we titled Coerced Action, to represent adolescents that made changes to their substance use despite low problem recognition (representing the internal motivation of Precontemplation and the change behaviors of the Action group). We then examined how the stages of change were related to a thorough assessment of substance use at baseline and corresponding treatment outcomes. Our sample consisted of 264 adolescents (mean age: 16.1, 44.5% Caucasian, 37.5% female) who participated in an 8-week, school-based Motivational Enhancement intervention. Results indicated significant group differences across the stages of change in substance use patterns (alcohol use, negative consequences, affective dysregulation), as well as treatment outcomes (alcohol use and negative consequences). For instance, adolescents in the Action group demonstrated more negative consequences at 16weeks follow-up than those in Precontemplation and Coerced Action, F(1, 3)=8.23, pmotivation among adolescent substance users within school-based settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pulido Juan J.
Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of an intervention programme developed with soccer coaches, based on promoting strategies to optimise the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of athletes. Eight soccer coaches, aged between 19 and 50 years (M = 32.5; SD = 14.34, participated in the study. They were selected intentionally (without academic or federative training and divided equally into a control and an experimental group by random peer selection. Also, 109 soccer players, aged between 11 and 15 years (M = 13.78; SD = 1.38, divided into a control group (CG; n = 56 and an experimental group (EG; n = 53, participated in the experiment. The training programme (12 hours was aimed to develop methodological and motivational strategies to promote autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction among the players. The results showed that the participants in the EG decreased competence and relatedness control, while significantly increased (post-intervention competence and relatedness needs satisfaction. Moreover, values for the EG did not decrease for autonomy, competence frustration and amotivation, while they increased for the sport commitment. Also, intrinsic motivation decreased in both groups (greater decrease in the CG. In conclusion, we can affirm the effectiveness of the training programme to create an environment of “bright side” motivation, and reduce thwarting styles, needs frustration and low self-determination levels.
Stewart, David G; Felleman, Benjamin I; Arger, Christopher A
This study examined whether adolescents receiving Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention have different outcomes compared to those receiving Motivational Incentives (Motivational Interviewing combined with Contingency Management; MI+CM). A total of 136 adolescents (from a parent study of 220 adolescents) with problematic substance use were recruited from 8 high schools in Washington State, where they completed either 8-weeks of MI or MI+CM. Frequency of marijuana use was assessed at baseline, at the end-of-treatment, and at 16-week follow-up. A balanced and matched sample was created using propensity scores, then analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that adolescents who received MI+CM exhibited a greater reduction in use across time (pmotivation and school attendance were not found. Use of coping strategies at the end-of-treatment had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between the intervention condition and marijuana use at the end-of-treatment (F3, 121=10.20, R2=.20, p<.01). These results suggest that the inclusion of contingencies into adolescent marijuana treatment decreases the end-of-treatment frequency of marijuana use and related consequences while increasing the use of coping strategies and the pursuit of additional treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To be engaged and successful in learning in physical education (PE, students needs to be motivated. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of flipped learning (FL on adolescents’ motivation to participate in PE. Methods: Students in Grades 8–11 (N = 338, 45.3% girls were recruited from 6 secondary and upper-secondary schools from three different counties in Norway in the spring semester of 2016. Following a quasi-experimental design with a control group, data were gathered using an expectancy–value questionnaire (EVQ. Results: Mean results revealed that FL has a significant impact on adolescents’ expectancy beliefs and attainment values regarding participation in PE. All significant changes in the intervention group could be explained by gender. Conclusion: In an expectancy-value perspective, FL positively influences the motivation of adolescents, especially that of girls, to participate in PE. Therefore, FL can be used to enhance adolescents’ motivation to participate in PE.
Chang, Sun Ju; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Song, Misoon
Purpose: This study systematically reviewed research on behavioral interventions based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to investigate specific intervention strategies that focus on information, motivation, and behavioral skills and to evaluate their effectiveness for people with chronic diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of both the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and Im and Chang. A lit...
Simó-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morató, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Giné, Climent
A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A systematic review was conducted using the following major electronic databases: PsychInfo, Education Resources Information Center, Science Direct, Blackwell, SAGE, and Medline. A total of 31 published articles representing 55 participants was examined. Findings from this study suggest that the modification of a MO usually has an effect on the problem behavior by either establishing or abolishing its motivation. Furthermore, a relationship was found between the type of MO and the behavioral function identified. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings, limitations of this study and potential issues for future research are discussed.
Jones, Allan; Gladstone, Beryl Primrose; Lübeck, Marlene; Lindekilde, Nanna; Upton, Dominic; Vach, Werner
To review the diabetes literature in order to examine the effect of motivational interventions on treatment outcome as measured by changes in glycated haemoglobin. Relevant databases were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials in which motivational interventions were examined in relation to treatment outcome in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The 13 studies identified for review included 1223 participants diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 1895 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The analysis showed a 0.17% (95% CI: -0.09, 0.43%) improvement in glycemic control in people who received a motivational intervention compared to a control group, however, the effect was not statistically significant. The impact of motivational interventions in the management of blood glucose levels appears to be limited. However, due to the small number of studies and issues of heterogeneity caution in interpreting the present findings is advised. Moreover, the unique contribution of motivational interventions may be better assessed by outcomes such as behaviour change and other intermediate outcomes. Further research examining the delivery and focus of motivational interventions in helping people manage their diabetes is recommended. The clinical implications of the present findings are therefore uncertain pending further research. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Babazadeh, Towhid; Kamran, Aziz; Dargahi, Abdollah; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shariat, Fariba; Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed
Background: Skin cancer is a serious public health problem in the world. Its prevalence in many countries has been increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess the effects of a theory-based educational intervention to promote skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers in Chalderan County, Iran. Methods: This was a quasi-randomized controlled field trial study conducted on 238 rural farmers. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as well as the items of SCPBs. The differences between the groups before and 3 months after the intervention were determined by independent t-test, paired t-test, and chi-square applying SPSS software. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found in the scores of the PMT constructs between the two groups (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found between the scores of all the variables, as well as SCPBs, in the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PMT was found to be an appropriate framework for designing educational interventions aiming at promoting SCPBs among rural farmers. It was concluded that designing an educational program with a focus on promoting perceived susceptibility increased the level of performing SCPBs among the rural farmers.
Diaz Gomez, Cristina; Ngantcha, Marcus; Le Garjean, Nathalie; Brouard, Nadine; Lasbleiz, Muriel; Perennes, Mathieu; Kerdiles, François J; Le Lan, Caroline; Moirand, Romain; Bellou, Abdelouahab
Introduction to alcohol consumption early in life increases the risk of alcohol dependency and hence motivational interventions are needed in young patients visiting the emergency department (ED). This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a brief motivational intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among young ED patients. This was a blind randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months. Patients were stratified on the basis of age and blood alcohol level of 0.5 g/l or more. A total of 263 patients aged 16-24 were randomized, with 132 patients in the brief motivational intervention group and 131 in the control group, with data collection at 3 months. From September 2011 to July 2012, a psychologist performed the brief motivational intervention 5 days after the patients' discharge. A phone call was made at 1 and 2 months. The control group received a self-assessment leaflet. The reduction in consumption was determined on the basis of the number of drinks consumed in the last week prior to the survey. The mean reduction between number of drinks at baseline and number of drinks at 3 months in the control group was 0.3 and that in the intervention group was 0.9. This reduction in alcohol use in the brief motivational intervention group was not significant. The study did not show an association between brief motivational intervention and repeated drunkenness [relative risk (RR): 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.24], alcohol consumption at least once a month (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.31-2.10) and alcohol consumption at least 10 times during the month (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.96-1.26). We did not observe a significant decrease in alcohol consumption among the youth. Further studies are needed to confirm the positive impact of a brief motivational intervention in the ED.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Hamel, John; Shorey, Ryan C.; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Stuart, Gregory L.
Research has attempted to elucidate men and women’s proximal motivations for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has yet to clarify and resolve contention regarding whether motives for IPV are gender-neutral or gender specific. Thus, the purpose of this present study was to compare motives for physical IPV perpetration among a sample of men (n =90) and women (n =87) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to batterer intervention programs. Results demonstrated that the most frequently endorsed motives for IPV by both men and women were self-defense, expression of negative emotions, and communication difficulties. With the exception of expression of negative emotions and retaliation, with women endorsing these motives more often than men, there were no significant differences between men and women’s self-reported reasons for perpetrating physical aggression. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25332752
Silverman, Michael J
Treatment motivation is a key component in the early rehabilitative stages for people with substance use disorders. To date, no music therapy researcher has studied how lyric analysis interventions might affect motivation in a randomized controlled design. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lyric analysis interventions on treatment motivation in patients on a detoxification unit using a single-session wait-list control design. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were between-group differences concerning two contrasting songs used for the lyric analyses. Participants (N=104) were cluster randomized to a group lyric analysis condition or a wait-list control condition. Participants received either a "Hurt" or a "How to Save a Life" lyric analysis treatment. The Texas Christian University Treatment Motivation Scale-Client Evaluation of Self at Intake (CESI) (Simpson, 2008) was used to measure aspects of treatment motivation: problem recognition, desire for help, treatment readiness, pressures for treatment, and total motivation. Results indicated significant between-group differences in measures of problem recognition, desire for help, treatment readiness, and total motivation, with experimental participants having higher treatment motivation means than control participants. There was no difference between the two lyric analysis interventions. Although the song used for lyric analysis interventions did not affect outcome, a single group-based music therapy lyric analysis session can be an effective psychosocial treatment intervention to enhance treatment motivation in patients on a detoxification unit. Limitations, implications for clinical practice, and suggestions for future research are provided. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Neighbors, Charles J; Barnett, Nancy P; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Colby, Suzanne M; Monti, Peter M
Brief interventions in the emergency department targeting risk-taking youth show promise to reduce alcohol-related injury. This study models the cost-effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based intervention relative to brief advice to stop alcohol-related risk behaviors (standard care). Average cost-effectiveness ratios were compared between conditions. In addition, a cost-utility analysis examined the incremental cost of motivational interviewing per quality-adjusted life year gained. Microcosting methods were used to estimate marginal costs of motivational interviewing and standard care as well as two methods of patient screening: standard emergency-department staff questioning and proactive outreach by counseling staff. Average cost-effectiveness ratios were computed for drinking and driving, injuries, vehicular citations, and negative social consequences. Using estimates of the marginal effect of motivational interviewing in reducing drinking and driving, estimates of traffic fatality risk from drinking-and-driving youth, and national life tables, the societal costs per quality-adjusted life year saved by motivational interviewing relative to standard care were also estimated. Alcohol-attributable traffic fatality risks were estimated using national databases. Intervention costs per participant were $81 for standard care, $170 for motivational interviewing with standard screening, and $173 for motivational interviewing with proactive screening. The cost-effectiveness ratios for motivational interviewing were more favorable than standard care across all study outcomes and better for men than women. The societal cost per quality-adjusted life year of motivational interviewing was $8,795. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were robust in terms of variability in parameter estimates. This brief intervention represents a good societal investment compared with other commonly adopted medical interventions.
Fernandez y Garcia, Erik; Joseph, Jill; Wilson, Machelle D; Hinton, Ladson; Simon, Gregory; Ludman, Evette; Scott, Fiona; Kravitz, Richard L
To determine the initial effectiveness of a novel, pediatric office-based intervention in motivating mothers to seek further assessment of positive depression screens. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, English-speaking mothers (n = 104) with positive 2-question depression screens and presenting with children 0 to 12 years old for well-child care to a general pediatric training clinic received interventions from a trained research assistant. The Motivating Our Mothers (MOM) intervention included office-based written and verbal targeted depression education and motivational messages encouraging further depression assessment and a semistructured telephone booster delivered 2 days later. The control intervention included nontargeted written and verbal messages and 2 days later, an attention control telephone survey. Both groups received a list of depression care resources. The primary outcome was the proportion of mothers in each group who reported trying to contact any of 6 types of resources to discuss the positive screen at 2 weeks after intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01453790). Despite 6 contact attempts, 10 MOM and 9 control mothers were lost to follow-up. More mothers in the MOM intervention tried to contact a resource compared to control (73.8% vs 53.5%, difference 20.3%, 95% confidence interval for difference -0.1 to 38.5, P = .052). Mothers receiving the MOM intervention made more attempts to contact a resource for follow-up of positive depression screens. If found effective in larger studies, MOM may prove a promising approach for motivating depression screen-positive mothers identified in general pediatric settings within and beyond the postpartum period to seek further depression assessment and support. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juhnke, Brenna A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Curtis, Russell C.; Thompson, E. Heather; Coll, Kenneth M.; Yu, Fangzhou; Moyer, Michael S.; Mullett, Alison
Motivational interviewing is a proven, evidence-based intervention. It has been successfully utilized as a potent intervention with students presenting a broad range of concerns from substance abuse to obesity. To date, however, no articles exist within the general counseling literature or the "Journal of School Counseling" specifically…
Palfai, Tibor P; Cheng, Debbie M; Bernstein, Judith A; Palmisano, Joseph; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Goodness, Tracie; Saitz, Richard
Although a number of brief intervention approaches for drug use are based on motivational interviewing (MI), relatively little is known about whether the quality of motivational interviewing skills is associated with intervention outcomes. The current study examined whether indices of motivational interviewing skill were associated with subsequent drug use outcomes following two different MI-based brief interventions delivered in primary care; a 15 min Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) and a 45 min adaptation of motivational interviewing (MOTIV). Audio recordings from 351 participants in a randomized controlled trial for drug use in primary care were coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale, (MITI Version 3.1.1). Separate negative binomial regression analyses, stratified by intervention condition, were used to examine the associations between six MITI skill variables and the number of days that the participant used his/her main drug 6 weeks after study entry. Only one of the MITI variables (% reflections to questions) was significantly associated with the frequency of drug use in the MOTIV condition and this was opposite to the hypothesized direction (global p=0.01, adjusted IRR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.03-2.20 for middle vs. lowest tertile [higher skill, more drug use]. None were significantly associated with drug use in the BNI condition. Secondary analyses similarly failed to find consistent predictors of better drug outcomes. Overall, this study provides little evidence to suggest that the level of MI intervention skills are linked with better drug use outcomes among people who use drugs and receive brief interventions in primary care. Findings should be considered in light of the fact that data from the study are from negative trial of SBI and was limited to primary care patients. Future work should consider alternative ways of examining these process variables (i.e., comparing thresholds of proficient versus non-proficient skills) or
Garcia-Caballero, Anna; Torrens-Lluch, Marina; Ramírez-Gendrau, Isabel; Garrido, Gemma; Vallès, Vicenç; Aragay, Núria
The aim of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of an individual psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of pathological gambling. A sample of 18 participants, diagnosed of pathological gambling and without any other associated comorbidity, were assessed, attended at the publicly-funded Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit (Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa). Median age was 46 years (SD = 12). All the patients achieved abstinence and completed follow-up. The Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction (Q-LES-Q), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered pre- and posttreatment. Results showed that patients significantly reduced the problems related to gambling behavior according to the NODS score (p < .000). Regarding impulsive behavior (UPPS-P), we found significant differences in negative urgency (p < .001), positive urgency (p < .001), (lack of) premeditation (p < .029) and (lack of) perseverance (p < .048). Some relevant aspects of quality of life as assessed by the Q-LES-Q had improved. In conclusion, the study shows that psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy not only significantly reduces gambling-related behavior problems but also leads to improvements in impulsivity and quality of life. .
Jochems Eline C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment disengagement and non-completion poses a major problem for the successful treatment of patients with severe mental illness. Motivation for treatment has long been proposed as a major determinant of treatment engagement, but exact mechanisms remain unclear. This current study serves three purposes: 1 to determine whether a feedback intervention based on the patients’ motivation for treatment is effective at improving treatment engagement (TE of severe mentally ill patients in outpatient psychiatric treatment, 2 to gather insight into motivational processes and possible mechanisms regarding treatment motivation (TM and TE in this patient population and 3 to determine which of three theories of motivation is most plausible for the dynamics of TM and TE in this population. Methods/design The Motivation and Treatment Engagement Intervention Trial (MotivaTe-IT is a multi-center cluster randomized trial investigating the effectiveness of feedback generated by clinicians regarding their patients’ treatment motivation upon the patients’ TE. The primary outcome is the patients’ TE. Secondary outcomes are TM, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Patients whose clinicians generate monthly motivation feedback (additional to treatment as usual will be compared to patients who receive treatment as usual. An estimated 350 patients, aged 18 to 65 years, with psychotic disorders and/or severe personality disorders will be recruited from outpatient community mental health care. The randomization will be performed by a computerized randomization program, with an allocation ratio of 1:1 (team vs. team or clinician vs. clinician and patients, but not clinicians, will be blind to treatment allocation at baseline assessment. Due to the nature of the trial, follow-up assessment can not be blinded. Discussion The current study can provide important insights regarding motivational processes and the way in which motivation
Background Treatment disengagement and non-completion poses a major problem for the successful treatment of patients with severe mental illness. Motivation for treatment has long been proposed as a major determinant of treatment engagement, but exact mechanisms remain unclear. This current study serves three purposes: 1) to determine whether a feedback intervention based on the patients’ motivation for treatment is effective at improving treatment engagement (TE) of severe mentally ill patients in outpatient psychiatric treatment, 2) to gather insight into motivational processes and possible mechanisms regarding treatment motivation (TM) and TE in this patient population and 3) to determine which of three theories of motivation is most plausible for the dynamics of TM and TE in this population. Methods/design The Motivation and Treatment Engagement Intervention Trial (MotivaTe-IT) is a multi-center cluster randomized trial investigating the effectiveness of feedback generated by clinicians regarding their patients’ treatment motivation upon the patients’ TE. The primary outcome is the patients’ TE. Secondary outcomes are TM, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Patients whose clinicians generate monthly motivation feedback (additional to treatment as usual) will be compared to patients who receive treatment as usual. An estimated 350 patients, aged 18 to 65 years, with psychotic disorders and/or severe personality disorders will be recruited from outpatient community mental health care. The randomization will be performed by a computerized randomization program, with an allocation ratio of 1:1 (team vs. team or clinician vs. clinician) and patients, but not clinicians, will be blind to treatment allocation at baseline assessment. Due to the nature of the trial, follow-up assessment can not be blinded. Discussion The current study can provide important insights regarding motivational processes and the way in which motivation influences the treatment
Beek, Titia F; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D
Historically, only individuals with a cross-gender identity who wanted to receive a full treatment, were eligible for "complete sex reassignment" consisting of feminizing/masculinizing hormone treatment and several surgical interventions including genital surgery (full treatment). Currently, it is unclear what motives underlie a request for hormones only or surgery only or a combination of hormones and surgery (e.g., a mastectomy), but no genital surgery (partial treatment). The aims of this study were (i) to describe treatment requests of applicants at a specialized gender identity clinic in the Netherlands; and (ii) to explore the motives underlying a partial treatment request, including the role of (non-binary) gender identity. Information was collected on all 386 adults who applied for treatment at the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in the year 2013. Treatment requests were available for 360 individuals: 233 natal men (64.7%) and 127 natal women (35.3%). Treatment requests were systematically collected during assessment. Individuals were classified as either desiring a full or partial treatment. The motives behind a partial treatment request were collected and categorized as well. The majority of applicants at our gender identity clinic requested full treatment. Among those who requested partial treatment, the most reported underlying motive was surgical risks/outcomes. Only a small number of applicants requested partial treatment to bring their body into alignment with their non-binary gender identity. It becomes clear that partial treatment is requested by a substantial number of applicants. This emphasizes the need for gender identity clinics to provide information about the medical possibilities and limitations, and careful introduction and evaluation of non-standard treatment options. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
DiLillo, Vicki; Ingle, Krista; Harvey, Jean Ruth; West, Delia Smith
Background While Internet-based weight management programs can facilitate access to and engagement in evidence-based lifestyle weight loss programs, the results have generally not been as effective as in-person programs. Furthermore, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promise as a technique for enhancing weight loss outcomes within face-to-face programs. Objective This paper describes the design, intervention development, and analysis of a therapist-delivered online MI intervention for weight loss in the context of an online weight loss program. Methods The MI intervention is delivered within the context of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an 18-month, group-based, online behavioral weight control program plus individually administered, synchronous online MI sessions relative to the group-based program alone. Six individual 30-minute MI sessions are conducted in private chat rooms over 18 months by doctoral-level psychologists. Sessions use a semistructured interview format for content and session flow and incorporate core MI components (eg, collaborative agenda setting, open-ended questions, reflective listening and summary statements, objective data, and a focus on evoking and amplifying change talk). Results The project was funded in 2010 and enrollment was completed in 2012. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected in 2016. Conclusions This is the first trial to test the efficacy of a synchronous online, one-on-one MI intervention designed to augment an online group behavioral weight loss program. If the addition of MI sessions proves to be successful, this intervention could be disseminated to enhance other distance-based weight loss interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01232699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01232699 PMID:27095604
Bertholet, Nicolas; Palfai, Tibor; Gaume, Jacques; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Saitz, Richard
Questions remain about how brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for unhealthy alcohol use work, and addressing these questions may be important for improving their efficacy. Therefore, we assessed the effects of various characteristics of BMIs on drinking outcomes across 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Audio recordings of 314 BMIs were coded. We used the global rating scales of the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC) 2.1: counselor's acceptance, empathy, and motivational interviewing (MI) spirit, and patient's self-exploration were rated. MI proficiency was defined as counselor's rating scale scores ≥5. We also used the structure, confrontation, and advice subscale scores of the Therapy Process Rating Scale and the Working Alliance Inventory. We examined these process characteristics in interventions across 1 U.S. RCT of middle-aged medical inpatients with unhealthy alcohol use (n = 124) and 2 Swiss RCTs of young men with binge drinking in a nonclinical setting: Swiss-one (n = 62) and Swiss-two (n = 128). We assessed the associations between these characteristics and drinks/d reported by participants 3 to 6 months after study entry. In all 3 RCTs, mean MISC counselor's rating scales scores were consistent with MI proficiency. In overdispersed Poisson regression models, most BMI characteristics were not significantly associated with drinks/d in follow-up. In the U.S. RCT, confrontation and self-exploration were associated with more drinking. Giving advice was significantly associated with less drinking in the Swiss-one RCT. Contrary to expectations, MI spirit was not consistently associated with drinking across studies. Across different populations and settings, intervention characteristics viewed as central to efficacious BMIs were neither robust nor consistent predictors of drinking outcome. Although there may be alternative reasons why the level of MI processes was not predictive of outcomes in these studies (limited variability in
Webber, Kelly H; Gabriele, Jeanne M; Tate, Deborah F; Dignan, Mark B
Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous mot...
Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.
Bean, Melanie K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen
To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity rem...
Karnes, Sasha L; Meyer, Barbara B; Berger, Lisa M; Brondino, Michael J
Web-based interventions for enhancing physical activity participation are in demand for application in health care settings. Recent research suggests Web-based interventions that are based on motivational interviewing are effective to increase physical activity. It is unclear whether motivational interviewing can influence targeted psychological variables such as perceived readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in physical activity. The aims of this study were to determine whether there were changes in physical activity and psychological variables associated with readiness, willingness, and perceived ability to participate in physical activity following completion of a novel Web-based intervention. The goal of the motivational interviewing-based intervention was to increase physical activity. Twenty-three underactive or inactive urban dwelling adults were recruited at a medical office for participation in a 4-session Web-based intervention lasting approximately 15 minutes per week. Sessions were based on principles of motivational interviewing. Assessment of physical activity was conducted using pedometers immediately prior to intervention participation (pre) and immediately post intervention (post1). Self-report assessments of physical activity and psychological variables were conducted using online surveys at pre, post1, and again at one month following intervention participation (post2). Comparisons of pre and post1 pedometer recordings revealed significant increases in steps per day (t22=2.09, P=.049). There were also significant changes in total physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=8.4, P=.02) and in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=13.9, Ptool to promote physical activity in health care settings. Additional research is needed to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing compared to a control condition and to refine content by considering mediation by psychological variables in a
Arnaud, Nicolas; Baldus, Christiane; Elgán, Tobias H.
of substance use among college students. However, the evidence is sparse among adolescents with at-risk use of alcohol and other drugs. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a targeted and fully automated Web-based brief motivational intervention with no face-to-face components on substance use...... methods and screened online for at-risk substance use using the CRAFFT (Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble) screening instrument. Participants were randomized to a single session brief motivational intervention group or an assessment-only control group but not blinded. Primary outcome......).Conclusions: Although the study is limited by a large drop-out, significant between-group effects for alcohol use indicate that targeted brief motivational intervention in a fully automated Web-based format can be effective to reduce drinking and lessen existing substance use service barriers for at...
Full Text Available Background: There is empirical evidence that the presence of a companion animal can have a positive impact on performance. The available evidence can be viewed in terms of differing hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanisms behind the positive effects. Little attention has been given to motivation as a potential mode of action with regards to human-animal interactions. First we give an overview of evidence that animals might promote motivation. Second we present a study to examine the effect of a therapy dog on exercise performance in children with obesity.Methods: 12 children, aged 8 to 12 years old, were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover design: dog-group and human confederate group. Several types of physical activities via accelerometer and subjective ratings of wellbeing, satisfaction and motivation were assessed. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures on one factor. Results: The main effect of condition was significant for all performance variables. There was less passive behavior and more physical activity for all performance variables in the presence of the dog than in that of the human confederate. Between dog- and human- condition there was no difference in the subjective rating of motivation, wellbeing or satisfaction.Discussion: The results demonstrate that the presence of a therapy dog has the potential to increase physical activity in obese children. Task performance as a declarative measure was increased by the presence of the dog in comparison to a human confederate, but self-report measures of motivation, satisfaction or wellbeing did not differ between the two conditions. Therefore it stands to reason that a dog could trigger implicit motives which enhance motivation for activity. The results of our study indicate the potentially beneficial effect of incorporating dogs into outpatient training for obese children.
