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Sample records for dual sensory loss

  1. Dual sensory loss and social participation in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljanen, Anna; Törmäkangas, Timo; Vestergaard, Sonja;

    2013-01-01

    on the 2004 data collection of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 27,536 men and women aged 50 years and older. Hearing and vision difficulties, as well as participation in seven different social activities were assessed using a structured computerassisted personal interview...... socially inactive compared to half of those who reported no sensory difficulties. The participants who reported dual sensory loss had 2.18 (95 % CI 1.83–2.59) times higher odds for social inactivity compared to persons without hearing or vision difficulties. In a model adjusted for age, gender, mobility......The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of hearing difficulties, vision difficulties and dual sensory difficulties in 11 European countries, and to study whether sensory difficulties are associated with social inactivity in older Europeans. This cross-sectional study is based...

  2. Dual Sensory Loss and Its Impact on Everyday Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Su, Ya-ping

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation of dual and single sensory impairments, within the context of cognitive function, by using the framework of everyday competence in terms of the probability of difficulty with specific personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively). Design and Methods: The Longitudinal…

  3. Effect of Dual Sensory Loss on Auditory Localization: Implications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helen J.; Levitt, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Our sensory systems are remarkable in several respects. They are extremely sensitive, they each perform more than one function, and they interact in a complementary way, thereby providing a high degree of redundancy that is particularly helpful should one or more sensory systems be impaired. In this article, the problem of dual hearing and vision loss is addressed. A brief description is provided on the use of auditory cues in vision loss, the use of visual cues in hearing loss, and the additional difficulties encountered when both sensory systems are impaired. A major focus of this article is the use of sound localization by normal hearing, hearing impaired, and blind individuals and the special problem of sound localization in people with dual sensory loss. PMID:18003869

  4. Dual Sensory Loss and Depressive Symptoms: The Importance of Hearing, Daily Functioning and Activity Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Matthew Kiely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyse 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men aged between 65 and 103 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D. Vision loss (VL was defined by corrected visual acuity greater than 0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL was defined by pure tone average (PTA greater than 25 dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviours, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B=1.16, SE=0.33 and DSL (B=2.15, SE=0.39 but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B=0.16, SE=0.06, p

  5. Screening for hearing, visual and dual sensory impairment in older adults using behavioural cues : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets-Merken, Lieve M.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J. F. J.; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Severe Dual Sensory Loss screening tool, a tool designed to help nurses and care assistants to identify hearing, visual and dual sensory impairment in older adults. Design: Construct validity of the Severe Dual Sensory Loss screen

  6. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  7. Vision impairment and dual sensory problems in middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Dickinson, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Bishop, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Norman, Paul; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vision and hearing impairments are known to increase in middle age. In this study we describe the prevalence of vision impairment and dual sensory impairment in UK adults aged 40 to 69 years in a very large and recently ascertained data set. The associations between vision impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are reported. Methods This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource, with subsets of UK Biobank data analysed with respect to self-report of eye problems and glasses use. Better-eye visual acuity with habitually worn refractive correction was assessed with a logMAR chart (n = 116,682). Better-ear speech reception threshold was measured with an adaptive speech in noise test, the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Prevalence estimates were weighted with respect to UK 2001 Census data. Results Prevalence of mild visual impairment and low vision was estimated at 15.2% (95% CI 14.9–15.5%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.8–1.0%), respectively. Use of glasses was 88.0% (95% CI 87.9–88.1%). The prevalence of dual sensory impairment was 3.1% (95% CI 3.0–3.2%) and there was a nine-fold increase in the prevalence of dual sensory problems between the youngest and oldest age groups. Older adults, those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds were most at risk for vision problems. Conclusions Mild vision impairment is common in middle aged UK adults, despite widespread use of spectacles. Possible barriers to optometric care for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds may require attention. A higher than expected prevalence of dual impairment suggests that hearing and vision problems share common causes. Optometrists should consider screening for hearing problems, particularly among older adults. PMID:24888710

  8. SENSORY HEARING LOSS IN CHILDREN WITH MUMPS INFECTION

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    S. Noorbaksh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Mumps infection is endemic in Iran and mumps parotiditis is acommon disease in Iranian children. There has been a dramaticdecrease in the worldwide incidence of mumps since the introductionand use in 1968 of the very effective and inexpensive mumps vaccine.In Iran probably due to a higher percentage of unvaccinated youngpersons <15yr, the incidence rate of mumps infection and its sequelaare higher in comparison to corresponding data from developedcountries prior to comprehensive vaccination programs. The aim ofthe study was to investigate the effects of the mumps virus on cochlearfunction and to determine the frequency of related Sensory NeuralHearing Loss (SNHL in children.Material& Methods:This descriptive case-series study was conducted in 94children, agedless than 14 years, hospitalized between 1999 and 2001, in thepediatric ward of the Hazrat Rasool Hospital in Tehran. All patientswith documented mumps infection (specific mumps-IgM antibodywere evaluated twice for audiometeric function on the basis ofdiagnostic parameters for sensory neural hearing loss; the first evaluationwas done on admission and the second three weeks later. 54 patients(age range 1-14y, mean age 4.83±3.93, male: female ratio30:24were studied in two years.Results:The highest incidence of mumps was seen in winter (37% and spring(28% and the lowest in summer (13%. Specific IgM antibody formumps virus was detected in 74 children. Comprehensive audiologicevaluation was done in 54 patients at admission and again 3 weekslater. SNHL was detected in 7.2% of patients; the 4.4% incidence ofSNHL in this study was higher than in other studies in developedcountries prior to comprehensive vaccination programs.Conclusion:Implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs in youngIranians could dramatically reduce the burden and costs imposed bythe infection and its sequelae.Keywords: Mumps infection ;SNLH(sensorineural hearing loss;Mumpsvaccination

  9. SENSORY HEARING LOSS IN CHILDREN WITH MUMPS WITH MUMPS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorbaksh MD

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Mumps infection is endemic in Iran and mumps parotiditis is a common disease in Iranian children. There has been a dramatic decrease in the worldwide incidence of mumps since the introduction and use in 1968 of the very effective and inexpensive mumps vaccine.In Iran probably due to a higher percentage of unvaccinated young persons Material& Methods:This descriptive case-series study was conducted in 94children, aged less than 14 years,  hospitalized between 1999 and 2001, in the pediatric ward of the Hazrat Rasool Hospital in Tehran. All patients with documented mumps infection (specific mumps-IgM antibody were evaluated twice for audiometeric function on the basis of diagnostic parameters for sensory neural hearing loss; the first evaluation was done on admission and the second three weeks later. 54 patients (age range 1-14y, mean age 4.83±3.93, male: female ratio30:24 were studied in two years.Results:The highest incidence of mumps was seen in winter (37% and spring (28% and the lowest in summer (13%. Specific IgM antibody for mumps virus was detected in 74 children. Comprehensive audiologic evaluation was done in 54 patients at admission and again 3 weeks later. SNHL was detected in 7.2% of patients; the 4.4% incidence of SNHL in this study was higher than in other studies in developed countries prior to comprehensive vaccination programs.Conclusion:Implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs in young Iranians could dramatically reduce the burden and costs imposed by the infection and its sequelae.Keywords: Mumps infection ;SNLH(sensorineural hearing loss;Mumps vaccination

  10. 26 CFR 1.1503-2 - Dual consolidated loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., a country that determines the tax residence of corporations according to their place of management..., deduction, and loss that are otherwise attributable to such separate unit. (2) Effect of a dual consolidated...(b)(2)(i) for its allocable part of T's deficit in earnings and profits for the taxable...

  11. Reduction of the Resolution Losses in Dual-Wavelength Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-Zheng; ZHGNG Guang-Yin; HUANG Hui; LIU Si-Min; Nouel Y. Kamber; LI Fei-Fei; SUN Qian; XU Jing-Jun

    2000-01-01

    The dual-wavelength storage for multi-page storage with the nondestructive readout is investigated in the double doped lithium niobate crystals. The image field losses are minimized by adjusting the readout wave vectors, and the resolution is improved by optimizing the storage setup.

  12. Sensory loss in multifocal motor neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecq, Virginie; Krim, Elsa; Rouanet-Larrivière, Marie; Lagueny, Alain

    2009-02-01

    Some patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis of multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block (MMN-CB) at the onset of disease may subsequently develop a sensory loss associated with electrophysiological sensory abnormalities. The latter could represent an overlap between MMN-CB and multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor (MADSAM) neuropathy. The objective was to specify the features of MMN-CB with sensory loss (MMN-CB-Se). Five patients in a series of 11 consecutive patients who fulfilled the criteria of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine for MMN-CB at the first examination and were treated periodically with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) developed sensory loss in the course of the disease. In these five patients we compared the clinical, laboratory, and electrophysiological features found after the development of sensory loss with those at the first examination. The mean time to appearance of objective sensory signs was 7.2 years. In three of the five patients the sensory loss was preceded by intermittent paresthesias in the same nerve territories as the motor involvement. The most frequent electrophysiological abnormality was amplitude reduction of sensory nerve action potentials. There were no bilateral or symmetrical clinical and electrophysiological sensory abnormalities. Anti-GM1 IgM antibodies were positive in four patients. MMN-CB-Se could be an overlap between MMN-CB and MADSAM. It shares the distribution of the sensory disorders encountered in MADSAM, but it is closer to MMN-CB on clinical and therapeutic levels. Study of more patients would be useful to classify this subgroup more accurately.

  13. Symptom profiles in the painDETECT Questionnaire in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain stratified according to sensory loss in quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, Jan; Kramer, Martin; Barroso, Alejandro; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Jensen, Troels S; Kuehler, Bianca M; Maier, Christoph; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Solà, Romà; Tölle, Thomas R; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ) is commonly used as a screening tool to discriminate between neuropathic pain (NP) and nociceptive pain, based on the self-report of symptoms, including pain qualities, numbness, and pain to touch, cold, or heat. However, there are minimal data about whether the PDQ is differentially sensitive to different sensory phenotypes in NP. The aim of the study was to analyze whether the overall PDQ score or its items reflect phenotypes of sensory loss in NP as determined by quantitative sensory testing. An exploratory analysis in the Innovative Medicines Initiative Europain and Neuropain database was performed. Data records of 336 patients identified with NP were grouped into sensory profiles characterized by (1) no loss of sensation, (2) loss of thermal sensation, (3) loss of mechanical sensation, and (4) loss of thermal and mechanical sensation. painDETECT Questionnaire profiles were analyzed in a 2-factor analysis of variance. Patients with loss of thermal sensation (2 and 4) significantly more often reported pain evoked by light touch, and patients with loss of mechanical sensation (3 and 4) significantly more often reported numbness and significantly less often burning sensations and pain evoked by light touch. Although the PDQ was not designed to assess sensory loss, single items reflect thermal and/or mechanical sensory loss at group level, but because of substantial variability, the PDQ does not allow for individual allocation of patients into sensory profiles. It will be useful to develop screening tools according to the current definition of NP.

  14. Sensory evaluation and cooking loss of meat of broiler chicken fed probiotics and thyme essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Alfaig; Maria Angelovičova; Martin Kral; Ondrej Bučko; Maria Walczycka

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil (TEO) as feed additives on the sensory attributes, cooking loss and the texture of broiler chicken meat. Day-old broilers Ross 308  (n = 400) were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Warner Bratzler shear force, cooking loss and the following sensory attribu...

  15. Problems identified by dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care when using a self-management program : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets-Merken, Lieve; Zuidema, Sytse; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Dees, Marianne; Hermsen, Pieter; Kempen, Gertrudis; Graff, Maud

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insights into the problems of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Insights into these problems are essential for developing adequate policies which address the needs of the increasing population of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. METHODS: A

  16. Dual-Level Compressed Aggregation: Recovering Fields of Physical Quantities from Incomplete Sensory Data

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Liu; Deng, Chenwei; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Lin, Weisi

    2011-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are powerful in monitoring physical events, the data collected from a WSN are almost always incomplete if the surveyed physical event spreads over a wide area. The reason for this incompleteness is twofold: i) insufficient network coverage and ii) data aggregation for energy saving. Whereas the existing recovery schemes only tackle the second aspect, we develop Dual-lEvel Compressed Aggregation (DECA) as a novel framework to address both aspects. Specifically, DECA allows a high fidelity recovery of a widespread event, under the situations that the WSN only sparsely covers the event area and that an in-network data aggregation is applied for traffic reduction. Exploiting both the low-rank nature of real-world events and the redundancy in sensory data, DECA combines matrix completion with a fine-tuned compressed sensing technique to conduct a dual-level reconstruction process. We demonstrate that DECA can recover a widespread event with less than 5% of the data, with re...

  17. Loss of the liver X receptor LXRα/β in peripheral sensory neurons modifies energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy-Aubert, Virginie; Gautron, Laurent; Lee, Syann; Bookout, Angie L; Kusminski, Christine; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Yuan; Scherer, Philipp E; Mangelsdorf, David J; Elmquist, Joel K

    2015-06-15

    Peripheral neural sensory mechanisms play a crucial role in metabolic regulation but less is known about the mechanisms underlying vagal sensing itself. Recently, we identified an enrichment of liver X receptor alpha and beta (LXRα/β) in the nodose ganglia of the vagus nerve. In this study, we show mice lacking LXRα/β in peripheral sensory neurons have increased energy expenditure and weight loss when fed a Western diet (WD). Our findings suggest that the ability to metabolize and sense cholesterol and/or fatty acids in peripheral neurons is an important requirement for physiological adaptations to WDs.

  18. Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome Presented with Sensory Ataxia Associated with Bilateral Hearing Loss and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjdinasab Nastaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary Sjorgen syndrome is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with characteristic of involvement of lachrymal and salivary glands, but other organ involvements as peripheral and central nervous system are also possible. The reported case is a 23 year old lady presented with progressive sensory ataxia and weakness of four limbs, bilateral sensory hearing loss and cognitive impairment with minimental score equal to 15/30 since one year prior to admission with associated bilateral central corneal opacity, dry mouth and dry eyes. Electro physiologic studies showed sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy . A biopsy of sural nerve and salivary glands of lower lip showed lymphocytic infiltration. Serologic evidence showed positive Anti Ro (SS-B, negative HCV and HIV antibody, thereafter the diagnosis was confirmed and according to this diagnosis she received high dose of intravenous methyl prednisolon then both hearing loss and cognitive impairment improved partially (minimental score 21/30 . At last, she underwent plasmapheresis and her sensory ataxia improved greatly.

  19. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  20. Loss of sensory attenuation in patients with functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareés, Isabel; Brown, Harriet; Nuruki, Atsuo; Adams, Rick A; Davare, Marco; Bhatia, Kailash P; Friston, Karl; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    Functional movement disorders require attention to manifest yet patients report the abnormal movement to be out of their control. In this study we explore the phenomenon of sensory attenuation, a measure of the sense of agency for movement, in this group of patients by using a force matching task. Fourteen patients and 14 healthy control subjects were presented with forces varying from 1 to 3 N on the index finger of their left hand. Participants were required to match these forces; either by pressing directly on their own finger or by operating a robot that pressed on their finger. As expected, we found that healthy control subjects consistently overestimated the force required when pressing directly on their own finger than when operating a robot. However, patients did not, indicating a significant loss of sensory attenuation in this group of patients. These data are important because they demonstrate that a fundamental component of normal voluntary movement is impaired in patients with functional movement disorders. The loss of sensory attenuation has been correlated with the loss of sense of agency, and may help to explain why patients report that they do not experience the abnormal movement as voluntary.

  1. Blast exposure and dual sensory impairment: An evidence review and integrated rehabilitation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle H. Saunders, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Combat exposures to blast can result in both peripheral damage to the ears and eyes and central damage to the auditory and visual processing areas in the brain. The functional effects of the latter include visual, auditory, and cognitive processing difficulties that manifest as deficits in attention, memory, and problem solving--symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with visual and auditory processing disorders. Coexisting damage to the auditory and visual system is referred to as dual sensory impairment (DSI. The number of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans with DSI is vast; yet currently no established models or guidelines exist for assessment, rehabilitation, or service-delivery practice. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge regarding blast exposure and DSI and outline the many unknowns in this area. Further, we propose a model for clinical assessment and rehabilitation of blast-related DSI that includes development of a coordinated team-based approach to target activity limitations and participation restrictions in order to enhance reintegration, recovery, and quality of life.

  2. Symptom profiles in the painDETECT questionnaire in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain stratified according to sensory loss in quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Kramer, M; Barroso, A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ) is commonly used as a screening tool to discriminate between neuropathic pain (NP) and nociceptive pain, based on the self-report of symptoms, including pain qualities, numbness and pain to touch, cold or heat. However, there is little data about...... burning sensations and pain evoked by light touch. CONCLUSION: Although the PDQ was not designed to assess sensory loss, single items reflect thermal and / or mechanical sensory loss at group level, but due to substantial variability, the PDQ does not allow for individual allocation of patients...

  3. Hearing loss in fibromyalgia? Somatic sensory and non-sensory symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia and other rheumatic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Rasker, J.J.; Häuser, W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that fibromyalgia can be understood as a disorder of central sensitisation and dysregulation (CD) and that characteristic somatic symptoms are the result of `central augmentation`. We examined this hypothesis by analysing sensory and non-sensory variables in the cont

  4. Phylogenetic analyses of endoparasitic Acanthocephala based on mitochondrial genomes suggest secondary loss of sensory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mathias; Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Witek, Alexander; Schill, Ralph O; Sugár, László; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The metazoan taxon Syndermata (Monogononta, Bdelloidea, Seisonidea, Acanthocephala) comprises species with vastly different lifestyles. The focus of this study is on the phylogeny within the syndermatan subtaxon Acanthocephala (thorny-headed worms, obligate endoparasites). In order to investigate the controversially discussed phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalan subtaxa we have sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Echinorhynchus truttae (Palaeacanthocephala), Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Eoacanthocephala), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Archiacanthocephala), and Philodina citrina (Bdelloidea). In doing so, we present the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset so far for this question comprising all major subgroups of Acanthocephala. Alongside with publicly available mt genome data of four additional syndermatans as well as 18 other lophotrochozoan (spiralian) taxa and one outgroup representative, the derived protein-coding sequences were used for Maximum Likelihood as well as Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We achieved entirely congruent results, whereupon monophyletic Archiacanthocephala represent the sister taxon of a clade comprising Eoacanthocephala and monophyletic Palaeacanthocephala (Echinorhynchida). This topology suggests the secondary loss of lateral sensory organs (sensory pores) within Palaeacanthocephala and is further in line with the emergence of apical sensory organs in the stem lineage of Archiacanthocephala.

  5. Sensory defects in Necdin deficient mice result from a loss of sensory neurons correlated within an increase of developmental programmed cell death

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    Fernandez Pierre-Alain

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human NECDIN gene is involved in a neurodevelopmental disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS. Previously we reported a mouse Necdin knock-out model with similar defects to PWS patients. Despite the putative roles attributed to Necdin, mainly from in vitro studies, its in vivo function remains unclear. In this study, we investigate sensory-motor behaviour in Necdin deficient mice. We reveal cellular defects and analyse their cause. Results We report sensory differences in Necdin deficient mice compared to wild type animals. These differences led us to investigate sensory neuron development in Necdin deficient mouse embryos. First, we describe the expression pattern of Necdin in developing DRGs and report a reduction of one-third in specified sensory neurons in dorsal roots ganglia and show that this neuronal loss is achieved by E13.5, when DRGs sensory neurons are specified. In parallel, we observed an increase of 41% in neuronal apoptosis during the wave of naturally occurring cell death at E12.5. Since it is assumed that Necdin is a P75NTR interactor, we looked at the P75NTR-expressing cell population in Necdin knock-out embryos. Unexpectedly, Necdin loss of function has no effect on p75NTR expressing neurons suggesting no direct genetic interaction between Necdin and P75NTR in this context. Although we exclude a role of Necdin in axonal outgrowth from spinal sensory neurons in early developmental stages; such a role could occur later in neuronal differentiation. Finally we also exclude an anti-proliferative role of Necdin in developing sensory neurons. Conclusion Overall, our data show clearly that, in early development of the nervous system, Necdin is an anti-apoptotic or survival factor.