Vederhus, John-Kåre; Timko, Christine; Kristensen, Oistein; Hjemdahl, Bente; Clausen, Thomas
To compare a motivational intervention (MI) focused on increasing involvement in 12-Step groups (TSGs; e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous) versus brief advice (BA) to attend TSGs. Patients were assigned randomly to either the MI or BA condition, and followed-up at 6 months after discharge. One hundred and forty substance use disorder (SUD) patients undergoing in-patient detoxification (detox) in Norway. The primary outcome was TSG affiliation measured with the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale (AAAS), which combines meeting attendance and TSG involvement. Substance use and problem severity were also measured. At 6 months after treatment, compared with the BA group, the MI group had higher TSG affiliation [0.91 point higher AAAS score; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04 to 1.78; P = 0.041]. The MI group reported 3.5 fewer days of alcohol use (2.1 versus 5.6 days; 95% CI = -6.5 to -0.6; P = 0.020) and 4.0 fewer days of drug use (3.8 versus 7.8 days; 95% CI = -7.5 to -0.4; P = 0.028); however, abstinence rates and severity scores did not differ between conditions. Analyses controlling for duration of in-patient treatment did not alter the results. A motivational intervention in an in-patient detox ward was more successful than brief advice in terms of patient engagement in 12-Step groups and reduced substance use at 6 months after discharge. There is a potential benefit of adding a maintenance-focused element to standard detox. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Abughosh, Susan; Wang, Xin; Serna, Omar; Esse, Tara; Mann, Amanda; Masilamani, Santhi; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, Ekere James; Fleming, Marc
Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence. To examine the effect of an MI telephone intervention conducted by pharmacy students in improving adherence to ACEIs/ARBs among Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP) patients with both DM and HTN. A prospective study was conducted among patients enrolled in a Texas MAP. Medical claims data were used to identify patients with DM and HTN, and pharmacy claims were observed to recognize those who filled either an ACEI or an ARB during June 2014. Patients with a 6-month proportion of days covered (PDC) sustainability of the intervention effect for longer time periods and its influence on associated clinical outcomes. This project was supported by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation (PhRMA). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of PhRMA. The funding agency was not involved in research design, analysis, or reporting results. Funding was obtained by Abughosh. Holstad provided a consultation regarding the MI guide and provided the MI training. Study concept and design were contributed by Abughosh and Fleming, along with Serna, Esse, and Holstad. Serna, Esse, Mann, Holstad, and Masilamani collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse. The manuscript was written by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse and revised
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Chieco, Francesca; Andriolo, Stefano
Although motivational processes may influence the intervention effects and help prevention programmes identify students at great risk for alcohol-related problems, no computerized alcohol intervention has yet to be tailored to drinking motives. To describe the development and initial pilot testing of a computer-delivered intervention tailored to drinking motives, to prevent alcohol abuse and its adverse consequences among university students in general and among baseline hazardous drinkers specifically. 124 college students attending a public university in northeastern Italy participated in this study in October of 2012 (89.2% female- mean age = 21.64-34% baseline hazardous drinkers). Two classes (one undergraduate, one graduate) were assigned to one of two conditions: intervention and control group. Both groups received profile-specific feedback and then the intervention group received profile-specific online training for 4 weeks. This profile was based on their risk type (high-low) and drinking motives (enhancement-social-conformity-coping). Controlling for corresponding baseline alcohol measures, analyses showed a significant interaction between intervention condition and hazardous drinkers at baseline. For hazardous drinkers at baseline, the alcohol intervention results showed a significant decrease in frequency and quantity of alcohol use at follow-up, while no difference was observed between intervention conditions for non-hazardous drinkers at baseline. The results suggest that hazardous drinkers (college students) who completed the specific training and received personalized feedback seemed to do better on frequency and quantity of alcohol use than hazardous drinkers (college students) who received only personalized feedback. These results seem to provide support for a larger trial of the intervention and for more appropriate evaluations.
Full Text Available Objectives. This study examines the effects of a standardized fitness training on motivational factors such as the intention to be physically active, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support in patients with progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS and the relation of these factors to physical performance. Methods. Moderately disabled patients with secondary or primary progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale of 4–6 were randomized to a training group or a waitlist control group. Patients completed on average 20 sessions of training tailored to their individual fitness at baseline over a course of 8–12 weeks. Motivational variables (stage of change according to the transtheoretical model (TTM, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support were assessed via questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Results. Forty patients completed the trial. We found significant effects on stages of change p=.016 and self-efficacy p=.014 and a trend in counterstrategies p=.08. Significant correlations between change of physical performance during the exercise training and change in the TTM, perceived barriers, and counterstrategies were detected. Conclusion. This study indicates that tailored individual endurance training could stabilize self-efficacy and increase exercise motivation in patients with progressive MS. Motivational variables were related to the physical performance.
Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Chan Osilla, Karen; Maksabedian, Ervant; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S
Individuals transitioning from homelessness to housing face challenges to reducing alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors. To aid in this transition, this study developed and will test a computer-assisted intervention that delivers personalized social network feedback by an intervention facilitator trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The intervention goal is to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and reduce HIV risk behaviors. In this Stage 1b pilot trial, 60 individuals that are transitioning from homelessness to housing will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention condition consists of four biweekly social network sessions conducted using MI. AOD use and HIV risk behaviors will be monitored prior to and immediately following the intervention and compared to control participants' behaviors to explore whether the intervention was associated with any systematic changes in AOD use or HIV risk behaviors. Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02140359.
Williams, Geoffrey C; McGregor, Holly A; Sharp, Daryl; Levesque, Chantal; Kouides, Ruth W; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L
A longitudinal randomized trial tested the self-determination theory (SDT) intervention and process model of health behavior change for tobacco cessation (N = 1006). Adult smokers were recruited for a study of smokers' health and were assigned to intensive treatment or community care. Participants were relatively poor and undereducated. Intervention patients perceived greater autonomy support and reported greater autonomous and competence motivations than did control patients. They also reported greater medication use and significantly greater abstinence. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the SDT process model in which perceived autonomy support led to increases in autonomous and competence motivations, which in turn led to greater cessation. The causal role of autonomy support in the internalization of autonomous motivation, perceived competence, and smoking cessation was supported. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Amis, Sarah Anne
This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…
Brandenberger, Claudia C.; Hagenauer, Gerda; Hascher, Tina
Especially for students in lower achievement levels, there is a significant negative trend in academic self-determined motivation across childhood through adolescence and more so in maths than in any other school subject. To counteract this negative development, a multicomponent intervention study based on the main ideas of self-determination…
Rhew, Emily A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a growth intervention would improve adolescent special education students' self-efficacy and motivation. The research was conducted in a middle school in the Northeast from January 2016 to June 2016. The convenience sample for this study comprised of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students…
Pakulski, Lori A.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
This study examined the effects of a reading intervention on narrative production, narrative comprehension, and reading motivation interest in children with hearing loss. Seven school children between the ages of 9 and 11 were paired with younger "reading buddies" (without hearing loss). The children with hearing loss read storybooks to…
Rodriguez-Cristobal, Juan Jose; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Panisello, Jose Ma; Travé-Mercade, Pere; Rodriguez-Cortés, Francisca; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Peña, Esther
Overweight and obesity are common health problems which increase the risk of developing several serious health conditions. The main difficulty in the management of weight-loss lies in its maintenance, once it is achieved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, was more efficient than a traditional intervention, in the treatment of overweight and obesity and whether this intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. Multi-centre cluster randomized trial with a 24-month follow-up included 864 overweight/obese patients randomly assigned. Motivational intervention group (400 patients), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert psychologist, in 32 sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard programmed diet and exercise. The control group (446 patients), received the usual follow-up. Weight reduction was statistically significant in the second year with a mean reduction of 1.0 Kg in the control group and 2.5 Kg in the intervention group (p = 0. 02). While 18.1% of patients in the control group reduced their weight by more than 5%, this percentage rose to 26.9% in the intervention group, which is statistically significant (p = 0.04). Patients in the motivational intervention group had significantly greater improvements in triglycerides and APOB/APOA1ratio. The results highlight the importance of the group motivational interview in the treatment of overweight /obese patients in primary care, and in the improvement of their associated cardiovascular risks factors. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213 October 30, 2009.
Evidence for outcomes of motivational rehabilitation interventions for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: an American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine systematic review.
Tatla, Sandy K; Sauve, Karen; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Holsti, Liisa; Butler, Charlene; Van Der Loos, Hendrik F Machiel
This study reviewed evidence regarding the effect of motivational rehabilitation interventions on outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. Six databases were searched for literature published up to May 2012. Included studies measured the purported motivating effects of motor-based rehabilitation interventions and the measured impact on outcomes. The American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) systematic review methodology was used as a framework. Eight studies evaluated outcomes of studies using virtual reality interventions and one in a functional therapy context. Conflicting evidence from three (level II and level III) studies exists about the impact of these motivating interventions on motor outcomes measured in body functions. No statistical evidence regarding activity and participation outcomes exists. A single level II study found no significant difference in participants' motivation between motivational and conventional interventions. This review revealed a paucity of research on the effects of motivational interventions. Weaknesses include a lack of consistency in the examination of motivational interventions, limited use of definitions or theories to ground the concept of motivation, and reliance on non-validated methodological tools. This body of evidence would be strengthened by the use and development of robust outcome measures of motivation. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Harackiewicz, Judith M; Rozek, Christopher S; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S
The pipeline toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) begins to leak in high school, when some students choose not to take advanced mathematics and science courses. We conducted a field experiment testing whether a theory-based intervention that was designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high school-aged children would lead them to take more mathematics and science courses in high school. The three-part intervention consisted of two brochures mailed to parents and a Web site, all highlighting the usefulness of STEM courses. This relatively simple intervention led students whose parents were in the experimental group to take, on average, nearly one semester more of science and mathematics in the last 2 years of high school, compared with the control group. Parents are an untapped resource for increasing STEM motivation in adolescents, and the results demonstrate that motivational theory can be applied to this important pipeline problem.
Arnaud, Nicolas; Baldus, Christiane; Elgán, Tobias H.
).Conclusions: Although the study is limited by a large drop-out, significant between-group effects for alcohol use indicate that targeted brief motivational intervention in a fully automated Web-based format can be effective to reduce drinking and lessen existing substance use service barriers for at...... of substance use among college students. However, the evidence is sparse among adolescents with at-risk use of alcohol and other drugs. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a targeted and fully automated Web-based brief motivational intervention with no face-to-face components on substance use......, and polydrug use. All outcome analyses were conducted with and without Expectation Maximization (EM) imputation of missing follow-up data. Results: In total, 2673 adolescents were screened and 1449 (54.2%) participants were randomized to the intervention or control group. After 3 months, 211 adolescents (14...
Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.
The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized
Landry, Alicia; Madson, Michael; Thomson, Jessica; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Yadrick, Kathleen
Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention conducted with…
Lhakhang, Pempa; Gholami, Maryam; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf
A sequential intervention to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of dental flossing was conducted among 205 students in India, aged 18-26 years. Two experimental groups received different treatment sequences and were observed at three assessment points, 34 days apart. One group received first a motivational intervention (intention, outcome expectancies, and risk perception, followed by a self-regulatory intervention (planning, self-efficacy, and action control). The second group received the same intervention in the opposite order. Both intervention sequences yielded gains in terms of flossing, planning, self-efficacy, and action control. However, at Time 2, those who had received the self-regulatory intervention first, were superior to their counterparts who had received the motivational intervention first. At Time 3, differences vanished as everyone had then received both interventions. Thus, findings highlight the benefits of a self-regulatory compared to a mere motivational intervention.
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette
of 12,364 adults led to inclusion of 772 heavy drinkers (defined as weekly alcohol consumption above the Danish safe drinking limits (168 grams of alcohol for women, 252 grams for men), who were randomized into a control (n=381) or an intervention (n=391) group. The intervention consisted of a brief......Background: Heavy alcohol drinking has a significant impact on public health in most Western countries. Brief interventions are effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. In a Danish context, the feasibility and effectiveness of screening and subsequent brief intervention has been questioned. Aim...... (approx. 10 minute) motivational intervention and two leaflets about alcohol. The control group received two leaflets about alcohol. Follow-up took place after 6/12 months on 670/612 persons. Outcome measure was self-reported reduction in alcohol consumption. Results : At 6 and 12 month follow...
Kennedy, David P; Osilla, Karen Chan; Hunter, Sarah B; Golinelli, Daniela; Maksabedian Hernandez, Ervant; Tucker, Joan S
This article presents findings of a pilot test of a Motivational Interviewing social network intervention (MI-SNI) to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among formerly homeless individuals transitioning to housing. Delivered in-person by a facilitator trained in MI, this four-session computer-assisted intervention provides personalized social network visualization feedback to help participants understand the people in their network who trigger their alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and those who support abstinence. If ready, participants are encouraged to make changes to their social network to help reduce their own high-risk behavior. Participants were 41 individuals (33 male, 7 female, 1 other; 23 African-American, 5 non-Latino White, 6 Latino, 7 other, mean age 48) who were transitioning from homelessness to permanent supportive housing. They were randomly assigned to either the MI-SNI condition or usual care. Readiness to change AOD use, AOD abstinence self-efficacy, and AOD use were assessed at baseline and shortly after the final intervention session for the MI-SNI arm and around 3-months after baseline for the control arm. Acceptability of the intervention was also evaluated. MI-SNI participants reported increased readiness to change AOD use compared to control participants. We also conducted a subsample analysis for participants at one housing program and found a significant intervention effect on readiness to change AOD use, AOD abstinence self-efficacy, and alcohol use compared to control participants. Participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. We conclude that a brief computer-assisted Motivational Interviewing social network intervention has potential to efficaciously impact readiness to change AOD use, AOD abstinence self-efficacy, and AOD use among formerly homeless individuals transitioning to permanent supportive housing, and warrants future study in larger clinical trials. Copyright © 2017
Gisore, P; Were, F; Ayuku, D; Kaseje, D
With the growth of Community-Based Health Information (CBHIS) for decision making and service provision in the low income settings, innovative models of addressing Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) morbidity and mortality are necessary. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that five hundred thousand mothers and about three million newborns die each year in middle and low income countries. To stimulate interest in utilisation CBHIS for research and interventions, with an illustration of potential using on Motivational Interviewing intervention. Literature searched electronically, discussion with behavioural experts, health system researchers, and maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) experts, and book reviews. Broad selection criteria including all current literature relevantsubjects including CBHIS, behaviour change methods and Community MNH. A checklist for relevance was used to identify the relevant behaviour change intervention to use in the illustration. A method that met the criteria was identified, and based on a discussion with behavioural experts, the decision to use it the illustration was reached. Motivational Interviewing Intervention (MII) should be considered for implementation and study on near-term Pregnant women in a setting where these mothers can be identified and a targeted intervention instituted.
Angel Abós Catalán; Javier Sevil Serrano; María Sanz Remacha; Luis García-González
Physical inactivity is one of the most important problems that affect to our society due to the lack of student motivation in some school contents. The objective of this study was to study the relationship between motivational climate created by the Physical Education teacher in a teaching unit of rugby and basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and affective consequences experienced by students. A total of 77 students (M age = 15.35, SD = 0.53) of an educational institution, b...
Angel Abós Catalán
Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the most important problems that affect to our society due to the lack of student motivation in some school contents. The objective of this study was to study the relationship between motivational climate created by the Physical Education teacher in a teaching unit of rugby and basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and affective consequences experienced by students. A total of 77 students (M age = 15.35, SD = 0.53 of an educational institution, belonging to 4th year Secondary Education, completed the following questionnaires: Perceived of Motivational Climate Scale (EPCM, Basic Psychological Needs in Excersice Scale (BPNES, Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS-14 and the Scale of Entertainment / Boredom in Physical Education (SSI-EF. The results showed that task climate predicted positively and significantly the three basic psychological needs and self-determined forms of motivation, while the ego climate predicted amotivation. In turn, the three basic psychological needs predicted positively intrinsic motivation, while the amotivation was negatively predicted by perceived competence and social relationships. Also, it was found a positive prediction between intrinsic motivation and enjoyment, and negatively with respect to boredom, which was also predicted by amotivation. The results suggest the idea that Physical Education teachers should create a task climate, favoring the satisfaction of the psychological mediators and developing a more self-determined motivation which could trigger affective consequences like enjoyment.
Over five million adults in the U.S. have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (“self-help”) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City in 1998 and following them up for two years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample’s characteristics were: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder; 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several “common” therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation, social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy, reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach. PMID:19016171
Rodríguez Cristóbal, Juan José; Panisello Royo, Josefa Ma; Alonso-Villaverde Grote, Carlos; Pérez Santos, José Ma; Muñoz Lloret, Anna; Rodríguez Cortés, Francisca; Travé Mercadé, Pere; Benavides Márquez, Francisca; Martí de la Morena, Pilar; González Burgillos, Ma José; Delclós Baulies, Marta; Bleda Fernández, Domingo; Quillama Torres, Elida
The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA): two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group), receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213.
Dawkins, Sarah; Martin, Angela; Kilpatrick, Michelle; Scott, Jenn
Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) require specialized attention regarding workplace mental health (WMH), but can be challenging to engage in WMH promotion interventions. This cross-sectional study analyzed self-reported motivations of SME owner/managers who engaged in a WMH promotion intervention specifically designed for SMEs. Data from 297 SME owner/managers was thematically coded prior to conducting multinominal logistical regression analyses to determine reasons for engagement based on a series of predictors, including owner/manager psychological distress, recent experience of a stressful work event, and business confidence. Owner/manager psychological distress, experience of a recent stressful workplace, and low 12-month business confidence incident were important predictors of engagement. The findings provide important insights into the uptake of a WMH promotion intervention, which can inform the design and future recruitment strategies for WMH promotion interventions within the SME sector.
Kwon, Hye Kyung; Lee, Sook Ja
The aim of this study was to develop and measure the effect of a movie-based-nursing intervention program designed to enhance motivation for rehabilitation and reduce depression levels in stroke patients. The study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design. The 60 research subjects were assigned to the experimental (n=30) or control group (n=30). The moviebased nursing intervention program was provided for the experimental group during 60-minute sessions held once per week for 10 weeks. The program consisted of patient education to strengthen motivation for rehabilitation and reduce depression, watching movies to identify role models, and group discussion to facilitate therapeutic interaction. After 10 weeks of participation in the movie-based nursing intervention program, the experimental group's rehabilitation motivation score was significantly higher, F=1161.54 (within groups df=49, between groups df=1), pmotivation for rehabilitation and increased depression during the rehabilitation process. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Klemperer, Elias M; Hughes, John R; Solomon, Laura J; Callas, Peter W; Fingar, James R
To test whether, in comparison to usual care, brief motivational or reduction interventions increase quit attempts (QA) or abstinence among smokers who are not ready to quit. A parallel-group randomized controlled trial of brief motivational (n = 185), reduction (n = 186) or usual care (n = 189) telephone interventions delivered over the course of 4 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. No medication was provided. United States. A total of 560 adult smokers of ≥ 10 cigarettes per day who were not ready to quit in the next 30 days. The primary outcomes were whether participants made a QA that lasted ≥ 24 hours and whether they made a QA of any length between baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6 and 12 months. The 12-month follow-up was added after the study began. A priori-defined comparisons were between motivational versus usual care and reduction versus usual care conditions. The probability of making a QA that lasted ≥ 24 hours was not significantly different between the motivational (38%) or the reduction (31%) conditions and the usual care (34%) condition [motivational versus usual care odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78-1.82; reduction versus usual care OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.57-1.36]. Bayes factors ranged from 0.13 to 0.18. Findings regarding a QA of any length were similar. At 6 months, the motivational condition had marginally more abstinence than usual care (11 versus 5%, OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.99-4.77), but the reduction condition was not significantly different from usual care (8 versus 5%, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.69-3.59). At 12 months, the motivational condition had significantly more abstinence than usual care (10 versus 4%, OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.14-6.88) and the reduction condition had marginally more abstinence than usual care (9 versus 4%, OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 0.98-6.09). Among adult smokers who are not ready
Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis
Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis
To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training.
Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl
Full Text Available Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management’s implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training.
Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Warren, Stacie L.; O'Hare, Aminda J.; Infantolino, Zachary P.; Miller, Gregory A.
Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. This paper reviews and integrates some of the growing evidence for cognitive biases and deficits in depression and anxiety, how these disruptions interact with emotional and motivational processes, and what brain mechanisms ...
Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie
Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation
Landry, Alicia; Madson, Michael; Thomson, Jessica; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Yadrick, Kathleen
Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention conducted with African-Americans. Participants were tracked through a 12-month maintenance phase following a 6-month intervention targeting physical activity and diet. For the maintenance phase, participants were randomized to receive a low (4) or high (10) dose of motivational interviewing delivered via telephone by trained research staff. Generalized linear models were used to test for group differences in blood pressure. Blood pressure significantly increased during the maintenance phase. No differences were apparent between randomized groups. Results suggest that 10 or fewer motivational interviewing calls over a 12-month period may be insufficient to maintain post-intervention improvements in blood pressure. Further research is needed to determine optimal strategies for maintaining changes. PMID:26590242
Mayberry, Lindsay S; Osborn, Chandra Y
Suboptimal adherence to diabetes medications is prevalent and associated with unfavorable health outcomes, but it remains unclear what intervention content is necessary to effectively promote medication adherence in diabetes. In other disease contexts, the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model has effectively explained and promoted medication adherence and thus may have utility in explaining and promoting adherence to diabetes medications. We tested the IMB model's hypotheses in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 314) completed an interviewer-administered survey and A1C test. Structural equation models tested the effects of diabetes medication adherence-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills on medication adherence and the effect of medication adherence on A1C. The IMB elements explained 41% of the variance in adherence, and adherence explained 9% of the variance in A1C. As predicted, behavioral skills had a direct effect on adherence (β = 0.59; P information (indirect effect 0.08 [0.01-0.15]) and motivation (indirect effect 0.12 [0.05-0.20]) on adherence. Medication adherence significantly predicted glycemic control (β = -0.30; P information, motivation, and behavioral skills and assessing the degree to which change in these determinants leads to changes in medication adherence behavior.
Papies, Esther K
Recent research has shown the limited effects of intentions on behaviour, so that novel methods to facilitate behaviour change are needed that do not rely on conscious intentions. Here, it is argued that nonintentional effects on health behaviour, such as the effects of habits, impulses, and nonconscious goals, occur through the activation of cognitive structures by specific situations. Interventions should therefore be situated to change these effects, either by changing the critical cognitive structures (training interventions), or by changing which cognitive structures get activated (cueing interventions). The current article presents this framework for situated interventions, as well as examples of interventions of each type. Then, it introduces goal priming as a cueing intervention tool to activate health goals and thus facilitate healthier behaviour, even in tempting situations that typically activate short-term hedonic goals. Following a review of empirical evidence, five principles for the effective application of health goal primes are proposed, namely (1) to target individuals who value the primed goals, (2) by activating their specific motivation, (3) through effective cues (4) that attract attention at the right time. Finally, (5) an effective goal-directed behaviour needs to be known and accessible to the primed individual. These principles are illustrated with examples of different health behaviours in order to facilitate their application for successful behaviour change.
Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael
Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…
Mahoney, Brian J.
This research study explored the concept of capacity building and motivation of staff by school leadership teams in the successful development and implementation of educational initiatives, specifically Response to Intervention (RtI). A great deal of scholarship has addressed leadership and its effect on motivation, but few studies have…
Background: Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. Purpose: To compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle int...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is associated with serious physiological and psychological consequences including type 2 diabetes, higher rates of depression and low self-esteem. With the population of overweight and obese youth increasing, appropriate interventions are needed that speak to the issue of readiness to change and motivation to maintain adherence to healthy behavior changes. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a method of therapy found to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behavior changes. While MI has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive lifestyle change, little is known about the effectiveness of MI with overweight and obese youth. This study aims to: 1 demonstrate that MI is an effective intervention for increasing a person's self-efficacy; 2 demonstrate that exposure to MI will facilitate healthy behavior changes; 3 explore psychological changes related to participation in MI and 4 compare physiological and anthropometric outcomes before and after intervention. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted with ongoing participants who regularly attend an outpatient pediatric care center for weight-loss. Overweight youth (BMI > 85th %ile between the ages of 10 and 18 who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to a control group (social skills training or a treatment group (MI. Participants will meet with the therapist for approximately 30 minutes prior to seeing the dietician, over the course of 6 months. Participants will also undergo a full day assessment at the beginning and end of psychology intervention to evaluate body fat, and metabolic risk (screening for diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and fitness level. The paper and pencil portions of the assessments as well as the clinical testing will occur at baseline and at the conclusion of
Prince, Mark A; Maisto, Stephen A; Rice, Samara L; Carey, Kate B
Findings are presented from the first randomized clinical trial that compared changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences among college student drinkers from baseline to follow-up across 4 conditions: (a) a new single component injunctive norms brief motivational intervention (IN-BMI) condition; (b) a single component descriptive norms brief motivational intervention (DN-BMI); (c) a combined IN and DN brief motivational intervention (Combined-BMI); and (d) assessment-only control. DN-BMI focused on the juxtaposition of personal, perceived, and actual alcohol use by typical same-sex students at your university. IN-BMI focused on the juxtaposition of personal, perceived, and actual attitudes about alcohol-related consequences by the typical same-sex student at your university. Exploratory analyses assessed the effect of IN-BMI and DN-BMI on matched (e.g., the effect of DN-BMI on perceived DN) and mismatched norms (e.g., the effect of DN-BMI on perceived IN). IN-BMI resulted in greater decreases in alcohol use and consequences when delivered alone and in conjunction with DN-BMI compared with the control condition. Further, the Combined-BMI condition reported greater reductions in alcohol use but not consequences compared to the DN condition. Receiving IN-BMI either alone or in combination with DN-BMI produced greater changes in IN perceptions than were produced in the control group. Grounded in norms theory, this study examined how college student problem drinking is affected by both IN-BMI and DN-BMI alone and in combination. We conclude that IN-BMI alone or in combination with DN-BMI is able to modify alcohol use and reduce alcohol-related consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Donna M. Kazemi
Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.
Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry
Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.
Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun
Research has shown that various individual factors play an important role in the underachievement of gifted students. Most often discussed as predictors of underachievement are motivation, learning behavior, and emotions. To examine which specific constructs from these fields simultaneously predict underachievement among gifted fourth graders,…
Schoonheim-Klein, M.; Gresnigt, C.; van der Velden, U.
Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Mutanen, Pertti; Vuori, Jukka
We examined the role of an in-company training program aimed at enhancing employees' intrinsic work-goal motivation by increasing their career preparedness in a randomized field experimental study. The program activities were implemented using an organization-level two-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and…
Background This article describes the systematic development of the I Move intervention: a web-based computer tailored physical activity promotion intervention, aimed at increasing and maintaining physical activity among adults. This intervention is based on the theoretical insights and practical applications of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. Methods/design Since developing interventions in a systemically planned way increases the likelihood of effectiveness, we used the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop the I Move intervention. In this article, we first describe how we proceeded through each of the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. After that, we describe the content of the I Move intervention and elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial. Discussion By integrating self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in web-based computer tailoring, the I Move intervention introduces a more participant-centered approach than traditional tailored interventions. Adopting this approach might enhance computer tailored physical activity interventions both in terms of intervention effectiveness and user appreciation. We will evaluate this in an randomized controlled trial, by comparing the I Move intervention to a more traditional web-based computer tailored intervention. Trial registration NTR4129 PMID:24580802
Full Text Available Objectives: The efficacy of drug-based treatments and psychological interventions on the primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains limited. Recent literature has distinguished negative symptoms associated with a diminished capacity to experience, from those associated with a limited capacity for expression. The Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS is a new method that specifically aims to reduce the syndrome of a diminished capacity to experience. Methods: The intervention’s vital ingredients were identified through a literature review of emotion in schizophrenia and positive psychology. The program has been beta-tested on various groups of healthcare professionals. Results: A detailed description of the final version of PEPS is presented here. The French version of the program is freely downloadable. Conclusions: PEPS is a specific, short, easy to use, group-based intervention to improve pleasure and motivation in schizophrenia. It was built considering a recovery-oriented approach to schizophrenia.
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse
, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week....... Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture....... The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally...
Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Hong, Zuway-R
This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of a self-reflection intervention on college (college in this article refers to university-level education) students' positive thinking, learning motivation and self-regulation in Taiwan. One hundred and two college students were selected to participate in an 18-week intervention forming the…
Bouma, Adrie; van Wilgen, C. Paul; Baarveld, Frank; Lemmink, Koen; Diercks, Ron; Dijkstra, Arie
Aim: To explore 1) GPs´ motivation to refer to lifestyle interventions and to investigate the association between GPs’ own lifestyle-behaviors and their referral behavior, and 2) patient indicators in the decision-making process of the GPs’ referral to lifestyle interventions. Method: A
Mervis, Joshua E; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Lysaker, Paul H; Nienow, Tasha M; Mathews, Laura; Wardwell, Patricia; Petrik, Tammy; Thime, Warren; Choi, Jimmy
Defeatist beliefs and amotivation are prominent obstacles in vocational rehabilitation for people with serious mental illnesses (SMI). The CBT-based Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program (IVIP) was specifically designed to reduce defeatist beliefs related to work functioning. In the current study, we examined the impact of IVIP on defeatist beliefs and motivation for work, hypothesizing that IVIP would be associated with a reduction in defeatist beliefs and greater motivation for work. We also examined the effects of IVIP on these variables as well as work outcomes during a 12-month follow-up. Participants with SMI (n=64) enrolled in a four-month work therapy program were randomized to IVIP or a support therapy group (SG). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (4months), and follow-up (1year). Compared to those in SG condition, individuals randomized to IVIP condition reported greater reductions in defeatist beliefs and greater motivation for work at follow-up, along with greater supported employment retention rates. Specifically treating and targeting negative expectations for work therapy improves outcomes, even once active supports of the IVIP program and work therapy are withdrawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi
Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle progra...
Beek, T.F.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Steensma, T.D.
Introduction: Historically, only individuals with a cross-gender identity who wanted to receive a full treatment, were eligible for "complete sex reassignment" consisting of feminizing/masculinizing hormone treatment and several surgical interventions including genital surgery (full treatment).
Ashida, Sato; Heaney, Catherine A; Kmet, Jennifer M; Wilkins, J R
The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to reduce childhood agricultural injuries by assisting adults in assigning appropriate chores and providing needed supervision and training. To develop an effective intervention to increase adherence to NAGCAT among farm parents, formative research (focus groups and pilot-testing) was conducted. Protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to guide this research and inform intervention development. Focus group results suggested how PMT constructs might be addressed to increase adherence. A home visit intervention, using a standardized presentation in POWERPoint™, was developed to (a) introduce NAGCAT, (b) increase motivation to use NAGCAT and enhance safe work behaviors, and (c) ultimately reduce agricultural work-related injuries among youth. Process evaluation data suggests that the intervention was well received by farm parents. Conducting theory-guided formative research identified motivational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers that might not have been otherwise apparent.
Cropsey, Karen L; Leventhal, Adam M; Stevens, Erin N; Trent, Lindsay R; Clark, C Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S
Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. African Americans' stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women's stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Quaresma, A M; Palmeira, A L; Martins, S S; Minderico, C S; Sardinha, L B
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549 boys), aged 10-16 years, BMI = 19.31 ± 3.51, allocated to two groups of schools: control (n = 207) and intervention (n = 835). This study will report the 24 months results of the program, which aimed to develop healthy lifestyles. Questionnaires were used to measure PA, QoL, motivation to exercise and social support. There was no direct impact of the intervention on QoL or PA. Serial mediation analyses were conducted. Social support (P motivation (P = 0.085) increased more on intervention group. Indirect effects were observed in all serial mediation models. The positive indirect effects on PA and QoL were explained by the increase on peer/parent support in serial with the increase in intrinsic motivation (P motivation (P school-based intervention promoted the development of social support and motivational mechanisms that explained higher levels of PA and QoL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Amado, Diana; Del Villar, Fernando; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; García-Calvo, Tomás
This research study purports to verify the effect produced on the motivation of physical education students of a multi-dimensional programme in dance teaching sessions. This programme incorporates the application of teaching skills directed towards supporting the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with two natural groups of 4th year Secondary Education students - control and experimental -, delivering 12 dance teaching sessions. A prior training programme was carried out with the teacher in the experimental group to support these needs. An initial and final measurement was taken in both groups and the results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed an increase of the perception of autonomy and, in general, of the level of self-determination towards the curricular content of corporal expression focused on dance in physical education. To this end, we highlight the programme's usefulness in increasing the students' motivation towards this content, which is so complicated for teachers of this area to develop. PMID:24454831
Amado, Diana; Del Villar, Fernando; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; García-Calvo, Tomás
This research study purports to verify the effect produced on the motivation of physical education students of a multi-dimensional programme in dance teaching sessions. This programme incorporates the application of teaching skills directed towards supporting the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with two natural groups of 4(th) year Secondary Education students--control and experimental -, delivering 12 dance teaching sessions. A prior training programme was carried out with the teacher in the experimental group to support these needs. An initial and final measurement was taken in both groups and the results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed an increase of the perception of autonomy and, in general, of the level of self-determination towards the curricular content of corporal expression focused on dance in physical education. To this end, we highlight the programme's usefulness in increasing the students' motivation towards this content, which is so complicated for teachers of this area to develop.
Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Harris, Julie Russ; Sloane, Phoebe
In a large urban district's ELA classrooms, an academic vocabulary intervention designed to improve linguistically diverse 6th-graders' reading and language skills was implemented and evaluated. These classrooms were characterized by high numbers of struggling readers, and linguistic diversity was the norm. As part of the evaluation, this study…
Cannabis use in highly prevalent among young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and has been associated with an adverse course of the illness. Despite these association, the evidence for effective interventions for treating cannabis use in patients with psychosis is limited. This thesis focuses
Merom, Dafna; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Cerin, Ester; Kassis, Mazen; Brown, Wendy; Smith, Ben J; Rissel, Chris
Interventions to promote walking have rarely examined how their effects varied by the attributes of the physical environment. The purpose of this study is to examine whether perceptions of environmental walkability predicted change in walking behavior following an individual-based intervention to promote walking and whether the intervention buffered the effects of unsupportive environment for walking. Inactive adults (aged 30-65 years, 85% women) who completed a 3-month randomized control trial comparing the effect of a single mail-out of a theoretically based self-help walking program (WP, n = 102); the same program plus a pedometer (WPP, n = 105); and a "no-treatment" control group (C, n = 107). Measures included change in self-reported walking time for all purposes and in the proportion of people reporting regular walking (i.e., > or =150 min/week and > or =5 sessions/wk). Perceptions of environmental esthetics, safety from crime, proximity to destinations, access to walking facilities, traffic, streetlights, connectivity, and hilliness were assessed at baseline and dichotomized into "low" or "high" by the median score. Covariates were social support, self-efficacy, intention to change behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusting for baseline walking, significant covariates, and study groups, walking time at follow-up was lower if streetlights or esthetics were perceived to be "low" (-24% and -22%, respectively) compared with "high" (p environmental barriers for walking can be overcome by motivational aids.
Farbod Ebadi Fardazar
Full Text Available Background: The accidents are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5- year based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Materials and Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 years were participated (95 in intervention group and 95 in control group.The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of PMT. After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in intervention group. Then two months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMT in intervention and control groups after the educational intervention (P
Motivation of employees is crucial to achieve results within any organization, be it a public or a private organization (Rainey and Steinbauer 1999; Kojasteh 1993). It therefore can be considered to be one of the big questions in current public administration research (Behn 1995). Despite its importance, motivation is not easily grasped, being a multi-faceted and dynamic phenomenon. Nevertheless, recent efforts have provided openings to more fully understand the motivational processes of publ...
Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.
Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others’ drinking are less malleable due to intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evalu...
intervention, if it were morally permissible. Very rich individuals have frequently made significant contributions to charitable causes that lie outside...Convention for the Elimination of Mercenarism In Africa,” Organisation of African Unity, CM/817 (XXIX) Annex II Rev.1, 3 July 1977, http://www.africa...Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa.” Organisation of African Unity. CM/817 (XXIX) Annex II Rev.1, 3 July 1977. http://www.africa- union.org
Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J H; Kelly, Jean; Dawson, Geraldine
The first Autism Research Matrix (IACC, 2003) listed the identification of behavioural and biological markers of risk for autism as a top priority. This emphasis was based on the hypothesis that intervention with infants at-risk, at an early age when the brain is developing and before core autism symptoms have emerged, could significantly alter the developmental trajectory of children at risk for the disorder and impact long-range outcome. Research has provided support for specific models of early autism intervention (e.g., Early Start Denver Model) for improving outcomes in young children with autism, based on both behavioural and brain activity measures. Although great strides have been made in ability to identify risk markers for autism in younger infant/toddler samples, how and when to intervene during the prodromal state remains a critical question. Emerging evidence suggests that abnormal brain circuitry in autism precedes altered social behaviours; thus, an intervention designed to promote early social engagement and reciprocity potentially could steer brain development back toward the normal trajectory and remit or reduce the expression of symptoms.
Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June
To evaluate the robustness of an appearance-focused intervention to prevent skin cancer in individuals reporting seasonal affective disorder (SAD) symptoms and pathological tanning motives. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. College campus. Four hundred thirty adult female indoor tanners (200 in the intervention group and 230 control participants). A booklet discussing the history of tanning, current tanning norms, UV radiation's effects on skin, recommendations for indoor tanning use focusing on abstinence and harm reduction recommendations, and information on healthier, appearance-enhancing alternatives to tanning. Self-reported attitudes, intentions, and tanning behaviors; pathological tanning motives assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study; and SAD symptoms assessed by the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire. Two of the 4 pathological tanning scales, opiatelike reactions to tanning and dissatisfaction with natural skin tone, were significant moderators demonstrating stronger treatment effects for individuals scoring higher on these scales. Treatment effects were equivalently positive (ie, no significant moderator effects) for all levels of SAD symptoms and all levels of the other 2 pathological tanning motive scales (ie, perceiving tanning as a problem and tolerance to the effects of tanning). The appearance-focused skin cancer prevention intervention is robust enough to reduce indoor tanning among tanners who exhibit SAD symptoms or pathological tanning motives. Tailored interventions may address individuals' motivations for tanning and their relation to maladaptive behavior, such as dissatisfaction with appearance or the need for relaxation because of anxiety.
Balato, N; Megna, M; Di Costanzo, L; Balato, A; Ayala, F
Psoriasis is a chronic disease which requires long-term therapy. Therefore, adherence to therapy and patient motivation are key points in controlling the disease. Mobile-phone-based interventions, and in particular text messages (TM), have already been used effectively to motivate patients and improve treatment adherence in many different chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and asthma. To evaluate the use of TM in improving treatment adherence and several patient outcomes such as quality of life, disease severity, patient-perceived disease severity and the patient-physician relationship. Daily TM, providing reminders and educational tools, were sent for 12 weeks to a group of 20 patients with psoriasis. At the beginning and end of the study the following assessments were performed: Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI), Self-Administered Psoriasis Area Severity Index (SAPASI), body surface area (BSA), Physician Global Assessment (PGA), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), evaluation of patient-physician relationship and adherence to therapy. A matched control group of 20 patients with psoriasis was used for comparison of the same outcomes. Both patient groups had similar scores for PASI, SAPASI, BSA, PGA and DLQI at baseline. However, after 12 weeks the intervention group reported a significantly better improvement of disease severity as well as quality of life, showing lower values of PASI, SAPASI, BSA, PGA and DLQI with respect to the control group (Ptool for the long-term management of patients with psoriasis, leading to an increased compliance to therapy, positive changes in self-care behaviours and better patient-physician relationship allowing improved clinical outcomes and better control of the disease. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
Hogue, Candace M; Fry, Mary D; Fry, Andrew C; Pressman, Sarah D
Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.
Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L
Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Robert Kaba Alhassan
Full Text Available Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps.To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients.The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38 and public (n = 26 primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72% were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation.Intrinsic (non-financial work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were
Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F
Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were ranked
Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.
Background Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. Purpose To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Results Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while
Capranzano, Piera; Kunadian, Vijay; Mauri, Josepa; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Salvatella, Neus; Appelman, Yolande; Gilard, Martine; Mikhail, Ghada W; Schüpke, Stefanie; Radu, Maria D; Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Presbitero, Patrizia; Morice, Marie-Claude; Mehilli, Julinda
Very few women become interventional cardiologists, although a substantial proportion of cardiologists and the majority of medical students are women. In accordance with the EAPCI Women Committee mission of attaining gender equality at the professional level, a worldwide survey was recently conducted aiming to understand better the motivations and the barriers for women in selecting interventional cardiology (IC) as a career path. A total of 1,787 individuals (60.7% women) responded to the survey. Women compared to men were less frequently married (women vs. men, 57.0% vs. 79.8%, pmen replying to why, in their opinion, women do not choose IC, on-calls and long working hours were the most frequent reasons (35.3%). Several barriers preclude women from choosing IC, including lack of opportunity, concerns regarding radiation exposure and the prejudices of their male colleagues. This highlights the need to develop new strategies for future training, education, and support of women in order to choose IC.
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Lechner, William J; MacGlashan, James; Wray, Tyler B; Littman, Michael L
Background Computer-delivered interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinking college students. However, these computer-delivered interventions rely on mouse, keyboard, or touchscreen responses for interactions between the users and the computer-delivered intervention. The principles of motivational interviewing suggest that in-person interventions may be effective, in part, because they encourage individuals to think through and speak aloud their motivations for changing a health behavior, which current computer-delivered interventions do not allow. Objective The objective of this study was to take the initial steps toward development of a voice-based computer-delivered intervention that can ask open-ended questions and respond appropriately to users’ verbal responses, more closely mirroring a human-delivered motivational intervention. Methods We developed (1) a voice-based computer-delivered intervention that was run by a human controller and that allowed participants to speak their responses to scripted prompts delivered by speech generation software and (2) a text-based computer-delivered intervention that relied on the mouse, keyboard, and computer screen for all interactions. We randomized 60 heavy drinking college students to interact with the voice-based computer-delivered intervention and 30 to interact with the text-based computer-delivered intervention and compared their ratings of the systems as well as their motivation to change drinking and their drinking behavior at 1-month follow-up. Results Participants reported that the voice-based computer-delivered intervention engaged positively with them in the session and delivered content in a manner consistent with motivational interviewing principles. At 1-month follow-up, participants in the voice-based computer-delivered intervention condition reported significant decreases in quantity, frequency, and problems associated with drinking, and increased
Kahler, Christopher W; Lechner, William J; MacGlashan, James; Wray, Tyler B; Littman, Michael L
Computer-delivered interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinking college students. However, these computer-delivered interventions rely on mouse, keyboard, or touchscreen responses for interactions between the users and the computer-delivered intervention. The principles of motivational interviewing suggest that in-person interventions may be effective, in part, because they encourage individuals to think through and speak aloud their motivations for changing a health behavior, which current computer-delivered interventions do not allow. The objective of this study was to take the initial steps toward development of a voice-based computer-delivered intervention that can ask open-ended questions and respond appropriately to users' verbal responses, more closely mirroring a human-delivered motivational intervention. We developed (1) a voice-based computer-delivered intervention that was run by a human controller and that allowed participants to speak their responses to scripted prompts delivered by speech generation software and (2) a text-based computer-delivered intervention that relied on the mouse, keyboard, and computer screen for all interactions. We randomized 60 heavy drinking college students to interact with the voice-based computer-delivered intervention and 30 to interact with the text-based computer-delivered intervention and compared their ratings of the systems as well as their motivation to change drinking and their drinking behavior at 1-month follow-up. Participants reported that the voice-based computer-delivered intervention engaged positively with them in the session and delivered content in a manner consistent with motivational interviewing principles. At 1-month follow-up, participants in the voice-based computer-delivered intervention condition reported significant decreases in quantity, frequency, and problems associated with drinking, and increased perceived importance of changing drinking
Krauss, Inga; Katzmarek, Uwe; Rieger, Monika A; Sudeck, Gorden
Physical exercises are effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). There is consensus that exercise interventions should take into account the patient's preferences and needs in order to improve compliance to exercise regimes. One important personal factor is the patient's motivation for physical exercise. Health improvement is a relevant motive for exercise participation. Accordingly, exercise interventions primarily focus on health related needs such as strengthening and pain reduction. However exercising provides further many-faceted incentives that may foster exercise adherence. The present study aimed to characterize target groups for person-tailored exercise interventions in OA according to the International Classification of Functioning and Disability and Health (ICF). Target groups should be classified by similar individual exercise participation motive profiles and further described by their disease-related symptoms, limitations and psychological determinants of exercise behavior. Observational study via self-administered questionnaires. Community. We enrolled 292 adults with hip/knee OA living independently of assistance. Participants completed the Bernese Motive and Goal Inventory in Leisure and Health Sports (BMZI), the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for Osteoarthritis, the WOMAC-Index (pain/stiffness), the General Self-efficacy Scale and a questionnaire on perceived barriers to exercise participation. The BMZI-scales served as active variables for cluster analysis (Ward's method), other scales were used as passive variables to further describe the identified clusters. Four clusters were defined using five exercise participation motives: health, body/appearance, esthetics, nature, and contact. Based on the identified motive profiles the target groups are labelled health-focused sports people; sporty, nature-oriented individualists; functionalists primarily motivated by maintaining or improving health through exercise; and nature
Gu, Xiangli; Chen, Yu-Lin; Jackson, Allen W.; Zhang, Tao
Background: School physical education (PE) programs provide a prime environment for interventions that attempt to develop school-aged children's motor competence and overall physical fitness, while also stimulating competence motivation to engage in physical activity during childhood. It is generally recognized that a pedometer-based intervention…
Paul, Linda Louise
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases in youth and it has been shown that adolescents have the worst glycemic control of any age group. The objective of this study was to develop, test and evaluate the feasibility of an online intervention ("Can-Do-Tude") that uses the principles of motivational interviewing…
Bean, Melanie K; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen
To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity remains relatively understudied. MI Values was developed to implement within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program for obese, ethnically diverse adolescents, the T.E.E.N.S. Program (Teaching, Encouragement, Exercise, Nutrition, Support). T.E.E.N.S. participants who consent to MI Values are randomized to either MI or an education control condition. At weeks 1 and 10 of T.E.E.N.S. participation, the subset of participants assigned to the MI condition engages in individual MI sessions and control participants view health education videos. All MI sessions are audiotaped and coded to monitor treatment fidelity, which has been satisfactory thus far. Participants complete comprehensive assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. We hypothesize that MI participants will demonstrate greater reductions in Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile, improved diet and physical activity behaviors, better compliance with T.E.E.N.S., and lower attrition than participants in the control group. We present study design and methods for MI Values as well as data on feasibility of recruitment methods and treatment integrity. At study completion, findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dehdari, Tahereh; Hassani, Laleh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht
Few Iranian women take the Papanicolaou test despite its important role in preventing cervical cancer. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables and implementation intentions in the first and second Pap test practice among Iranian women. In this quasi-randomized controlled trial, 200 women who were referred to 30 primary health care clinics in Tehran were randomly selected. PMT variables and Pap test practice were measured at baseline and again after 3 and 15 months. The 4-week educational intervention program was conducted for the intervention group. Following the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, and behavior intention variables were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group (ptheory-based framework for developing educational interventions regarding Pap test practice in Iran.
Östbring, Malin Johansson; Eriksson, Tommy; Petersson, Göran; Hellström, Lina
Trials of complex interventions are often criticized for being difficult to interpret because the effects of apparently similar interventions vary across studies dependent on context, targeted groups, and the delivery of the intervention. The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention aimed at improving pharmacological secondary prevention. Guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions have recently highlighted the need for better reporting of the development of interventions, including descriptions of how the intervention is assumed to work, how this theory informed the process evaluation, and how the process evaluation relates to the outcome evaluation. This paper aims to describe how the intervention was designed and developed. The aim of the process evaluation is to better understand how and why the intervention in the MIMeRiC trial was effective or not effective. The research questions for evaluating the process are based on the conceptual model of change processes assumed in the intervention and will be analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data are used to evaluate the medication review in terms of drug-related problems, to describe how patients' beliefs about medicines are affected by the intervention, and to evaluate the quality of motivational interviewing. Qualitative data will be used to analyze whether patients experienced the intervention as intended, how cardiologists experienced the collaboration and intervention, and how the intervention affected patients' overall experience of care after coronary heart disease. The development and piloting of the intervention are described in relation to the theoretical framework. Data for the process evaluation will be collected until March 2018. Some process evaluation questions will be analyzed before, and others will be analyzed after the outcomes of the
Kwasnicka, Dominika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda; Gardner, Benjamin; Short, Camille; Duncan, Mitch; Crook, Dawn; Hagger, Martin S
Most people do not engage in sufficient physical activity to confer health benefits and to reduce risk of chronic disease. Healthcare professionals frequently provide guidance on physical activity, but often do not meet guideline levels of physical activity themselves. The main objective of this study is to develop and test the efficacy of a tailored intervention to increase healthcare professionals' physical activity participation and quality of life, and to reduce work-related stress and absenteeism. This is the first study to compare the additive effects of three forms of a tailored intervention using different techniques from behavioural theory, which differ according to their focus on motivational, self-regulatory and/or habitual processes. Healthcare professionals (N = 192) will be recruited from four hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, via email lists, leaflets, and posters to participate in the four group randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to one of four conditions: (1) education only (non-tailored information only), (2) education plus intervention components to enhance motivation, (3) education plus components to enhance motivation and self-regulation, and (4) education plus components to enhance motivation, self-regulation and habit formation. All intervention groups will receive a computer-tailored intervention administered via a web-based platform and will receive supporting text-messages containing tailored information, prompts and feedback relevant to each condition. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome assessed in this study is physical activity measured using activity monitors. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, stress, anxiety, sleep, and absenteeism. Website engagement, retention, preferences and intervention fidelity will also be evaluated as well as potential mediators and moderators of intervention effect. This is the first study to examine a tailored
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people do not engage in sufficient physical activity to confer health benefits and to reduce risk of chronic disease. Healthcare professionals frequently provide guidance on physical activity, but often do not meet guideline levels of physical activity themselves. The main objective of this study is to develop and test the efficacy of a tailored intervention to increase healthcare professionals’ physical activity participation and quality of life, and to reduce work-related stress and absenteeism. This is the first study to compare the additive effects of three forms of a tailored intervention using different techniques from behavioural theory, which differ according to their focus on motivational, self-regulatory and/or habitual processes. Methods/Design Healthcare professionals (N = 192 will be recruited from four hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, via email lists, leaflets, and posters to participate in the four group randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to one of four conditions: (1 education only (non-tailored information only, (2 education plus intervention components to enhance motivation, (3 education plus components to enhance motivation and self-regulation, and (4 education plus components to enhance motivation, self-regulation and habit formation. All intervention groups will receive a computer-tailored intervention administered via a web-based platform and will receive supporting text-messages containing tailored information, prompts and feedback relevant to each condition. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome assessed in this study is physical activity measured using activity monitors. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, stress, anxiety, sleep, and absenteeism. Website engagement, retention, preferences and intervention fidelity will also be evaluated as well as potential mediators and moderators of intervention
van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; Ten Have, Kristin C J M; Bos, Ellen H; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; van Mechelen, W
To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n = 324) were used to examine the effects on bonding social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health and on employees' lifestyle, health, vitality, and sustainable employability. Also, the sensitivity of the intervention components was examined. Intervention effects were found for bonding social capital, openness toward health, smoking, healthy eating, and sustainable employability. The effects were primarily attributable to the intervention's dialogue component. The change process initiated by the large-scale intervention contributed to a social climate in the workplace that promoted health and ownership toward health. The study confirms the relevance of collective change processes for health promotion.