  6. Percolation Model of Sensory Transmission and Loss of Consciousness under General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, David W.; Mowrey, David D.; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Neurons communicate with each other dynamically. How such communications lead to consciousness remains unclear. Here, we present a theoretical model to understand the dynamic nature of sensory activity and information integration in a hierarchical network, in which edges are stochastically defined by a single parameter, p, representing percolation probability of information transmission. We validate the model by comparing the transmitted and original signal distributions and show that a basic version of this model can reproduce key spectral features clinically observed in electroencephalographic recordings of transitions from conscious to unconscious brain activities during general anesthesia. As p decreases, a steep divergence of the transmitted signal from the original was observed, along with a loss of signal synchrony and a sharp increase in information entropy in a critical manner, resembling the precipitous loss of consciousness during anesthesia. The model offers mechanistic insights into the emergence of information integration from a stochastic process, laying the foundation to understand the origin of cognition. PMID:26382705

  7. Age-associated loss of selectivity in human olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Nancy E; Gomez, George; Cowart, Beverly J; Kriete, Andres; Pribitkin, Edmund; Restrepo, Diego

    2012-09-01

    We report a cross-sectional study of olfactory impairment with age based on both odorant-stimulated responses of human olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and tests of olfactory threshold sensitivity. A total of 621 OSNs from 440 subjects in 2 age groups of younger (≤ 45 years) and older (≥ 60 years) subjects were investigated using fluorescence intensity ratio fura-2 imaging. OSNs were tested for responses to 2 odorant mixtures, as well as to subsets of and individual odors in those mixtures. Whereas cells from younger donors were highly selective in the odorants to which they responded, cells from older donors were more likely to respond to multiple odor stimuli, despite a loss in these subjects' absolute olfactory sensitivity, suggesting a loss of specificity. This degradation in peripheral cellular specificity may impact odor discrimination and olfactory adaptation in the elderly. It is also possible that chronic adaptation as a result of reduced specificity contributes to observed declines in absolute sensitivity.

  8. Loss of sensory input increases the intrinsic excitability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jean-Didier; Stuart, Greg J

    2009-11-01

    Development of the cortical map is experience dependent, with different critical periods in different cortical layers. Previous work in rodent barrel cortex indicates that sensory deprivation leads to changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in layer 2/3 and 4. Here, we studied the impact of sensory deprivation on the intrinsic properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons located in rat barrel cortex using simultaneous somatic and dendritic recording. Sensory deprivation was achieved by clipping all the whiskers on one side of the snout. Loss of sensory input did not change somatic active and resting membrane properties, and did not influence dendritic action potential (AP) backpropagation. In contrast, sensory deprivation led to an increase in the percentage of layer 5 pyramidal neurons showing burst firing. This was associated with a reduction in the threshold for generation of dendritic calcium spikes during high-frequency AP trains. Cell-attached recordings were used to assess changes in the properties and expression of dendritic HCN channels. These experiments indicated that sensory deprivation caused a decrease in HCN channel density in distal regions of the apical dendrite. To assess the contribution of HCN down-regulation on the observed increase in dendritic excitability following sensory deprivation, we investigated the impact of blocking HCN channels. Block of HCN channels removed differences in dendritic calcium electrogenesis between control and deprived neurons. In conclusion, these observations indicate that sensory loss leads to increased dendritic excitability of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, they suggest that increased dendritic calcium electrogenesis following sensory deprivation is mediated in part via down-regulation of dendritic HCN channels.

  9. Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Andrew J; Ebert, Allison D

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to paralysis and early death due to reduced SMN protein. It is unclear why there is such a profound motor neuron loss, but recent evidence from fly and mouse studies indicate that cells comprising the whole sensory-motor circuit may contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells derived from SMA patients to test whether sensory neurons directly contribute to motor neuron loss. We generated sensory neurons from SMA induced pluripotent stem cells and found no difference in neuron generation or survival, although there was a reduced calcium response to depolarizing stimuli. Using co-culture of SMA induced pluripotent stem cell derived sensory neurons with control induced pluripotent stem cell derived motor neurons, we found no significant reduction in motor neuron number or glutamate transporter boutons on motor neuron cell bodies or neurites. We conclude that SMA sensory neurons do not overtly contribute to motor neuron loss in this human stem cell system.

  10. Neurotrophic Modulation of Myelinated Cutaneous Innervation and Mechanical Sensory Loss in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Julie A.; Ryals, Janelle M.; Johnson, Megan S.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2007-01-01

    Human diabetic patients often lose touch and vibratory sensations, but to date, most studies on diabetes-induced sensory nerve degeneration have focused on epidermal C-fibers. Here, we explored the effects of diabetes on cutaneous myelinated fibers in relation to the behavioral responses to tactile stimuli from diabetic mice. Weekly behavioral testing began prior to STZ administration and continued until 8 weeks, at which time myelinated fiber innervation was examined in the footpad by immunohistochemistry using antiserum to NF-H and MBP. Diabetic mice developed reduced behavioral responses to non-noxious (monofilaments) and noxious (pin prick) stimuli. In addition, diabetic mice displayed a 50% reduction in NF-H-positive myelinated innervation of the dermal footpad compared to non-diabetic mice. To test whether two neurotrophins NGF and/or NT-3 known to support myelinated cutaneous fibers could influence myelinated innervation, diabetic mice were treated intrathecally for two weeks with NGF, NT-3, NGF and NT-3. Neurotrophin-treated mice were then compared to diabetic mice treated with insulin for two weeks. NGF and insulin treatment both increased paw withdrawal to mechanical stimulation in diabetic mice, whereas NT-3 or a combination of NGF and NT-3 failed to alter paw withdrawal responses. Surprisingly, all treatments significantly increased myelinated innervation compared to control-treated diabetic mice, demonstrating that myelinated cutaneous fibers damaged by hyperglycemia respond to intrathecal administration of neurotrophins. Moreover, NT-3 treatment increased epidermal Merkel cell numbers associated with nerve fibers, consistent with increased numbers of NT-3-responsive slowly adapting A-fibers. These studies suggest that myelinated fiber loss may contribute as significantly as unmyelinated epidermal loss in diabetic neuropathy, and the contradiction between neurotrophin-induced increases in dermal innervation and behavior emphasize the need for multiple

  11. Problems identified by dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care when using a self-management program: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Sytse; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Dees, Marianne; Hermsen, Pieter; Kempen, Gertrudis; Graff, Maud

    2017-01-01

    Objective To gain insights into the problems of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Insights into these problems are essential for developing adequate policies which address the needs of the increasing population of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in parallel with a cluster randomized controlled trial. Dual sensory impaired older adults in the intervention group (n = 47, age range 82–98) were invited by a familiar nurse to identify the problems they wanted to address. Data were taken from the semi-structured intervention diaries in which nurses noted the older adults’ verbal responses during a five-month intervention period in 17 long-term care homes across the Netherlands. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis based on the Grounded Theory. Findings The 47 dual sensory impaired older adults identified a total of 122 problems. Qualitative content analysis showed that the older adults encountered participation problems and problems controlling what happens in their personal environment. Three categories of participation problems emerged: (1) existential concerns of not belonging or not being able to connect with other people, (2) lack of access to communication, information and mobility, and (3) the desire to be actively involved in care delivery. Two categories of control-in-personal-space problems emerged: (1) lack of control of their own physical belongings, and (2) lack of control regarding the behavior of nurses providing daily care in their personal environment. Conclusions The invasive problems identified indicate that dual sensory impaired older adults experience great existential pressures on their lives. Long-term care providers need to develop and implement policies that identify and address these problems, and be aware of adverse consequences of usual care, in order to improve dual sensory impaired residents’ autonomy and

  12. Loss of Peripheral Sensory Function Explains Much of the Increase in Postural Sway in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Anson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postural sway increases with age and peripheral sensory disease. Whether, peripheral sensory function is related to postural sway independent of age in healthy adults is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between tests of visual function (VISFIELD, vestibular function (CANAL or OTOLITH, proprioceptive function (PROP, and age, with center of mass sway area (COM measured with eyes open then closed on firm and then a foam surface. A cross-sectional sample of 366 community dwelling healthy adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging was tested. Multiple linear regressions examined the association between COM and VISFIELD, PROP, CANAL, and OTOLITH separately and in multi-sensory models controlling for age and gender. PROP dominated sensory prediction of sway across most balance conditions (β's = 0.09–0.19, p's < 0.001, except on foam eyes closed where CANAL function loss was the only significant sensory predictor of sway (β = 2.12, p < 0.016. Age was not a consistent predictor of sway. This suggests loss of peripheral sensory function explains much of the age-associated increase in sway.

  13. Dopamine receptor type 5 in the primary cilia has dual chemo- and mechano-sensory roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majeed, Shakila; Nauli, Surya M

    2011-08-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by cardiovascular irregularities, including hypertension. Dopamine, a circulating hormone, is implicated in essential hypertension in humans and animal models. Vascular endothelial primary cilia are known to function as mechano-sensory organelles. Although both primary cilia and dopamine receptors play important roles in vascular hypertension, their relationship has never been explored. To determine the roles of the dopaminergic system and mechano-sensory cilia, we studied the effects of dopamine on ciliary length and function in wild-type and mechano-insensitive polycystic mutant cells (Pkd1(-/)(-) and Tg737(orpk/orpk)). We show for the first time that mouse vascular endothelia exhibit dopamine receptor-type 5 (DR5), which colocalizes to primary cilia in cultured cells and mouse arteries in vivo. DR5 activation increases cilia length in arteries and endothelial cells through cofilin and actin polymerization. DR5 activation also restores cilia function in the mutant cells. In addition, silencing DR5 completely abolishes mechano-ciliary function in WT cells. We found that DR5 plays very important roles in ciliary length and function. Furthermore, the chemo-sensory function of cilia can alter the mechano-sensory function through changes in sensitivity to fluid-shear stress. We propose that ciliary DR5 has functional chemo- and mechano-sensory roles in endothelial cells.

  14. The relationship between sensory loss and persistent pain 1 year after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Kehlet, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    by quantitative sensory testing (QST), but only 2 smaller studies have examined PPBCS and sensory dysfunction in the surgical area. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the relative importance of sensory function and PPBCS. QST consisted of sensory mapping, tactile detection threshold (TDT......Moderate-to-severe persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) affects 10-20% of the patients. Sensory dysfunction is often concomitantly present suggesting a neuropathic pain state. The relationship between various postoperative pain states and sensory dysfunction has been examined......), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) and thermal thresholds. 290 patients were enrolled and results showed that 38 (13 %) had moderate-to-severe pain and 246 (85%) had hypoesthesia in the surgical area 1 year after surgery. Increased hypoesthesia areas were associated with both pain at rest and during movement (p...

  15. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  16. Synchronization effects in a dual-wavelength class-B laser with modulated losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, B F; Pisarchik, A N

    2001-10-01

    Different types of synchronization: in-phase, antiphase, phase, and lag synchronization, as well as amplitude death have been found theoretically in a dual-wavelength class-B laser with modulated losses in one of the channels. Depending on the laser parameters, oscillations in master and slave channels can be either completely or partially synchronized. The conditions for the dual-wavelength regime have been established. The analysis has been performed on the basis of transfer functions of the master and slave channels.

  17. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improves task performance in individuals with upper limb loss using a myoelectric prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Matthew; Tan, Daniel; Sidek, Steven M.; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Tactile feedback is critical to grip and object manipulation. Its absence results in reliance on visual and auditory cues. Our objective was to assess the effect of sensory feedback on task performance in individuals with limb loss. Approach. Stimulation of the peripheral nerves using implanted cuff electrodes provided two subjects with sensory feedback with intensity proportional to forces on the thumb, index, and middle fingers of their prosthetic hand during object manipulation. Both subjects perceived the sensation on their phantom hand at locations corresponding to the locations of the forces on the prosthetic hand. A bend sensor measured prosthetic hand span. Hand span modulated the intensity of sensory feedback perceived on the thenar eminence for subject 1 and the middle finger for subject 2. We performed three functional tests with the blindfolded subjects. First, the subject tried to determine whether or not a wooden block had been placed in his prosthetic hand. Second, the subject had to locate and remove magnetic blocks from a metal table. Third, the subject performed the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP). We also measured the subject’s sense of embodiment with a survey and his self-confidence. Main results. Blindfolded performance with sensory feedback was similar to sighted performance in the wooden block and magnetic block tasks. Performance on the SHAP, a measure of hand mechanical function and control, was similar with and without sensory feedback. An embodiment survey showed an improved sense of integration of the prosthesis in self body image with sensory feedback. Significance. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improved object discrimination and manipulation, embodiment, and confidence. With both forms of feedback, the blindfolded subjects tended toward results obtained with visual feedback.

  18. Setting a New Course: Defining Quality Lifestyles for Students with Dual Sensory Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohesky-Darby, Julie; And Others

    This guide was developed to assist families and professionals working with people having severe disabilities to improve the overall quality of life these individuals experience. An introduction contrasts new attitudes (such as emphasizing individual strengths and personal control and autonomy) with existing practices which often focus on students'…

  19. The Relationship Between Sensory Loss and Persistent Pain 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2017-09-01

    Moderate to severe persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) affects 10 to 20% of the patients. Sensory dysfunction is often concomitantly present suggesting a neuropathic pain state. The relationship between various postoperative pain states and sensory dysfunction has been examined using quantitative sensory testing (QST), but only 2 smaller studies have examined PPBCS and sensory dysfunction in the surgical area. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the relative importance of sensory function and PPBCS. QST consisted of sensory mapping, tactile detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold, and thermal thresholds. Two hundred ninety patients were enrolled and results showed that 38 (13%) had moderate to severe pain and 246 (85%) had hypoesthesia in the surgical area 1 year after surgery. Increased hypoesthesia areas were associated with pain at rest as well as during movement (P = .0001). Pain during movement was associated with a side-to-side difference of 140% (P = .001) for tactile detection threshold and 40% (P = .01) for mechanical pain threshold as well as increased thermal thresholds in the axilla (P > .001). Logistic regression models controlling for confounders showed larger areas of hypoesthesia as a significant risk factor, odds ratio 1.85 per 100 cm(2) for pain at rest and odds ratio 1.36 per 100 cm(2) for pain during movement. PPBCS is associated with increasing areas of hypoesthesia as well as intraoperative nerve preservation. Thus, we hypothesize that PPBCS is associated with an interaction between a peripheral nociceptive drive in macroscopically preserved nerves and the central nervous system causing PPBCS as well as hypoesthesia. QST may identify patients suitable for intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered sensory experience exacerbates stable dendritic spine and synapse loss in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Reena Prity; Li, Wen; Szepesi, Zsuzsanna; Li, Jia-Yi

    2015-01-07

    A key question in Huntington's disease (HD) is what underlies the early cognitive deficits that precede the motor symptoms and the characteristic neuronal death observed in HD. The mechanisms underlying cognitive symptoms in HD remain unknown. Postmortem HD brain and animal model studies demonstrate pathologies in dendritic spines and abnormal synaptic plasticity before motor symptoms and neurodegeneration. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity caused by mechanisms such as LTP or novel sensory experience potentiates synaptic strength, enhances new dendritic spine formation and stabilization, and may contribute to normal cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. We have previously reported that under baseline conditions (without any sensory manipulation) neuronal circuitry in HD (R6/2 mouse model) was highly unstable, which led to a progressive loss of persistent spines in these mice, and that mutant huntingtin was directly involved in the process. Here, we investigated whether pathological processes of HD interfere with the normal experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines in the R6/2 model. Six weeks of two-photon in vivo imaging before and after whisker trimming revealed that sensory deprivation exacerbates loss of persistent-type, stable spines in R6/2 mice compared with wild-type littermates. In addition, sensory deprivation leads to impaired transformation of newly generated spines into persistent spines in R6/2 mice. As a consequence, reduced synaptic density and decreased PSD-95 protein levels are evident in their barrel cortical neurons. These data suggest that mutant huntingtin is implicated in maladaptive synaptic plasticity, which could be one of the plausible mechanisms underlying early cognitive deficits in HD.

  1. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Holstege (Jan); W. de Graaff (Wim); S.M. Hossaini (Mehdi); S.C. Cano; D. Jaarsma (Dick); J. Deschamps (Jacqueline); E. van den Akker (Eric)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of

  2. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, J.C.; de Graaff, W.G.A.J.; Hossaini, M.; Cano, S.C.; Jaarsma, D.; van den Akker, E.; Deschamps, J.

    2008-01-01

    Although Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive g

  3. An Evaluation of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Thalassaemic Patients Treated with Desferrioxamine and Its Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sonbolestan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: In major thalassaemia patients who need blood transfusion, iron overload is a major therapeutic disadvantage that leads to heart failure which is the major cause of death in such patients. Desferrioxamine (DFO is the most efficient factor for iron chelation, but it carries adverse effects such sensory-neural hearing loss. Methods: The study began in March 2002 and continued untill March 2003, on 160 cases of thalassaemia to determine the incidence of sensory – neural hearing loss and its risk factors in patients who received Desferrioxamine (DFO. All cases underwent audiometric tests. Retrospectively, other needed information were either obtained through interview or extracted from the medical files. Results were analyzed with ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: Seventy-six patients of the total 156 patients showed impairment in PTA (48.7% with 24 of them suffering significant involvement (15.4%. These abnormalities generally affected high frequencies including, 4000 and 8000 Hz. Male gender, increased serum billirubin level and fasting blood sugar were statistically correlated with hearing loss (p.v = 0.038, p.v = 0.38, p.v = 0.002 respectively. There was no significant correlation between hearing loss and other factors. Mean DFO administration in patients, was 29.69 mg/kg/day and mean therapeutic index of DFO was 0.01 mg/kg/day/mg/lit. Both of them were below the critical level (<40mg/kg/day and <0.025mg/kg/day/mg/lit respectively, however hearing loss had developed. Conclusion: Controlling DFO dosage per se does not seem to be enough for decreasing ototoxicity rate. Periodic audiometric tests are highly recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. There are some other factors such as male gender, increased billirubin and FBS, which contribute to DFO ototoxicity. Looking for these risk factors and controlling them, would help identifying susceptible patients and preventing this complication. Key words

  4. Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth L; Geisser, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Morrow, Thomas J; Paulson, Pamela; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Patients with central pain (CP) typically have chronic pain within an area of reduced pain and temperature sensation, suggesting an impairment of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that some brain structures normally activated by cutaneous heat stimulation would be hyperresponsive among patients with CP but not among patients with a central nervous system lesion causing a loss of heat or nociceptive sensation with no pain (NP). We used H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography to measure, in 15 healthy control participants, 10 NP patients, and 10 CP patients, increases in regional cerebral blood flow among volumes of interest (VOI) from the resting (no stimulus) condition during bilateral contact heat stimulation at heat detection, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance levels. Both patient groups had a reduced perception of heat intensity and unpleasantness on the clinically affected side and a bilateral impairment of heat detection. Compared with the HC group, both NP and CP patients had more hyperactive and hypoactive VOI in the resting state and more hyperresponsive and hyporesponsive VOI during heat stimulation. Compared with NP patients, CP patients had more hyperresponsive VOI in the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex during heat stimulation. Our results show that focal CNS lesions produce bilateral sensory deficits and widespread changes in the nociceptive excitability of the brain. The increased nociceptive excitability within the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex of our sample of CP patients suggests an underlying pathophysiology for the pain in some central pain syndromes.

  5. The Health and Well-Being of Older Adults with Dual Sensory Impairment (DSI in Four Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Guthrie

    Full Text Available Dual sensory impairment (DSI is a combination of vision and hearing impairments that represents a unique disability affecting all aspects of a person's life. The rates of DSI are expected to increase due to population aging, yet little is known about DSI among older adults (65+. The prevalence of DSI and client characteristics were examined among two groups, namely, older adults receiving home care services or those residing in a long-term care (LTC facility in four countries (Canada, US, Finland, Belgium.Existing data, using an interRAI assessment, were analyzed to compare older adults with DSI to all others across demographic characteristics, functional and psychosocial outcomes.In home care, the prevalence of DSI across the four countries ranged from 13.4% to 24.6%; in LTC facilities, it ranged from 9.7% to 33.9%. Clients with DSI were more likely to be 85+, have moderate/severe cognitive impairment, impairments in activities of daily living, and have communication difficulties. Among residents of LTC facilities, individuals with DSI were more likely to be 85+ and more likely have a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Having DSI increased the likelihood of depression in both care settings, but after adjusting for other factors, it remained significant only in the home care sample.While the prevalence of DSI cross nationally is similar to that of other illnesses such as diabetes, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, we have a limited understanding of its affects among older adults. Raising awareness of this unique disability is imperative to insure that individuals receive the necessary rehabilitation and supportive services to improve their level of independence and quality of life.

  6. Serving and Supporting Young Children with a Dual Diagnosis of Hearing Loss and Autism: The Stories of Four Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myck-Wayne, Janice; Robinson, Suzanne; Henson, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The research on young children with a dual diagnosis of hearing loss and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is meager and scattered. Pockets of research on this population of children suggest that it is difficult to make the diagnosis of ASD in children with hearing loss. A case study design was used to examine the diagnostic process for young…

  7. Hyperlipidemic diet causes loss of olfactory sensory neurons, reduces olfactory discrimination, and disrupts odor-reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, Nicolas; Johnson, Melissa C; Butler, Jessica L; Bell, Genevieve A; Ferguson, Kassandra L; Fadool, Andrew R; Fadool, James C; Gale, Alana M; Gale, David S; Fadool, Debra A

    2014-05-14

    Currently, 65% of Americans are overweight, which leads to well-supported cardiovascular and cognitive declines. Little, however, is known concerning obesity's impact on sensory systems. Because olfaction is linked with ingestive behavior to guide food choice, its potential dysfunction during obesity could evoke a positive feedback loop to perpetuate poor ingestive behaviors. To determine the effect of chronic energy imbalance and reveal any structural or functional changes associated with obesity, we induced long-term, diet-induced obesity by challenging mice to high-fat diets: (1) in an obesity-prone (C57BL/6J) and obesity-resistant (Kv1.3(-/-)) line of mice, and compared this with (2) late-onset, genetic-induced obesity in MC4R(-/-) mice in which diabetes secondarily precipitates after disruption of the hypothalamic axis. We report marked loss of olfactory sensory neurons and their axonal projections after exposure to a fatty diet, with a concomitant reduction in electro-olfactogram amplitude. Loss of olfactory neurons and associated circuitry is linked to changes in neuronal proliferation and normal apoptotic cycles. Using a computer-controlled, liquid-based olfactometer, mice maintained on fatty diets learn reward-reinforced behaviors more slowly, have deficits in reversal learning demonstrating behavioral inflexibility, and exhibit reduced olfactory discrimination. When obese mice are removed from their high-fat diet to regain normal body weight and fasting glucose, olfactory dysfunctions are retained. We conclude that chronic energy imbalance therefore presents long-lasting structural and functional changes in the operation of the sensory system designed to encode external and internal chemical information and leads to altered olfactory- and reward-driven behaviors.

  8. Dual-loss-modulated Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser with AOM and monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Chao; Yang, Ke Jian; Zhao, Jia; Zhao, Sheng Zhi; Qiao, Wen Chao; Li, Tao; Feng, Tian Li; Liu, Cheng; Qiao, Jun Peng; Zheng, Li He; Xu, Jun; Wang, Qing Guo; Su, Liang Bi

    2015-09-20

    A laser-diode-pumped dual-loss-modulated Q-switching Tm:LuAG laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA) around 2 μm is presented for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The average output power and the pulse widths for different repetition rates have been measured. In comparison with the singly Q-switching laser with AOM or with monolayer graphene SA, the dual-loss-modulated Q-switching laser could generate shorter pulse width and higher peak power. The maximum pulse width compression ratio was found to be 3.11, and the highest peak power was enhanced 97.4 times. The experimental results show that the dual-loss-modulated technology is an efficient method for compressing the pulse width, improving the peak power, and enhancing the pulse stability for the Q-switched lasers at 2 μm.

  9. Cortical sensory loss in a patient with posterior cortical atrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chiu, Hou-Chang

    2004-02-01

    Patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) who present with initial symptoms of higher visual function deficits eventually develop alexia, aphasia, and components of Balint's syndrome or Gerstmann's syndrome. Recently, pathological findings were reported for these patients that are generally suggestive of Alzheimer's disease even though Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was presumed as an alternative cause of some autopsy-diagnosed PCA cases. Here, we report a case with a four-year progression of cognitive and higher visual function deterioration, and with features not described in previously reported PCA cases (i.e., a distinct sensory complaint and early frontal lobe involvement). To summarize, this case belongs to perceptual-motor syndrome of asymmetric cortical degeneration and the underlying neuropathology is more suggestive of Alzheimer's disease than of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  10. The reactivation of somatosensory cortex and behavioral recovery after sensory loss in mature primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Xin eQi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In our experiments, we removed a major source of activation of somatosensory cortex in mature monkeys by unilaterally sectioning the sensory afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at a high cervical level. At this level, the ascending branches of tactile afferents from the hand are cut, while other branches of these afferents remain intact to terminate on neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immediately after such a lesion, the monkeys seem relatively unimpaired in locomotion and often use the forelimb, but further inspection reveals that they prefer to use the unaffected hand in reaching for food. In addition, systematic testing indicates that they make more errors in retrieving pieces of food, and start using visual inspection of the rotated hand to confirm the success of the grasping of the food. Such difficulties are not surprising as a complete dorsal column lesion totally deactivates the contralateral hand representation in primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b. However, hand use rapidly improves over the first post-lesion weeks, and much of the hand representational territory in contralateral area 3b is reactivated by inputs from the hand in roughly a normal somatotopic pattern. Quantitative measures of single neuron response properties reveal that reactivated neurons respond to tactile stimulation on the hand with high firing rates and only slightly longer latencies. We conclude that preserved dorsal column afferents after nearly complete lesions contribute to the reactivation of cortex and the recovery of the behavior, but second-order sensory pathways in the spinal cord may also play an important role. Our microelectrode recordings indicate that these preserved first-order, and second-order pathways are initially weak and largely ineffective in activating cortex, but they are potentiated during the recovery process. Therapies that would promote this potentiation could usefully enhance recovery after spinal cord

  11. Analysis of the relationship between cognitive skills and unilateral sensory hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Leyva, I; Díaz-Leines, S; Arch-Tirado, E; Lino-González, A L

    2016-07-21

    To analyse cognitive skills in patients with severe unilateral hearing loss versus those in subjects with normal hearing. 40 adults participated: 20 patients (10 women and 10 men) with severe unilateral hearing loss and 20 healthy subjects matched to the study group. Cognitive abilities were measured with the Spanish version of the Woodcock Johnson Battery-Revised; central auditory processing was assessed with monaural psychoacoustic tests. Box plots were drawn and t tests were performed for samples with a significance of P≤.05. A comparison of performances on the filtered word testing and time-compressed disyllabic word tests between patients and controls revealed a statistically significant difference (P≤.05) with greater variability among responses by hearing impaired subjects. This same group also showed a better cognitive performance on the numbers reversed, visual auditory learning, analysis synthesis, concept formation, and incomplete words tests. Patients with hearing loss performed more poorly than controls on the filtered word and time-compressed disyllabic word tests, but more competently on memory, reasoning, and auditory processing tasks. Complementary tests, such as those assessing central auditory processes and cognitive ability tests, are important and helpful for designing habilitation/rehabilitation and therapeutic strategies intended to optimise and stimulate cognitive skills in subjects with unilateral hearing impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Loss of dual leucine zipper kinase signaling is protective in animal models of neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, Claire E; Meilandt, William J; Dominguez, Sara; Solanoy, Hilda; Lin, Han; Ngu, Hai; Gogineni, Alvin; Sengupta Ghosh, Arundhati; Jiang, Zhiyu; Lee, Seung-Hye; Maloney, Janice; Gandham, Vineela D; Pozniak, Christine D; Wang, Bei; Lee, Sebum; Siu, Michael; Patel, Snahel; Modrusan, Zora; Liu, Xingrong; Rudhard, York; Baca, Miriam; Gustafson, Amy; Kaminker, Josh; Carano, Richard A D; Huang, Eric J; Foreman, Oded; Weimer, Robby; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2017-08-16

    Hallmarks of chronic neurodegenerative disease include progressive synaptic loss and neuronal cell death, yet the cellular pathways that underlie these processes remain largely undefined. We provide evidence that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is an essential regulator of the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate that DLK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling was increased in mouse models and human patients with these disorders and that genetic deletion of DLK protected against axon degeneration, neuronal loss, and functional decline in vivo. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of DLK activity was sufficient to attenuate the neuronal stress response and to provide functional benefit even in the presence of ongoing disease. These findings demonstrate that pathological activation of DLK is a conserved mechanism that regulates neurodegeneration and suggest that DLK inhibition may be a potential approach to treat multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Synergy and Redundancy in Dual Decompositions of Mutual Information Gain and Information Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chicharro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Williams and Beer (2010 proposed a nonnegative mutual information decomposition, based on the construction of information gain lattices, which allows separating the information that a set of variables contains about another variable into components, interpretable as the unique information of one variable, or redundant and synergy components. In this work, we extend this framework focusing on the lattices that underpin the decomposition. We generalize the type of constructible lattices and examine the relations between different lattices, for example, relating bivariate and trivariate decompositions. We point out that, in information gain lattices, redundancy components are invariant across decompositions, but unique and synergy components are decomposition-dependent. Exploiting the connection between different lattices, we propose a procedure to construct, in the general multivariate case, information gain decompositions from measures of synergy or unique information. We then introduce an alternative type of lattices, information loss lattices, with the role and invariance properties of redundancy and synergy components reversed with respect to gain lattices, and which provide an alternative procedure to build multivariate decompositions. We finally show how information gain and information loss dual lattices lead to a self-consistent unique decomposition, which allows a deeper understanding of the origin and meaning of synergy and redundancy.

  14. The frequency of congenital long QT syndrome based on new formula in children with sensori-neural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Khosravi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Long QT syndrome (LQTS is a repolarization cardiac disorder that can lead to syncope, cardiac arrest and sudden death in apparently healthy individuals. The congenital type can be accompanied with congenital sensory-neural deafness (Jervell-Lang-Nielsen syndrome. Although there are limited studies assessed the frequency of LQTS in these children in developed countries, regarding introducing the new formula, it is necessary to re-evaluate the frequency of this syndrome. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was done on 203 patients with congenital sensory-neural hearing loss (SNHL that had cochlear implant surgery in Baqiyatallah cochlear implant center from 2008 to 2012. Corrected QT was calculated with this formula: QTC = QT + 1.75 (heart rate-60 Patients with QTC > 460 ms, were categorized in four groups: Long QT: QT > 460, Borderline: 440 470 and very markedly: >500. Also, cardiac arrhythmias or arrest were evaluated in patients during cochlear implant surgery and in the postoperative recovery period. Result: Prevalence of LQTS in patients was 12.32% (25 patients. Prevalence of markedly long QT and very markedly long QT were 8.87% (18 patients and 2.46% (5 patients respectively. The prevalence of borderline group was 14.29% (29 patients. None of the patients during or after surgery were affected by cardiac arrhythmias or arrest. Conclusion: This study showed higher prevalence of LQTS in patients with SNHL than the normal population, and we suggest that all patients with congenital deafness should be screen for LQTS.

  15. Prediction of protective sensory loss, neuropathy and foot ulceration in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R B; Darby, T; George, A M; Waterson, M; Hewson, P; Paisey, C F; Thomson, M P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy, loss of protective sensation, and foot ulceration in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) over 7 years. Research design and methods Graded monofilament (MF) testing, vibration perception threshold, and neuropathy symptom questionnaires were undertaken in 206 participants with type 2 DM without peripheral vascular disease or history of foot ulceration and 71 healthy participants without DM at baseline and after 7 years. 6 monthly glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and annual serum lipid profiles were measured during follow-up of those with DM. Incident foot ulceration was recorded at follow-up. Results Taller stature and higher quartiles of serum triglyceride and HbA1c levels were associated with neuropathy at follow-up (p=0.008). Remission of baseline neuropathy was observed in 7 participants at follow-up. 9 participants with type 2 DM developed foot ulcers by the end of the study, only 1 at low risk. Mean HbA1c levels were higher in those who developed foot ulceration (pCharcot foot. Failure to perceive 2 or more 2, 4 and 6 g MF stimuli at baseline predicted loss of protective sensation at follow-up. Conclusions Tall stature and worse metabolic control were associated with progression to neuropathy. Mean HbA1c levels were higher in those who developed foot ulcers. Graded MF testing may enrich recruitment to clinical trials and assignation of high risk for foot ulceration. PMID:27239314

  16. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  17. Increased risk of depression in patients with acquired sensory hearing loss: A 12-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Wen, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Hong-Ching; Tsai, Hsun-Tien; Su, Peijen; Sun, Chi-Te; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Hsu, Yi-Chao

    2016-11-01

    Acquired sensory hearing loss (SHL) is suggested to be associated with depression. However, some studies have reported conflicting results. Our study investigated the relationship between the prevalence of SHL and the incidence of depression over 12 years of follow-up by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We sought to determine the association between SHL and subsequent development of depression and discuss the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the association.Patients with SHL were identified from the NHIRD (SHL cohort). A non-SHL cohort, comprising patients without SHL frequency-matched with the SHL patients according to age group, sex, and the year of diagnosis of SHL at the ratio of 1:4, was constructed, and the incidence of depression was evaluated in both cohorts. A multivariable model was adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity.The SHL cohort and non-SHL cohort comprised 5043 patients with SHL and 20,172 patients without SHL, respectively. The incidences density rates were 9.50 and 4.78 per 1000 person-years in the SHL cohort and non-SHL cohort, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of depression was higher in the SHL cohort than in the non-SHL cohort (hazard ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-2.00).Acquired SHL may increase the risk of subsequent depression. The results demonstrated that SHL was an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between hearing loss and subsequent depression among Taiwanese adults of all ages, particularly those aged ≤49 and >65 years and without using steroids for the treatment of SHL was observed. Prospective clinical and biomedical studies on the relationship between hearing loss and depression are warranted for determining the etiopathology.

  18. The noise exposed factory workers: the prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss and their use of personal hearing protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah, S Z; Said, H

    1993-09-01

    A total of 524 industrial workers were studied. They consisted of 442 noise exposed and 82 non-noise exposed workers. The purpose was to compare the prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss among the noise exposed and the non-noise exposed workers, to study their knowledge on the hazard of noise to hearing and the workers' attitude towards the hearing protection devices. The prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss was significantly higher among the noise exposed workers, i.e., 83% versus 31.7% (p workers, only 5.1% were wearing them regularly. The possibility of developing hearing loss due to exposure to excessive noise was only known by 35.5% of the noise exposed workers. This awareness was found to have a positive correlation with the workers' compliance to the hearing protection devices. Our findings highlight the need for workers to be educated on the hazards of excessive noise exposure to hearing.

  19. Enhanced Coulombic efficiency in glucose-fed microbial fuel cells by reducing metabolite electron losses using dual-anode electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Ajayi, Folusho F; Jang, Am; Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, In S

    2011-03-01

    Glucose-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have displayed low Coulombic efficiency (CE); one reason for a low CE is metabolite generation, causing significant electron loss within MFC systems. In the present study, notable electron loss (15.83%) is observed in glucose-fed MFCs due to residual propionate, a glucose metabolite. In order to enhance the low CE caused by metabolite generation, a dual-anode MFC (DAMFC) is constructed, which are separately enriched by dissimilar substrates (glucose and propionate, respectively) to effectively utilize both glucose and propionate in one-anode chamber. In the DAMFC, propionate ceases to exist as a source of electron loss, and thus the CE increased from 33 ± 6 to 59 ± 4%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interspecies collision-induced losses in a dual species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Altaf, Adeel; Lorenz, John; Elliott, D. S.; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we report the measurement of collision-induced loss rate coefficients βLi, Rb and βRb, Li, and also discuss means to significantly suppress such collision-induced losses. We first describe our dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) that allows us to simultaneously trap ≥5 × 108 7Li atoms loaded from a Zeeman slower and ≥2 × 108 85Rb atoms loaded from a dispenser. We observe strong interspecies collision-induced losses in the MOTs which dramatically reduce the maximum atom number achievable in the MOTs. We measure the trap loss rate coefficients βLi, Rb and βRb, Li, and, from a study of their dependence on the MOT parameters, determine the cause for the losses observed. Our results provide valuable insights into ultracold collisions between 7Li and 85Rb, guide our efforts to suppress collision-induced losses, and also pave the way for the production of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules.

  1. Interspecies collision-induced losses in a dual species 7Li-85Rb magneto-optical trap

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Lorenz, John; Elliott, D S; Chen, Yong P

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the measurement of collision-induced loss coefficients \\beta_{Li,Rb} and \\beta_{Rb,Li}, and also discuss means to significantly suppress such collision induced losses. We first describe our dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) that allows us to simultaneously trap > 5x10^8 7Li atoms loaded from a Zeeman slower and > 2x10^8 85Rb atoms loaded from a dispenser. We observe strong interspecies collision-induced losses in the MOTs which dramatically reduce the maximum atom number achievable in the MOTs. We measure the trap loss rate coefficients \\beta_{Li,Rb} and \\beta_{Rb,Li}, and, from a study of their dependence on the MOT parameters, determine the cause for the losses observed. Our results provide valuable insights into ultracold collisions between 7Li and 85Rb, guide our efforts to suppress collision induced losses, and also pave the way for the production of ultracold 7Li85Rb molecules.

  2. Lateralized loss of biting attack-patterned reflexes following induction of contralateral sensory neglect in the cat: a possible role for the striatum in centrally elicited aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, R; Halliday, R

    1982-06-17

    A syndrome of "contralateral sensory neglect' was induced by hypothalamic knife cuts in 6 of 10 cats in which quiet biting attack behaviour could be elicited by lateral hypothalamic stimulation. The contralateral sensory neglect in the 6 affected cats was accompanied by a loss on the "neglected' side of the body of the patterned reflexes which mediate positioning of the head to bite and the jaw-opening component of biting. As a result, when these cats were stimulated in the lateral hypothalamus, although they continued to approach and even make tactile contact with the rat, they generally failed to bite it. Analysis of the histological and behavioural data suggested that damage to the nigrostriatal and/or striato/pallidonigral fibre systems provided the likely basis for both the induction of the contralateral sensory neglect and the lateralized patterned reflex loss. It was suggested, with respect to these specific patterned reflex components of the attack, that an important contribution may be made by the striatum.

  3. Nicotinic and muscarinic reduction of unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials in sensory cortex; dual intracellular recording in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert B; Reyes, Alex D; Aoki, Chiye

    2006-04-01

    We studied the cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission between neighboring layer 5 regular-spiking pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortical slices from young rats (P10-P26). Brief bath application of 5-10 microM carbachol, a nonspecific cholinergic agonist, decreased the amplitude of evoked unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). This effect was blocked by 1 microM atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Nicotine (10 microM), in contrast to carbachol, reduced EPSPs in nominally magnesium-free solution but not in the presence of 1 mM Mg+2, indicating the involvement of NMDA receptors. Likewise, when the postsynaptic cell was depolarized under voltage clamp to allow NMDA receptor activation in the presence of 1 mM Mg+2, synaptic currents were reduced by nicotine. Nicotinic EPSP reduction was prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (50 microM) and by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (10 microM). Both carbachol and nicotine reduced short-term depression of EPSPs evoked by 10 Hz stimulation, indicating that EPSP reduction happens via reduction of presynaptic glutamate release. In the case of nicotine, several possible mechanisms for NMDAR-dependent EPSP reduction are discussed. As a result of NMDA receptor dependence, nicotinic EPSP reduction may serve to reduce the local spread of cortical excitation during heightened sensory activity.