Treatment of esophageal carcinoma is still a tough issue. Although metallic esophageal stent implantation is an important technique, as it can safety and quickly relieve the dysphagia caused by esophageal cancer, is has no effect on the malignant tumor itself. As a carrier of radioactive seeds, the novel esophageal stent plays functions of relieving dysphagia and conducting brachytherapy of the tumor, which creates a new therapy for esophageal carcinoma and expands the clinical significance of the stent implantation treatment. The history of interventional radiology indicates that it is the innovation that is the permanent motivation to make continuous development of interventional radiology. Innovations include new technology, new practical devices and new theories. Today, even if the interventional radiology has highly developed, innovation is till an 'unbreakable truth' for the development of interventional radiology and it makes the interventional radiology full of vitality. (author)
Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.
There is a critical need to engage theory-driven research related to the deployment of mental health promotion initiatives and student outcomes. A growing body of research supporting the use of motivational interviewing and engagement strategies in education suggests that this approach may be promising to better understand mechanisms through which…
Motivation of employees is crucial to achieve results within any organization, be it a public or a private organization (Rainey and Steinbauer 1999; Kojasteh 1993). It therefore can be considered to be one of the big questions in current public administration research (Behn 1995). Despite its
Kähkönen, Outi; Kankkunen, Päivi; Saaranen, Terhi; Miettinen, Heikki; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lamidi, Marja-Leena
To test the Theory of Adherence of People with Chronic Disease with regard to adherence to treatment among patients with coronary heart disease after a percutaneous coronary intervention. Increased knowledge of the concept of adherence is needed for the development of nursing interventions and nursing guidelines for patients with coronary heart disease. A cross-sectional, multi-centre study. This study was conducted from February-December 2013 with 416 patients with coronary heart disease 4 months after undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess their adherence to treatment. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The theory explained 45% of the adherence to a healthy lifestyle and 7% of the adherence to medication. Structural equation modelling confirmed that motivation and results of care had the highest association with adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Responsibility was associated with adherence to medication. Support from next of kin, support from nurses and physicians, and motivation, co-operation, fear of complications and a sense of normality were associated with adherence. Patients who are motivated to perform self-care and consider the results of care to be important were more likely to adhere to a healthy lifestyle. Responsible patients were more likely to adhere to their medication. It is important to account for these elements as a part of secondary prevention strategies among patients with coronary heart disease after a percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Strachan, Daniel Llywelyn; Källander, Karin; Nakirunda, Maureen; Ndima, Sozinho; Muiambo, Abel; Hill, Zelee
Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being used in low-income countries to address human resources shortages, yet there remain few effective, evidence-based strategies for addressing the enduring programmatic constraints of worker motivation, retention and performance. This paper describes how two interventions were designed by the Innovations at Scale for Community Access and Lasting Effects (inSCALE) project to address these constraints in Uganda and Mozambique drawing on behavioural theory and formative research results. A review of the work motivation and CHW motivation literature--incorporating influences on retention and performance--was conducted on articles sourced through electronic web searches. Formative research with a focus on the barriers and facilitators to CHW motivation, retention and performance was conducted with community health workers and key stakeholders in Uganda and Mozambique. An analytical induction approach to the thematic analysis of transcripts from 98 in-depth interviews and 26 focus group discussions was adopted across the country settings. From the theoretical review, it was determined that the interventions should promote CHWs as members of a collective by highlighting a sense of shared experience, focus on alignment between worker and programme goals, and emphasise the actions that lead to good performance. The Social Identity Approach was selected as the theory most likely to lead to the development of effective, scalable and sustainable interventions by addressing the identified gap in the literature of the influence of CHW working context. The formative research indicated that CHWs value feedback and feeling connected to the health system and their community, are motivated by status and community standing, and want to be provided with the necessary tools to perform. Two interventions based on these results were developed: a participatory, local community approach and an information communication technology (ICT
Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...
Rojas Valero, Milton; Espinoza Paul, Luis
The objective of the present research is to assess perception of and levels of satisfaction with the Lugar de Escucha program, as well as its brief interventions using counseling and motivational sessions. The study is of a pre-experimental type, with a single-group pretest-posttest measurement design. The sample was made up of 128 participants (9.4% females and 90.6% males), aged 15 to 51 (mean= 23.65; standard deviation = 7.92), users of cannabis, cocaine base paste, cocaine, inhalants and alcohol who attended the program. Data collection was carried out using Attention Forms (FdA); the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA); the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (CST); and the Cases Follow-up Survey (ESC). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the Lugar de Escucha Program, we assessed participants' motivational phases during the first interview and at referral, their level of satisfaction with the service received and the percentage of entrance to different treatment programs of the referred participants. The results on perception and satisfaction confirm a predominance of the program's strengths. With regard to the motivational phases, the findings show that the motivational induction interventions help to establish and maintain the patient's motivation for attitude change and for cessation of the abuse. In this sense, according to the findings, such interventions tend to be more effective when applied to patients in the Precontemplational and Contemplational phases. This suggests the need to work with more homogeneous groups, considering type of drugs, age and gender, and to use pre and post instruments. Likewise, the results suggest the need to classify patients in phases of change; such classification could be a useful tool for the improvement of treatment programs for drug users.
Whittle, Amy E; Buckelew, Sara M; Satterfield, Jason M; Lum, Paula J; O'Sullivan, Patricia
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Use recommends screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) at every adolescent preventive and all appropriate urgent visits. We designed an SBIRT curriculum as part of the adolescent block of a pediatric residency that combined online modules with an in-person workshop, faculty feedback on resident interactions with patients, and resident self-reflection on their motivational interviewing (MI) skills. To evaluate the curriculum, we measured resident satisfaction and self-reported confidence in using SBIRT and MI with teens using a retrospective pre/post questionnaire. We used qualitative analysis to evaluate the written comments from faculty observations of patient-trainee interactions and comments from resident self-reflection(s) on patient interactions. Thirty-two residents completed the curriculum. Residents reported high satisfaction with the training. Comparing retrospective pre/post scores on the survey of resident self-reported confidence, measures increased significantly in all domains, including for both alcohol and other drug use. Regarding self-reported MI, skillfulness also increased significantly. Analysis of specific faculty feedback to residents revealed subthemes such as normalizing confidentiality and focusing more on the patient's perspectives on substance use. Resident reflections on their own abilities with SBIRT/MI focused on using the ruler tool and on adapting the MI style of shared decision-making. A curriculum that combines online training, small-group practice, clinical observations, and self-reflection is valued by residents and can increase resident self-reported confidence in using SBIRT and MI in adolescent encounters. Future studies should examine to what extent confidence predicts performance using standardized measures of MI skillfulness in patient encounters.
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....
Van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Kok, Gerjo; Hospers, Harm J; Schippers, Jan; De Wildt, Wencke
The objective of this study was to describe the application of a systematic process-Intervention Mapping-to developing a theory- and evidence-based intervention to promote sexual health in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Intervention Mapping provides a framework that gives program planners a systematic method for decision-making in each phase of intervention development. In Step 1, we focused on the improvement of two health-promoting behaviors: satisfactory sexual functioning and safer sexual behavior. These behaviors were then linked with selected personal and external determinants, such as attitudes and social support, to produce a set of proximal program objectives. In Step 2, theoretical methods were identified to influence the proximal program objectives and were translated into practical strategies. Although theoretical methods were derived from various theories, self-regulation theory and a cognitive model of behavior change provided the main framework for selecting the intervention methods. The main strategies chosen were bibliotherapy (i.e., the use of written material to help people solve problems or change behavior) and motivational interviewing. In Step 3, the theoretical methods and practical strategies were applied in a program that comprised a self-help guide, a motivational interviewing session and a motivational interviewing telephone call, both delivered by specialist nurses in HIV treatment centers. In Step 4, implementation was anticipated by developing a linkage group to ensure involvement of program users in the planning process and conducting additional research to understand how to implement our program better. In Step 5, program evaluation was anticipated based on the planning process from the previous Intervention Mapping steps.
Osilla, Karen Chan; Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Maksabedian, Ervant
Social networks play positive and negative roles in the lives of homeless people influencing their alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) and HIV risk behaviors. We developed a four-session computer-assisted social network motivational interviewing intervention for homeless adults transitioning into housing. We examined the acceptability of the intervention among staff and residents at an organization that provides permanent supportive housing through iterative rounds of beta testing. Staff were 3 men and 3 women who were residential support staff (i.e., case managers and administrators). Residents were 8 men (7 African American, 1 Hispanic) and 3 women (2 African American, 1 Hispanic) who had histories of AOD and HIV risk behaviors. We conducted a focus group with staff who gave input on how to improve the delivery of the intervention to enhance understanding and receptivity among new residents. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews and collected self-report satisfaction data from residents. Three themes emerged over the course of the resident interviews. Residents reported that the intervention was helpful in discussing their social network, that seeing the visualizations was more impactful than just talking about their network, and that the intervention prompted thoughts about changing their AOD use and HIV risk networks. This study is the first of its kind that has developed, with input from Housing First staff and residents, a motivational interviewing intervention that targets both the structure and composition of one's social network. These results suggest that providing visual network feedback with a guided motivational interviewing discussion is a promising approach to supporting network change. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02140359.
Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T
We examined the effect of different pre-match motivational interventions on athlete free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations and subsequent match performance in professional rugby union. Male participants (n=12) playing at a senior or academy level in rugby union were recruited and each completed three interventions (15 min each) before a competitive game; 1) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by the player with positive coach feedback [VPCF1]; 2) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by an opposing player with cautionary coach feedback [VCCF], 3) the player left alone to self-motivate [SM1]. The first and last interventions were retested [VPCF2 and SM2]. Salivary free T and C measures were taken pre-intervention and pre-game. Within each game, players were rated by coaching staff on a key performance indicator (KPI) from identified skills and an overall performance indicator (OPI), where 1 = best performance to 5 = worst performance. The VPCF1 and VPCF2 interventions both promoted significant T responses (11.8% to 12.5%) before each game and more so than SM1, SM2 and VCCF. The VCCF approach produced the largest C response (17.6%) and this differed from all other treatments. The VPCF interventions were also associated with better game KPI (1.5 to 1.8) and OPI ratings (1.7 to 1.8) than SM1, SM2 and/or VCCF. Across all treatments, greater individual T responses and lower C responses were associated with better KPI and OPI outcomes. In conclusion, the pre-game presentation of motivational strategies to athletes involving specific video footage and coach feedback produced different outcomes on two indicators of match performance, which were also associated with changes in free hormonal state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helland-Kigen, Kaja Marie; Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta
To investigate maintenance of changes in food intake and motivation for healthy eating at follow-up 2 data collection after a lifestyle intervention among Pakistani immigrant women. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention, aiming at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection including FFQ and questions on intentions to change dietary behaviour was completed at baseline, right after the 7 ± 1 month intervention (follow-up 1) and 2-3 years after baseline (follow-up 2). Oslo, Norway. Pakistani women (n =198), aged 25-60 years, randomized into control and intervention groups. From follow-up 1 to follow-up 2 there was a shift from action to maintenance stages for intention to reduce fat intake (P diet.
Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E
We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone. Copyright Â© 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farbod Ebadi Fardazar
Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5 years, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to determination the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year in Joibar city based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 year were participated (95 in case group and 95 incontrol group.The data collection toolwas researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of protection motivation theory.After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in case group. Then two months after the educational intervention,evaluation was done and data into SPSS 20software and by using statistical testsT-test، Paired T test ، chi _square، Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis was analyzed. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMTin the case and control groups after the educational intervention, so that in all cases in the case group was better than control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that PMT can be used as a framework in designing educational programs in order to promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year.
Toste, Jessica R; Capin, Philip; Williams, Kelly J; Cho, Eunsoo; Vaughn, Sharon
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week). When we combined performance of students in both MWR conditions, intervention students significantly outperformed controls on proximal measures of affix reading and MWR, as well as standardized measures of decoding, spelling, and text comprehension. Furthermore, there was a noted interaction between English learner status and treatment on spelling performance. There were no statistically significant main effects between the MWR groups on proximal or standardized measures of interest. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to MWR instruction for students with persistent reading difficulties and considerations for future research related to the malleability of motivation.
Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Guérin, Eva; Tulloch, Heather; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Reid, Robert D
This study was set out to test if autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and 12-month physical activity (PA) in adults with type 2 diabetes involved in a randomized exercise trial. Participants (n = 234) completed questionnaires measuring barrier self-efficacy at 3 months, autonomous motivation at 6 months, and PA at 12 months. A mediational analysis of longitudinal data revealed that autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between barrier-self-efficacy and PA. High barrier self-efficacy can therefore help predict 12-month PA in adults with type 2 diabetes, although this effect is attenuated by autonomous motivation. Hence, participating in PA for autonomous reasons such as by choice and/or for fun further explains PA at 12 months in this population. Results of this study extend our understanding of the motivational constructs involved in PA in the maintenance phase. This study has important theoretical implications in that it helps to organize and consolidate well-known correlates of PA by proposing a temporal relationship between them that could be tailored in interventions.
Gilbert, Abigail L; Lee, Jungwha; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Semanik, Pamela A; Song, Jing; Pellegrini, Christine A; Pinto Pt, Daniel; Dunlop, Dorothy D; Chang, Rowland W
Arthritis is a leading cause of chronic pain and functional limitations. Exercise is beneficial for improving strength and function and decreasing pain. We evaluated the effect of a motivational interviewing-based lifestyle physical activity intervention on self-reported physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Participants were randomized to intervention or control. Control participants received a brief physician recommendation to increase physical activity to meet national guidelines. Intervention participants received the same brief baseline physician recommendation in addition to motivational interviewing sessions at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. These sessions focused on facilitating individualized lifestyle physical activity goal setting. The primary outcome was change in self-reported physical function. Secondary outcomes were self-reported pain and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Self-reported KOA outcomes were evaluated by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for KOA (WOMAC scores range from 0 to 68 for function and 0 to 20 for pain) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) for RA. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Multiple regression accounting for repeated measures was used to evaluate the overall intervention effect on outcomes controlling for baseline values. Participants included 155 adults with KOA (76 intervention and 79 control) and 185 adults with RA (93 intervention and 92 control). Among KOA participants, WOMAC physical function improvement was greater in the intervention group compared to the control group [difference = 2.21 (95% CI: 0.01, 4.41)]. WOMAC pain improvement was greater in the intervention group compared to the control group [difference = 0.70 (95% CI: -0.004, 1.41)]. There were no significant changes in physical activity. Among RA participants, no significant intervention effects were found. Participants
How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...
Krebber, Anne-Marie H; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Melissant, Heleen C; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
Recent results of a randomized clinical trial showed that a guided self-help intervention (based on problem-solving therapy) targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients is effective. This study qualitatively explored motivation to start, experiences with and perceived outcomes of this intervention. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 16 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed individually by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Patients participated in the intervention for intrinsic (e.g. to help oneself) and for extrinsic reasons (e.g. being asked by a care professional or to help improve health care). Participants indicated positive and negative experiences with the intervention. Several participants appreciated participating as being a pleasant way to work on oneself, while others described participating as too confrontational. Some expressed their disappointment as they felt the intervention had brought them nothing or indicated that they felt worse temporarily, but most participants perceived positive outcomes of the intervention (e.g. feeling less distressed and having learned what matters in life). Cancer patients have various reasons to start a guided self-help intervention. Participants appreciated the guided self-help as intervention to address psychological distress, but there were also concerns. Most participants reported the intervention to be beneficial. The results suggest the need to identify patients who might benefit most from guided self-help targeting psychological distress and that interventions should be further tailored to individual cancer patients' requirements.
Sun Ju Chang, RN, PhD
Conclusion: This review indicates the potential strength of the IMB model as a theoretical framework to develop behavioral interventions. The specific integration strategies delineated for each construct of the model can be utilized to design model-based interventions.
Full Text Available eHealth and mHealth interventions for type 2 diabetes are emerging as useful strategies to accomplish the goal of a high functioning integrated care system. However, mHealth and eHealth interventions in order to be successful need the clear endorsement from the healthcare professionals. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 93 Italian-speaking type 2 diabetes patients and demonstrated the role of the perceived ability of healthcare professionals to motivate patients’ initiative in improving the level of their engagement and activation in type 2 diabetes self-management. The level of type 2 diabetes patients’ activation resulted also in being a direct precursor of their attitude to the use of mHealth and eHealth. Furthermore, patient engagement has been demonstrated to be a mediator of the relationship between the perceived ability of healthcare professionals in motivating type 2 diabetes patients and patients’ activation. Finally, type 2 diabetes patients adherence did not result in being a direct consequence of the frequency of mHealth and eHealth use. Patient adherence appeared to be directly influenced by the level of perceived healthcare professionals ability of motivating patients’ autonomy. These results offer important insights into the psychosocial and organizational elements that impact on type 2 diabetes patients’ activation in self-management and on their willingness to use mHealth and eHealth devices.
Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Menichetti, Julia
eHealth and mHealth interventions for type 2 diabetes are emerging as useful strategies to accomplish the goal of a high functioning integrated care system. However, mHealth and eHealth interventions in order to be successful need the clear endorsement from the healthcare professionals. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 93 Italian-speaking type 2 diabetes patients and demonstrated the role of the perceived ability of healthcare professionals to motivate patients' initiative in improving the level of their engagement and activation in type 2 diabetes self-management. The level of type 2 diabetes patients' activation resulted also in being a direct precursor of their attitude to the use of mHealth and eHealth. Furthermore, patient engagement has been demonstrated to be a mediator of the relationship between the perceived ability of healthcare professionals in motivating type 2 diabetes patients and patients' activation. Finally, type 2 diabetes patients adherence did not result in being a direct consequence of the frequency of mHealth and eHealth use. Patient adherence appeared to be directly influenced by the level of perceived healthcare professionals ability of motivating patients' autonomy. These results offer important insights into the psychosocial and organizational elements that impact on type 2 diabetes patients' activation in self-management and on their willingness to use mHealth and eHealth devices.
Oosterom-Calo, Rony; Te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Brug, Johannes
It is important that heart failure (HF) patients adhere to their medication regimen and engage in physical activity. Evidence shows that adherence to these HF self-management behaviors can be improved with appropriate interventions. To further promote medication adherence and physical activity among HF patients, we developed an intervention for hospitalized HF patients. The intervention mapping protocol was applied in the development of the intervention. This entailed performing a needs assessment, defining change objectives, selecting determinants and strategies, and developing the materials. The resulting intervention, Motivate4Change, makes use of interactive technology and provides HF patients with personalized feedback and advice. Specific change objectives were defined. The relevant behavioral determinants for the physical activity program were practical knowledge on physical activity performance and self-efficacy for, and perceived benefits of, physical activity. For medication-taking, the selected determinants were practical knowledge on medication-taking, perceived barriers to medication-taking, beliefs about the necessity and harm regarding the medication prescribed, and beliefs about overprescribing and harm of medication in general. The change objectives and behavior change determinants were translated in feedback and advice strategies in an interactive technology program that included tailored feedback and advice, and role models in videos in which the behaviors and overcoming barriers were demonstrated. Relevant stakeholders were involved in the interventions development process. The intervention was pretested among HF patients and adjustments were made accordingly. The interactive technology physical activity and medication adherence promotion program for hospitalized HF patients was systematically developed using the intervention mapping protocol and was based on the available theory and evidence regarding HF self-management behavior change. The
Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian
Our main objective in the current study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness (12 months from baseline) of I Move (a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing). To this end, we compared I Move to a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention based on traditional health behavior theories (Active Plus), and to a no-intervention control group. As a secondary objective, the present study aimed to identify participant characteristics that moderate the long term effects of I Move and Active Plus. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing three research conditions: 1) the I Move condition, participants in this condition received I Move; 2) the Active Plus condition, participants in this condition received Active Plus; 3) the control condition; participants in this condition received no intervention and were placed on a waiting list. Main outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and weekly days with minimal 30 min of physical activity. All measurements were taken by web-based questionnaires via the study website. Intervention effects were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. At 12 months from baseline, I Move was found to be effective in increasing weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (ES = .13), while Active Plus was not. In contrast, Active Plus was found to be effective in increasing weekly days with ≥ 30 min PA at 12 months (ES = .11), while I Move was not. No moderators of the effects of I Move were found. The results suggest that web-based computer tailored physical activity interventions might best include elements based on both self-determination theory/motivational interviewing and traditional health behavioral theories. To be more precise, it is arguable that the focus of the theoretical foundations, used in new web-based PA interventions should depend on the
Zule, William A; Coomes, Curtis M; Karg, Rhonda; Harris, Jennie L; Orr, Alex; Wechsberg, Wendee M
There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases and for preventing the onset of chronic diseases. This paper describes the application of an established systematic approach to the development of a behavioral intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors for HIV among men who have sex with men and who use methamphetamine. The approach includes six steps: (1) a needs assessment; (2) preparing matrices of proximal program objectives; (3) selecting theory-based methods and practical strategies; (4) producing program components and materials; (5) planning for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability; and (6) planning for evaluation. The focus of this article is on the intervention development process; therefore the article does not describe steps 5 and 6. Overall the process worked well, although it had to be adapted to fit the sequence of events associated with a funded research project. This project demonstrates that systematic approaches to intervention development can be applied even in research projects where some of the steps occur during the proposal writing process rather than during the actual project. However, intervention developers must remain flexible and be prepared to adapt the process to the situation. This includes being ready to make choices regarding intervention efficacy versus feasibility and being willing to select the best intervention that is likely to be delivered with available resources rather than an ideal intervention that may not be practical.
Scott, Sarah E; Breckon, Jeff D; Copeland, Robert J
Objectives Physical activity is recommended for managing chronic health conditions but is rarely maintained. This feasibility study aimed to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural intervention for long-term physical activity for adults with chronic health conditions. Methods Participants ( N = 37) with stable conditions (e.g. diabetes) were randomized into a three-month motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural group ( N = 20) or usual care ( N = 17) after completing a physical activity referral scheme. Participants completed physical activity (e.g. average steps per day and kilocalorie expenditure), psychological (e.g. self-efficacy) and epidemiological (e.g. body mass index) standardized measures at baseline, three- and six-month follow-up. Treatment fidelity and feasibility were assessed. Results Thirty-five participants completed the study (96% retention). The motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural group maintained kilocalorie expenditure at three ( p = 0.009) and six months ( p = 0.009). Exercise barrier self-efficacy ( p = 0.03), physical ( p = 0.02) and psychological ( p = 0.01) physical activity experiences were increased at three months only. No difference was found for average steps/day, social support, coping skills and epidemiological factors. Discussion This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural interventions for promoting physical activity maintenance in a clinical population. A large-scale trial with a longer follow-up (≥6 months) is warranted with treatment fidelity assessment.
Murillo Pardo, Berta; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Julián Clemente, José Antonio; Generelo Lanaspa, Eduardo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the multicomponent Sigue la Huella intervention on selected motivational outcomes and whether any of these outcomes, in addition to relevant socio-demographic, biological, and behavioral factors, served as predictors of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time among participants through the intervention. This quasi-experimental, cohort study took place in four secondary schools in Huesca (Spain) during three academic years (students aged 12-15 years). Two schools were assigned to the experimental condition (n = 368) and two schools to the control condition (n = 314). Outcome variables were assessed objectively. A total of 553 participants met study inclusion criteria. Compared to the control group, participants in the experimental group reported greater enjoyment of physical activity, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in physical education, perceived autonomy in physical education, perceived competence in physical education, and perceived importance of physical education over time. Participants in this group reported also lower amotivation in physical education over time. In subsequent analyses, gender, organized physical activity out of school, sedentary time, and perceived importance of physical education predicted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Type of school (public vs. private), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and perceived autonomy in physical education emerged as predictors of sedentary time. Sigue la Huella had a positive effect on motivational outcomes relevant to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time, and, particularly, student engagement in physical education. The analyses identified shared and unique determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, suggesting that specific intervention strategies may be required to address each outcome.
Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M
The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT) and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI). Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation, or for outcomes such as weight loss. Although interventions were based on and intended to test the SDT health-behavior-change model, authors also pointed out that they drew techniques from MI in developing the interventions. The current paper refers to these studies and also clarifies the meaning of autonomy, which is central to SDT and has been shown to be important for effective change. We clarify that the dimension of autonomy versus control is conceptually orthogonal to the dimension of independence versus dependence, and we emphasize that autonomy or volition, not independence, is the important antecedent of effective change. Finally, we point out that SDT and MI have had much in common for each has emphasized autonomy. However, a recent MI article seems to have changed MI's emphasis from autonomy to change talk as the key ingredient for change. We suggest that change talk is likely to be an element of effective change only to the degree that the change talk is autonomously enacted and that practitioners facilitate change talk in an autonomy supportive way.