  4. Interaction of Dual Sensory Loss, Cognitive Function, and Communication in People Who Are Congenitally Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the development of social interaction and communication is important for the development of children and adults who are congenitally deaf-blind, and the development depends on the skills of a partner (such as a teacher of students with visual impairments, a teacher of students who are deaf and hard of hearing, and parents) in…

  5. Combined effects of nuclear and electronic energy losses in solids irradiated with a dual-ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Lionel; Debelle, Aurélien; Garrido, Frédérico; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves; Velisa, Gihan; Miro, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    Single and dual-beam irradiations of oxide (c-ZrO2, MgO, Gd2Ti2O7) and carbide (SiC) single crystals were performed to study combined effects of nuclear (Sn) and electronic (Se) energy losses. Rutherford backscattering experiments in channeling conditions show that the Sn/Se cooperation induces a strong decrease of the irradiation-induced damage in SiC and MgO and almost no effects in c-ZrO2 and Gd2Ti2O7. The healing process is ascribed to electronic excitations arising from the electronic energy loss of swift ions. These results present a strong interest for both fundamental understanding of the ion-solid interactions and technological applications in the nuclear industry where expected cooperative Sn/Se effects may lead to the preservation of the integrity of nuclear devices.

  6. Dual Loss of Rb1 and Trp53 in the Adrenal Medulla Leads to Spontaneous Pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tonks

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a Cre/loxP system, we have determined the phenotypic consequences attributable to in vivo deletion of both Rb1 and Trp53 in the mouse adrenal medulla. The coablation of these two tumor suppressor genes during embryogenesis did not disrupt adrenal gland development but resulted in the neoplastic transformation of the neural crest-derived adrenal medulla, yielding pheochromocytomas (PCCs that developed with complete penetrance and were inevitably bilateral. Despite their typically benign status, these PCCs had profound ramifications on mouse vitality, with effected mice having a median survival of only 121 days. Evaluation of these PCCs by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed that most Rb1-/-:Trp53-/- chromaffin cells possessed atypical chromagenic vesicles that did not seem capable of appropriately storing synthesized catecholamines. The structural remodeling of the heart in mice harboring Rb1-/-:Trp53-/- PCCs suggests that the mortality of these mice may be attributable to the inappropriate release of catecholamines from the mutated adrenal chromaffin cells. On the basis of the collective data from Rb1 and Trp53 knockout mouse models, it seems that the conversion of Rb1 loss-driven adrenal medulla hyperplasia to PCC can be greatly enhanced by the compound loss of Trp53, whereas the loss of Trp53 alone is generally ineffectual on adrenal chromaffin cell homeostasis. Consequently, the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene is an efficient genetic modifier of Rb1 loss in the development of PCC, and their compound loss in the adrenal medulla has a profound impact on both cellular homeostasis and animal vitality.

  7. The role of sensory organs and the forebrain for the development of the craniofacial shape as revealed by Foxg1-cre-mediated microRNA loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersigo, Jennifer; D'Angelo, Alex; Gray, Brian D; Soukup, Garrett A; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2011-04-01

    Cranial development is critically influenced by the relative growth of distinct elements. Previous studies have shown that the transcription factor Foxg1 is essential the for development of the telencephalon, olfactory epithelium, parts of the eye and the ear. Here we investigate the effects of a Foxg1-cre-mediated conditional deletion of Dicer1 and microRNA (miRNA) depletion on mouse embryos. We report the rapid and complete loss of the telencephalon and cerebellum as well as the severe reduction in the ears and loss of the anterior half of the eyes. These losses result in unexpectedly limited malformations of anterodorsal aspects of the skull. We investigated the progressive disappearance of these initially developing structures and found a specific miRNA of nervous tissue, miR-124, to disappear before reduction in growth of the specific neurosensory areas. Correlated with the absence of miR-124, these areas showed numerous apoptotic cells that stained positive for anticleaved caspase 3 and the phosphatidylserine stain PSVue® before the near or complete loss of those brain and sensory areas (forebrain, cerebellum, anterior retina, and ear). We conclude that Foxg1-cre-mediated conditional deletion of Dicer1 leads to the absence of functional miRNA followed by complete or nearly complete loss of neurons. Embryonic neurosensory development therefore depends critically on miRNA. Our data further suggest that loss of a given neuronal compartment can be triggered using early deletion of Dicer1 and thus provides a novel means to genetically remove specific neurosensory areas to investigate loss of their function on morphology (this study) or signal processing within the brain.

  8. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  9. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK...

  10. Dual effects of superovulation: loss of maternal and paternal imprinted methylation in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market-Velker, Brenna A; Zhang, Liyue; Magri, Lauren S; Bonvissuto, Anne C; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2010-01-01

    Superovulation or ovarian stimulation is currently an indispensable assisted reproductive technology (ART) for human subfertility/infertility treatment. Recently, increased frequencies of imprinting disorders have been correlated with ARTs. Significantly, for Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes, patients have been identified where ovarian stimulation was the only procedure used by the couple undergoing ART. In many cases, increased risk of genomic imprinting disorders has been attributed to superovulation in combination with inherent subfertility. To distinguish between these contributing factors, carefully controlled experiments are required on spontaneously ovulated, in vivo-fertilized oocytes and their induced-ovulated counterparts, thereby minimizing effects of in vitro manipulations. To this end, effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting were evaluated in a mouse model, where subfertility is not a confounding issue. This work represents the first comprehensive examination of the overall effects of superovulation on imprinted DNA methylation for four imprinted genes in individual blastocyst stage embryos. We demonstrate that superovulation perturbed genomic imprinting of both maternally and paternally expressed genes; loss of Snrpn, Peg3 and Kcnq1ot1 and gain of H19 imprinted methylation were observed. This perturbation was dose-dependent, with aberrant imprinted methylation more frequent at the high hormone dosage. Superovulation is thought to primarily affect oocyte development; thus, effects were expected to be limited to maternal alleles. Our study revealed that maternal as well as paternal H19 methylation was perturbed by superovulation. We postulate that superovulation has dual effects during oogenesis, disrupting acquisition of imprints in growing oocytes, as well as maternal-effect gene products subsequently required for imprint maintenance during pre-implantation development.

  11. Comparison of Occlusion Effect in Normal Hearing Individuals and those with Slight and Mild Sensory Neural Hearing Loss Via Real Ear Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meymaneh Jafari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing aid users complain about a phenomenon called "occlusion effect". The aim of this study was to compare the occlusion effect in normal hearing individuals and those with slight and mild sensory neural hearing loss via Real Ear Measurement.Methods: Sixty volunteers (30 male, 30 female aged 18-55 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects were instructed to vocalize /e/ and /i/ for 5 seconds. Sound pressure level was measured by a probe- microphone and recorded in the ear canal. Occlusion effect and the frequency in which maximum occlusion effect occurs were obtained for each individuals for further analysis.Results: The peak of occlusion effect for /e/ was 10.25 dB and 9.77 dB respectively in 751.9 Hz and 542.98 Hz frequencies in female and male individuals. The maximum occlusion effect occurred with 19.03 dB and 19.10 dB for /i/ and in 518.88 Hz and 440.28 Hz in female and male individuals, in respect. In addition, no significant difference was seen among hearing levels and between genders.Conclusion: The peak of occlusion effect varies significantly among hearing aid users so that the hearing aid must be tuned. Probe-microphone measures will assist in determination where frequency- specific adjustments are needed.

  12. Necessity of Distinguishing Verrucous Carcinoma From Verrucous Skin Lesion Overlaying Residual Skin Staples in an Area of Sensory Loss: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Tokiyoshi, Takahiro; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is a condition usually induced by chronic mechanical stimulation of the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy and usually occurs at weight-bearing sites. We here present a rare case involving a man with verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy at an unusual, non-weight-bearing site. A 58-year-old man with diabetic neuropathy presented with a verrucous skin lesion overlaying residual skin staples and an amputation stump of the second metatarsal bone on the dorsal foot. The biopsy findings were inconclusive and suggested the necessity of distinguishing the lesion from verrucous carcinoma. The lesion was resected, and the residual skin staples were simultaneously removed. Investigation of the excisional biopsy confirmed our diagnosis of verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy. Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to distinguish from verrucous carcinoma; in this case, the unusual location of the lesion could be attributed not only to sensory loss but also to the presence of an amputation stump and the persistence of the residual skin staples.

  13. Primary or secondary tasks? Dual-task interference between cyclist hazard perception and cadence control using cross-modal sensory aids with rider assistance bike computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Tse

    2017-03-01

    This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals. The results indicated that synchronously using different sense organs to receive cadence feedback significantly affects hazard perception performance; direct visual information leads to the worst rider distraction, with a mean sensitivity to hazards (d') of -1.03. For systems with multiple interacting sensory aids, auditory aids were found to result in the greatest reduction in sensitivity to hazards (d' mean = -0.57), whereas tactile sensory aids reduced the degree of rider distraction (d' mean = -0.23). Our work complements existing work in this domain by advancing the understanding of how to design devices that deliver information subtly, thereby preventing disruption of a rider's perception of road hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  15. Sensory syndromes in parietal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, C; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F

    1993-10-01

    We studied 20 patients with an acute parietal stroke with hemisensory disturbances but no visual field deficit and no or only slight motor weakness, without thalamic involvement on CT or MRI and found three main sensory syndromes. (1) The pseudothalamic sensory syndrome consists of a faciobrachiocrural impairment of elementary sensation (touch, pain, temperature, vibration). All patients have an inferior-anterior parietal stroke involving the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and, in all but one patient, underlying white matter. (2) The cortical sensory syndrome consists of an isolated loss of discriminative sensation (stereognosis, graphesthesia, position sense) involving one or two parts of the body. These patients show a superior-posterior parietal stroke. (3) The atypical sensory syndrome consists of a sensory loss involving all modalities of sensation in a partial distribution. Parietal lesions of different topography are responsible for this clinical picture, which probably represents a minor variant of the two previous sensory syndromes. Neuropsychological dysfunction was present in 17 patients. The only constant association was between conduction aphasia and right-sided pseudothalamic sensory deficit. We conclude that parietal stroke can cause different sensory syndromes depending on the topography of the underlying lesion. Sensory deficits can be monosymptomatic but never present as a "pure sensory stroke" involving face, arm, leg, and trunk together.

  16. A compact dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser with adjustable power-ratio between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines by controlling polarization dependent loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LuVO4 laser with a power-ratio adjustable between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines in a compound cavity configuration. The output power at two wavelengths of the laser indicates that it depends not only on pumping-power and but also on the controllable polarization loss in the cavity. Also, the power-ratio, defined as ratio between the output power at 1064 nm and that at 1342 nm, can be adjusted from 0 to 8 or higher accurately by rotating a quarter-wave plate (QWP) in the cavity.

  17. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20-35 years) and ten older adults (70-85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p < 0.05); addition of vibration did not affect outcome measures. Aging affects healthy older adults' performance in dual-tasks, and peripheral sensitivity may be a contributor to the observed differences. A vibration intervention may only be useful when there are more severe impairments of the sensorimotor system. Hence, future research regarding the efficacy of sensorimotor interventions in the form of vibrotactile stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  18. The Dual Amylin- and Calcitonin-Receptor Agonist KBP-042 Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Induces Weight Loss in Rats with Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Gydesen, Sofie; Andreassen, Kim Vietz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, KBP-042, a dual amylin- and calcitonin-receptor agonist, was investigated as a treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in five different doses (0.625 μg/kg-10 μg/kg) compared with saline-treated and pair-fed controls. Methods: Rats with obesity received daily s.c. ad...... combines two highly relevant features, namely weight loss and insulin sensitivity, and is thus an excellent candidate for chronic treatment of obesity and insulin resistance....... a sustained weight loss of up to 20% without any significant weight reduction in the pair-fed groups. Decreases in adipose tissues and lipid deposition in the liver were observed, while plasma adiponectin was increased and plasma leptin levels were decreased. Acute administration of KBP-042 led to impaired......Objective: In this study, KBP-042, a dual amylin- and calcitonin-receptor agonist, was investigated as a treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in five different doses (0.625 μg/kg-10 μg/kg) compared with saline-treated and pair-fed controls. Methods: Rats with obesity received daily s...

  19. A dual epigenomic approach for the search of obesity biomarkers: DNA methylation in relation to diet-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Cordero, Paúl; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Gómez-Uriz, Ana M; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, Maria A; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    Epigenetics could help to explain individual differences in weight loss after an energy-restriction intervention. Here, we identify novel potential epigenetic biomarkers of weight loss, comparing DNA methylation patterns of high and low responders to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty-five overweight or obese men participated in an 8-wk caloric restriction intervention. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and treated with bisulfite. The basal and endpoint epigenetic differences between high and low responders were analyzed by methylation microarray, which was also useful in comparing epigenetic changes due to the nutrition intervention. Subsequently, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate several relevant CpGs and the surrounding regions. DNA methylation levels in several CpGs located in the ATP10A and CD44 genes showed statistical baseline differences depending on the weight-loss outcome. At the treatment endpoint, DNA methylation levels of several CpGs on the WT1 promoter were statistically more methylated in the high than in the low responders. Finally, different CpG sites from WT1 and ATP10A were significantly modified as a result of the intervention. In summary, hypocaloric-diet-induced weight loss in humans could alter DNA methylation status of specific genes. Moreover, baseline DNA methylation patterns may be used as epigenetic markers that could help to predict weight loss.

  20. Satratoxin G from the Black Mold Stachybotrys chartarum Evokes Olfactory Sensory Neuron Loss and Inflammation in the Murine Nose and Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Zahidul; Harkema, Jack R.; James J. Pestka

    2006-01-01

    Satratoxin G (SG) is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, the “black mold” suggested to contribute etiologically to illnesses associated with water-damaged buildings. Using an intranasal instillation model in mice, we found that acute SG exposure specifically induced apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium. Dose–response analysis revealed that the no-effect and lowest-effect levels at 24 hr postinstillation (PI) were 5 and...

  1. A novel dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, KBP-089, induces weight loss through a reduction in fat, but not lean mass, while improving food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gydesen, Sofie; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Freving, Zenia; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Sonne, Nina; Hellgren, Lars I; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges. Hence, there is an important need to develop weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities. The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on body weight, glucose homeostasis and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue and on food preference was investigated. Furthermore, we elucidated weight-independent effects of KBP-089 using a weight-matched group. Rats fed a high-fat diet were treated, s.c., with KBP-089 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 μg·kg(-1) or vehicle. KB-089 induced in a dose-dependent and sustained weight loss (~17% by 2.5 μg·kg(-1) ). Moreover, KBP-089 reduced fat depot size and reduced lipid accumulation in muscle and liver. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, KBP-089 improved glucose homeostasis through improved insulin action. To obtain a weight-matched group, significantly less food was offered (9% less than in the KBP-089 group). Weight matching led to improved glucose homeostasis by reducing plasma insulin; however, these effect were inferior compared to those of KBP-089. In the food preference test, rats fed a normal diet obtained 74% of their calories from chocolate. KBP-089 reduced total caloric intake and induced a relative increase in chow consumption while drastically reducing chocolate consumption compared with vehicle. The novel DACRA, KBP-089, induces a sustained weight loss, leading to improved metabolic parameters including food preference, and these are beyond those observed simply by diet-induced weight loss. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Prevalence of Epileptiform Discharges in Children with Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss and Behavioral Problems Compared to Their Normal Hearing Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan AMIRSALARI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 How to Cite This Article: Amirsalari S, Radfar Sh, Ajallouyean M, Saburi A, Yousefi J, Noohi S, Tavallaie SA, Hassanalifard M, Ghazavi Y. Prevalence of Epileptiform Discharges in Children with Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss and Behavioral Problems Compared to Their Normal Hearing Peers. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:29-33.ObjectiveOveractivity and behavioral problems are common problems in children with prelingually profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL. Data on epileptiform electroencephalography (EEG discharges in deaf children with psychologicaldisorders are so limited. The primary focus of this study was to determine the prevalence of epileptiform discharges (EDs in children with SNHL and overactivity or behavioral problems.Materials & MethodsA total of 262 patients with prelingually profound SNHL who were referred to our cochlear implantation center between 2008 and 2010 were enrolled in this study. Children with SNHL who had diagnosis of overactivity and/or behavioralproblems by a pediatric psychiatrist, underwent electroencephalography (EEG.EEG analysis was carried out by a board-certified pediatric neurologist. The control group consisted of 45 cases with overactivity or behavioral problems and normal hearing.ResultsOne hundred thirty-eight children with mean age of 3.5±1.23 year were enrolled in the case group, of whom 88 cases (63.7% were boy. The control group consisted of 45 cases with mean age of 3.2±1.53 years, of whom 30 (66.6%cases were male. EDs were detected in 28 (20.02% children of the case group (with SNHL in comparison with 4 (8.88% in the control group (without SNHL, which was statistically significantly different.ConclusionIn this study, we obtained higher frequency of EDs in deaf children with overactivity and/or behavioral problem compared to the children without SNHL. Further studies are required to evaluate the possible association of SNHL withEDs in overactive children.References1

  3. Percentage of body fat assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a weight loss program for obese or overweight Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Li

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the estimates of body fat percentage (%BF by performing bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a sample of obese or overweight Chinese adults who participated in a weight-loss randomized control trial stratified by gender to determine whether or not BIA is a valid measurement tool. Among 189 adults [73 males, 116 females; age = 41 to 74 years; mean body mass index (BMI = 27.3 kg/m(2], assessments of %BF at the baseline and six months from the baseline were conducted by performing BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between %BFBIA and %BFDXA. Compared with DXA, BIA underestimated %BF [in males: 4.6, -2.4 to 11.7 (mean biases, 95% limit of agreement at the baseline, 1.4, -7.4 to 10.2 at the endpoint, and 3.2, -4.8 to 11.3 in changes; in females: 5.1, -2.4 to 12.7; 2.2, -6.1 to 10.4; and 3.0, -4.8 to 10.7, respectively]. For males and females, %BFDXA proved to be a significant predictor of the difference between DXA and BIA at the baseline, the endpoint, and in changes when BMI and age were considered (in males: p<0.01 and R (2 = 23.1%, 24.1%, 20.7%, respectively; for females: p<0.001 and R (2 = 40.4%, 48.8%, 25.4%, respectively. The current study suggests that BIA provides a relatively accurate prediction of %BF in individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity after the end of weight-loss program, but less accurate prediction of %BF in obese individuals at baseline or weight change during the weight-loss intervention program.

  4. Dynamic Acquisition and Loss of Dual-Obligate Symbionts in the Plant-Sap-Feeding Adelgidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. von Dohlen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sap-sucking insects typically engage in obligate relationships with symbiotic bacteria that play nutritional roles in synthesizing nutrients unavailable or in scarce supply from the plant-sap diets of their hosts. Adelgids are sap-sucking insects with complex life cycles that involve alternation between conifer tree species. While all adelgid species feed on spruce during the sexual phase of their life cycle, each adelgid species belongs to a major lineage that feeds on a distinct genus of conifers as their alternate host. Previous work on adelgid symbionts had discovered pairs of symbionts within each host species, and unusual diversity across the insect family, but left several open questions regarding the status of bacterial associates. Here, we explored the consistency of symbionts within and across adelgid lineages, and sought evidence for facultative vs. obligate symbiont status. Representative species were surveyed for symbionts using 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing, confirming that different symbiont pairs were consistently present within each major adelgid lineage. Several approaches were used to establish whether symbionts exhibited characteristics of long-term, obligate mutualists. Patterns of symbiont presence across adelgid species and diversification with host insects suggested obligate relationships. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy localized symbionts to bacteriocyte cells within the bacteriome of each species (with one previously known exception, and detection of symbionts in eggs indicated their vertical transmission. Common characteristics of long-term obligate symbionts, such as nucleotide compositional bias and pleomorphic symbiont cell shape were also observed. Superimposing microbial symbionts on the adelgid phylogeny revealed a dynamic pattern of symbiont gains and losses over a relatively short period of time compared to other symbionts associated with sap-sucking insects, with each adelgid

  5. Energy-filtered real- and k-space secondary and energy-loss electron imaging with Dual Emission Electron spectro-Microscope: Cs/Mo(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P., E-mail: k.grzelakowski@opticon-nanotechnology.com

    2016-05-15

    Since its introduction the importance of complementary k{sub ||}-space (LEED) and real space (LEEM) information in the investigation of surface science phenomena has been widely demonstrated over the last five decades. In this paper we report the application of a novel kind of electron spectromicroscope Dual Emission Electron spectroMicroscope (DEEM) with two independent electron optical channels for reciprocal and real space quasi-simultaneous imaging in investigation of a Cs covered Mo(110) single crystal by using the 800 eV electron beam from an “in-lens” electron gun system developed for the sample illumination. With the DEEM spectromicroscope it is possible to observe dynamic, irreversible processes at surfaces in the energy-filtered real space and in the corresponding energy-filtered k{sub ǁ}-space quasi-simultaneously in two independent imaging columns. The novel concept of the high energy electron beam sample illumination in the cathode lens based microscopes allows chemically selective imaging and analysis under laboratory conditions. - Highlights: • A novel concept of the electron sample illumination with “in-lens” e- gun is realized. • Quasi-simultaneous energy selective observation of the real- and k-space in EELS mode. • Observation of the energy filtered Auger electron diffraction at Cs atoms on Mo(110). • Energy-loss, Auger and secondary electron momentum microscopy is realized.

  6. Action perception in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness: how does the loss of a sensory modality from birth affect perception-induced motor facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Seeing or hearing manual actions activates the mirror neuron system, that is, specialized neurons within motor areas which fire when an action is performed but also when it is passively perceived. Using TMS, it was shown that motor cortex of typically developed subjects becomes facilitated not only from seeing others' actions, but also from merely hearing action-related sounds. In the present study, TMS was used for the first time to explore the "auditory" and "visual" responsiveness of motor cortex in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness. TMS was applied over left primary motor cortex (M1) to measure cortico-motor facilitation while subjects passively perceived manual actions (either visually or aurally). Although largely unexpected, congenitally blind or deaf subjects displayed substantially lower resonant motor facilitation upon action perception compared to seeing/hearing control subjects. Moreover, muscle-specific changes in cortico-motor excitability within M1 appeared to be absent in individuals with profound blindness or deafness. Overall, these findings strongly argue against the hypothesis that an increased reliance on the remaining sensory modality in blind or deaf subjects is accompanied by an increased responsiveness of the "auditory" or "visual" perceptual-motor "mirror" system, respectively. Moreover, the apparent lack of resonant motor facilitation for the blind and deaf subjects may challenge the hypothesis of a unitary mirror system underlying human action recognition and may suggest that action perception in blind and deaf subjects engages a mode of action processing that is different from the human action recognition system recruited in typically developed subjects.

  7. Satratoxin G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum evokes olfactory sensory neuron loss and inflammation in the murine nose and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahidul; Harkema, Jack R; Pestka, James J

    2006-07-01

    Satratoxin G (SG) is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, the "black mold" suggested to contribute etiologically to illnesses associated with water-damaged buildings. Using an intranasal instillation model in mice, we found that acute SG exposure specifically induced apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium. Dose-response analysis revealed that the no-effect and lowest-effect levels at 24 hr postinstillation (PI) were 5 and 25 microg/kg body weight (bw) SG, respectively, with severity increasing with dose. Apoptosis of OSNs was identified using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 expression, electron microscopy for ultrastructural cellular morphology, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for elevated expression of the proapoptotic genes Fas, FasL, p75NGFR, p53, Bax, caspase-3, and CAD. Time-course studies with a single instillation of SG (500 microg/kg bw) indicated that maximum atrophy of the olfactory epithelium occurred at 3 days PI. Exposure to lower doses (100 microg/kg bw) for 5 consecutive days resulted in similar atrophy and apoptosis, suggesting that in the short term, these effects are cumulative. SG also induced an acute, neutrophilic rhinitis as early as 24 hr PI. Elevated mRNA expression for the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) , and IL-1 and the chemokine macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) were detected at 24 hr PI in both the ethmoid turbinates of the nasal airways and the adjacent olfactory bulb of the brain. Marked atrophy of the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb was also detectable by 7 days PI along with mild neutrophilic encephalitis. These findings suggest that neurotoxicity and inflammation within the nose and brain are potential adverse health effects of exposure to satratoxins and Stachybotrys in the indoor air of water-damaged buildings.

  8. Idler-resonant intracavity KTA-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated-Q-switched-laser with AOM and Cr4+:YAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2017-06-01

    An idler-resonant KTiOAsO4 (KTA)-based intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a dual-loss-modulated Q-switched laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber (Cr4+:YAG-SA) has been presented. By utilizing a type-II non-critically phase-matched KTA crystal, signal wave at 1535 nm and idler wave at 3467 nm have been generated. Under an incident pump power of 18.3 W, maximum output powers of 615 mW for signal wave and 228 mW for idler wave were obtained at an AOM modulation rate of 10 kHz, corresponding to a whole optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.6%. The shortest pulse widths of signal and idler wave were measured to be 898 ps and 2.9 ns, corresponding to the highest peak powers of 68.4 and 7.9 kW, respectively. In comparison with IOPO pumped by a singly Q-switched laser with an AOM, the IOPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched laser (DIOPO) with an AOM and a Cr4+:YAG-SA can generate signal wave and idler wave with shorter pulse width and higher peak power. By considering the spatial Gaussian distribution of intracavity photon density, a set of coupled rate equations for the idler-resonant DIOPO were built for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results.

  9. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  10. Quantitative sensory testing using DFNS protocol in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) in accordance with the DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) protocol assesses the function of afferent nerve fibers on the basis of 13 parameters. Within the consortia IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative) Europain and Neuropain, QST results from...... ranging from 0% (no heterogeneity) to 100% (perfect heterogeneity). Data from healthy subjects were comparable with the existing reference data base. Patients with polyneuropathy mainly displayed loss of sensory function, whereas patients with peripheral nerve injury often showed sensory loss combined...

  11. Avaliação das perdas sensório-motoras do pé e tornozelo decorrentes da neuropatia diabética Assessment of motor sensory losses in the foot and ankle due to diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICN Sacco

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar déficits sensório-motores de pés de pacientes diabéticos neuropatas e comparar os déficits do grupo neuropata com um grupo de sujeitos saudáveis. MÉTODO: 49 diabéticos neuropatas (GD e 22 controles foram submetidos a um protocolo de três estágios: (1 entrevista por meio de questionário, que caracterizou a neuropatia e sintomas, (2 avaliação da função muscular, amplitude de movimentos e testes funcionais dos pés e tornozelos, (3 avaliação da sensibilidade tátil e térmica. Os grupos foram comparados por meio dos testes Qui-quadrado, Mann-Withney e Teste T (pOBJECTIVE: To identify motor sensory deficits in the feet of neuropathic diabetic patients and compare their deficits with a group of healthy subjects. METHOD: 49 neuropathic diabetics (group NG and 22 controls (group CG underwent a three-stage protocol: (1 an interview using a questionnaire to characterize the neuropathy and symptoms; (2 assessment of muscle function and range of motion, and functional tests on the feet and ankles; (3 assessment of tactile and thermal sensitivity. The groups were compared using the chi-squared, Mann-Whitney and Student t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: NG presented significant losses of tactile and thermal sensitivity in comparison with CG, especially in the heels (49.0% of NG and 97.3% of CG. Muscle function was decreased in NG, with predominance of loss of grade 5. The muscles most affected were the interossei (23.4%, extensor hallucis (42.5% and triceps surae (43.2%, while all muscle function was preserved in CG. All ranges of motion in NG were reduced in comparison with CG. The functional tests on the ankles in NG presented a decrease of around 50%. CONCLUSION: There were significant differences between the groups with regard to sensitivity, muscle function, range of motion and functional losses. These differences can be attributed to the diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Whitt, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    Sensory loss leads to widespread adaptation of brain circuits to allow an organism to navigate its environment with its remaining senses, which is broadly referred to as cross-modal plasticity. Such adaptation can be observed even in the primary sensory cortices, and falls into two distinct categories: recruitment of the deprived sensory cortex for processing the remaining senses, which we term 'cross-modal recruitment', and experience-dependent refinement of the spared sensory cortices referred to as 'compensatory plasticity.' Here we will review recent studies demonstrating that cortical adaptation to sensory loss involves LTP/LTD and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity is observed in adults, hence cross-modal sensory deprivation may be an effective way to promote plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

  13. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  14. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Amboni, Marianna [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); IDC-Hermitage, Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 {+-} 25% in caudate and by 51 {+-} 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  15. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  16. CONGENITAL SENSORY NEUROPATHY (HSAN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Chalam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5 year old girl having hereditary sensory neuropathy, type II manifesting as congenital absence of pain sensation and trophic changes in the skin is reported. This child presented with presented with multiple ulcers over hands and feet since 2 years of age. The ulcers were non - healing type with serosanguineous discharge. There is abnormal gait and weakness in upper and lower limbs. On examination there are deep ulcers measuring 5x7x2cms over left feet. Fingers of both hands and feet were mutilated with loss of phalanges, sensations to fine touch, pain and temperature are decreased bilaterally below the mid arm and feet, vibration sensations were normal, proprioception could not be tested due to deformities. Sensory and motor nerve conduction studies showed evidence of sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.

  17. Hearing loss and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... turn up the volume to block out other noise. If you wear headphones, the volume is too loud if a person standing near you can hear the music through your headphones. Other tips about headphones are: ...

  18. Unusual magnetic resonance findings in two children with sudden sensorineural hearing loss Achados incomuns nas ressonâncias magnéticas de duas crianças com perda auditiva neuro-sensorial súbita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson L. Gasparetto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the MRI findings of two pediatric patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL. CASE REPORTS: Two male patients (two-year and three-months-old, and one year and four-months-old presented with sudden dumbness. Physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable besides bilateral hypoacusia. All the laboratory investigation was negative, and brain stem auditory evoked potentials showed deep bilateral deafness in both cases. MRI studies revealed normal inner ears and multifocal white matter areas of slight low signal on T1-weighted images and high signal on FLAIR images. The follow-up MRI studies and neurological examinations did not demonstrate alterations in the previous findings. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with SSHL may present cerebral white matter signal abnormalities at the MRI as the only finding. Further studies with larger casuistics need to be conducted to elucidate these findings.OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados de ressonância magnética (RM em dois pacientes pediátricos com perda auditiva neuro-sensorial súbita (PANS. RELATO DOS CASOS: Dois pacientes masculinos (dois anos e três meses e um ano e quarto meses de idade apresentaram-se com surdez súbita. Os exames físico e neurológico foram normais, à exceção da hipoacusia. Toda a investigação laboratorial foi normal, e os potenciais auditivos evocados do tronco cerebral demonstraram surdez profunda bilateral. Os exames de RM evidenciaram estruturas normais dos ouvidos internos e áreas multifocais de discreto hipossinal em T1 e hipersinal em FLAIR na substância branca dos hemisférios cerebrais. As RMs e os exames neurológicos de controle não demonstraram alterações nos achados prévios. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes pediátricos com PANS podem apresentar à RM alterações de sinal na substância branca dos hemisférios cerebrais como único achado. Estudos futuros com casuísticas maiores deverão ser conduzidos para a elucidação destes

  19. Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy and anaesthesia - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Dave

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a rare group of disorders characterized by progressive loss of function that predominantly affects the peripheral sensory nerves. Autonomic dysfunction is present to a variable degree and can have several implications for anaesthesia. We report the case of a patient with Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy who was posted for a below knee amputation and discuss the anaesthesia management.

  20. Assessment of the effect of gaseous fuel delivery mode on thermal efficiency and fuel losses during the valve overlap period in a dual-fuel compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, T.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes the effect of dual fuelling of single cylinder AVL test CI engine with the use of two ways of gas delivery to the engine manifold. The engine was fuelled diesel oil and propane. For all the tests, gas consumption was maintained at the same level. In the first mode the gas was delivered by injector located under inlet valve. In the second method, there was used a mixer fitted to the intake manifold. The paper compares the results of thermal efficiency and emissions of propane in the exhaust for both fuelling modes. Research clearly show how important it is to synchronize the injector opening time of the intake stroke. This is especially important for supercharged engines in which there is a valve overlap.

  1. Haptic wearables as sensory replacement, sensory augmentation and trainer - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Peter B; Damian, Dana D

    2015-07-20

    Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory. Results of this review are categorized by degree of sensory impairment. Total impairment, such as in an amputee, blind, or deaf individual, involves haptics acting as sensory replacement; partial impairment, as is common in rehabilitation, involves haptics as sensory augmentation; and no impairment involves haptics as trainer. This review found that wearable haptic devices improved function for a variety of clinical applications including: rehabilitation, prosthetics, vestibular loss, osteoarthritis, vision loss and hearing loss. Future haptic wearables development should focus on clinical needs, intuitive and multimodal haptic displays, low energy demands, and biomechanical compliance for long-term usage.

  2. Successful treatment of hallucinations associated with sensory impairment using gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Suzanne; Sabeen, Samia

    2008-01-01

    Sensory impairment hallucinations, such as visual hallucinations with visual loss, may not respond to traditional treatments such as antipsychotics. In this case series, the authors describe four patients with either visual or musical hallucinations associated with sensory impairment who were successfully treated with gabapentin.

  3. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  4. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  5. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities.

  6. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  7. Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: A mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine;

    2016-01-01

    subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated: Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination...... with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed...

  8. Effect of frozen period on the chemical, microbiological and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    Key words: Frozen period, chemical, microbiological, sensory quality, tilapia fish. ... rate of loss of quality and shelf life of fish (Whittle, 1997). ... Proximate composition (dry weight basis) of Nile Tilapia (Sarotherudun galiaenus) subjected to ...

  9. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  10. Sensory correlates of pain in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Wing Tin, Sophie; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Goujon, Colette; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Créange, Alain; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2014-05-01

    To characterize sensory threshold alterations in peripheral neuropathies and the relationship between these alterations and the presence of pain. Seventy-four patients with length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy were enrolled, including 38 patients with painful neuropathy (complaining of chronic, spontaneous neuropathic pain in the feet) and 36 patients with painless neuropathy. They were compared to 28 age-matched normal controls. A standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol was performed in all individuals to assess large and small fiber function at the foot. Large fibers were assessed by measuring mechanical (pressure and vibration) detection thresholds and small fibers by measuring pain and thermal detection thresholds. Between patients with neuropathy and controls, significant differences were found for mechanical and thermal detection thresholds but not for pain thresholds. Patients with painful neuropathy and those with painless neuropathy did not differ regarding mechanical or thermal thresholds, but only by a higher incidence of thermal or dynamic mechanical allodynia in case of painful neuropathy. Pain intensity correlated with the alteration of thermal detection and mechanical pain thresholds. Quantitative sensory testing can support the diagnosis of sensory neuropathy when considering detection threshold measurement. Thermal threshold deterioration was not associated with the occurrence of pain but with its intensity. There is a complex relationship between the loss or functional deficit of large and especially small sensory nerve fibers and the development of pain in peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral sensory abnormalities in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain; a quantitative sensory testing (QST study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Konopka

    Full Text Available In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold. Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%.

  12. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  13. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin KWON

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly.Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012, analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hear-ing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimen-sion test (EQ-5D. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify rela-tionships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores.Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03, usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64, and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97. In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01] and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02] appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00] or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]; P = .02.Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment.

  14. Effect of a dual-purpose inoculant on the quality and nutrient losses from corn silage produced in farm-scale silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, O C M; Adesogan, A T; Arriola, K G; Queiroz, M F S

    2012-06-01

    This project aimed to determine effects of applying an inoculant containing homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria on the fermentation, nutritive value, aerobic stability, and nutrient losses from corn silage produced in farm-scale silos. Corn forage was harvested at 34% dry matter (DM) and treated without (control) or with 5 × 10⁵ cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The inoculant was sprayed on alternate 8-row-wide swaths of forage, and the untreated and inoculated forages were alternately packed into 3.6-m-wide bag silos. Forty-five tonnes of corn forage were packed into each of 4 replicate bags per treatment and ensiled for 166 d. Silage removed from the bags (500 kg/d) was separated into good and spoiled (visibly moldy or darker) silage portions, and weighed for 35 d. Weekly composites were analyzed for chemical composition, aerobic stability, and fungal counts. Aerobic stability was measured using data loggers that recorded sample and ambient temperature every 30 min for 7 d. Inoculation did not affect the chemical composition of the spoiled or good silage but decreased the quantity (5.7 vs. 12.9 kg/d) and percentage (3.4 vs. 7.8) of spoiled silage in the bags by over 50%. Losses of crude protein (0.28 vs. 0.92 kg/d), gross energy (6.0 × 10⁴ vs. 1.8 × 10⁵ kJ/d), and neutral detergent fiber (1.34 vs. 4.12 kg/d) in spoiled silage were less in inoculated versus control silages. Inoculated silages had lower pH (3.91 vs. 3.99), lactate concentration (7.63 vs. 7.86%), lactate:acetate ratio (1.58 vs. 2.53%), and a greater acetate (5.11 vs. 3.56%) concentration than the control silage. Inoculated silages tended to have fewer yeasts (2.59 vs. 4.62 log cfu/g) than control silages, but aerobic stability was not different across treatments (14.7 vs. 9.5 h). Applying the inoculant made the fermentation more heterolactic, inhibited the growth of yeasts, and substantially reduced the amount of spoilage and the associated energy and

  15. Positive selection and multiple losses of the LINE-1-derived L1TD1 gene in mammals suggest a dual role in genome defense and pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard N; Young, Janet M; Yang, Lei; Neme, Rafik; Wichman, Holly A; Malik, Harmit S

    2014-09-01

    Mammalian genomes comprise many active and fossilized retroelements. The obligate requirement for retroelement integration affords host genomes an opportunity to 'domesticate' retroelement genes for their own purpose, leading to important innovations in genome defense and placentation. While many such exaptations involve retroviruses, the L1TD1 gene is the only known domesticated gene whose protein-coding sequence is almost entirely derived from a LINE-1 (L1) retroelement. Human L1TD1 has been shown to play an important role in pluripotency maintenance. To investigate how this role was acquired, we traced the origin and evolution of L1TD1. We find that L1TD1 originated in the common ancestor of eutherian mammals, but was lost or pseudogenized multiple times during mammalian evolution. We also find that L1TD1 has evolved under positive selection during primate and mouse evolution, and that one prosimian L1TD1 has 'replenished' itself with a more recent L1 ORF1 from the prosimian genome. These data suggest that L1TD1 has been recurrently selected for functional novelty, perhaps for a role in genome defense. L1TD1 loss is associated with L1 extinction in several megabat lineages, but not in sigmodontine rodents. We hypothesize that L1TD1 could have originally evolved for genome defense against L1 elements. Later, L1TD1 may have become incorporated into pluripotency maintenance in some lineages. Our study highlights the role of retroelement gene domestication in fundamental aspects of mammalian biology, and that such domesticated genes can adopt different functions in different lineages.

  16. Positive selection and multiple losses of the LINE-1-derived L1TD1 gene in mammals suggest a dual role in genome defense and pluripotency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N McLaughlin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian genomes comprise many active and fossilized retroelements. The obligate requirement for retroelement integration affords host genomes an opportunity to 'domesticate' retroelement genes for their own purpose, leading to important innovations in genome defense and placentation. While many such exaptations involve retroviruses, the L1TD1 gene is the only known domesticated gene whose protein-coding sequence is almost entirely derived from a LINE-1 (L1 retroelement. Human L1TD1 has been shown to play an important role in pluripotency maintenance. To investigate how this role was acquired, we traced the origin and evolution of L1TD1. We find that L1TD1 originated in the common ancestor of eutherian mammals, but was lost or pseudogenized multiple times during mammalian evolution. We also find that L1TD1 has evolved under positive selection during primate and mouse evolution, and that one prosimian L1TD1 has 'replenished' itself with a more recent L1 ORF1 from the prosimian genome. These data suggest that L1TD1 has been recurrently selected for functional novelty, perhaps for a role in genome defense. L1TD1 loss is associated with L1 extinction in several megabat lineages, but not in sigmodontine rodents. We hypothesize that L1TD1 could have originally evolved for genome defense against L1 elements. Later, L1TD1 may have become incorporated into pluripotency maintenance in some lineages. Our study highlights the role of retroelement gene domestication in fundamental aspects of mammalian biology, and that such domesticated genes can adopt different functions in different lineages.