Deci Edward L
Full Text Available Abstract The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI. Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation, or for outcomes such as weight loss. Although interventions were based on and intended to test the SDT health-behavior-change model, authors also pointed out that they drew techniques from MI in developing the interventions. The current paper refers to these studies and also clarifies the meaning of autonomy, which is central to SDT and has been shown to be important for effective change. We clarify that the dimension of autonomy versus control is conceptually orthogonal to the dimension of independence versus dependence, and we emphasize that autonomy or volition, not independence, is the important antecedent of effective change. Finally, we point out that SDT and MI have had much in common for each has emphasized autonomy. However, a recent MI article seems to have changed MI's emphasis from autonomy to change talk as the key ingredient for change. We suggest that change talk is likely to be an element of effective change only to the degree that the change talk is autonomously enacted and that practitioners facilitate change talk in an autonomy supportive way.
González-Cutre, David; Sierra, Ana C.; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Peláez-Pérez, Manuel; Cervelló, Eduardo
The authors analyzed the effects of a multidimensional intervention to promote physical activity (PA) in school, based on self-determination theory. The study involved 88 students, between 14 and 17 years old, who were divided into a control group (n = 59) and an experimental group (n = 29). In the experimental group, a 6-month intervention was…
Evaluating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing and multi-modal exercise intervention for youth with major depression: Healthy Body, Healthy Mind randomised controlled trial protocol.
Nasstasia, Yasmina; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Hides, Leanne; Lewin, Terry J; Kelly, Brian J; Callister, Robin
Recent meta-analytic reviews suggest exercise can reduce depression severity among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD); however, efficacy studies with depressed youth are limited. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions in this population, addressed treatment engagement, or explored the differential effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. This paper describes the study protocol and recruitment pattern for an assessor blinded, two-arm randomised controlled trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing (MI) and multi-modal exercise intervention in youth diagnosed with MDD. Associations between depressive symptom profiles (cognitive, somatic and affective) and psychological, physiological (fitness), and biological (blood biomarker) outcomes will also be examined. Participants aged 15-25 years with current MDD were recruited. Eligible participants were randomised and stratified according to gender and depression severity to either an immediate or delayed (control) group. The immediate group received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week small group exercise intervention (3 times per week for 1 h), all delivered by personal trainers. The delayed control group received the same intervention 12-weeks later. Both groups were reassessed at mid-treatment or mid-control, post-treatment or post-control, and follow-up (12 weeks post-treatment). 68 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group. This trial will increase our understanding of the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions for depression and the specific effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. It also offers a novel contribution by addressing treatment engagement in exercise efficacy trials in youth with MDD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the
Sepulveda, Ana R; Wise, Caroline; Zabala, Maria; Todd, Gill; Treasure, Janet
The aims of this study were to develop an eating disorder scenarios tool to assess the motivational interviewing (MI) skills of caregivers and evaluate the coding reliability of the instrument, and to test the sensitivity to change through a pre/post/follow-up design. The resulting Motivational Interview Scenarios Tool for Eating Disorders (MIST-ED) was administered to caregivers (n = 66) who were asked to provide oral and written responses before and after a skills-based intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. Raters achieved excellent inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlations of 91.8% on MI adherent and 86.1% for MI non-adherent statements for written scenarios and 89.2%, and 85.3% for oral scenarios). Following the intervention, MI adherent statements increased (baseline = 9.4%, post = 61.5% and follow-up 47.2%) and non-MI adherent statements decreased (baseline = 90.6%, post = 38.5% and follow-up = 52.8%). This instrument can be used as a simple method to measure the acquisition of MI skills to improve coping and both response methods are adequate. The tool shows good sensitivity to improved skills. © 2013.
Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Tonekaboni, Nooshin Rouhani; Farmanbar, Rabiollah; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Kamalikhah, Tahereh
Background Physical activity (PA) prevents chronic diseases. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful framework to understand the nature of motivational interviewing (MI). Objective This study aimed to determine the effect of MI-based intervention using SDT on the promotion of PA among women in reproductive age. Methods Seventy women in reproductive age were selected by clustering sampling method for this randomized controlled trial. The questionnaire included the variables of physical fitness test, SDT, and global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). The validity of the questionnaires was approved using content validity ratio (CVR) and index (CVI). The reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaires and measures was approved using test-retest method and Cronbach’s alpha test, respectively. The intervention group (n=35) received four MI sessions through theory and one standard education session about PA. The control group (n=35) received a standard education session about PA. Results Four months after the intervention, an increase in the mean scores of total PA (pamotivation (p<0.01, ES= −0.56) over time, compared to the control group. Conclusion MI-based intervention using SDT was effective on the promotion of PA. Trial registration The Trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015101924592N1. PMID:28713522
Rosengren David B
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the value of motivational approaches that enhance participant readiness to change, but less is known about clients’ self-reports of problematic behavior when participating in such interventions. Methods We examined whether participants in a motivationally-based intervention for DUI offenders changed their reports of substance use at postintervention (when reporting on the same 30 days that they reported on at preintervention. Specifically, Study 1 (N = 8,387 tested whether participants in PRIME For Life (PFL changed their reports about baseline substance levels when asked at postintervention versus at preintervention. Study 2 (N = 192 compared changes in self-reported baseline drinking between PFL and intervention as usual (IAU participants. Results Many participants in Study 1 did not change their reports about how much they used substances during the 30-day period before baseline. Among those who did, the most common change was an increase in reported amounts of baseline drug use, and typical and peak alcohol use. This sample also showed changes in reports of their baseline pattern of high-risk-use (consistent versus occasional. At postintervention, participants who were younger, single, or endorsing more indicators of alcohol dependence were more likely to later report greater frequency of baseline drug use, and greater peak and typical number of baseline drinks. Gender, education, and race were also associated with reporting inconsistency on some behaviors. In Study 2, PFL participants showed greater increases in reports of peak alcohol use compared to IAU, but both conditions showed similar increases for drugs and typical alcohol use. Conclusions In both research and clinical settings, a segment of participants may initially report less substance use than they do when asked later about the same baseline period. These preliminary findings suggest clinicians and researchers may
Bell, David L; Garbers, Samantha; Catallozzi, Marina; Hum, R Stanley; Nechitilo, Meredith; McKeague, Ian W; Koumans, Emilia H; House, L Duane; Rosenthal, Susan L; Gold, Melanie A
Despite recent declines, teen unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in the United States remain at levels higher than comparable nations. Initiatives to prevent teen pregnancy have focused primarily on female adolescents; how to effectively engage young men to reduce their risk of fathering a teen pregnancy has not been well studied. We proposed to adapt an innovative computer-assisted motivational interviewing (CAMI) intervention, originally designed and tested with young women, for use with young men, aged 15-24 years, to reduce their risk of fathering a teen pregnancy. This manuscript describes the design of a CAMI intervention for young men aimed at preventing teen pregnancy and improving fitness. This randomized controlled trial will recruit 945 sexually active young men between the ages of 15 and 24 years from three health centers in New York City. Participants will be assigned by permuted block randomization to two study arms: one aimed at reducing involvement in unintended teen pregnancy (CAMI-teen pregnancy prevention) and the other at improving overall fitness (CAMI-Fitness). Except for topic, both intervention arms will provide four sessions of Motivational Interviewing coaching and use a mobile app to track behavior and set goals. We will assess young men's sexual and reproductive health behaviors and fitness at baseline, 12, 24, 36, and 64 weeks using a mobile device app created for the study. Pending ongoing study. Results from the study are expected to enhance our understanding of the efficacy of CAMI to enhance young men's reproductive health and fitness behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Stephania T Miller,1 Sylvie A Akohoue2 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA Objectives: To assess the 2-year efficacy of a combined medical nutrition therapy and motivational interviewing (MI pilot study intervention and factors that influenced long-term dietary self-care.Research design and methods: Pilot study participants, African American women with type 2 diabetes, completed a 2-year follow-up study visit, including clinical assessments and completion of a dietary self-care questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate differences between baseline and 2-year follow-up clinical and dietary self-care outcomes. Hierarchical coding was used to analyze semi-structured interviews and categorize facilitator and barrier themes into subthemes. Subthemes were quantified based on the number of subtheme-related comments. Results: Among the 12 participants (mean age 57.1±5.7 years, improvements were observed for HbA1c (baseline: 10.25%; interquartile range [IQR]: 8.10, 11.72 and follow-up: 8.8%; IQR: 7.48,10.22, systolic blood pressure (baseline: 142 mm Hg; IQR: 134.25, 157.25 and follow-up: 127 mm Hg; IQR: 113.5, 143.25, frequency of eating high-fat foods (baseline: 3.5 days; IQR: 2.75, 4.25 and follow-up: 3 days; IQR: 2.5, 4.5, and of spacing carbohydrates throughout the day (baseline: 3 days; IQR: 3.0, 4.0 and follow-up: 4 days; IQR: 1.5, 4.5. There was a statistically significant decrease (p=0.04 in the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake (baseline: 4 days; IQR: 3.75, 7.0 and follow-up: 3.5 days; IQR: 2.75, 4.0. Dietary self-care barriers and facilitators included internal (eg, motivation and external factors (eg, social support. Motivation (70 comments and lack of motivation (67 comments were the most pervasive facilitator and barrier subthemes, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, diabetes-related clinical and dietary
Chang, Wing Chung; Kwong, Vivian Wing Yan; Or Chi Fai, Philip; Lau, Emily Sin Kei; Chan, Gloria Hoi Kei; Jim, Olivia Tsz Ting; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai
Functional remission represents an intermediate functional milestone toward recovery. Differential relationships of negative symptom sub-domains with functional remission in first-episode psychosis are understudied. We aimed to examine rate and predictors of functional remission in people with first-episode psychosis in the context of a 3-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing 1-year extension of early intervention (i.e. 3-year early intervention) with step-down psychiatric care (i.e. 2-year early intervention). A total of 160 participants were recruited upon completion of a 2-year specialized early intervention program for first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong and underwent a 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing 1-year extended early intervention with step-down care. Participants were followed up and reassessed 3 years after inclusion to the trial (i.e. 3-year follow-up). Functional remission was operationalized as simultaneous fulfillment of attaining adequate functioning (measured by Social and Occupational Functioning Scale and Role Functioning Scale) at 3-year follow-up and sustained employment in the last 6 months of 3-year study period. Negative symptom measure was delineated into amotivation (i.e. motivational impairment) and diminished expression (i.e. reduced affect and speech output). Data analysis was based on 143 participants who completed follow-up functional assessments. A total of 31 (21.7%) participants achieved functional remission status at 3-year follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis showed that lower levels of amotivation ( p = 0.010) and better functioning at study intake ( p = 0.004) independently predicted functional remission (Final model: Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.40, χ 2 = 42.9, p amotivation may represent a critical therapeutic target for functional remission attainment in early psychosis.
Gold, Melanie A; Tzilos, Golfo K; Stein, L A R; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D; Ryan, Christopher M; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo
To examine a computer-assisted, counselor-guided motivational intervention (CAMI) aimed at reducing the risk of unprotected sexual intercourse. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted a 9-month, longitudinal randomized controlled trial with a multisite recruitment strategy including clinic, university, and social referrals, and compared the CAMI with didactic educational counseling in 572 female adolescents with a mean age of 17 years (SD = 2.2 years; range = 13-21 years; 59% African American) who were at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The primary outcome was the acceptability of the CAMI according to self-reported rating scales. The secondary outcome was the reduction of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease risk using a 9-month, self-report timeline follow-back calendar of unprotected sex. The CAMI was rated easy to use. Compared with the didactic educational counseling, there was a significant effect of the intervention which suggested that the CAMI helped reduce unprotected sex among participants who completed the study. However, because of the high attrition rate, the intent to treat analysis did not demonstrate a significant effect of the CAMI on reducing the rate of unprotected sex. Among those who completed the intervention, the CAMI reduced unprotected sex among an at-risk, predominantly minority sample of female adolescents. Modification of the CAMI to address methodological issues that contributed to a high drop-out rate are needed to make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for use among sexually active predominantly minority, at-risk, female adolescents. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Smokers are four times more likely to stop smoking with the help of an NHS Stop Smoking Service (SSS. However attendance is in decline, possibly due to the increase in popularity of e-cigarettes. SSS’s will support smokers who choose to use e-cigarettes as part of a quit attempt, therefore interventions are needed to encourage continued access and uptake of SSS. Aim: To design an evidence based intervention (Stop-app to increase referrals, 4 week quit rates and reduce ‘did not attend’ (DNA rates within SSS. Methods/Results: In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at the service; the belief that there would be ’scare tactics’, ‘nagging’, that the service would be unfriendly and clinical; and a lack of perceived efficacy of the service. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel framework. A range of factors were identified as needing to change. These aligned with capability (e.g. a lack of knowledge about the benefits of SSS, opportunity (e.g. beliefs that SSS are not easy to access and to motivation to act (e.g. beliefs that they did not need and would not benefit from SSS. We describe the content development process, illustrating the choice of 19 ‘Behaviour Change Techniques’ included in our digital intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the proposed intervention by interviewing stop smoking service advisors and non-NHS provider sites (e.g. library services and children’s centres. Findings from interviews are presented and have been used to consider the best path for implementation of the web-app within service provision. Conclusion: The ‘Stop –app’ is in development and will be accessible online, linking with the SSS booking system used by Public
Hutchinson, Sasha G; Mesters, Ilse; van Breukelen, Gerard; Muris, Jean Wm; Feron, Frans Jm; Hammond, S Katharine; van Schayck, Constant P; Dompeling, Edward
Especially children at risk for asthma are sensitive to the detrimental health effects of passive smoke (PS) exposure, like respiratory complaints and allergic sensitisation. Therefore, effective prevention of PS exposure in this group of vulnerable children is important. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that an effective intervention program to prevent PS exposure in children is possible by means of a motivational interviewing tailored program with repeated contacts focussing on awareness, knowledge, beliefs (pros/cons), perceived barriers and needs of parents, in combination with feedback about urine cotinine levels of the children. The aim of the PREPASE study is to test the effectiveness of such an intervention program towards eliminating or reducing of PS exposure in children at risk for asthma. This article describes the protocol of the PREPASE study. The study is a one-year follow-up randomized controlled trial. Families with children (0-13 years of age) having an asthma predisposition who experience PS exposure at home are randomized into an intervention group receiving an intervention or a control group receiving care as usual. The intervention is given by trained research assistants. The intervention starts one month after a baseline measurement and takes place once per month for an hour during six home based counselling sessions. The primary outcome measure is the percentage of families curtailing PS exposure in children (parental report verified with the urine cotinine concentrations of the children) after 6 months. The secondary outcome measures include: household nicotine level, the child's lung function, airway inflammation and oxidative stress, presence of wheezing and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms, and quality of life. A process evaluation is included. Most of the measurements take place every 3 months (baseline and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of study). The PREPASE study incorporates successful elements of previous interventions
Hardre, Patricia L.; Reeve, Johnmarshall
Management style is treated in a variety of ways across the training and development literature. Yet few studies have tested the training-based malleability of management style in a for-profit, authentic work context. The present research tested whether or not training intervention would help managers adopt a more autonomy-supportive motivating…
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness; and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76 who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project’s participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.
Balan, Hazel R.
Genetics is considered as one of the topics in science that students have difficulty and trouble in understanding. This study used study guide as an intervention tool to address the difficulties of students in learning genetics concepts. The main purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of students on the effectiveness of study guide…
Leyton, Marta; Batista, Marco; Lobato, Susana; Aspano, Mª Isabel; Jiménez, Ruth
The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness); and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76) who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project's participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.
Schlosser, Danielle; Campellone, Timothy; Kim, Daniel; Truong, Brandy; Vergani, Silvia; Ward, Charlie; Vinogradov, Sophia
Despite improvements in treating psychosis, schizophrenia remains a chronic and debilitating disorder that affects approximately 1% of the US population and costs society more than depression, dementia, and other medical illnesses across most of the lifespan. Improving functioning early in the course of illness could have significant implications for long-term outcome of individuals with schizophrenia. Yet, current gold-standard treatments do not lead to clinically meaningful improvements in outcome, partly due to the inherent challenges of treating a population with significant cognitive and motivational impairments. The rise of technology presents an opportunity to develop novel treatments that may circumvent the motivational and cognitive challenges observed in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a Personalized Real-Time Intervention for Motivation Enhancement (PRIME), a mobile app intervention designed to target reward-processing impairments, enhance motivation, and thereby improve quality of life in recent onset schizophrenia, and (2) evaluate the empirical benefits of using an iterative, user-centered design (UCD) process. We conducted two design workshops with 15 key stakeholders, followed by a series of in-depth interviews in collaboration with IDEO, a design and innovation firm. The UCD approach ultimately resulted in the first iteration of PRIME, which was evaluated by 10 RO participants. Results from the Stage 1 participants were then used to guide the next iteration that is currently being evaluated in an ongoing RCT. Participants in both phases were encouraged to use the app daily with a minimum frequency of 1/week over a 12-week period. The UCD process resulted in the following feature set: (1) delivery of text message (short message service, SMS)-based motivational coaching from trained therapists, (2) individualized goal setting in prognostically important
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup
implementation. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of ensuring legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants and colleagues. Moreover, the data show it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day freeing time for participants to attend...... exercise aiming at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. The data are based upon semi‐deductive, thematic, and structured in‐depth interviews with informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work, participating in strength training at the workplace three times 20 minutes per week. Results show...... that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees and the intervention since main barriers for compliance were internal working culture. The results also emphasise the need for a clear connection between implementation intentions from the management and the actual...
Kleinke, Fabian; Schwaneberg, Thea; Weymar, Franziska; Penndorf, Peter; Ulbricht, Sabina; Lehnert, Kristin; Dörr, Marcus; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality. In 2014, they were responsible for 38.9% of all causes of death in Germany. One major risk factor for CVD is a lack of physical activity (PA). A health-promoting lifestyle including regular PA and minimizing sitting time (ST) in daily life is a central preventive measure. Previous studies have shown that PA decreases in older age; 2.4-29% of the people aged over 60 years achieve the World Health Organization recommendations. This age group spends on average 9.4 h per day in sedentary activities. To increase PA and decrease ST, a low-threshold intervention, consisting of individualized feedback letters based on objectively measured data of PA and ST, was developed. The research question is: Do individual feedback letters, based on accelerometer data, have a positive effect on PA and ST? MOVING is a two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Inclusion criteria are age ≥ 65 years and the ability to be physically active. Exclusion criteria are the permanent use of a wheelchair and simultaneous participation in another study on PA. At baseline participants who give informed consent will receive general information and recommendations about the positive effects of regular PA and less ST. Participants of both groups will receive an accelerometer device, which records PA and ST over a period of seven consecutive days following by a randomization. Participants in the intervention group will receive automatically generated, individualized feedback letters by mail based on their PA and ST at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Further follow-up examinations will be carried out at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the increase of PA and the reduction of ST after 6 months in the intervention group compared to the control group. The goal of the study is to examine the effects of a simple feedback intervention on PA and ST in elderly people. We aim to achieve an effect of 20% increase in moderate
Golin, Carol E; Earp, Joanne; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Stewart, Paul; Porter, Carol; Howie, Lynn
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling technique that has been used effectively to change a number of health-related behaviors. We sought to assess the impact on patients' antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence of a multicomponent, MI-based ART adherence intervention compared with that of an HIV informational control program. Two-arm, randomized, controlled trial. One hundred forty adult HIV-infected patients attending a large, academic center infectious diseases clinic who were either failing or newly initiating an ART regimen. STUDY ENDPOINTS: (1) Mean adherence level (% of prescribed doses take in the prior month) at the week 12 visit, (2) change in mean adherence, (3) percentage of patients achieving >95% adherence in the third 4-week block, and (4) change in viral load. The MI group's mean adherence improved by 4.5% compared with a decrease in the control group's adherence by 3.83% (P = 0.10). In the treatment group, 29% achieved >95% adherence compared with only 17% in the control group (P = 0.13). When we controlled for ethnicity, the intervention group had 2.75 times higher odds of achieving more than 95% adherence than did the controls (P = 0.045; 95% confidence interval: 1.023, 7.398). Although a number of mediating variables (beliefs about ART, coping style, social support, and goals set) had statistically significant changes in the expected direction in the MI group compared with controls, in the intent-to-treat analysis, the mean adherence at study exit for the intervention group was 76% (SD = 27%) and 71% (SD = 27%) for the control group (P = 0.62). Although not definitive, this study provides some evidence that MI offers an effective approach to improving adherence. Future studies able to build MI into the intervention for longer than 3 months may have a greater impact.
Prins Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity (PA among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. Design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, in order to define clear program objectives, theoretical methods and practical strategies, ensure systematic program planning and pilot-testing, and anticipate on implementation and evaluation. Two versions of YouRAction were developed: one that targets individual determinants and an extended version that also provides feedback on opportunities to be active in the neighbourhood. Key determinants that were targeted included: knowledge and awareness, attitudes, self-efficacy and subjective norms. The extended version also addressed perceived availability of neighbourhood PA facilities. Both versions aimed to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA among adolescents. The intervention structure was based on self-regulation theory, comprising of five steps in the process of successful goal pursuit. Monitoring of PA behaviour and behavioural and normative feedback were used to increase awareness of PA behaviour; motivation was enhanced by targeting self-efficacy and attitudes, by means of various interactive strategies, such as web movies; the perceived environment was targeted by visualizing opportunities to be active in an interactive geographical map of the home environment; in the goal setting phase, the adolescents were guided in setting a goal and developing an action plan to achieve this goal; in the phase of active goal pursuit adolescents try to achieve their goal and in the evaluation phase the achievements are evaluated. Based on the results
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.
Franco, Evelia; Coterón, Javier
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (n experimental = 30; n control = 23) of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62) by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.
Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona
Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished successfully, the returns on the investment (of expertise, time and money) are uncertain. The Survey of Adult Skills, an international investigation conducted in 22 member and two partner countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), has revealed that a considerable number of adults possess only limited literacy and numeracy skills. Governments now recognise the need to upskill these adults in order to maintain national prosperity. This literature review examines current evidence on policy interventions for adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiencies to pinpoint what has so far proven to motivate adults to join and persist in basic literacy and numeracy learning. The author identifies three approaches which seem promising in helping to address individual learners' needs: (1) adapting instruction to learners' needs by means of regular assessment (formative assessment); (2) complementary e-learning (blended learning); and (3) contextualisation of basic skills provision both at work and at home (workplace learning and family literacy). The central challenge is to put the evidence to work.
Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Vittinghoff, Eric; Jong, So Son; Haskell, William
This uncontrolled pilot study assessed changes in pedometer-measured step counts and self-reported physical activity during a 3-week mobile phone-based intervention. We also explored whether age, BMI, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in step counts. Forty-one sedentary adult women in San Francisco, California were asked to report their pedometer steps using a study-supplied mobile phone from June to September 2008. In the second and third weeks, daily prompts delivered by the mobile phone encouraged participants to increase steps by 20% from the previous week. Mean age was 48 years. Average daily total steps increased by approximately 800 or 15% over three weeks (pmotivate sedentary women to increase their physical activity. A randomized controlled clinical trial is warranted and feasible. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Shope, Jean T.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.
Objectives A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of the SafERteens intervention in reducing peer violence among adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this ED-based brief intervention (BI) on dating violence 1 year following the ED visit among the subsample of adolescents in the original randomized controlled trial reporting past-year dating violence. Methods Patients (aged 14 to 18 years) at an ED were eligible for inclusion if they had past-year violence and alcohol use. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions (BI delivered by a computer [CBI], BI delivered by a therapist and a computer (T+CBI), or control) and completed follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. In addition to content on alcohol misuse and peer violence, adolescents reporting dating violence received a tailored module on dating violence. The outcome of interest was frequency of moderate and severe dating violence victimization and aggression (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after ED visit). Results Among eligible adolescents, 55% (n = 397) reported dating violence and were included in these analyses. Compared to the control group (who received a resource brochure only), participants in the CBI showed reductions in moderate dating victimization at 3 months (inter-rater reliability [IRR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.99; p dating victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; p dating violence victimization at 6 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96; p dating violence victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.96; p dating violence) show promise for reducing moderate and severe dating victimization for up to 1 year following an ED visit. PMID:23758302
Cunningham, Rebecca M; Whiteside, Lauren K; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Shope, Jean T; Bingham, C Raymond; Blow, Frederic C; Walton, Maureen A
A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of the SafERteens intervention in reducing peer violence among adolescents presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of this ED-based brief intervention (BI) on dating violence 1 year following the ED visit among the subsample of adolescents in the original randomized controlled trial reporting past-year dating violence. Patients (aged 14 to 18 years) at an ED were eligible for inclusion if they had past-year violence and alcohol use. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions (BI delivered by a computer [CBI], BI delivered by a therapist and a computer (T+CBI), or control) and completed follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. In addition to content on alcohol misuse and peer violence, adolescents reporting dating violence received a tailored module on dating violence. The outcome of interest was frequency of moderate and severe dating violence victimization and aggression (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after ED visit). Among eligible adolescents, 55% (n = 397) reported dating violence and were included in these analyses. Compared to the control group (who received a resource brochure only), participants in the CBI showed reductions in moderate dating victimization at 3 months (inter-rater reliability [IRR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.99; p dating victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.98; p dating violence victimization at 6 months (IRR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96; p dating violence victimization at 3 months (IRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.96; p violence, alcohol use, and dating violence) show promise for reducing moderate and severe dating victimization for up to 1 year following an ED visit. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Whiteley, Laura; Brown, Larry; Lally, Michelle; Heck, Nicholas; van den Berg, Jacob J
Highly active combination antiretroviral treatment has been shown to markedly improve the health of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and decreases the number of hospitalizations. However, these clinical achievements can only occur when young persons with HIV are adherent to care. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults have poorer rates of adherence to antiretroviral medications and poorer rates of retention in care than older adults. Novel and engaging digital approaches are needed to help adolescents and young adults living with HIV be adherent to treatment. The aim of this study was to develop an immersive, action-oriented iPhone gaming intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral medication and treatment. Game development was guided by social learning theory, taking into consideration the perspectives of adolescents and young adults living with HIV. A total of 20 adolescents and young adults were recruited from an HIV care clinic in Rhode Island, and they participated in qualitative interviews guided by the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of behavior change. The mean age of participants was 22 years, 60% (12/20) of the participants identified as male, and 60% (12/20) of the sample reported missing a dose of antiretroviral medication in the previous week. Acceptability of the game was assessed with client service questionnaire and session evaluation form. A number of themes emerged that informed game development. Adolescents and young adults living with HIV desired informational game content that included new and comprehensive details about HIV, details about HIV as it relates to doctors' visits, and general health information. Motivational themes that emerged were the desire for enhancement of future orientation; reinforcement of positive influences from partners, parents, and friends; collaboration with health care providers; decreasing stigma
Development of a fully automated, web-based, tailored intervention promoting regular physical activity among insufficiently active adults with type 2 diabetes: integrating the I-change model, self-determination theory, and motivational interviewing components.