  17. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  18. [Pathophysiology of sensory ataxic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, G

    1996-12-01

    The main lesions of sensory ataxic neuropathy such as chronic idiopathic sensory ataxic neuropathy, (ISAN), carcinomatous neuropathy, Sjögren syndrome-associated neuropathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) are the large-diameter sensory neurons and dosal column of the spinal cord and the large myelinated fibers in the peripheral nerve trunks. In addition, afferent fibers to the Clarke's nuclei are also severely involved, suggesting Ia fibers being involved in these neuropathies. In NT-3 knockout mouse, an animal model of sensory ataxia, large-sized la neurons as well as muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs are depleted, and are causative for sensory ataxia. Thus, the proprioceptive Ia neurons would play a role in pathogenesis of sensory ataxia in human sensory ataxic neuropathies, but the significance of dorsal column involvement in human sensory ataxia is still needed to evaluate.

  19. Nociceptive Sensory Neurons Drive Interleukin-23 Mediated Psoriasiform Skin Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Perro, Mario; Naval, Elena; Thiriot, Aude; Alvarez, David; Wood, John N.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The skin has a dual function as a barrier and a sensory interface between the body and the environment. To protect against invading pathogens, the skin harbors specialized immune cells, including dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and interleukin (IL)-17 producing γδ T cells (γδT17), whose aberrant activation by IL-23 can provoke psoriasis-like inflammation1–4. The skin is also innervated by a meshwork of peripheral nerves consisting of relatively sparse autonomic and abundant sensory fibers. Inte...

  20. Nociceptive Sensory Neurons Drive Interleukin-23 Mediated Psoriasiform Skin Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Perro, Mario; Naval, Elena; Thiriot, Aude; Alvarez, David; Wood, John N.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The skin has a dual function as a barrier and a sensory interface between the body and the environment. To protect against invading pathogens, the skin harbors specialized immune cells, including dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and interleukin (IL)-17 producing γδ T cells (γδT17), whose aberrant activation by IL-23 can provoke psoriasis-like inflammation 1–4 . The skin is also innervated by a meshwork of peripheral nerves consisting of relatively sparse autonomic and abundant sensory fibers. In...

  1. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices.

  2. Dual diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dual diagnosis denotes intertwining of intellectual disabilities with mental disorders. With the help of systematic examination of literature, intellectual disabilities are determined (they are characterized by subaverage intellectual activity and difficulties in adaptive skills), along side mental disorders. Their influence is seen in changes of thinking, perception, emotionality, behaviour and cognition. Mental disorders often occur with people with intellectual disabilities (data differs f...

  3. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  4. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. A dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4/KTP green laser with a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Cheng, Kang; Han, Chao; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yonggang

    2011-09-01

    By using both a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA) and an acousto-optic (AO) modulator, a dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4/KTP (KTiOPO4) green laser was demonstrated for the first time. The QML green laser characteristics such as the pulse width and single-pulse energy have been measured for different modulation frequencies of the AO modulator (fp). In particular, in comparison with the solely passively QML green laser with an SWCNT-SA, the dual-loss-modulated QML green laser can generate a more stable pulse train, a shorter pulse width of the Q-switched envelope, a greater pulse energy and a higher average peak power. For the dual-loss-modulated QML green laser, at a pump power of 7.9 W and a repetition rate of 10 kHz, the pulse width and the pulse energy of the Q-switch envelope and the average peak power of the QML green laser are 50 ns, 20.34 µJ and 15.5 kW, respectively, corresponding to a pulse width compression of 77%, a pulse energy improvement factor of six times and a QML peak power increase factor of 16 times when compared with those for the solely passively QML green laser. The experimental results show that the dual-loss modulation is an efficient method for the generation of a stable QML green laser with an SWCNT-SA.

  6. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  7. Image quality of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver using dual-source parallel radiofrequency transmission technology: Comparison with the post-processing correction method for B1 inhomogeneity-induced signal loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi, E-mail: tyoshiu@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Obara, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.obara@philips.com [Philips Electronics Japan, Kounan 2-13-37, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8507 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the dual-source parallel radiofrequency system (DS system) for gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-MRI). Materials and methods: Twenty-six subjects with liver diseases underwent hepatobiliary phase imaging of Gd-EOB-MRI using either the DS system or a single-source radiofrequency system with or without body-tuned CLEAR, which is a post-processing correction method of B1 inhomogeneity-induced signal loss (SSBTC+ and SSBTC-, respectively). The left and right lobes of the liver were separately assessed. Qualitatively, the homogeneity of signal intensity distribution was scored using a 3-point scale. Quantitatively, lesion-to-liver and spleen-to-liver contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated. The scores and CRs were compared among the three techniques by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post hoc test. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant for each analysis. Results: The DS system showed a significantly better score in the left lobe of the liver, and higher lesion-to-liver and spleen-to-liver CRs in the left and right lobes of the liver, compared with SSBTC+ or SSBTC- (p < 0.05). The DS system and SSBTC- showed no significant differences in scores in the right lobe of the liver but they showed significantly better scores than SSBTC+ (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The DS system is more advantageous to improve the homogeneity of signal intensity distribution and tissue contrast of Gd-EOB-MRI than the post-processing correction method independently of the site.

  8. Molecular genetics of hereditary sensory neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Mauko, Barbara; Auer-Grumbach, Piet; Pieber, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN), also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. They are caused by neuronal atrophy and degeneration, predominantly affecting peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons. Both congenital and juvenile to adulthood onset is possible. Currently, the classification of the HSN depends on the mode of inheritance, age at onset, and clinical presentation. Hallmark features are progressive sensory loss, chronic skin ulcers, and other skin abnormalities. Spontaneous fractures and neuropathic arthropathy are frequent complications and often necessitate amputations. Autonomic features vary between different subgroups. Distal muscle weakness and wasting may be present and is sometimes so prominent that it becomes difficult to distinguish HSN from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Recent major advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of seven gene loci and six-disease causing genes for autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive HSN. These genes have been shown to play roles in lipid metabolism and the regulation of intracellular vesicular transport, but also a presumptive transcriptional regulator, a nerve growth factor receptor, and a nerve growth factor have been described among the causative genes in HSN. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how mutations in the known genes lead to the phenotype of HSN. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of the molecular genetics of the HSN and the implicated genes.

  9. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...... fixed point. Remarkably this value is identical to the maximum bound predicted in the nonpertubative regime via the all-orders conjectured beta function for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories.......We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  10. Unusual magnetic resonance findings in two children with sudden sensorineural hearing loss Achados incomuns nas ressonâncias magnéticas de duas crianças com perda auditiva neuro-sensorial súbita

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparetto, Emerson L; Arnolfo de Carvalho Neto; Danny Warszawiak; Isac Bruck,; Sérgio Antoniuk; Lúcia H.C. dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the MRI findings of two pediatric patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). CASE REPORTS: Two male patients (two-year and three-months-old, and one year and four-months-old) presented with sudden dumbness. Physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable besides bilateral hypoacusia. All the laboratory investigation was negative, and brain stem auditory evoked potentials showed deep bilateral deafness in both cases. MRI studies revealed normal inne...

  11. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  12. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  13. A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P

    2012-07-01

    The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds.

  14. Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin STEVENS; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Sensory ecology deals with how animals capture in formation from their environment, and the sensory sys tems involved in doing so (Hailman, 1977; Lythgoe, 1979; Dusenbery, 1992; Mappes and Stevens 2010). Although the term sensory ecology itself is compara tively recent, its basis has a long history, in part due to numerous links with subjects such as neurobiology, physiology, ethology, and evolutionary behavioral ecology.

  15. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...... in a format similar to their cognitive representations. This article introduces multi-sensory sculpting (MSS) as a method that allows retrieving embodied brand knowledge via multi-sensory metaphors and proposes a multi-layered metaphor analysis procedure to interpret these multi-sensory data. The paper...

  16. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  17. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  18. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-01-01

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  19. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  20. The Evolution of Sensory Placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Mazet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate cranial sensory placodes are ectodermal embryonic patches that give rise to sensory receptor cells of the peripheral paired sense organs and to neurons in the cranial sensory ganglia. Their differentiation and the genetic pathways that underlay their development are now well understood. Their evolutionary history, however, has remained obscure. Recent molecular work, performed on close relatives of the vertebrates, demonstrated that some sensory placodes (namely the adenohypophysis, the olfactory, and accoustico-lateralis placodes first evolved at the base of the chordate lineage, while others might be specific to vertebrates. Combined with morphological and cellular fate data, these results also suggest that the sensory placodes of the ancestor of all chordates differentiated into a wide range of structures, most likely to fit the lifestyle and environment of each species.

  1. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  2. Does Sensory Function Decline Independently or Concomitantly with Age? Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkaree, Shekhar K.; Sun, Daniel Q.; Li, Carol; Lin, Frank R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether sensory function declines independently or in parallel with age within a single individual. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants who underwent vision (visual acuity threshold), proprioception (ankle joint proprioceptive threshold), vestibular function (cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential), hearing (pure-tone average audiometric threshold), and Health ABC physical performance battery testing. Results. A total of 276 participants (mean age 70 years, range 26–93) underwent all four sensory tests. The function of all four systems declined with age. After age adjustment, there were no significant associations between sensory systems. Among 70–79-year-olds, dual or triple sensory impairment was associated with poorer physical performance. Discussion. Our findings suggest that beyond the common mechanism of aging, other distinct (nonshared) etiologic mechanisms may contribute to decline in each sensory system. Multiple sensory impairments influence physical performance among individuals in middle old-age (age 70–79).

  3. Task-specific transfer of perceptual learning across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, David P; Astle, Andrew T; Clavin, Sarah L; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-01-11

    It is now widely accepted that primary cortical areas of the brain that were once thought to be sensory-specific undergo significant functional reorganisation following sensory deprivation. For instance, loss of vision or audition leads to the brain areas normally associated with these senses being recruited by the remaining sensory modalities [1]. Despite this, little is known about the rules governing crossmodal plasticity in people who experience typical sensory development, or the potential behavioural consequences. Here, we used a novel perceptual learning paradigm to assess whether the benefits associated with training on a task in one sense transfer to another sense. Participants were randomly assigned to a spatial or temporal task that could be performed visually or aurally, which they practiced for five days; before and after training, we measured discrimination thresholds on all four conditions and calculated the extent of transfer between them. Our results show a clear transfer of learning between sensory modalities; however, generalisation was limited to particular conditions. Specifically, learned improvements on the spatial task transferred from the visual domain to the auditory domain, but not vice versa. Conversely, benefits derived from training on the temporal task transferred from the auditory domain to visual domain, but not vice versa. These results suggest a unidirectional transfer of perceptual learning from dominant to non-dominant sensory modalities and place important constraints on models of multisensory processing and plasticity.

  4. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too ... conversations when two or more people are talking Difficulty ...

  5. Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: A mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, Neuropain).Standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping we performed a cluster analysis using 13 QST parameters.Three distinct...... with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment.The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of neuropathic pain patients using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of three large multi-national research networks (German Research Network...... subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated: Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination...

  6. Tactile sensory system: encoding from the periphery to the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynette A; Smith, Allan M

    2014-01-01

    Specialized mechanoreceptors in the skin respond to mechanical deformation and provide the primary input to the tactile sensory system. Although the morphology of these receptors has been documented, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the relation between cutaneous receptor morphology and the associated physiological responses to stimulation. Labelled-line models of somatosensory processes in which specific mechanoreceptors are associated with particular sensory qualities fail to account for the evidence showing that all types of tactile afferent units respond to a varying extent to most types of natural stimuli. Neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments have provided the framework for determining the relation between peripheral afferent or cortical activity and tactile perception. Neural codes derived from these afferent signals are evaluated in terms of their capacity to predict human perceptual performance. One particular challenge in developing models of the tactile sensory system is the dual use of sensory signals from the skin. In addition to their perceptual function they serve as inputs to the sensorimotor control system involved in manipulation. Perceptions generated through active touch differ from those resulting from passive stimulation of the skin because they are the product of self-generated exploratory processes. Recent research in this area has highlighted the importance of shear forces in these exploratory movements and has shown that fingertip skin is particularly sensitive to shear generated during both object manipulation and tactile exploration.

  7. Cellular nanoscale sensory wave computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baatar, Chagaan; Roska, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This fresh perspective of sensory computing successfully bridges the gap between nanoscale devices and CMOS integrated circuits. Practical and complex algorithms are also discussed, in addition to new developments like the nanoscale antenna.

  8. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  9. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  10. Sensory Topography of Oral Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearelly, Shethal; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-01-01

    Sensory function in the oral cavity and oropharynx is integral to effective deglutition and speech production. The main hurdle to evaluation of tactile consequences of upper aerodigestive tract diseases and treatments is access to a reliable clinical tool. We propose a rapid and reliable procedure to determine tactile thresholds using buckling monofilaments to advance care. To develop novel sensory testing monofilaments and map tactile thresholds of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures. A prospective cross-sectional study of 37 healthy adults (12 men, 25 women), specifically without a medical history of head and neck surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy, was carried out in an academic tertiary medical center to capture normative data on tactile sensory function in oral structures. Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments were constructed by securing nylon monofilament sutures (2-0 through 9-0) in the lumen of 5-French ureteral catheters, exposing 20 mm for tapping action. Buckling force consistency was evaluated for 3 lots of each suture size. Sensory thresholds of 4 oral cavity and 2 oropharyngeal subsites in healthy participants (n = 37) were determined by classical signal detection methodology (d-prime ≥1). In 21 participants, test-retest reliability of sensory thresholds was evaluated. Separately in 16 participants, sensory thresholds determined by a modified staircase method were cross-validated with those obtained by classical signal detection. Buckling forces of successive suture sizes were distinct (P sensory threshold determination was high (Cronbach α, >0.7). The lower lip, anterior tongue, and buccal mucosa were more sensitive than the soft palate, posterior tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall (P Threshold determination by classical signal detection and modified staircase methods were highly correlated (r = 0.93, P sensory function assessment of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures.

  11. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  12. An Introduction to Intelligent Sensory Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪奕; 丁永生

    2004-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is the evaluation of signals that a buman receives via its sensory organs. Nowadays sensory evaluation is widely used in quality inspection and quality control of products. and many other fields. Actually sensory evaluation always give. uncertain and inprecise results, therefore it derivates many problems. we reviews in detail these problem and give some cumputing methods to resolve them.

  13. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    , with fiber loss or increased conduction velocity variability changes of the SNAP may be smaller than expected from normal nerve. The biophysical characteristics of sensory and motor fibers differ, and this may to some extent determine divergent pathophysiological changes in sensory and motor fibers......The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocities...... at different conduction distances are determined by summation of SFAPs of varying fiber diameters, and differ in this respect, also, from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) for which conduction velocities are determined by the very fastest fibers in the nerve. The effect and extent of temporal...

  14. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocities...... at different conduction distances are determined by summation of SFAPs of varying fiber diameters, and differ in this respect, also, from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) for which conduction velocities are determined by the very fastest fibers in the nerve. The effect and extent of temporal......, with fiber loss or increased conduction velocity variability changes of the SNAP may be smaller than expected from normal nerve. The biophysical characteristics of sensory and motor fibers differ, and this may to some extent determine divergent pathophysiological changes in sensory and motor fibers...

  15. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...... polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  16. Sensory outcome of fingertip replantations without nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Tuncer, Serdar; Purisa, Husrev; Sezer, Ilker; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Celikdelen, Pinar

    2008-01-01

    The sensory recovery outcomes of fingertip replantations without nerve repair were retrospectively studied. Between 2000 and 2006, 112 fingertip replantations with only arterial repair were carried out in 98 patients. About 76 of the replants survived totally, with a success rate of 67.8%. Evaluation of sensory recovery was possible in 31 patients (38 replantations). Sensory evaluation was made with Semmes-Weinstein, static and dynamic two-point discrimination, and vibration sense tests. Fingertip atrophy, nail deformities, and return to work were also evaluated. According to the Semmes-Weinstein test, 29.0% (11/38) of the fingers had normal sense, 60.5% (23/38) had diminished light touch, 7.9% (3/38) had diminished protective sensation, and 2.6% (1/38) had loss of protective sensation. Mean static and dynamic two-point discriminations were 7.2 mm (3-11 mm), and 4.60 mm (3-6 mm), respectively. Vibratory testing revealed increased vibration in 42.1% of the fingers, decreased vibration in 36.8%, and equal vibration when compared with the non-injured fingers in 21.1%. Atrophy was present in 14 (36.8%) fingers and negatively affected the results. Nail deformities, cold intolerance, return to work, and the effect of sensory education were investigated. Comparison of crush and clean cut injuries did not yield any significant difference in any of the parameters. Patients who received sensory education had significantly better results in sensory testing. The results were classified as excellent, good, and poor based on results of two-point discrimination tests. The outcome was excellent in 18 fingers and good in 20 fingers. Overall, satisfactory sensory recovery was achieved in fingertip replantations without nerve repair.

  17. Building sensory receptors on the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Bruce; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example, neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), rather than terminating among the adjacent cells that secrete neurotrophin 3. The p75NTR on special specialized clusters of epithelial cells may promote axonal arborization in vivo since its over-expression by fibroblasts enhances neurite outgrowth from overlying somatosensory neurons in vitro. Two classical observations have implicated gustatory neurons in the development and maintenance of mammalian taste buds--the early arrival times of embryonic innervation and the loss of taste buds after their denervation in adults. In the modern era more than a dozen experimental studies have used early denervation or neurotrophin gene mutations to evaluate mammalian gustatory organ development. Necessary for taste organ development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustains developing gustatory neurons. The cardinal conclusion is readily summarized: taste buds in the palate and tongue are induced by innervation. Taste buds are unstable: the death and birth of taste receptor cells relentlessly remodels synaptic connections. As receptor cells turn over, the sensory code for taste quality is probably stabilized by selective synapse formation between each type of gustatory axon and its matching taste receptor cell. We anticipate important new discoveries of molecular interactions among the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and gustatory innervation that build the gustatory papillae, their specialized epithelial cells, and the resulting taste buds.

  18. Characterization, sensorial evaluation and moisturizing efficacy of nanolipidgel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanqueiro, M; Conceição, J; Amaral, M H; Sousa Lobo, J M

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been widely studied for cosmetic and dermatological applications due to their favourable properties that include the formation of an occlusive film on the skin surface that reduces the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and increase in water content in the skin which improves the appearance on healthy human skin and reduces symptoms of some skin disorders like eczema. The main objective of this study was the development of semisolid formulations based NLC with argan oil or jojoba oil as liquid lipids, by addition of Carbopol®934 or Carbopol®980 as gelling agents, followed by comparison between instrumental analysis and sensorial evaluation and in vivo efficacy evaluation. Nanostructured lipid carriers dispersions were produced by the ultrasound technique, and to obtain a semisolid formulation, gelling agents were dispersed in the aqueous dispersion. Particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were determined. Instrumental characterization was performed by rheological and textural analysis; the sensorial evaluation was also performed. Finally, skin hydration and TEWL were studied by capacitance and evaporimetry evaluation, respectively. Particles showed a nanometric size in all the analysed formulations. All the gels present pseudoplastic behaviour. There is a correspondence between the properties firmness and adhesiveness as determined by textural analysis and the sensory evaluation. The formulations that showed a greater increase in skin hydration also presented appropriate technological and sensorial attributes for skin application. Nanolipidgel formulations with the addition of humectants are promising systems for cosmetic application with good sensory and instrumental attributes and moisturizing efficacy.