Moreau, Michel; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Boudreau, François
Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that fewer than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the recommendations, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity (PA) are in demand for this population. Many researchers argue that Web-based, tailored interventions targeting PA are a promising and effective avenue for sedentary populations like Canadians with type 2 diabetes, but few have described the detailed development of this kind of intervention. This paper aims to describe the systematic development of the Web-based, tailored intervention, Diabète en Forme, promoting regular aerobic PA among adult Canadian francophones with type 2 diabetes. This paper can be used as a reference for health professionals interested in developing similar interventions. We also explored the integration of theoretical components derived from the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing, which is a potential path for enhancing the effectiveness of tailored interventions on PA adoption and maintenance. The intervention development was based on the program-planning model for tailored interventions of Kreuter et al. An additional step was added to the model to evaluate the intervention's usability prior to the implementation phase. An 8-week intervention was developed. The key components of the intervention include a self-monitoring tool for PA behavior, a weekly action planning tool, and eight tailored motivational sessions based on attitude, self-efficacy, intention, type of motivation, PA behavior, and other constructs and techniques. Usability evaluation, a step added to the program-planning model, helped to make several improvements to the intervention prior to the implementation phase. The intervention development cost was about CDN $59,700 and took approximately
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA, aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1 increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2 increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after release; and (3 decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year. They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM and on Motivational Interviewing (MI, an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected
Buckley, Patrick; Doyle, Elaine
The literature suggests that gamified learning interventions may increase student engagement and enhance learning. We empirically investigate this by exploring the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the participation and performance of over 100 undergraduate students in an online gamified learning intervention. The paper makes a…
Chang, W C; Kwong, V W Y; Chan, G H K; Jim, O T T; Lau, E S K; Hui, C L M; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Chen, E Y H
Amotivation is prevalent in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and is a major determinant of functional outcome. Prediction of amotivation in the early stage of psychosis, however, is under-studied. We aimed to prospectively examine predictors of amotivation in FEP patients in a randomized-controlled trial comparing a 1-year extension of early intervention (Extended EI, 3-year EI) with step-down psychiatric care (SC, 2-year EI). One hundred sixty Chinese patents were recruited from a specialized EI program for FEP in Hong Kong after they have completed this 2-year EI service, randomly allocated to Extended EI or SC, and followed up for 12 months. Assessments on premorbid adjustment, onset profiles, baseline symptom severity and treatment characteristics were conducted. Data analysis was based on 156 subjects who completed follow-up assessments. Amotivation at 12-month follow-up was associated with premorbid adjustment, allocated treatment condition, and levels of positive symptoms, disorganization, amotivation, diminished expression (DE) and depression at study intake. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that Extended EI and lower levels of DE independently predicted better outcome on 12-month amotivation. Our findings indicate a potentially critical therapeutic role of an extended specialized EI on alleviating motivational impairment in FEP patients. The longer-term effect of Extended EI on amotivation merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.
Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609
Gibbons, Frederick X; Houlihan, Amy E; Gerrard, Meg
A brief overview of theories of health behaviour that are based on the expectancy-value perspective is presented. This approach maintains that health behaviours are the result of a deliberative decision-making process that involves consideration of behavioural options along with anticipated outcomes associated with those options. It is argued that this perspective is effective at explaining and predicting many types of health behaviour, including health-promoting actions (e.g. UV protection, condom use, smoking cessation), but less effective at predicting risky health behaviours, such as unprotected, casual sex, drunk driving or binge drinking. These are behaviours that are less reasoned or premeditated - especially among adolescents. An argument is made for incorporating elements of dual-processing theories in an effort to improve the 'utility' of these models. Specifically, it is suggested that adolescent health behaviour involves both analytic and heuristic processing. Both types of processing are incorporated in the prototype-willingness (prototype) model, which is described in some detail. Studies of health behaviour based on the expectancy-value perspective (e.g. theory of reasoned action) are reviewed, along with studies based on the prototype model. These two sets of studies together suggest that the dual-processing perspective, in general, and the prototype model, in particular, add to the predictive validity of expectancy-value models for predicting adolescent health behaviour. Research and interventions that incorporate elements of dual-processing and elements of expectancy-value are more effective at explaining and changing adolescent health behaviour than are those based on expectancy-value theories alone.
Van Allen, Jason; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Filigno, Stephanie S; Clifford, Lisa M; Connor, Jared M; Stark, Lori J
To examine whether changes in parent motivation over the course of a pediatric obesity intervention are significantly associated with long-term changes in treatment outcomes. Study hypotheses were tested with a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial (N = 42). Study analyses tested whether baseline to posttreatment change in total score for a self-report parent motivation measure (Parent Motivation Inventory [PMI]) was significantly associated with baseline to 6-month follow-up changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), dietary variables, and physical activity. Increases in PMI were significantly associated with decreased zBMI, decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Given that increases in parent motivation were associated with some treatment benefits, future research should evaluate the impact of directly assessing and targeting parent motivation on weight outcomes for preschoolers participating in a weight management program. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Improving Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Overweight and Inactive Patients Through an Educational and Motivational Intervention Addressing Diet and Physical Activity: A Prospective Study in Naples, South Italy.
Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Cirella, Assunta; Di Dio, Mirella; Miele, Alessandra; Spinosa, Tiziana; Liguori, Giorgio
Nutrition and physical activity are key elements in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. A community-based, multidisciplinary educational intervention aimed to improve quality of life and disease self-management in sedentary, overweight/obese type 2 diabetic patients was implemented in Naples, South Italy. The 9-month intervention included a motivational program, a nutrition program, and an exercise program. Satisfaction, worry, and embarrassment regarding their condition, together with disease-related behaviors and propensity towards physical activity, were evaluated through a validated questionnaire before and after the intervention; health status perception was evaluated through the short-form 12 questionnaire. Changes in HbA1c level and weight were also checked. A significant improvement (p management of hypoglycemic crisis and food choice; in nearly all the items related to living with the disease (p System.
The impact of facility audits, evaluation reports and incentives on motivation and supply management among family planning service providers: an interventional study in two districts in Maputo Province, Mozambique.
Vermandere, Heleen; Galle, Anna; Griffin, Sally; de Melo, Málica; Machaieie, Lino; Van Braeckel, Dirk; Degomme, Olivier
Good progress is being made towards universal access to contraceptives, however stock-outs still jeopardize progress. A seldom considered but important building block in optimizing supply management is the degree to which health workers feel motivated and responsible for monitoring supply. We explored how and to what extent motivation can be improved, and the impact this can have on avoiding stock-outs. Fifteen health facilities in Maputo Province, Mozambique, were divided into 3 groups (2 intervention groups and 1 control), and 10 monthly audits were implemented in each of these 15 facilities to collect data through examination of stock cards and stock-counts of 6 contraceptives. Based on these audits, the 2 intervention groups received a monthly evaluation report reflecting the quality of their supply management. One of these 2 groups was also awarded material incentives conditional on their performance. A Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test was used to detect differences between the groups in the average number of stocked-out centres, while changes over time were verified through applying a Friedman test. Additionally, staff motivation was measured through interviewing health care providers of all centres at baseline, and after 5 and 10 months. To detect differences between the groups and changes over time, a Kruskal Wallis and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied, respectively. Motivation reported by providers (n = 55, n = 40 and n = 39 at baseline, 1st and 2nd follow-up respectively) was high in all groups, during all rounds, and did not change over time. Facilities in the intervention groups had better supply management results (including less stock-outs) during the entire intervention period compared with those in the control group, but the difference was only significant for the group receiving both material incentives and a monthly evaluation. However, our data also suggest that supply management also improved in control facilities, receiving
Lloyd, Joda; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E
Employees with low levels of work-related self-efficacy may stand to benefit more from a worksite stress management training (SMT) intervention. However, this low work-related self-efficacy/enhanced SMT benefits effect may be conditional on employees also having high levels of intrinsic work motivation. In the present study, we examined this proposition by testing three-way, or higher order, interaction effects. One hundred and fifty-three U.K. government employees were randomly assigned to a SMT intervention group (n = 68), or to a waiting list control group (n = 85). The SMT group received three half-day training sessions spread over two and a half months. Findings indicated that there were significant overall reductions in psychological strain, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the SMT group, in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant higher order Group (SMT vs. control) × Time 1 Work-Related Self-Efficacy × Time 1 Intrinsic Work Motivation interactions, such that reductions in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at certain time points were experienced only by those who had low baseline levels of work-related self-efficacy and high baseline levels of intrinsic work motivation. Implications for work-related self-efficacy theory and research and SMT research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Individuals motivated to participate in adherence, care and treatment (imPACT): development of a multi-component intervention to help HIV-infected recently incarcerated individuals link and adhere to HIV care.
Golin, Carol E; Knight, Kevin; Carda-Auten, Jessica; Gould, Michele; Groves, Jennifer; L White, Becky; Bradley-Bull, Steve; Amola, Kemi; Fray, Niasha; Rosen, David L; Mugavaro, Michael J; Pence, Brian W; Flynn, Patrick M; Wohl, David
Policy-makers promote a seek, test, treat and retain (STTR) strategy to expand HIV testing, support linkage and engagement in care, and enhance the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy for those HIV-infected. This HIV prevention strategy is particularly appropriate in correctional settings where HIV screening and treatment are routinely available yet many HIV-infected individuals have difficulty sustaining sufficient linkage and engagement in care, disease management, and viral suppression after prison release. Our research team developed Project imPACT (individuals motivated to Participate in Adherence, Care and Treatment), a multi-component approach for HIV-Infected recently incarcerated individuals that specifically targets their care linkage, retention, and medication adherence by addressing multiple barriers to care engagement after release. The ultimate goals of this intervention are to improve the health of HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison and reduce HIV transmission to their communities by maintaining viral suppression. This paper describes the intervention and technology development processes, based on best practices for intervention development and process evaluation. These processes included: 1) identifying the target population; 2) clarifying the theoretical basis for intervention design; 3) describing features of its foundational interventions; 4) conducting formative qualitative research; 5) integrating and adapting foundational interventions to create and refine intervention content based on target audience feedback. These stages along with the final intervention product are described in detail. The intervention is currently being evaluation and a two arm randomized, controlled trial in two US state prison systems. Based on a literature review, qualitative research, integration of proven interventions and behavioral theory, the final imPACT intervention focused on the transition period two to three months before and three
An Internet-supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered in Secondary Schools Located in Low Socio-economic Status Communities: Study Protocol for the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Moyes, Ian; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Maeder, Anthony; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Diallo, Thierno M O; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R
School-based physical education is an important public health initiative as it has the potential to provide students with regular opportunities to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Unfortunately, in many physical education lessons students do not engage in sufficient MVPA to achieve health benefits. In this trial we will test the efficacy of a teacher professional development intervention, delivered partially via the Internet, on secondary school students' MVPA during physical education lessons. Teaching strategies covered in this training are designed to (i) maximize opportunities for students to be physically active during lessons and (ii) enhance students' autonomous motivation towards physical activity. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with allocation at the school level (intervention vs. usual care control). Teachers and Year 8 students in government-funded secondary schools in low socio-economic areas of the Western Sydney region of Australia will be eligible to participate. During the main portion of the intervention (6 months), teachers will participate in two workshops and complete two implementation tasks at their school. Implementation tasks will involve video-based self-reflection via the project's Web 2.0 platform and an individualized feedback meeting with a project mentor. Each intervention school will also complete two group peer-mentoring sessions at their school (one per term) in which they will discuss implementation with members of their school physical education staff. In the booster period (3 months), teachers will complete a half-day workshop at their school, plus one online implementation task, and a group mentoring session at their school. Throughout the entire intervention period (main intervention plus booster period), teachers will have access to online resources. Data collection will include baseline, post-intervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance phase (14-15 months after baseline
Eissa, Mourad Ali
This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…
Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.
Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel
Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major
Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.
. This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...
Deci, Edward L.
The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…
Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.
Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and
Donehew, G R
Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.
Amado, Diana; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; Molero, Pablo
The current study reviews processes of teaching-learning based on creativity, with the application by teachers of several strategies to support the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The aim is to learn the effect of pupil's gender on their motivational level and the psychological consequences that might arise in the cognitive, affective, and behavioural domains. A quasi-experimental study was carried out at four schools in Mexico, with 12 physical education teachers and 40 natural groups of pupils aged between 11 and 17 (M = 13.17). The groups were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (24 groups, 447 pupils) or a control group (16 groups, 474 pupils). A prior training programme was carried out with the teachers in the experimental group to enable them to support the psychological need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Initial and final measurements were taken in both groups, and the results revealed that independently of the programme used, girls showed higher motivation and positive psychological consequences in the teaching of dance compared to the male participants. In conclusion, it is important to continue with research and set a methodology that addresses those differences, dedicating the necessary time and treatment to resolve their questions and necessities.
Full Text Available The current study reviews processes of teaching-learning based on creativity, with the application by teachers of several strategies to support the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The aim is to learn the effect of pupil's gender on their motivational level and the psychological consequences that might arise in the cognitive, affective, and behavioural domains. A quasi-experimental study was carried out at four schools in Mexico, with 12 physical education teachers and 40 natural groups of pupils aged between 11 and 17 (M = 13.17. The groups were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (24 groups, 447 pupils or a control group (16 groups, 474 pupils. A prior training programme was carried out with the teachers in the experimental group to enable them to support the psychological need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Initial and final measurements were taken in both groups, and the results revealed that independently of the programme used, girls showed higher motivation and positive psychological consequences in the teaching of dance compared to the male participants. In conclusion, it is important to continue with research and set a methodology that addresses those differences, dedicating the necessary time and treatment to resolve their questions and necessities.
Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Georgiou, Yiannis; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Kyza, Eleni A.; Mappouras, Demetrios
Despite the importance of understanding how the human reproductive system works, adolescents worldwide exhibit weak conceptual understanding, which leads to serious risks, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Studies focusing on the development and evaluation of inquiry-based learning interventions, promoting the…
Evaluating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing and multi-modal exercise intervention for youth with major depression: Healthy Body, Healthy Mind randomised controlled trial protocol
Conclusion: This trial will increase our understanding of the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions for depression and the specific effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. It also offers a novel contribution by addressing treatment engagement in exercise efficacy trials in youth with MDD.
Dupont, H.B.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Lemmens, P.; Kaplan, Charles; van de Mheen, Dike; de Vries, N.K.
Previously, a Dutch randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention aimed at changing adolescents’ cannabis use, called Moti-4, has shown its efficacy. A secondary analysis of the Moti-4 data investigated the process of change specified by the Stage of Change (SOC) model in cannabis use
Dupont, H.B.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Lemmens, P.; Kaplan, C.D.; van de Mheen, D.; De Vries, N.K.
Previously, a Dutch randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention aimed at changing adolescents' cannabis use, called Moti-4, has shown its efficacy. A secondary analysis of the Moti-4 data investigated the process of change specified by the Stage of Change (SOC) model in cannabis use
Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van
Objective: To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n =324)
Santarossa, Sara; Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J
Recently, public health messaging has included having more family meals and involving young adolescents (YAs) with meal preparation to improve healthful diets and family dinner frequency (FDF). Kinect-Ed, a motivational nutrition education presentation was created to encourage YAs (grades 6-8) to help with meal preparation and ultimately improve FDF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Kinect-Ed presentation, with the goals of the presentation being to improve self-efficacy for cooking (SE), food preparation techniques (TECH), food preparation frequency (PREP), family meal attitudes and behaviours, and ultimately increase FDF. A sample of YAs (n = 219) from Southern Ontario, Canada, completed pre- and postpresentation surveys, measuring FDF, PREP, SE, and TECH. Kinect-Ed successfully improved participants' FDF (p prepare meals and get involved in the kitchen may reduce the time needed from parents to prepare meals, and, in turn, allow more time for frequent family dinners.
Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... behaviours related to lifestyle diseases in adults (Rubak et al. 2005; Söderlund et al. 2011). The use of motivational interviewing by school nurses for the prevention of child obesity in a family intervention is still new, and evidence on the potentials and problems is scarce (Resnicow, Davis and Rollnick...
Brinkman-Majewski, Rachel E; Weiss, Windee M
their intrinsic motivation toward the therapeutic interventions.
Møller, A; Villebro, N
Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....
Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G
Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Testing the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention for substance use as an adjunct to usual care in community-based AIDS service organizations: study protocol for a multisite randomized controlled trial
Bryan R. Garner
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1 reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2 increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3 reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Methods As part of a multisite randomized controlled trial, individuals with comorbid HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use are randomized to receive either the ASOs’ usual care (control condition or usual care plus a MIBI for substance use (experimental condition delivered by trained ASO case-management staff. Primary outcome measures are reductions in days of primary substance use, number of substance-related problems, times engaging in risky behaviors, days of non-adherence to HIV medications, and increases in substance use treatment. As part of this paper, we describe the trial protocol in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials guidelines. Discussion If successfully able to implement MIBI as an effective adjunct to usual care, the current trial may
ParticiPAte CP: a protocol of a randomised waitlist controlled trial of a motivational and behaviour change therapy intervention to increase physical activity through meaningful participation in children with cerebral palsy.
Reedman, Sarah Elizabeth; Boyd, Roslyn N; Elliott, Catherine; Sakzewski, Leanne
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in leisure-time physical activities (PA) less often, with less intensity and reduced diversity than their typically developing peers. Participation in leisure-time physical activities may be an important source of habitual physical activity (HPA) for children with CP, who as a group have lower levels of HPA and increased sedentary time compared with their typically developing peers. The proposed study aims to compare the efficacy of a participation focused therapy (ParticiPAte CP) to usual care in a pragmatic, randomised waitlist controlled trial. Thirty-six children with CP (18 in each group), classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III, aged between 8 and 12 years will be recruited across South East Queensland, Australia. Children will be randomised to receive either ParticiPAte CP or waitlist usual care using concealed allocation. ParticiPAte CP is an individually tailored, goal-directed intervention model of pragmatic participation-focused therapy using a toolbox of evidence-based strategies in the treatment of children with CP. This will include goal-setting; identification of barriers and facilitators to participation goals, strategy formation and planning and communication guided by principles of Self-Determination Theory using strategies of Motivational Interviewing. The intervention comprises 8 weekly sessions of 1 hour duration conducted by a physiotherapist in the child's home or community. ACTRN12615001064594. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Mogensen, Ole
-adherent interventions). Furthermore, the participants asked fewer closed and more open questions before training in motivational interview. In the assessment of proficiency and competency, most of the participants scored higher after the training in motivational interviewing. CONCLUSIONS: Training in motivational......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a three day training course in motivational interviewing which is an approach to helping people to change could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING......: The Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: Eleven obstetric healthcare professionals working with obese pregnant women underwent a three day course in motivational interviewing techniques and were assessed before- and after training to measure the impact on their overall performance as well as the effect...
Background: Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of ...
Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory
Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin D; Strobino, Donna; Carpenter, Laura M; Milligan, Renee; Pugh, Linda C
In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 low-income breastfeeding women to explore the incentives and disincentives to breastfeeding experienced within 6 months postpartum. Using an individual net benefit maximization (INBM) framework based on economic theory, we assessed women's motivations, incentives, and disincentives for breastfeeding. Based on the framework and their experience breastfeeding, women fell into 3 groups: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and successfully experienced with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Successfully experienced women were most likely to breastfeed to 6 months. Intrinsically motivated women valued breastfeeding but often required information and instruction to reach breastfeeding goals. Extrinsically motivated women were least likely to continue breastfeeding even with support and instruction. Providers can screen women to determine their experience and motivation then tailor interventions accordingly. Intrinsically motivated women may need support and instruction, extrinsically motivated women may benefit from motivational interviewing, and successfully experienced women may need only minimal breastfeeding counseling.
Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj
In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...
Medalia, Alice; Saperstein, Alice
Learning during skills-based psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia is influenced by the motivating properties of the treatment context and the motivational orientation of the client. Given that motivational impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia with significant functional implications, intervention strategies emphasizing extrinsic and/or intrinsic goals may be prescribed to enhance skill learning and treatment outcomes. The purpose of this article is to consider the role that motivation plays in treatment success by evaluating the relationship between motivation and learning during cognitive remediation for schizophrenia. As intrinsic motivation (IM) is most often associated with learning, we will integrate research findings which address 3 main questions: (1) is IM in schizophrenia static or dynamic, (2) is it possible to manipulate the state of being intrinsically motivated and if so do manipulations of IM affect learning? and (3) can motivation theory be translated into clinical practice? This knowledge can facilitate treatment strategies to address the low base rate of IM that is characteristic of schizophrenia and can be applied to cognitive remediation as well as other psychosocial interventions which require learning for treatment success.
Shattuck, Dominick; Kerner, Brad; Gilles, Kate; Hartmann, Miriam; Ng'ombe, Thokozani; Guest, Greg
We examined the effect of a peer-delivered educational intervention, the Malawi Male Motivator intervention, on couples' contraceptive uptake. We based the intervention design on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. In 2008 we recruited 400 men from Malawi's Mangochi province who reported not using any method of contraception. We randomized them into an intervention arm and a control arm, and administered surveys on contraceptive use at baseline and after the intervention. We also conducted in-depth interviews with a subset of intervention participants. After the intervention, contraceptive use increased significantly within both arms (P communication within couples were the only significant predictors of uptake (P communication skills are essential mechanisms for successfully enabling men to help couples use a contraceptive.
Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction An intervention can motivate someone to seek help for alcohol or drug misuse, compulsive eating, or ... successful. By Mayo Clinic Staff It's challenging to help a loved one struggling with any type of ...
The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...
Hardre, Patricia L.; Miller, Raymond B.
Workplace motivation historically has been an HR function, with ID as a training function. This division produces a split between motivation and training, leaving them isolated from one another. Intervention design needs to include motivation throughout its phases, to maximize motivating opportunities for performance improvement. The current…
Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P.; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S.; Moreno, Jose L.; Grobe, James E.
Introduction Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting/participants Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010–2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Intervention Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients’ own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Main outcomes measures Self-reported quit attempts, smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), use of cessation pharmacotherapies, motivation, and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing
Harackiewicz, Judith M; Tibbetts, Yoi; Canning, Elizabeth; Hyde, Janet S
We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement? We have approached these two motivational questions from several perspectives, examining the theoretical issues with basic laboratory research, conducting longitudinal questionnaire studies in classrooms, and developing interventions implemented in different STEM contexts. Our research is grounded in three theories that we believe are complementary: expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), interest theory (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), and self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). As social psychologists, we have focused on motivational theory and used experimental methods, with an emphasis on values - students' perceptions of the value of academic tasks and students' personal values that shape their experiences in academic contexts. We review the experimental field studies in high-school science and college psychology classes, in which utility-value interventions promoted interest and performance for high-school students in science classes and for undergraduate students in psychology courses. We also review a randomized intervention in which parents received information about the utility value of math and science for their teens in high school; this intervention led students to take nearly one semester more of science and mathematics, compared with the control group. Finally, we review an experimental study of values affirmation in a college biology course and found that the intervention improved performance and retention for first-generation college students, closing the social-class achievement gap by 50%. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms through which these interventions work. These interventions are exciting for their broad applicability in improving students' academic choices and
Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Canning, Elizabeth; Hyde, Janet S.
Purpose We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement? Design/methodology/approach We have approached these two motivational questions from several perspectives, examining the theoretical issues with basic laboratory research, conducting longitudinal questionnaire studies in classrooms, and developing interventions implemented in different STEM contexts. Our research is grounded in three theories that we believe are complementary: expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), interest theory (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), and self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). As social psychologists, we have focused on motivational theory and used experimental methods, with an emphasis on values – students’ perceptions of the value of academic tasks and students’ personal values that shape their experiences in academic contexts. Findings We review the experimental field studies in high-school science and college psychology classes, in which utility-value interventions promoted interest and performance for high-school students in science classes and for undergraduate students in psychology courses. We also review a randomized intervention in which parents received information about the utility value of math and science for their teens in high school; this intervention led students to take nearly one semester more of science and mathematics, compared with the control group. Finally, we review an experimental study of values affirmation in a college biology course and found that the intervention improved performance and retention for first-generation college students, closing the social-class achievement gap by 50%. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms through which these interventions work. Originality/value These interventions are exciting for
Furia, Andrea C; Lee, Rebecca E; Strother, Myra L; Huang, Terry T-K
To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Factor analysis yielded 6 factors-Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha=0.73): affective motivation, self-efficacy/interest; Extrinsic (Cronbach's alpha=0.68): social reward, peer pressure, lack of choice, and authority influence. Males and normal-weight students showed higher affective motivation and overall intrinsic motivation compared to females and overweight students, (PIntrinsic motivational factors and gender differences should be considered in developing obesity prevention interventions in this age-group.
Lindner, James R.
Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)
Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland
Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...
The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...
M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...
Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder
Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...
Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana
There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...
Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…
Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others
Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…
Olmstead, Joseph A.
There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…
Helmreich, Robert L.
Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.
Olsen, Jan Brødslev
ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...
Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen
Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…
Saperstein, Alice M; Medalia, Alice
Motivation impairment is an often prominent component of schizophrenia symptomatology that impacts treatment engagement and reduces the functional benefit from psychosocial interventions. Intrinsic motivation in particular has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. Nowhere is the role of intrinsic motivation impairment more evident than in cognitive remediation for schizophrenia. This chapter describes the theoretical determinants of motivation to learn and illustrates how those determinants have been translated into therapeutic techniques that enhance intrinsic motivation in a clinical context. We review the extant research that indicates how motivation enhancing techniques yield treatment-related improvements within cognitive remediation therapy and, more broadly, in other behavioral skills-based interventions for schizophrenia.
McDonald, Angelic P
The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.
Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.
Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E
Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.
Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.
Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete
Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...
Cheng, Daobin; Qu, Zhanli; Huang, Jianyi; Xiao, Yousheng; Luo, Hongye; Wang, Jin
Psychological problems are common complications following stroke that can cause stroke survivors to lack the motivation to take part in activities of daily living. Motivational interviewing provides a specific way for enhancing intrinsic motivation, which may help to improve activities of daily living for stroke survivors. To investigate the effect of motivational interviewing for improving activities of daily living after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1948 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2015), PsycBITE (March 2015) and four Chinese databases. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials, we searched ongoing trials registers and conference proceedings, checked reference lists, and contacted authors of relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing motivational interviewing with no intervention, sham motivational interviewing or other psychological therapy for people with stroke were eligible. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted eligible data and assessed risk of bias. Outcome measures included activities of daily living, mood and death. One study involving a total of 411 participants, which compared motivational interviewing with usual care, met our inclusion criteria. The results of this review did not show significant differences between groups receiving motivational interviewing or usual stroke care for participants who were not dependent on others for activities of daily living, nor on the death rate after three-month and 12-month follow-up, but participants receiving motivational interviewing were more likely to have a normal mood than those who received usual care at three-months and 12-months follow-up. There is insufficient evidence to support
Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L
To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.
Mikkelsen, Maria Falk; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
analyze whether local managers—the primary enforcers of external interventions—affect how employees perceive a command system and thereby affect employee intrinsic motivation. Using a multilevel dataset of 1,190 teachers and 32 school principals, we test whether principals’ use of “hard”, “mixed” or “soft......” enforcement of a command system (obligatory teacher-produced student plans) is associated with teacher intrinsic motivation. Results show that teachers experiencing a “hard” enforcement have lower intrinsic motivation than teachers experiencing a “soft” enforcement. As expected by motivation crowding theory......A number of studies show that the use of external interventions, such as command systems and economic incentives, can decrease employee intrinsic motivation. Our knowledge of why the size of “the hidden cost of rewards” differs between organizations is, however, still sparse. In this paper, we...
Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...
Compton, Louise; Campbell, Marilyn A.; Mergler, Amanda
Understanding the motivation of students who cyberbully is important for both prevention and intervention efforts for this insidious form of bullying. This qualitative exploratory study used focus groups to examine the views of teachers, parents and students as to the motivation of students who cyberbully and who bully in other traditional forms.…
Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia
Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.
Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja
The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine
The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.
The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...
This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...
The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...
Miguel, Caio F.
Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...
concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom
Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul
We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....
Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...Much has been written regarding motivational Defense AT&L: November-December 2009 58 theory . To further complicate mat- ters, some motivational... theories clearly contradict others, and a manager’s ability to motivate is, to no small degree, related to his or her leadership approach and inter
Taxman, Faye S; Walters, Scott T; Sloas, Lincoln B; Lerch, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Mayra
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising practice to increase motivation, treatment retention, and reducing recidivism among offender populations. Computer-delivered interventions have grown in popularity as a way to change behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Motivational Assistance Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) is a three arm, multisite, randomized controlled trial, which examines the impact of Motivational interviewing (MI), a motivational computer program (MC), and supervision as usual (SAU) on addiction treatment initiation, engagement, and retention. Secondary outcomes include drug/alcohol use, probation progress, recidivism (i.e., criminal behavior) and HIV/AIDS testing and treatment among probationers. Participant characteristics are measured at baseline, 2, and 6 months after assignment. The entire study will include 600 offenders, with each site recruiting 300 offenders (Baltimore City, Maryland and Dallas, Texas). All participants will go through standard intake procedures for probation and participate in probation requirements as usual. After standard intake, participants will be recruited and screened for eligibility. The results of this clinical trial will fill a gap in knowledge about ways to motivate probationers to participate in addiction treatment and HIV care. This randomized clinical trial is innovative in the way it examines the use of in-person vs. technological approaches to improve probationer success. NCT01891656. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The efficacy of a blended motivational interviewing and problem solving therapy intervention to reduce substance use among patients presenting for emergency services in South Africa: A randomized controlled trial
Sorsdahl, K.; Stein, D.J.; Cuijpers, P.; Smits, N.; Naledi, T.; Myers, B.
Background: The treatment of substance use disorders is a public health priority, particularly in South Africa where the prevalence of these disorders is high. We tested two peer-counsellor delivered brief interventions (BIs) for risky substance use among adults presenting to emergency departments
The efficacy of a blended motivational interviewing and problem solving therapy intervention to reduce substance use among patients presenting for emergency services in South Africa: A randomized controlled trial. .
Sorsdahl, K.; Stein, D.J.; Corrigal, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Smits, N.; Naledi, T.; Myers, B.
Background: The treatment of substance use disorders is a public health priority, particularly in South Africa where the prevalence of these disorders is high. We tested two peer-counsellor delivered brief interventions (BIs) for risky substance use among adults presenting to emergency departments
Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement
Hoek, W.; Marko, M.; Fogel, J.; Schuurmans, J.; Gladstone, T.; Bradford, N.; Domanico, R.; Fagan, B.; Bell, C.; Reinecke, M.A.; van Voorhees, B.
We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Hauptman, Allyson L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…
Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.
Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.
This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said
The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…
Waters, T. R.
Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)
Boekaerts, Monique, Ed.
Nine papers on the interrelationship between emotion, motivation, and learning are presented. Articles focusing on motivation were presented at the Second Conference of the European Association of Learning and Instruction in Tubingin, West Germany. Three other papers focus on anxiety, optimism-pessimism, stress, coping, and social support. (TJH)
Gray, N. D.
Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.
Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.
Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...
Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis
Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi
Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....
Peters, O.; Almekinders, Johan; van Buren, Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline
This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience
Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.
To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…
Presents an approach that teachers can use to promote and investigate students' motivation to learn in the classroom. Notes that the strategies used are from Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking courses. Explains the following motivational devices: dual-entry diary; clusters; know/want to know/learned; think/pair/share; discussion web;…
Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling
This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…
This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...
Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander
It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...
significantly after the intervention (team player, competitiveness, self-confidence and achiever). Other changes following the intervention included an overall increase in the scores in the subscale 'work habits' (planning/organisation, initiative, team player). Apart from revealing an increase in achievement motivation, the ...
Woodin, Erica M.; Sotskova, Alina; O’Leary, K. Daniel
Motivational interviewing is a directive, non-confrontational intervention to promote behavior change. The current study examined therapist behaviors during a successful brief motivational interviewing intervention for physically aggressive college dating couples (Woodin & O’Leary, 2010). Forty-five minute motivational interviews with each partner were videotaped and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (MITI; Moyers, Martin, Manuel, & Miller, 2003). Hierarchical modeling analyses demonstrated that therapist behaviors consistent with motivational interviewing competency predicted significantly greater reductions in physical aggression perpetration following the intervention. Specifically, greater reflection to question ratios by the therapists predicted reductions in aggression for both men and women, greater percentages of open versus closed questions predicted aggression reductions for women, and there was a trend for greater levels of global therapist empathy to predict aggression reductions for women. These findings provide evidence that motivational interviewing seems to have an effect on behavior change through therapist behaviors consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of motivational interviewing. PMID:22119133
Almolda-Tomas, Francisco J.; Sevil-Serrano, Javier; Julian-Clemente, Jose A.; Abarca-Sos, Alberto; Aibar-Solana, Alberto; Garcia-Gonzalez, Luis
Introduction: Physical Education (PE) is a way of promoting sports in adolescents, and teachers can encourage this sport adherence by generating motivation in students through their teaching intervention. The aim of the study was to develop and implement teaching intervention strategies to generate an optimal motivational climate and assess their…
Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M
Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.
Fischer, Hans Ernst; Horstendahl, Michaela
Being involved in science education we cannot avoid confronting the problem of students' waning interest in physics. Therefore, we want to focus on arguments developed by new theoretical work in the field of motivation. Especially, we are attracted by the theory of motivation featured by Deci and Ryan, because it is related to an assumptions of human development similar to our own approach. Beneath elements of cognitive development, motivation is seen as a basic concept to describe students' learning in a physics classroom. German students at lower and upper secondary level regard physics as very difficult to learn, very abstract and dominated by male students. As a result physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernise and develop the related physics courses. We assume that knowing about the influence of motivation on learning physics may lead to new insights in the design of classroom settings. Referring to Deci and Ryan, we use a model of motivation to describe the influence of two different teaching strategies (teacher and discourse oriented) on learning. Electrostatics was taught in year 8. The outcomes of a questionnaire which is able to evaluate defined, motivational states are compared with the interpretation of the same student's interaction in the related situation of the physics classroom. The scales of the questionnaire and the categories of analysis of the video-recording are derived from the same model of motivation.
Motivation is an important factor for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but knowledge is needed on different weight loss interventions and how they affect motivation. Because it is assumed that a sustained motivation for dieting makes the patient more able to comply with the treatment and thus succeed in losing weight, identifying how different interventions affect motivation is of great importance. The current RCT therefore aimed to explore the course of motivation for dieting in two ...
The public health system in Australia currently faces unprecedented challenges managing an ageing population with a rising burden of illness. Health professionals employed in the area are under constant pressure to do more with less, leading to high levels of employee dissatisfaction. Physician satisfaction is a critical aspect of quality health care, allowing the development of a motivated workforce committed to improving patient outcomes. Herzberg has identified several factors that contribute to employee motivation, including financial remuneration, work-life balance and the recognition and reward of good performance. Some strategies are more effective than others; here we discuss their relative advantages, the role of financial rewards, and propose other interventions to 'switch on' motivation.
Stella Maris Vásquez
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some educational consequences are sketched out.
Gevarter, William B.
A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.
Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas
In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...
Wong, Emmy M Y; Cheng, May M H
To assess the effects of motivational interviewing for obese children and telephone consultation for parents to promote weight loss in obese children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide health problem that leads to serious metabolic and physiological consequences. An effective intervention to manage obesity is essential. Motivational interviewing is designed to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behaviour changes. It has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive health behaviour changes. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as an effective method for improving the weight loss of obese children. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in four primary schools over an 11-month period in 2010-2011. Obese children (n = 185) were screened from 791 school children studying the equivalent to UK grades 5 and 6 and were divided into three groups: motivational interviewing, motivational interviewing+ and a control group. The motivational interviewing group (n = 70) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling; the motivational interviewing+ group (n = 66) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling while telephone consultation was provided for their parents; and the control group did not receive any intervention (n = 49). Children in both the motivational interviewing and motivational interviewing+ groups showed significant improvement in their weight-related behaviour and obesity-related anthropometric measures from the baseline to the end of the 14-week intervention, while the control group had significant deterioration in their anthropometric measures. Motivational interviewing appears to be a promising intervention for promoting weight loss in obese children. Motivational interviewing counselling may be extended to obese children of different age groups. This study
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...
Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L
The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Decision-making competence in later adulthood is affected by declines in cognitive skills, and age-related changes in affect and experience can sometimes compensate. However, recent findings suggest that age-related changes in motivation also affect the extent to which adults draw from experience, affect, and deliberative skills when making decisions. To date, relatively little attention has been given to strategies for addressing age-related changes in motivation to promote better decisions in older adults. To address this limitation, we draw from diverse literatures to suggest promising intervention strategies for motivating older recipients’ motivation to make better decisions. We start by reviewing the life-span developmental literature, which suggests that older adults’ motivation to put effort into decisions depends on the perceived personal relevance of decisions as well as their self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in applying their ability and knowledge. Next, we discuss two approaches from the health intervention design literature, the mental models approach and the patient activation approach, which aim to improve motivation for decision making by improving personal relevance or by building self-efficacy or confidence to use new information and skills. Using examples from these literatures, we discuss how to construct interventions to motivate good decisions in later adulthood.
Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Peters, Ellen
Decision-making competence in later adulthood is affected by declines in cognitive skills, and age-related changes in affect and experience can sometimes compensate. However, recent findings suggest that age-related changes in motivation also affect the extent to which adults draw from experience, affect, and deliberative skills when making decisions. To date, relatively little attention has been given to strategies for addressing age-related changes in motivation to promote better decisions in older adults. To address this limitation, we draw from diverse literatures to suggest promising intervention strategies for motivating older recipients’ motivation to make better decisions. We start by reviewing the life-span developmental literature, which suggests that older adults’ motivation to put effort into decisions depends on the perceived personal relevance of decisions as well as their self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in applying their ability and knowledge). Next, we discuss two approaches from the health intervention design literature, the mental models approach and the patient activation approach, which aim to improve motivation for decision making by improving personal relevance or by building self-efficacy or confidence to use new information and skills. Using examples from these literatures, we discuss how to construct interventions to motivate good decisions in later adulthood. PMID:26157398
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole; Hansen, Helle P; Lamont, Ronald F; Jørgensen, Jan S
To examine whether a 3-day training course in motivational interviewing, which is an approach to helping people to change, could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. Intervention study. The Region of Southern Denmark. Eleven obstetric healthcare professionals working with obese pregnant women underwent a 3-day course in motivational interviewing techniques and were assessed before and after training to measure the impact on their overall performance as well as the effect on specific behavioral techniques observed during interviews. With a few exceptions, the participants changed their behavior appropriate to the motivational interviewing technique. The participants made more interventions towards the principles of motivational interviewing (adherent and nonadherent interventions). Furthermore, the participants asked fewer closed and more open questions before training in motivational interview. In the assessment of proficiency and competency, most of the participants scored higher after the training in motivational interviewing. Training in motivational interviewing improves healthcare professionals' proficiency and competency when communicating with obese pregnant women, albeit that the effect was not universal. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emotion, Motivation und Volition / D. Ulich ; V. Brandstätter ; P. M. Gollwitzer. - In: Psychologie / hrsg. von Dietrich Dörner ... - 2., überarb. und erw. Aufl. - Stuttgart u.a. : Kohlhammer, 1996. - S. 115-135
Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.
To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.
Shearer, Dana Ann
According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.
Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of participants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and participants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.
Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...... of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...
van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.
Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are
Taylor, J. Rodney
The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)
Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.
Low-Intensity Self-Management Intervention for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Using a Mobile Phone-Based Diabetes Diary, With and Without Health Counseling and Motivational Interviewing: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
Holmen, Heidi; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Grøttland, Astrid; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Elind, Elisabeth; Bergmo, Trine Strand; Breivik, Elin; Årsand, Eirik
Background The present study protocol is designed to cover the Norwegian part of the European Union Collaborative Project—REgioNs of Europe WorkINg together for HEALTH (RENEWING HEALTH). Self-management support is an important element of care for persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) for achieving metabolic control and positive lifestyle changes. Telemedicine (TM) with or without health counseling may become an important technological aid for self-management and may provide a user-centered model of care. In spite of many earlier studies on TM, there remains a lack of consensus in research findings about the effect of TM interventions. Objective The aim of RENEWING HEALTH is to validate and evaluate innovative TM tools on a large scale through a common evaluation, making it easier for decision makers to choose the most efficient and cost-effective technological interventions. The Norwegian pilot study evaluates whether the introduction of a mobile phone with a diabetes diary application together with health counseling intervention produces benefits in terms of the desired outcomes, as reflected in the hemoglobin A1c level, health-related quality of life, behavior change, and cost-effectiveness. Methods The present study has a mixed-method design comprising a three-armed prospective randomized controlled trial and qualitative interviews with study data collected at three time points: baseline, after 4 months, and after 1 year. The patients’ registrations on the application are recorded continuously and are sent securely to a server. Results The inclusion of patients started in March 2011, and 100% of the planned sample size is included (N=151). Of all the participants, 26/151 patients (17.2%) are lost to follow-up by now, and 11/151 patients (7.3%) are still in the trial. Results of the study protocol will be presented in 2014. Conclusions The key goals of this trial are to investigate the effect of an electronic diabetes diary app with and without health counseling
Low-intensity self-management intervention for persons with type 2 diabetes using a mobile phone-based diabetes diary, with and without health counseling and motivational interviewing: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Ribu, Lis; Holmen, Heidi; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Grøttland, Astrid; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Elind, Elisabeth; Bergmo, Trine Strand; Breivik, Elin; Arsand, Eirik
The present study protocol is designed to cover the Norwegian part of the European Union Collaborative Project-REgioNs of Europe WorkINg together for HEALTH (RENEWING HEALTH). Self-management support is an important element of care for persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) for achieving metabolic control and positive lifestyle changes. Telemedicine (TM) with or without health counseling may become an important technological aid for self-management and may provide a user-centered model of care. In spite of many earlier studies on TM, there remains a lack of consensus in research findings about the effect of TM interventions. The aim of RENEWING HEALTH is to validate and evaluate innovative TM tools on a large scale through a common evaluation, making it easier for decision makers to choose the most efficient and cost-effective technological interventions. The Norwegian pilot study evaluates whether the introduction of a mobile phone with a diabetes diary application together with health counseling intervention produces benefits in terms of the desired outcomes, as reflected in the hemoglobin A1c level, health-related quality of life, behavior change, and cost-effectiveness. The present study has a mixed-method design comprising a three-armed prospective randomized controlled trial and qualitative interviews with study data collected at three time points: baseline, after 4 months, and after 1 year. The patients' registrations on the application are recorded continuously and are sent securely to a server. The inclusion of patients started in March 2011, and 100% of the planned sample size is included (N=151). Of all the participants, 26/151 patients (17.2%) are lost to follow-up by now, and 11/151 patients (7.3%) are still in the trial. Results of the study protocol will be presented in 2014. The key goals of this trial are to investigate the effect of an electronic diabetes diary app with and without health counseling, and to determine whether health counseling is
It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.
Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois
This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individualsï¿½ underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...
sættes læring i forbindelse med begrebet motivation. I blandt andet Banduras teori, understreges vigtigheden af en tæt forbindelse mellem elevens mestring og lærerens passende målsætning. Med afsæt i (fx) Vygotsky’s ’Zonen for nærmeste udvikling’ belyser artiklen hvordan elevernes motivation kan blive...
Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities: a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy
Clough, Alan R; Grant, Kristy; Robertson, Jan; Wrigley, Matthew; Nichols, Nina; Fitzgibbon, Tracey
Introduction Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a ‘smoke-free home’ rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of conducting a health-driven intervention to encourage community members to make their homes a smoke-free zone. Methods and analysis This study uses mixed-methods exploratory evaluation design to obtain data from key informants and community householders to assess their willingness to implement a ‘smoke-free’ rule in their homes. Initial focus groups will provide guidance on intervention content and deliver evaluation procedures and community requirements. A rapid survey will be conducted to ascertain interest from community members in having the project team visit to discuss study objectives further and to have a particle meter (with consent) placed in the house. Focus groups recordings will be transcribed and analysed thematically. Rapid surveys will be analysed using frequency distributions and tabulations of responses. Ethics and dissemination The National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines on ethical research approaches to indigenous studies will be adhered to. The James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee has provided ethics approval. PMID:29500205
Full Text Available Guides play a vital role in this process bringing satisfaction to tourists visiting a country or region/state. The opportunity of direct interaction with the tourists makes them all the more responsible for projecting the correct image of the country/region, giving factually correct information about the destination, ensuring the safety and well being of the tourists as well as pleasing and satisfying the stay for them during their visits. Over last few years there has been a greater interest in tour guide profession especially in the northern region of India.The purpose of this study is to identify the motivations that led to choosing tour guiding as a profession and career. There appears to be a significant difference in such motivation in different regions of the country. A comparison in motivations in two regions (north vs. east was made. Based on primary data collection paper attempts to discuss what has motivated the youth to take up tour guiding profession- whether such motivation is positive of negative. In either case policy makers may decide what type of support programs need to be introduced by the state and other agencies like educational, rearing and counselling, financial support, social security, or any other type of interventions.
The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?
Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak
Medical students' motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students' motivation to study. An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students' academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach's alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Students' academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students' self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (Pmotivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (Pacademic milestones, and a step ahead of autonomous motivation. Amotivation level declined significantly (Pacademic motivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). After experiencing a three-day intervention, the new students' motivation advanced along the continuum of self-determination toward autonomous motivation. Therefore, it is considered to be worthwhile
Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick
The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....
Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David
This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation--not only considering the level but also type of motivation--in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.
Teixeira Pedro J
Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.
This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818
Full Text Available Background and AimsSince alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent and destructive mental disorders, it is critical to address factors contributing to their development and maintenance. Drinking motives are relevant driving factors for consumption. Identifying groups of drinkers with similar motivations may help to specialize intervention components and make treatment more effective and efficient. We aimed to identify and describe distinct motive types of drinkers in dependent males from two diverse cultures (Uganda and Germany and to explore potential differences and similarities in addiction-related measures. Moreover, we investigated specific links between motive types and childhood maltreatment, traumatic experiences, and symptoms of comorbid psychopathologies.MethodsTo determine distinct drinking motive types, we conducted latent class analyses concerning drinking motives (Drinking Motive Scale in samples of treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent men (N = 75. Subsequently we compared the identified motive types concerning their alcohol consumption and alcohol-related symptoms (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, history of childhood maltreatment (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, trauma exposure (Violence, War and Abduction Exposure Scale, psychopathology (Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Depression-section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and Brief Symptom Inventory and deficits in emotion regulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale.ResultsWe found two congruent drinking motive types in both contexts. Reward-oriented drinking motives like the generation of positive feelings and enhancing performance were endorsed almost equally by both motive types, whereas high relief motive endorsement characterized one group, but not the other. The relief motive type drank to overcome aversive feelings, withdrawal, and daily hassles and was characterized by higher adversity in general. Emotional maltreatment in childhood
The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...
Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Rewa...
Full Text Available Motivation is a process, which can be fostered or killed in the name of education. In this paper, the author explores two theories of motivation-Expectancy-Value and Three Elements of Intrinsic Motivation-within the context of unschooling and within a school system. Based on the concepts presented through these theories, the author concludes that unschoolers hold on to their intrinsic motivation while schooled childrens motivation may be killed by attending school.
Creswell, J David
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.
Mashreghi, Sepandarmaz; Dankers, Silke; Bunke, Sofia
This study explored the association of ethnic-cultural identity salience with perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in multicultural sport classes. Questionnaires evaluating ethnic-cultural identity salience, perceived motivational climate and achievement goals were completed by high...... school students attending a sport school (n=66). Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed that performance-oriented motivational climate was positively linked with lack of interaction and fringe dimensions of ethnic-cultural identity salience. In contrast, mastery-oriented motivational...... climate was inversely associated with these subscales. The present findings provide more support for the integrative role of sport in presence of mastery-oriented motivational climates and endorse future intervention studies that highlight mastery environments and task orientation achievement goals...
Full Text Available Background: Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 64 female nursing students who were recruited to study based on the inclusion criteria. After sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Then, cognitive behavioural intervention was administered in study group during 60 days. Academic motivation scale was filled before, after and one month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Chi-square, t-test. Results: After the intervention, mean scores of academic motivation were significantly increased in study group, compared to control group (P < 0.001. Comparison of the mean scores of academic motivation in two groups revealed a significant increase in mean score of academic motivation 151.50 (20.22 after cognitive behavioural intervention (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The findings suggested that cognitive behavioural intervention was a valuable psychotherapy technique to improve academic achievement motivation among nursing students.
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...... theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled...
Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...
В. В. Вапнярчук
Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.
Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak
Background Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study. Design and methods An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (PAmotivation level declined significantly (P<0.001). The change of academic motivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). Conclusion After experiencing a three-day intervention, the new students’ motivation advanced along the continuum of self-determination toward autonomous motivation. Therefore, it is considered to be worthwhile conducting an academic intervention to
Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060
and hence, motivating them more strongly to continue. Thoughts of protecting their home, lives and local ideals were subconsciously aroused by the...perspective. There was a clear bias , but they aimed not to broadcast lies. The BBC broadcast in 45 languages with 107 news transmissions daily
Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lehtinen, Erno
The rapid development in working life during recent decades has changed the structures of work organisations and expectations of employees' work. Differing forms of professional employment and different types of organisational environments likely promote different types of motivational patterns in workers. The aim of this study was to apply a…
The aim of this study is to contribute to the achievement of educational goals by determining teachers' levels of motivation. With this aim in mind, the opinions of 386 teachers employed in primary schools in Tokat province were sought. According to the findings of the study, the teachers stated that their needs were not fulfilled according to…
Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino
This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...
Lee, Romy van der
Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of
Describes the use of job enrichment techniques as tools for increased productivity and organizational change. The author's motivational work design model changes not only the job design but also structural elements such as physical layout, workflow, and organizational relationships. Behavior change is more important than job enrichment. (MF)
Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.
Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…
This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,
DeLon, Barbara A.
Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm
Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire serviceom......Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire...... serviceområder (skoler, dagpasning, hospitaler og videregående uddannelser). Der anvendes henholdsvis et veletableret mål for public service motivation (n=377 producenter) og et nyudviklet mål for handlingskapacitet (n=1056 brugere). Resultaterne viser, at der er relativt højest handlingskapacitet og public...... service motivation på daginstitutionsområdet efterfulgt af skoleområdet, mens de videregående uddannelser placerer sig relativt lavest på begge variable. Hospitalsbrugerne har næsten lige så lav handlingskapacitet som brugerne af de videregående uddannelser, mens de hospitalsansattes public service...
Vorholt, Julie; Harris, Erica
This article describes a three-week project-based unit on entrepreneurship conducted with students in communications classes in an Academic English context. A detailed road map of the project is given, starting with an introduction and ending with final presentations and poster sessions. Students were motivated by their own interests in business…
Mirkarimi, Kamal; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Eshghinia, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Aryaie, Mohammad
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the increase the world over, which imposes an ever-increasing burden on societies and health care systems. This study sought to investigate the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) on a weight-loss program based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). This randomized clinical trial study, comprising pretest-posttest with a control group, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese women attending a private nutrition clinic for the first time. Samples were randomly selected using the clinic's records and then allocated to three groups (50 women in each group) receiving: 1) a standard weight-control program; 2) motivational interviewing; and 3) MI plus intention intervention. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire through in-person interviews and were analyzed using SPSS (version 11) and statistical tests, including the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test, and linear regression model. In the two intervention groups, the PMT construct scores, namely susceptibility (P = 0.001), severity (P = 0.001), rewards (P =0.004), self-efficacy (P = 0.001), response efficacy (P = 0.001), and costs (P = 0.014), were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. The anthropometric status was statistically significant in the MI group (P = 0.001) and the MI plus intention-intervention group (P = 0.001) at 2 months' follow-up, while in the control group, weight was meaningfully different after the intervention (P = 0.027). Weight was different between the groups after the intervention, with the Tukey test demonstrating that the differences were statistically significant between the control group and the MI group. Our results demonstrated that MI, combined with the implementation of intention intervention, increased weight loss and PMT construct scores in our study population.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Elsborg, Peter; Nielsen, Glen
The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of motivation associated with participation in floorball (indoor hockey) and spinning, and how levels of motivation predicted continuation. A sample of 66 middleaged women participated in a 12-week intervention of either floorball or spinning. T...
TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona
The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.
Satia, Jessie A; Galanko, Joseph A
To describe associations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for dietary change with participant characteristics and current diet among African Americans. Cross-sectional survey of 658 African American adults in North Carolina provided information on intrinsic (self-image and health concerns) and extrinsic (social influence) motivation scales, participant characteristics, and diet. Most respondents considered it important to change their diet for health reasons; fewer were motivated by self-image or social influence. Motivation scales were significantly associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics and fat, but not fruit/vegetable consumption, after adjustment for covariates (Pextrinsic motives may improve the effectiveness of dietary interventions in African Americans.
Ilić-Stošović Danijela D.
Full Text Available The analysis of the motivation experiences of students in the conditions of inclusive education determines teaching procedures considerably. The main aim of this research was to determine whether there were any difference in motivation experience between students with learning and developmental difficulties and the students without these difficulties, and whether there is any correlation of academic success and motivation experiences between these two groups. The sample comprised 87 students of the fifth grade (24.13% students with learning and developmental difficulties, and 75.86% students without these difficulties. The examination of motivation experience was carried out by the Scale for Estimating Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation. Statistics analyses show that there are differences in experiencing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among students with and without learning and developmental difficulties. Learning difficulties correlate with lower academic achievement at the end of the fourth grade. As academic success increases the motivation experience decreases in both groups. The obtained results stress the importance of interventions by teachers and other school professionals in order to maintain motivational levels of all students. The results of this research highlight the quality of assessment system of academic achievement of all students and suggest further researching how and which way teachers understand and apply different functions of assessment.
Gerbig, Kori M.
Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…
Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.
Miner, John B.
Research on motivation to manage can be summarized in five points: (1) motivation to manage is a major factor for success; (2) motivation to manage declined in students from the 1960's to the 1970's; (3) this decline is evident in the relevant age groups; (4) differences between United States students and foreign students place the United States…
Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Behzadi, Somayeh; Sabouri, Farhad; Alavi, Mousa
Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. This study was conducted on 64 female nursing students who were recruited to study based on the inclusion criteria. After sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Then, cognitive behavioural intervention was administered in study group during 60 days. Academic motivation scale was filled before, after and one month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Chi-square, t-test). After the intervention, mean scores of academic motivation were significantly increased in study group, compared to control group (P academic motivation in two groups revealed a significant increase in mean score of academic motivation 151.50 (20.22) after cognitive behavioural intervention (P academic achievement motivation among nursing students.
Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1 Juraiporn Somboonwong,2 Vorapol Jaroonvanichkul,1 Pongsak Wannakrairot3 1Medical Education Unit, 2Quality Management Division and Department of Physiology, 3Academic Affairs Division, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study.Design and methods: An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance.Results: Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (P<0.001. Moreover, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (P<0.001. This is related to the enjoyment of passing academic milestones, and a step
Smeerdijk, M.; Keet, R.; van Raaij, B.; Koeter, M.; Linszen, D.; de Haan, L.; Schippers, G.
There is a clear need for effective interventions to reduce cannabis use in patients with first-episode psychosis. This follow-up of a randomized trial examined whether an intervention for parents, based on motivational interviewing and interaction skills (Family Motivational Intervention, FMI), was
Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally
Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear
Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Andrade, Ana M; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J
Successful weight management relies on at least two health behaviors, eating and exercise. However, little is known about their interaction on a motivational and behavioral level. Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle weight control program. The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation. Overweight/obese women participated in a 1-year randomized controlled trial (N = 239). The intervention focused on promoting physical activity and internal motivation for exercise and weight loss, following Self-Determination Theory. The control group received general health education. General and exercise specific self-determination, eating self-regulation variables, and physical activity behavior. General self-determination and more autonomous exercise motivation predicted eating self-regulation over 12 months. Additionally, general and exercise self-determination fully mediated the relation between physical activity and eating self-regulation. Increased general self-determination and exercise motivation seem to facilitate improvements in eating self-regulation during weight control in women. These motivational mechanisms also underlie the relationship between improvements in exercise behavior and eating regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
My bachelor thesis is focused on motivation and assessment of employees in the company. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of team building and benefits on employees' motivation. Literature based theoretical part of my thesis describes and investigates the real meaning and purpose of motivation and basic motivational concepts. Furthermore, I outlined the basics behind employee benefits, team building and also stated the current given trends in these areas. The practical pa...
Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.
Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.
Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde
Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...
Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina
An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...
Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter
The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…
Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh
Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…
Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.
Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…
Graafland, J.J.; Mazereeuw V/d Duijn Schouten, C.
In this article we analyze the motives of executives to take responsibility for the labor, environmental and social aspects of their business. We distinguish three motives: one extrinsic (financial) and two intrinsic (ethical and altruistic) motives and empirically investigate the influences of
Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David
This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Students’ low level of motivation becomes a matter of concern to be addressed immediately. Students' motivation needs to be improved as it is a factor that will affect their lives in the future. This study aims to observe or examine the effectiveness of motivation training in increasing students' motivation.The research method used was the pre-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. The subjects of this study were 15 boy and girl students of Grade X of SMK who had a low level of motivation. The measuring instruments were the motivation scales given during the pre-test and post-test. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test with non-parametric measurements to determine the significance of difference in the motivation level before and after the training. The data were tested using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.The result of Wilcoxon analysis to test the hypothesis whether there is a difference between the pre-test and post-test of students' motivation showed that the p = 0.025 (p < 0.05. This means that there was a significant difference between the motivation before the treatment (pre-test and after the treatment (post-test, which indicated that the students' motivation increased after a treatment in the form of motivation training.
Bølling, Mads; Otte, Camilla Roed; Elsborg, Peter
The aim of this quasi-experimental intervention study was to investigate the association between primary school students’ (9–13 years) school motivation and regular participation in education outside the classroom (EOtC). School motivation of 311 Danish public students from 24 intervention classes...... and 88 students from seven parallel comparison classes was measured at the start and end of the 2014–2015 school year using the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQA). Exposure to EOtC was monitored by intervention and comparison teachers. Multilevel analyses showed that regular exposure to EOt......C was associated with improvement in intrinsic motivation and was moderated by prior intrinsic motivation in favor of students with higher prior intrinsic motivation. Results were independent of gender and socio-economic-status....
Christensen, Emily Fast
The purpose of this research was to test an intervention of choices in homework on the achievement and intrinsic motivation of seventh-grade science students at a middle school. The intervention was based on concepts from the cognitive evaluation theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). The subjects were sixteen heterogeneous classes of seventh-grade students, who were divided among four teachers. Two randomly chosen classes from each teacher received choices in their homework and the remaining two classes of each teacher received similar homework assignments without choices. Two hypotheses were developed for this study: (1) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in intrinsic motivation as measured on a motivation orientation measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework, and (2) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in achievement on an achievement measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework. Having choices in homework did not increase intrinsic motivation or achievement. However, students who did their homework did significantly better on the posttest, and students who were more intrinsically motivated did significantly better on the posttest. Just doing the homework was important for achievement, and intrinsic motivation was linked to achievement.
van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M
Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work
Ålgars, Monica; Ramberg, Carin; Moszny, Josefine; Hagman, Jessica; Rintala, Hanna; Santtila, Pekka
Readiness and motivation for change were examined in 32 women with broadly defined eating disorders who took part in a 10-week Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)-based group intervention. Readiness for change and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed before and after the intervention. The results revealed significant negative associations between degree of eating disorder symptoms and degree of readiness for change before the intervention started. In particular, higher levels of eating concern, shape concern, and body dissatisfaction were associated with lower motivation for change. No significant associations between degree of readiness for change before the intervention started and changes in eating disorder symptoms at the end of intervention were found. Readiness for change increased from the beginning to the end of the intervention, indicating that group CBT may be a cost-effective and time-efficient way of enhancing readiness and motivation for change in individuals with eating psychopathology.
Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.
This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational…
Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R
The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of
Elementary teachers and parents designed, implemented, and evaluated an intervention program directed toward positively influencing the self-esteem and confidence, sense of autonomy and independence, and social development and motivation of students with learning disabilities and at-risk students. This final project report describes the field…
Grounded in Achievement Goal Theory of Nicholls (1989), the aim of this study was to assess the development of four teaching interventions based on the TARGET areas of Ames (1992) and verify their effect on the perceived motivational climate at situational level in Physical Education (PE) classes. Participants were 580 ...
Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure
This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…
Frey, Andy J.; Cloud, Richard N.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Walker, Hill M.; Golly, Annemieke
In recent years, the science of developing and implementing interventions addressing school-related risk factors has produced many advances. This article addresses the promise of a cross-disciplinary practice approach known as motivational interviewing in school settings. Specifically, the supporting evidence as well as the process and principles…
Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Behzadi, Somayeh; Sabouri, Farhad; Alavi, Mousa
Background: Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. Materials and Methods: This s...
34Using Motivational Enhancement among OI F I OEF Veterans Returning to the Comm u n ity" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W8lXWH-11-1-0726 5b. GRANT NUMBER... motivational enhancement (ME) intervention to address barriers to engaging in mental health treatment for recently returned veterans of Operation Iraqi... motivational enhancement will demonstrate greater readiness to change and higher treatment program attendance than veterans who receive treatment as usual
Fervaha, Gagan; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary
Motivational and cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, both closely linked with functional outcomes. Although poor effort and decreased motivation are known to affect performance on cognitive tests, the extent of this relationship is unclear in patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the association between intrinsic motivation and cognitive test performance in patients with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional and 6-month prospective follow-up study performed at 57 sites in the United States, including academic and community medical treatment centers, participating in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The primary sample included 431 stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia currently receiving a stable medication regimen. Cognitive performance and intrinsic motivation were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and a derived measure from the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, respectively. Symptom severity and functional status were also assessed. The primary outcome variable was global neurocognition. Individual domains of cognition were also evaluated for their association with motivation. Level of intrinsic motivation was significantly and positively correlated with global cognitive test performance, a relationship that held for each domain of cognition evaluated (correlation range, 0.20-0.34; P motivation and cognitive performance also remained significant after controlling for antipsychotic dose (P motivation during the 6-month follow-up was also found to be significantly related to improvement in global cognitive performance (P motivation and cognitive performance and suggest that test performance is not purely a measure of ability. Future studies assessing cognition in patients with schizophrenia should consider potential moderating variables such as effort and motivation. Implications for the assessment and interpretation of cognitive impairment based on
Vrieling, Emmy; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef
This intervention study focused on the relationships between student teachers’ self-regulated learning (SRL) opportunities, their use of metacognitive learning strategies and their motivation for learning. Results indicate that student teachers’ use of metacognitive learning strategies increases
Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, U. N.; Raben, A.
motive for losing weight was a strong desire to become more effective and a greater asset for one's workplace. Overweight subjects were considered less effective and attractive for the labour market. Conclusion: This study indicates that if men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are to be motivated......Objective: To explore motivation and perceived barriers towards weight loss among Danish men. Design: The study was of an explorative nature, using qualitative focus group interviews as a method. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: Twenty-two overweight men, at the age of 25-44 years...... and motivated for weight loss, were recruited and distributed into four focus groups. The men were primarily unskilled workers. Overall 13 men participated and each group contained three or four participants. Intervention: The interview guide was partly structured, partly unstructured and the themes...
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.
Afshari, Mitra; Yang, Amy; Bega, Danny
Despite evidence for the benefits of exercise in Parkinson's disease (PD), many patients remain sedentary for undefined reasons. To compare exercise habits, perceptions about exercise, and barriers to exercise in 'low' (motivating factors. Both groups benefited from having a significant other or a personal trainer motivate them, and both were more likely to exercise if their neurologist encouraged them. Low-exercisers reported twice as many barriers as high-exercisers (p = 0.001). Barriers that were significantly more common in low-exercisers were: lacking someone to motivate them (33.3% versus 10.5%, p motivators and barriers. These findings should be considered when tailoring recommendations for PD patients to encourage exercise, and in designing future interventions.
Hu, Weiping; Jia, Xiaojuan; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Shan, Xinxin
Learning motivation has a significant effect on student learning, which is a key determinant of academic performance and creativity. It is increasingly popular and important to cultivate learning motivation in schools. To consider this trend, a long-term intervention program named "Learn to Think" (LTT) was designed not only to improve…
Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone
Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…
Walker, Christopher O.; Greene, Barbara A.; Mansell, Robert A.
Examined were several theoretically important relations among motivational characteristics of students that are malleable, or changeable with intervention. The motivational construct identification with academics, which includes perceptions of belonging and valuing within an academic context, was investigated along with intrinsic/extrinsic…
Ostafin, Brian D.; Bauer, Chris; Myxter, Peter
Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol and drug use are influenced by automatic motivational responses to substance use cues. With increasing evidence that automatic alcohol motivation is related to heavy drinking, researchers have begun to examine interventions that may modulate the
Teresa (Birdie) High; Alan R. Graefe
The purpose of this study was to go beyond the examination of the single construct of team building by measuring the impact of motivational and environmental factors on the effectiveness of an outdoor-based training (OBT) intervention. The study assessed the self-perceptions of trainee attitudes and attributes that influenced the constructs of motivation to learn,...
Swanson, LaTasha R; Whittinghill, David M
The main objective of this study was to explore, via a systematic review of available literature, the effectiveness of videogame-based rehabilitation interventions on the motivation and health outcomes of stroke patients. Using a systematic literature review of 18 articles, we sought to address three key research questions: (1) Do videogames improve function or health outcomes among stroke survivors? (2) Do videogames increase stroke patients' motivation to engage in rehabilitation exercise and activities? (3) Which motivational techniques, principles, and theoretical frameworks have been applied in the reviewed studies? A key word search was conducted, and articles were coded for inclusion of motivational theories or principles, intervention effectiveness, and participants' motivation to perform tasks. Three motivational frameworks and principles were used (self-determination theory [SDT], flow theory, and operant conditioning) to investigate intrinsic and extrinsic approaches. Past research suggests videogame-based interventions are effective at improving and increasing a variety of health-related outcomes, including motor functioning, energy expenditure, muscle strength, and recovery times in stroke patients. Past evidence shows videogame-based interventions are a promising tool to motivate stroke patients' engagement in effective rehabilitation activities. This study also identifies an opportunity for future research to apply motivational theories from SDT to studies on stroke rehabilitation and videogames.
Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth; Stubblebine, Patrick
Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker's motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors) on close to 500 employees in each country. Although Jordan and Georgia have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, the results from these two countries exhibited many similarities among key determinants: self-efficacy, pride, management openness, job properties, and values had significant effects on motivational outcomes in both countries. Where results were divergent, differences between the two countries highlight the importance of local culture on motivational issues, and the need to tailor motivational interventions to the specific issues related to particular professional or other groupings in the workforce. While workers themselves state that financial reward is critical for their work satisfaction, the data suggest a number of non-financial interventions that may be more effective means to improve worker motivation. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more
The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...
Radke, Sina; Pfersmann, Vera; Derntl, Birgit
Impairments in emotion recognition and psychosocial functioning are a robust phenomenon in schizophrenia and may affect motivational behavior, particularly during socio-emotional interactions. To characterize potential deficits and their interplay, we assessed social motivation covering various facets, such as implicit and explicit approach-avoidance tendencies to facial expressions, in 27 patients with schizophrenia (SZP) and 27 matched healthy controls (HC). Moreover, emotion recognition abilities as well as self-reported behavioral activation and inhibition were evaluated. Compared to HC, SZP exhibited less pronounced approach-avoidance ratings to happy and angry expressions along with prolonged reactions during automatic approach-avoidance. Although deficits in emotion recognition were replicated, these were not associated with alterations in social motivation. Together with additional connections between psychopathology and several approach-avoidance processes, these results identify motivational impairments in SZP and suggest a complex relationship between different aspects of social motivation. In the context of specialized interventions aimed at improving social cognitive abilities in SZP, the link between such dynamic measures, motivational profiles and functional outcomes warrants further investigations, which can provide important leverage points for treatment. Crucially, our findings present first insights into the assessment and identification of target features of social motivation.
Volkow, Nora D; Wise, Roy A; Baler, Ruben
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum. Cues that predict a reinforcing stimulus also modulate extrasynaptic dopamine concentrations, energizing motivation. Repeated administration of the reinforcer (drugs, energy-rich foods) generates conditioned associations between the reinforcer and the predicting cues, which is accompanied by downregulated dopaminergic response to other incentives and downregulated capacity for top-down self-regulation, facilitating the emergence of impulsive and compulsive responses to food or drug cues. Thus, dopamine contributes to addiction and obesity through its differentiated roles in reinforcement, motivation and self-regulation, referred to here as the 'dopamine motive system', which, if compromised, can result in increased, habitual and inflexible responding. Thus, interventions to rebalance the dopamine motive system might have therapeutic potential for obesity and addiction.
The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)
Barter is not something that was present only before invention of money. Even Fortune 500 companies are involved in barter. The most common bartered goods and services are media and travel. As the amount of barter increases even in the U.S., it is worth investigating the reasons why organizations...... use barter. The paper provides a literature review of barter motives digested from academic journal articles covered in the Web of Science and EBSCO databases. The review includes also drivers that are specific for developing countries....
Full Text Available Innovation is one of the most important factors for business growth. Human capital plays a significant role in the successful process of innovation. This article deals with employee motivation in the innovation process and the main scientific aim of this study is to present results of research that was undertaken in the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2013. Questionnaires were used for the survey and statistical analyses such as Chi square test or Hierarchical cluster analysis were used for data processing. This study also provides a theoretical and practical overview of business innovation in the Czech Republic.
The education system is increasingly being managed with the help of competence goals that are so clear-cut that we are hindering the students from making decisions and working things out for themselves. Therefore, they are not adequately prepared for the society of the future. Although we do...... not know what the future will bring, we do know that they must continue to learn and be creative. Professor Katrin Hjort, therefore, is fighting for an education system that stimulates students’ personal development, which is also crucial for their motivation....
Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali
Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using ?Instagram application? with a ?home-exercise program? as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ? 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by ?...
Chittum, Jessica Rebecca
My overall objective in this dissertation was to develop more integrative perspectives of several aspects of academic motivation. Rarely have researchers and theorists examined a more comprehensive model of academic motivation that pools multiple constructs that interact in a complex and dynamic fashion (Kaplan, Katz, & Flum, 2012; Turner, Christensen, Kackar-Cam, Trucano, & Fulmer, 2014). The more common trend in motivation research and theory has been to identify and explain only a few motivation constructs and their linear relationships rather than examine complex relationships involving "continuously emerging systems of dynamically interrelated components" (Kaplan et al., 2014, para. 4). In this dissertation, my co-author and I focused on a more integrative perspective of academic motivation by first reviewing varying characterizations of one motivation construct (Manuscript 1) and then empirically testing dynamic interactions among multiple motivation constructs using a person-centered methodological approach (Manuscript 2). Within the first manuscript (Chapter 2), a theoretical review paper, we summarized multiple perspectives of the need for autonomy and similar constructs in academic motivation, primarily autonomy in self-determination theory, autonomy supports, and choice. We provided an integrative review and extrapolated practical teaching implications. We concluded with recommendations for researchers and instructors, including a call for more integrated perspectives of academic motivation and autonomy that focus on complex and dynamic patterns in individuals' motivational beliefs. Within the second manuscript (Chapter 3), we empirically investigated students' motivation in science class as a complex, dynamic, and context-bound phenomenon that incorporates multiple motivation constructs. Following a person-centered approach, we completed cluster analyses of students' perceptions of 5 well-known motivation constructs (autonomy, utility value, expectancy
Learning motivation is the motility to urge the student to be engaged in the studies activity. This thesis has introduced types of L2 learning motivation. Through the contrast and analysis about the positive motivation and negative motivation in prac?tical applications, this paper has indicated the unique of positive motivation and the defects of negative motivation, and make rea?sonable suggestions.
Jensen, Mark P; Nielson, Warren R; Kerns, Robert D
Adaptive management of chronic pain depends to a large degree on how patients choose to cope with pain and its impact. Consequently, patient motivation is an important factor in determining how well patients learn to manage pain. However, the role of patient motivation in altering coping behavior and maintaining those changes is seldom discussed, and theoretically based research on motivation for pain treatment is lacking. This article reviews theories that have a direct application to understanding motivational issues in pain coping and presents a preliminary motivational model of pain self-management. The implications of this model for enhancing engagement in and adherence to chronic pain treatment programs are then discussed. The article ends with a call for research to better understand motivation as it applies to chronic pain self-management. In particular, there is a need to determine whether (and which) motivation enhancement interventions increase active participation in self-management treatment programs for chronic pain.
Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Sanz, Naira; Fernandez-Cando, Judith; Santos, Luis
Background: Cooperative Learning has been recently defined as a true pedagogical model. Moreover, in a recent review Casey and Goodyear reported that it can help physical education promote the four basic learning outcomes: physical, cognitive, social and affective. Purpose: The main goal was to investigate the impact of a sustained Cooperative…
Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period.
Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.
Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365
Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment. PMID:23459598
Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment.
Full Text Available Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three subprocesses, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous subprocesses, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three subprocesses interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment.
Christine Muir; Zoltán Dörnyei
Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery), is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014) and when viewed in conju...
Norman, Gregory J.; Crow, Scott J.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Boutelle, Kerri N.
Abstract Background: Identifying factors associated with effective treatment for childhood obesity is important to improving weight loss outcomes. The current study investigated whether child or parent motivation throughout the course of treatment predicted reductions in BMI. Methods: Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with overweight and obesity (BMI percentiles 85–98%) and their parents participated in a guided self-help weight loss program, which included 12 brief sessions across 5 months. Parents and interventionists reported on child and parent motivation level at each session. Multilevel slopes-as-outcome models were used to examine growth trajectories for both child and parent BMI across sessions. Results: Greater interventionist-rated child motivation predicted greater reductions in child BMI; parent motivation did not. However, interventionist-rated parent motivation predicted greater reductions in parent BMI, and its impact on BMI became more pronounced over the course of treatment, such that sustained motivation was more important than initial motivation. Children who were older, Latino, or who had lower initial BMIs had slower reductions in BMI. Conclusions: This study suggests that motivation may be an important predictor of reduced BMI in child obesity treatment, with sustained motivation being more important than initial motivation. In particular, interventionist-rated, but not parent-rated, motivation is a robust predictor of child and parent BMI outcomes. Future research may evaluate whether motivational interventions can enhance outcome, with particular attention to improving outcomes for Latino children. PMID:25181608
Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week
This book contains 12 chapters and several case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: The Interplay of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in the Planning and Execution of Interventional Procedures: Ulltrasound Guided Biopsy; Interventioal Genitourinary Sonography; Diagnosis and Treatment of Pericardial Effusion Using Ultrasonic Guidance; and New Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures--Cholecystostomy, Pancreatography, Gastrostomy
When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.
Saperstein, Alice M; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D
Intrinsic motivation is a construct commonly used in explaining goal-directed behavior. In people with schizophrenia, intrinsic motivation is usually subsumed as a feature of negative symptoms or underlying neurocognitive dysfunction. A growing literature reflects an interest in defining and measuring motivational impairment in schizophrenia and in delineating the specific role of intrinsic motivation as both an independent predictor and a mediator of psychosocial functioning. This cross-sectional study examined intrinsic motivation as a predictor of vocational outcomes for 145 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder participating in a 6-month work rehabilitation trial. Correlation and mediation analyses examined baseline intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms in relation to work hours and work performance. Data support a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms and significant correlations with outcome variables, such that lower negative symptoms and greater intrinsic motivation were associated with better work functioning. Moreover, in this sample, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationships between negative symptoms, work productivity, and work performance. These results have significant implications on the design of work rehabilitation interventions for people with schizophrenia and support a role for targeting intrinsic motivation directly to influence vocational functioning. Future directions for research and intervention are discussed.