  19. Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Binder, Andreas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Hüllemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S.; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Magerl, Walter; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Sindrup, Sören; Sommer, Claudia; Tölle, Thomas; Vollert, Jan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain). Standardized quantitative sensory testing was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping, we performed a cluster analysis using 13 quantitative sensory testing parameters. Three distinct subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated. Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed. We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders. PMID:27893485

  20. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  1. Cross-modal plasticity in sensory deprived animal models: From the thalamocortical development point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzera, Cecilia; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2016-09-01

    Over recent decades, our understanding of the plasticity of the central nervous system has expanded enormously. Accordingly, it is now widely accepted that the brain can adapt to changes by reorganizing its circuitry, both in response to external stimuli and experience, as well as through intrinsic mechanisms. A clear example of this is the activation of a deprived sensory area and the expansion of spared sensory cortical regions in individuals who suffered peripheral sensory loss. Despite the efforts to understand these neuroplastic changes, the mechanisms underlying such adaptive remodeling remains poorly understood. Progress in understanding these events may be hindered by the highly varied data obtained from the distinct experimental paradigms analyzed, which include different animal models and neuronal systems, as well as studies into the onset of sensory loss. Here, we will establish the current state-of-the-art describing the principal observations made according to the time of sensory deprivation with respect to the development of the thalamocortical connectivity. We will review the experimental data obtained from animal models where sensory deprivation has been induced either before or after thalamocortical axons reach and invade their target cortical areas. The anatomical and functional effects of sensory loss on the primary sensory areas of the cortex will be presented. Indeed, we consider that the comparative approach of this review is a necessary step in order to help deciphering the processes that underlie sensory neuroplasticity, for which studies in animal models have been indispensable. Understanding these mechanisms will then help to develop restorative strategies and prostheses that will overcome the functional loss.

  2. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  3. Sensory nerve conduction studies in neuralgic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alfen, Nens; Huisman, Willem J; Overeem, S; van Engelen, B G M; Zwarts, M J

    2009-11-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy is a painful, episodic peripheral nerve disorder localized to the brachial plexus. Sensory symptoms occur in 80% of the patients. We assessed the frequency of abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction studies of the lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous, radial sensory, median sensory, and ulnar sensory nerves in 112 patients. Sensory nerve conduction studies showed abnormalities in nerves, even when the nerve was clinically affected. The lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were most often abnormal, in 15% and 17% of nerves. No correlation with the presence or localization of clinical deficits was found. Brachial plexus sensory nerve conduction studies seem to be of little diagnostic value in neuralgic amyotrophy. Our findings also indicate that some sensory lesions may be in the nerve roots instead of the plexus. An examination of normal sensory nerve conduction studies does not preclude neuralgic amyotrophy as a diagnosis.

  4. [Sensory and autonomic neuropathies and pain-related channelopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, I

    2015-08-01

    Loss of pain perception can result from neurodevelopmental defects, degeneration of nociceptive fibers, or altered excitability of sensory neurons. Hereditary neurodegeneration leading to pain loss is classified as sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). Mutations in approximately 15 genes have been identified in the group of HSAN disorders. Hallmark of the disease is a liability to injury because of impaired acute pain as a warning system to prevent harm. The clinically overlapping "congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP)" is caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels, which control the excitability of nociceptors. However, mutations in the latter genes can also result in disorders with increased pain susceptibility. This review summarizes the clinical presentation of HSAN and pain-related channelopathies and discusses the underlying disease mechanisms.

  5. Sensory Processing Difficulties in Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome: A Pilot Project of Presentation and Possible Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Lim, Ming; Lang, Bethan; Pohl, Keith; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare but serious neurological condition resulting in loss of control of eye movements, often accompanied by difficulties in posture and movement control with reports of sensory sensitivities potentially impacting on behavior. This pilot study characterizes the presence of atypical sensory behaviors in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome through questionnaire survey of a cohort of families. The Short Sensory Profile, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and Developmental Behaviour Checklist were distributed to 30 families; 16 were returned anonymously. Atypical sensory behaviors were identified in a large proportion (62.5%). Children reported as being more anxious showed greater sensitivity to auditory stimuli, U(14) 11, P = .026. This is consistent with recent recognition of more extensive disease neurocognitive effects in Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Further research is needed to increase understanding of the complex pathology of this disease and to provide indicators for sensory and behavioral as well as pharmacological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  7. Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapof, Jerome

    The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

  8. Sensory imagination and narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptu...

  9. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...

  10. Pyridoxine-Induced Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    An 18-year-old man with seizures from birth was followed in the Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, and was found to have developed a sensory neuropathy by 2 years of age following treatment with pyridoxine in doses up to 2000 mg/day.

  11. Evolution and development of brain sensory organs in molgulid ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, William R

    2004-01-01

    The ascidian tadpole larva has two brain sensory organs containing melanocytes: the otolith, a gravity receptor, and the ocellus, part of a photoreceptor. One or both of these sensory organs are absent in molgulid ascidians. We show here that developmental changes leading to the loss of sensory pigment cells occur by different mechanisms in closely related molgulid species. Sensory pigment cells are formed through a bilateral determination pathway in which two or more precursor cells are specified as an equivalence group on each side of the embryo. The precursor cells subsequently converge at the midline after neurulation and undergo cell interactions that decide the fates of the otolith and ocellus. Molgula occidentalis and M. oculata, which exhibit a tadpole larva with an otolith but lacking an ocellus, have conserved the bilateral pigment cell determination pathway. Programmed cell death (PCD) is superimposed on this pathway late in development to eliminate the ocellus precursor and supernumerary pigment cells, which do not differentiate into either an otolith or ocellus. In contrast to molgulids with tadpole larvae, no pigment cell precursors are specified on either side of the M. occulta embryo, which forms a tailless (anural) larva lacking both sensory organs, suggesting that the bilateral pigment cell determination pathway has been lost. The bilateral pigment cell determination pathway and superimposed PCD can be restored in hybrids obtained by fertilizing M. occulta eggs with M. oculata sperm, indicating control by a zygotic process. We conclude that PCD plays an important role in the evolution and development of brain sensory organs in molgulid ascidians.

  12. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair- ... increase your risk of hair loss, including: Family history Age Poor nutrition Certain medical conditions, such as ...

  13. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on your hearing — ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss — can occur if you take ... adults with hearing loss, commonly reported problems include: Depression Anxiety An often false sense that others are ...

  14. State-dependent sculpting of olfactory sensory neurons is attributed to sensory enrichment, odor deprivation, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Melissa Ann; Powell, Katelyn; Biju, K C; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2010-10-11

    Gene-targeted deletion of the predominant Shaker potassium channel, Kv1.3, in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, decreases the number of presynaptic, odorant receptor (OR)-identified olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and alters the nature of their postsynaptic connections to mitral cell targets. The current study examined whether OSN density was state-dependent by examining the impact of (1) odor enrichment, (2) sensory deprivation, and (3) aging upon the number of P2- or M72-expressing neurons. Histological approaches were used to quantify the number of OSNs across entire epithelia for wildtype (WT) vs. Kv1.3-null (KO) mice bred onto an ORtauLacZ reporter background. Following either odor enrichment or early unilateral naris-occlusion, the number of M72-expressing OSNs was significantly decreased in WT mice, but was unchanged in KO animals. Following naris-occlusion, the number of P2-expressing OSNs was decreased regardless of genotype. Animals that were reared to 2 years of age demonstrated loss of both P2- and M72-expressing OSNs in WT mice and a concomitant loss of only M72-expressing neurons in KO mice. These findings suggest that voltage-gated activity of the mitral cells is important for OSN plasticity, and can prevent neuronal loss via sensory- and OR-dependent mechanisms.

  15. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

  16. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  17. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  18. Characteristics of patients with sensory neuropathy diagnosed with abnormal small nerve fibres on skin biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    De Sousa, E A; Hays, A P; Chin, R L; Sander, H W; Brannagan, T H

    2006-01-01

    Clinical, laboratory and electrodiagnostic (EDX) characteristics of 62 patients with sensory neuropathy with abnormal skin biopsies were reviewed. Reduced epidermal nerve fibre density (ENFD) was seen in 71% and morphological changes with normal ENFD were seen in 29% of the patients. Patients with small fibre sensory neuropathy may have associated large fibre loss undetected by routine EDX. Identified associations included abnormal glucose metabolism, Lyme vaccination, monoclonal gammopathy, ...

  19. New form of autosomal-recessive axonal hereditary sensory motor neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, S M; Hicks, E M; Herron, B; Morrison, P J; Aicardi, J

    1998-09-01

    Two siblings, a male and a female, had severe axonal neuropathy and sideroblastic anemia. Despite a distinct clinical picture with areflexia, ataxia, hypotonia, optic atrophy, and progressive sensory neural hearing loss, no definite diagnosis could be reached and the older sibling died at 6 years of age of respiratory failure. It is proposed that the two affected siblings have a new form of autosomal-recessive axonal hereditary sensory motor neuropathy.

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Other Oral Sensory Disorders: A Unifying Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Grushka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS is a sensory disorder which results in constant, bilateral burning pain of the tongue, lips, and other oral mucous membranes. Atypical odontalgia (AO is another sensory disorder, usually defined as a toothache-like pain for which no dental cause can be identified. Previous literature has suggested that AO is often associated with a concomitant temporomandibular disorder (TMD. This hypothesis paper explores the possibility that BMS, AO and TMD can be related through hyperactivity of both the sensory and motor components of the trigeminal nerve following loss of central inhibition as a result of taste damage in the chorda tympani and/or the glossopharyngeal nerves.

  1. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  2. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  3. Subclinical sensory involvement in monomelic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jenny P; Waclawik, Andrew J; Lotz, Barend P

    2005-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with weakness and atrophy in her hand without associated sensory symptoms, preceding events, or structural abnormalities on neuroimaging. No sensory deficits were detected on neurologic examination. Electrophysiological studies showed not only the expected motor findings for monomelic amyotrophy (MA) in the affected limb, but also markedly reduced sensory nerve action potentials when compared with the unaffected side. These findings suggest that subclinical sensory involvement can exist in patients with otherwise classic presentations of MA.

  4. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    every six months. RESULTS: DXR BMD decreased significantly only in patients with RA from month 6 and was associated with the mean disease activity. Patients with RA and erosive as well as non-erosive disease showed a significant decrease in the rate of bone loss, greatest in those with erosive disease...... is better than DXA for detecting and monitoring periarticular osteoporosis of the metacarpal bone. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Jan...

  5. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  6. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  7. Sensory nerve conduction studies in neuralgic amyotrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfen, N. van; Huisman, W.J.; Overeem, S.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy is a painful, episodic peripheral nerve disorder localized to the brachial plexus. Sensory symptoms occur in 80% of the patients. We assessed the frequency of abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction studies of the lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous, radial sensory, medi

  8. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  9. Pseudoradicular and radicular low-back pain--a disease continuum rather than different entities? Answers from quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freynhagen, Rainer; Rolke, Roman; Baron, Ralf; Tölle, Thomas R; Rutjes, Ann-Kathrein; Schu, Stefan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2008-03-01

    To assess whether pseudoradicular low-back pain may be associated with subclinical sensory deficits in the distal extremity, we applied the quantitative sensory testing protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) in 15 patients with pseudoradicular pain distribution. Sixteen age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects as well as 12 patients with radicular pain syndromes (L4-S1) were studied with the same protocol. Radicular pain was diagnosed using clinical criteria (pain radiation beyond the knee, motor-, sensory-, or reflex deficits, positive Laségue's test). Z-score QST profiles revealed a selective loss of vibration detection, detection of v. Frey hair contact, and cold detection in the affected dermatomes in the radicular pain group. The contralateral dermatome was also affected, but to a lesser degree. In patients with pseudoradicular pain, the sensory profile was similar, but sensory loss was less pronounced than in the radicular pain patients. There was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Vibration detection was the most sensitive parameter with 73% abnormal values in radicular and 47% in pseudoradicular cases. These data verified the sensitivity of QST to detect sensory loss in radicular compression syndromes, and support a neuropathic component in low-back pain with radiculopathy. In contrast to some central pain syndromes this sensory loss involved predominantly large fiber functions. The subclinical sensory loss in pseudoradicular cases suggests that these patients may also have a neuropathic component of their chronic pain. The spatial incongruence of pain and sensory loss in pseudoradicular pain, however, may also indicate that the two are not causally related.

  10. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  11. Sensory exotropia due to keratoconus and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciftci S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suleyman Ciftci,1 Ali Simsek,2 Eyup Dogan,1 Leyla Ciftci31Department of Ophthalmology, Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman; 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, TurkeyAbstract: This case report describes a 17-year-old boy with sensory strabismus due to keratoconus and an ipsilateral nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva. The aligned eye was the right eye and keratoconus in this eye was of late onset. Vision in the left eye was poor and keratoconus was advanced in this eye. Due to the longstanding nature of the keratoconus and its occurrence in a developmentally sensitive period, sensory exotropia had developed in the left eye. There was a nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the ipsilateral eye. If keratoconus occurs before the age of 7 years and the prolonged visual loss is not corrected, sensory strabismus can develop, as in this patient.Keywords: keratoconus, sensory exotropia, childhood

  12. Mechanisms of disease in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; Timmerman, Vincent; Janssens, Katrien

    2012-01-24

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of the PNS. Progressive degeneration, predominantly of sensory and autonomic neurons, is the main pathological feature in patients with HSAN, and causes prominent sensory loss and ulcerative mutilations in combination with variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Advances in molecular genetics have enabled identification of disease-causing mutations in 12 genes, and studies on the functional effects of these mutations are underway. Although some of the affected proteins--such as nerve growth factor and its receptor--have obvious nerve-specific roles, others are ubiquitously expressed proteins that are involved in sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, transcription regulation and structural integrity. An important challenge in the future will be to understand the common molecular pathways that result in HSANs. Unraveling the mechanisms that underlie sensory and autonomic neurodegeneration could assist in identifying targets for future therapeutic strategies in patients with HSAN. This Review highlights key advances in the understanding of HSANs, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with these disorders.

  13. Sensory feedback in interlimb coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gervasio, Sabata; Voigt, Michael; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2017-01-01

    direct communication between the two sides without the need for the involvement of higher centers. These may also exist in humans since sensory feedback elicited by tibial nerve stimulation on one side (ipsilateral) can affect the muscles activation in the opposite side (contralateral), provoking short......-latency crossed responses (SLCRs). The current study investigated whether contralateral afferent feedback contributes to the mechanism controlling the SLCR in human gastrocnemius muscle. Surface electromyogram, kinematic and kinetic data were recorded from subjects during normal walking and hybrid walking (with.......04). Moreover, estimated spindle secondary afferent and Golgi tendon organ activity were significantly different (P ≤ 0.01) when opposite responses have been observed, that is during normal (facilitation) and hybrid walking (inhibition) conditions. Contralateral sensory feedback, specifically spindle secondary...

  14. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters.

  15. The Dual Career Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  16. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  17. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions are...

  18. Self-Dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Self-dual gravity is a diffeomorphism invariant theory in four dimensions that describes two propagating polarisations of the graviton and has a negative mass dimension coupling constant. Nevertheless, this theory is not only renormalisable but quantum finite, as we explain. We also collect various facts about self-dual gravity that are scattered across the literature.

  19. Optical dual self functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 王宁

    1997-01-01

    A recipe to construct the exact dual self-Fourier-Fresnel-transform functions is shown, where the Dirac comb function and transformable even periodic function are used. The mathematical proof and examples are given Then this kind of self-transform function is extended to the feasible optical dual self-transform functions.

  20. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  1. Sensory deprivation during early development causes an increased exploratory behavior in a whisker-dependent decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Stylianos; Brigham, Leeann; Krieger, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of sensory pathways is important for the normal development of cortical sensory areas, and impairments in the normal development can have long-lasting effect on animal's behavior. In particular, disturbances that occur early in development can cause permanent changes in brain structure and function. The behavioral effect of early sensory deprivation was studied in the mouse whisker system using a protocol to induce a 1-week sensory deprivation immediately after birth. Only two rows of whiskers were spared (C and D rows), and the rest were deprived, to create a situation where an unbalanced sensory input, rather than a complete loss of input, causes a reorganization of the sensory map. Sensory deprivation increased the barrel size ratio of the spared CD rows compared with the deprived AB rows; thus, the map reorganization is likely due, at least in part, to a rewiring of thalamocortical projections. The behavioral effect of such a map reorganization was investigated in the gap-crossing task, where the animals used a whisker that was spared during the sensory deprivation. Animals that had been sensory deprived performed equally well with the control animals in the gap-crossing task, but were more active in exploring the gap area and consequently made more approaches to the gap - approaches that on average were of shorter duration. A restricted sensory deprivation of only some whiskers, although it does not seem to affect the overall performance of the animals, does have an effect on their behavioral strategy on executing the gap-crossing task.

  2. Oral sensory dysfunction following radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearelly, Shethal; Wang, Steven J; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-10-01

    To assess differences in oral tactile sensation between subjects who have undergone radiation therapy (XRT) compared to healthy controls. Cross-sectional cohort comparison. Thirty-four subjects with a history of XRT were compared with 23 healthy controls. There was no difference in age (P = .23), but there were slightly more males in the XRT cohort (P = .03). The mean (standard deviation) time after XRT completion was 3.84 (4.84) years. Fifty-six percent of the XRT cohort received chemotherapy. Using our previously validated methodology to measure oral tactile sensory threshold quantitatively with Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments, sensory thresholds of four subsites (anterior tongue, buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, soft palate) were compared for the two cohorts. Site-by-site comparisons showed higher forces were required for stimulus detection at all four subsites among subjects in the XRT cohort compared to healthy controls. Mean force in grams for XRT versus control cohorts were: anterior tongue, 0.39 (1.0) versus 0.02 (0.01); buccal mucosa, 0.42 (0.95) versus 0.06 (0.05); posterior tongue, 0.76 (1.46) versus 0.10 (0.07); and soft palate, 0.86 (1.47) versus 0.08 (0.05) (P sensory dysfunction, manifested by increased tactile forces required for stimulus detection. The magnitude of sensory impairment is 18.7 dB. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2282-2286, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens. Biology Letters, 6, 406–409. Sane S.P.* and McHenry M.J. (2009) The biomechanics of sensory...organs. Integrative and Comparative Biology , 49(6):i8-i23. Zhao, L., Huang, Q., Deng, X. and Sane, S.P. (2010). Aerodynamic effects of flexibility...and behavioral insights into insect flight Invited Speaker, International Workshop on Nocturnal Pollination , March 24-27, 2009 Indian Institute of

  4. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  5. Stomatin and sensory neuron mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Benckendorff, Anne G; Chiang, Li-Yang; Wang, Rui; Milenkovic, Nevena; Wetzel, Christiane; Hu, Jing; Stucky, Cheryl L; Parra, Marilyn G; Mohandas, Narla; Lewin, Gary R

    2007-12-01

    Somatic sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are necessary for a large part of our mechanosensory experience. However, we only have a good knowledge of the molecules required for mechanotransduction in simple invertebrates such as the nematode Caenorhabiditis elegans. In C. elegans, a number of so-called mec genes have been isolated that are required for the transduction of body touch. One such gene, mec-2 codes for an integral membrane protein of the stomatin family, a large group of genes with a stomatin homology domain. Using stomatin null mutant mice, we have tested the hypothesis that the founding member of this family, stomatin might play a role in the transduction of mechanical stimuli by primary sensory neurons. We used the in vitro mouse skin nerve preparation to record from a large population of low- and high-threshold mechanoreceptors with myelinated A-fiber (n = 553) and unmyelinated C-fiber (n = 157) axons. One subtype of mechanoreceptor, the d-hair receptor, which is a rapidly adapting mechanoreceptor, had reduced sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the absence of stomatin. Other cutaneous mechanoreceptors, including nociceptive C-fibers were not affected by the absence of a functional stomatin protein. Patch-clamp analysis of presumptive D-hair receptor mechanoreceptive neurons, which were identified by a characteristic rosette morphology in culture, showed no change in membrane excitability in the absence of the stomatin protein. We conclude that stomatin is required for normal mechanotransduction in a subpopulation of vertebrate sensory neurons.

  6. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  7. Research on Dual Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Fucai Qian; Peilin Fu

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress by the authors in developing two solution frameworks for dual control. The first solution framework considers a class of dual control problems where there exists a parameter uncertainty in the observation equation of the LQG problem. An analytical active dual control law is derived by a variance minimization approach. The issue of how to determine an optimal degree of active learning is then addressed, thus achieving an optimality for this class of dual control problems. The second solution framework considers a general class of discrete-time LQG problems with unknown parameters in both state and observation equations. The best possible (partial) closed-loop feedback control law is derived by exploring the future nominal posterior probabilities, thus taking into account the effect of future learning when constructing the optimal nominal dual control.

  8. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves......; detecting changes of volatiles as a result of production errors in chocolate production, and monitoring aroma release provide useful information to food sensory quality control. For each application, both techniques were faced with challenges that need to be handled in different ways. Due to the complex...

  9. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  10. Electromechanical tactile stimulation system for sensory vision substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Elani, Gal; Azoulay, Eli; Ilani, Dan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Belkin, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A sensory substitution device is developed in which nonretinal stimulus is used to generate input to the brain of blind people to substitute for damage or loss of retinal input. Although the final realization of this technology (direct stimulation of the corneal nerve endings) was not addressed, a device consisting of a contact lens delivering point mechanical or electrical stimulating of the corneal nerves and a camera mounted on a spectacles frame which wirelessly transmit processed image to the contact lens, translating the visual information into tactile sensation is expected to be constructed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the constructed image, the camera will also time multiplex, compress and encode the captured image before transmitting it to the stimulating contact lens. Preliminary devices performing tactile stimulation of the fingers and of the tongue by applying point electrical stimulations, were constructed and tested. Subjects were taught to "see" using the mechanical and the electrical tactile sensory.

  11. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  12. The dual economy in long-run development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    A salient feature of developing economies is the coexistence of a modern commercial sector alongside a traditional subsistence sector-the dual economy. The apparent differences in productivity between sectors imply substantial losses in aggregate productivity. Existing theories of the dual economy rely on exogenous price distortions, and cannot explain why or if these distortions evolve over the course of development. This paper provides a model of the dual economy in which the productivity differences arise endogenously because of a non-separability between the value of market and non-market time in the traditional sector. Incorporating endogenous fertility, the model then demonstrates how a dual economy will originate, persist, and eventually disappear within a unified growth framework. An implication is that traditional sector productivity growth will exacerbate the inefficiencies of a dual economy and produce slower overall growth than will modern sector productivity improvements.

  13. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  14. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  15. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: clinical characteristics, conventional electrophysiology and quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Roman; Rolke, Silke; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Geber, Christian; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Workers exposed to vibrating tools may develop hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). We assessed the somatosensory phenotype using quantitative sensory testing (QST) in comparison to electrophysiology to characterize (1) the most sensitive QST parameter for detecting sensory loss, (2) the correlation of QST and electrophysiology, and (3) the frequency of a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in HAVS. QST, cold provocation tests, fine motor skills, and median nerve neurography were used. QST included thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Thirty-two patients were examined (54 ± 11 years, 91% men) at the more affected hand compared to 16 matched controls. Vibration detection threshold was the most sensitive parameter to detect sensory loss that was more pronounced in the sensitivity range of Pacinian (150 Hz, x12) than Meissner's corpuscles (20 Hz, x3). QST (84% abnormal) was more sensitive to detect neural dysfunction than conventional electrophysiology (37% abnormal). Motor (34%) and sensory neurography (25%) were abnormal in HAVS. CTS frequency was not increased (9.4%). Findings are consistent with a mechanically-induced, distally pronounced motor and sensory neuropathy independent of CTS. HAVS involves a neuropathy predominantly affecting large fibers with a sensory damage related to resonance frequencies of vibrating tools. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Análisis Sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Barris Vilor, Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    En nuestro caso queremos desarrollar un programa que nos facilite la labor de preparar las pruebas de los alimentos y su recogida de datos para el Laboratorio de la Fundación Miquel Agustí. En el laboratorio actualmente el análisis sensorial de los datos se obtiene a partir de análisis realizados por catadores entrenados en una sala especialmente diseñada para este tipo de análisis. Actualmente la toma de datos se realiza a través de unas fichas de cata en formato papel. ...

  17. Análisis Sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Barris Vilor, Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    En nuestro caso queremos desarrollar un programa que nos facilite la labor de preparar las pruebas de los alimentos y su recogida de datos para el Laboratorio de la Fundación Miquel Agustí. En el laboratorio actualmente el análisis sensorial de los datos se obtiene a partir de análisis realizados por catadores entrenados en una sala especialmente diseñada para este tipo de análisis. Actualmente la toma de datos se realiza a través de unas fichas de cata en formato papel. ...

  18. Traditional Methods versus Quantitative Sensory Testing of the Feet at Risk: Results from the Rotterdam Diabetic Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Setyo, Jonathan H; Van Neck, Johan W; Coert, J Henk

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy is one of the greatest risk factors for foot ulceration. The current study investigated the measurement properties of the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device in comparison with traditional threshold screening instruments, in several categories of sensory loss. Knowledge of these values may help to identify diabetics at risk for ulceration more reliably. A partially cross-sectional cohort study was carried out in patients with diabetes. Traditional instruments classified each patient into groups representing severity of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Demographic characteristics, laboratory measures, and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device measurements were compared between groups. The Bland-Altman method was used to characterize reliability of the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device, and construct validity was determined by comparison with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. One hundred fifty-five diabetic patients were measured. Fifteen patients had a diabetic ulcer in their medical history, seven patients were insensate to the 10-g monofilament and had diminished vibration sense (group 1), 34 patients had diminished vibration sense but no elevated cutaneous threshold (group 2), and 99 patients acted as controls (no elevated cutaneous threshold or diminished vibration sense, group 3). The Pressure-Specified Sensory Device distinguished these groups with one-point static cutaneous thresholds alone. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device measurements were not interchangeable. Spatial discrimination (two-point static and two-point moving discrimination) by the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device was more reliable compared with one-point static discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (force in grams and pressure in grams per square millimeter) correlations with Pressure-Specified Sensory Device measurements differed between groups. The Pressure-Specified Sensory Device is able to distinguish between

  19. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... or consumer panels. Sensory evaluation is a primary measurement for providing immediate information of human perception on the products. Instrumental methods give objective analysis of compounds that potentially contribute to food flavour. These two kinds of analysis, basically, give different types...... of information about food flavour but correlate to each other. The exploration of relationships between sensory and instrumental data is one important aspect for fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of sensory perception. This thesis has investigated the importance and limitation of aroma analysis...

  20. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  1. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification.

  2. Walkable dual emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Hai-Bing; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Walkable dual emissions, in which the emission bands of the walker reversibly cross or leave those of the stationary ones depending on temperature and concentration, have been demonstrated in cyclic...

  3. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  4. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, thus highlightingthe complex way in which religious beliefs, minority status and migration historycome together in shaping meaning-making processes, and the importance of reciprocity innarrative studies......., who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  5. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  6. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  7. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species...

  8. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  9. The Grueneberg ganglion: a novel sensory system in the nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Joerg; Breer, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Within the nasal epithelium of mammals, there are several compartments which are populated with neuronal cells. One of them - the so-called Grueneberg ganglion - is composed of ciliated neurons residing in the anterior region of the nose. Although cells of the Grueneberg ganglion lack direct contact with the lumen of the nasal cavity, they are endowed with features indicative of olfactory sensory neurons, such as the olfactory marker protein and distinct olfactory receptors, as well as projection of axonal processes to the olfactory bulb of the brain. These findings have led to the notion that the Grueneberg ganglion might be a novel olfactory subsystem; a concept which was lately supported by the observation that chemical cues activate Grueneberg ganglion neurons. Unexpectedly, it was recently found that these cells also respond to cool ambient temperatures, presumably via a signaling pathway mediated by second messengers. Thus, the Grueneberg ganglion may operate as a dual sensory organ involved in the detection of both chemical and thermal stimuli.

  10. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  11. [Acute Sensory Neuropathies and Acute Autonomic Neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Haruki

    2015-11-01

    From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Neuronopathy in the sensory and/or autonomic ganglia (i.e., ganglionopathy) has been commonly suggested in patients with these types of neuropathies. The presence of Anti-GD1b antibodies has been reported in some of the patients with acute sensory neuropathy with deep sensory impairment, whereas anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies are reported to be present in half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The discovery of anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly expanded the spectrum of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. This is because some of the patients with chronic progression mimicking neurodegenerative diseases such as pure autonomic failure were positive for these antibodies. In contrast, pathologically significant autoantibodies have not been identified in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis and the spectrum of these types of neuropathies.

  12. Sensory neuropathies, from symptoms to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botez, Stephan A; Herrmann, David N

    2010-10-01

    The present review focuses on recent developments in diagnosis and treatment of sensory neuropathies. It does not seek to establish a comprehensive classification of sensory neuropathies, nor treatment guidelines per se. Diagnostic criteria and guidelines have been developed for distal symmetric polyneuropathies, small fiber sensory neuropathies and sensory neuronopathies. Novel diagnostic tools such as skin biopsies now allow diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathies. Genetic testing has defined new subtypes of mitochondrial neuropathies and inherited neuropathies with sensory involvement. Intravenous immunoglobulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors show promise for some dysimmune sensory neuropathies or neuronopathies. Additional options for management of neuropathic pain are emerging. Diagnostic methods for both acquired and hereditary sensory neuropathies have progressed in recent years, leading to earlier and more specific diagnoses and a better understanding of disease mechanisms. Much progress remains to be made regarding symptomatic and disease-modifying therapy for a range of sensory neuropathies, including those due to diabetes, HIV infection and from dysimmune or hereditary causes.

  13. Nociceptive sensory neurons drive interleukin-23-mediated psoriasiform skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Perro, Mario; Naval, Elena; Thiriot, Aude; Alvarez, David; Paust, Silke; Wood, John N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2014-06-05

    The skin has a dual function as a barrier and a sensory interface between the body and the environment. To protect against invading pathogens, the skin harbours specialized immune cells, including dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ T (γδT17) cells, the aberrant activation of which by IL-23 can provoke psoriasis-like inflammation. The skin is also innervated by a meshwork of peripheral nerves consisting of relatively sparse autonomic and abundant sensory fibres. Interactions between the autonomic nervous system and immune cells in lymphoid organs are known to contribute to systemic immunity, but how peripheral nerves regulate cutaneous immune responses remains unclear. We exposed the skin of mice to imiquimod, which induces IL-23-dependent psoriasis-like inflammation. Here we show that a subset of sensory neurons expressing the ion channels TRPV1 and Nav1.8 is essential to drive this inflammatory response. Imaging of intact skin revealed that a large fraction of DDCs, the principal source of IL-23, is in close contact with these nociceptors. Upon selective pharmacological or genetic ablation of nociceptors, DDCs failed to produce IL-23 in imiquimod-exposed skin. Consequently, the local production of IL-23-dependent inflammatory cytokines by dermal γδT17 cells and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the skin were markedly reduced. Intradermal injection of IL-23 bypassed the requirement for nociceptor communication with DDCs and restored the inflammatory response. These findings indicate that TRPV1(+)Nav1.8(+) nociceptors, by interacting with DDCs, regulate the IL-23/IL-17 pathway and control cutaneous immune responses.

  14. Nociceptive Sensory Neurons Drive Interleukin-23 Mediated Psoriasiform Skin Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Perro, Mario; Naval, Elena; Thiriot, Aude; Alvarez, David; Wood, John N.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The skin has a dual function as a barrier and a sensory interface between the body and the environment. To protect against invading pathogens, the skin harbors specialized immune cells, including dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and interleukin (IL)-17 producing γδ T cells (γδT17), whose aberrant activation by IL-23 can provoke psoriasis-like inflammation1–4. The skin is also innervated by a meshwork of peripheral nerves consisting of relatively sparse autonomic and abundant sensory fibers. Interactions between the autonomic nervous system and immune cells in lymphoid organs are known to contribute to systemic immunity, but how peripheral nerves regulate cutaneous immune responses remains unclear5,6. Here, we have exposed the skin of mice to imiquimod (IMQ), which induces IL-23 dependent psoriasis-like inflammation7,8. We show that a subset of sensory neurons expressing the ion channels TRPV1 and NaV1.8 is essential to drive this inflammatory response. Imaging of intact skin revealed that a large fraction of DDCs, the principal source of IL-23, is in close contact with these nociceptors. Upon selective pharmacological or genetic ablation of nociceptors9–11, DDCs failed to produce IL-23 in IMQ exposed skin. Consequently, the local production of IL-23 dependent inflammatory cytokines by dermal γδT17 cells and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the skin were dramatically reduced. Intradermal injection of IL-23 bypassed the requirement for nociceptor communication with DDCs and restored the inflammatory response12. These findings indicate that TRPV1+NaV1.8+ nociceptors, by interacting with DDCs, regulate the IL-23/IL-17 pathway and control cutaneous immune responses. PMID:24759321

  15. Complex interaction of sensory and motor signs and symptoms in chronic CRPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Huge

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia as well as sensory abnormalities, autonomic, trophic, and motor disturbances are key features of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. This study was conceived to comprehensively characterize the interaction of these symptoms in 118 patients with chronic upper limb CRPS (duration of disease: 43±23 months. Disease-related stress, depression, and the degree of accompanying motor disability were likewise assessed. Stress and depression were measured by Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Score and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Test. Motor disability of the affected hand was determined by Sequential Occupational Dexterity Assessment and Michigan Hand Questionnaire. Sensory changes were assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing according to the standards of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. Almost two-thirds of all patients exhibited spontaneous pain at rest. Hand force as well as hand motor function were found to be substantially impaired. Results of Quantitative Sensory Testing revealed a distinct pattern of generalized bilateral sensory loss and hyperalgesia, most prominently to blunt pressure. Patients reported substantial motor complaints confirmed by the objective motor disability testings. Interestingly, patients displayed clinically relevant levels of stress and depression. We conclude that chronic CRPS is characterized by a combination of ongoing pain, pain-related disability, stress and depression, potentially triggered by peripheral nerve/tissue damage and ensuing sensory loss. In order to consolidate the different dimensions of disturbances in chronic CRPS, we developed a model based on interaction analysis suggesting a complex hierarchical interaction of peripheral (injury/sensory loss and central factors (pain/disability/stress/depression predicting motor dysfunction and hyperalgesia.

  16. Hereditary motor-sensory, motor, and sensory neuropathies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission, age of occurrence, and, in selected cases, pathological findings. The combination of these parameters frequently orients towards specific genetic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first pediatric concern. Primary, motor-sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating AD forms (CMT1). Others are demyelinating AR forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Pure motor HN represent40 genes with various biological functions have been found responsible for HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait: for the pediatric neurologist, phenotype/genotype correlations constitute a permanent bidirectional exercise.

  17. Sensory profiling of Dalmatian dry-cured ham under different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Janječić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the Dalmatian ham processing conditions on weight loss and sensory characteristics, 20 hams were processed following different temperature conditions during salting and ripening. For that purpose, hams were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The weight loss was higher and all sensory traits except presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine crystals were higher rated for hams processed at higher temperatures. The most significant (P<0.0001 influence of temperature was established on subcutaneous fat color, muscle color and presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine, whereas no influence was established on appearance, marbling, flavor and melting. This concludes that there is overall significant effect of higher temperature on sensory characteristics most likely due to the more intense proteolysis and lipolysis.

  18. A case of hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G P Prashanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN -IV, also known as congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is a very rare condition that presents in infancy with anhidrosis, absence of pain sensation and self -mutilation. Developmental delay and mental retardation are usually present. Ultrastructural study of the peripheral nerves demonstrates loss of the unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. We here report a 8 year -old boy with HSAN IV with typical clinical features where the diagnosis was supported by nerve biopsy findings. However, our case was unusual since mental development was normal.

  19. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  20. The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Mowery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL, are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx. However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, adult ACx neurons recovered balanced excitatory-inhibitory synaptic gain and control-like firing rates, but striatal neuron synapses and firing properties did not recover. Thus, a brief period of abnormal cortical activity may induce cellular impairments that persist into adulthood and contribute to neurological disorders that are striatal in origin.

  1. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  2. Sensory impairment in mental retardation: a potential role for NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Sensory impairment is defined as the inability to interpret outside stimuli such as visual, auditory, verbal, sense of touch, taste or smell or feelings of pain. This leads to absence of sensation and neuronal coordination. The impairment may be caused by ageing and other physiological changes, accident or injuries or can be found in some cases of mental retardation (MR) also referred to as intellectual disability. Known cases of MR involving inability to accurately interpret an outside source or stimuli are: Fragile-X syndrome; Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with associated autism spectrum disorder (ASD); Rett syndrome; Autism and ASD with or without MR; Chromosome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome; familial dysautonomia, Prader-Willi's syndrome, Williams syndrome. In this review we will discuss in particular form of ASD and altered sensory sensitivity. The role of NGF in causing pronociceptive activity and its role in peripheral sensitisation is discussed under the light of its involvement in forms of MR where loss of pain perception is a main feature due to mutations to NGF receptors or NGF genes during development. Other forms of MR with altered sensory impairment will be considered as well as additional potential mechanisms involved.

  3. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  4. Update on the sudden hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Bullo; Spyridon Tzamtzis; Giancarlo Tirelli

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Sudden hearing loss is defined as a sensory neural hearing deafness of at least 30 dB in three consecutive speech frequencies that as occurred within the 3 days. It is a medical emergency and the treatment should start as soon as possible; up to now therapies are empirically addressed to improve hearing. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated 558 patients with a diagnosis of sudden hearing loss. In our study, we have investigated possible prognostic factors of hearing loss and their i...

  5. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    that individuals can improve sensory and sociosensory resolution through deliberate sensory reintegration practices. We conclude that we humans are the victims of our own success, our hands so skilled they fill the world with captivating things, our eyes so innocent they follow eagerly.

  6. The effects of sensory impairments on product experience and personal well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the roles the sensory modalities play in user-product interactions, one modality was blocked during the execution of eight simple tasks. Participants reported how they experienced the products and how they felt during the experiment. Blocking vision resulted in the largest loss of funct

  7. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  8. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and mo

  9. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  10. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  11. WHAT IS LACKING, STATEMENT ON SENSORY DEPRIVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    REGAN, J.

    THIS PAPER, WHICH ANNOUNCES THE THEME OF A SEMINAR ON THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, QUESTIONS THE VIEW THAT A CHILD'S POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE DERIVES FROM AN IMPOVERISHED SENSORY EXPERIENCE. A DEPRIVED TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEPICTED TO CAST DOUBTS ON THIS THEORY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION IS INCLUDED. THIS…

  12. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...

  13. Dual processing streams in chemosensory perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eFrasnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher order sensory processing follows a general subdivision into a ventral and a dorsal stream for visual, auditory, and tactile information. Object identification is processed in temporal structures (ventral stream, whereas object localization leads to activation of parietal structures (dorsal stream. To examine whether the chemical senses demonstrate a similar dissociation, we investigated odor identification and odor localization in 16 healthy young subjects using functional MRI. We used two odors (1. eucalyptol; 2. a mixture of phenylethanol and carbon dioxide which were delivered to only one nostril. During odor identification subjects had to recognize the odor; during odor localisation they had to detect the stimulated nostril.We used General Linear Model (GLM as a classical method as well as Independent Component Analysis (ICA in order to investigate a possible neuroanatomical dissociation between both tasks. Both methods showed differences between tasks - confirming a dual processing stream in the chemical senses - but revealed complementary results. Specifically, GLM identified the left intraparietal sulcus and the right superior frontal sulcus to be more activated when subjects were localising the odorants. For the same task, ICA identified a significant cluster in the left parietal lobe (paracentral lobule but also in the right hippocampus. While GLM did not find significant activations for odor identification, ICA revealed two clusters (in the left central fissure and the left superior frontal gyrus for this task. These data demonstrate that higher order chemosensory processing shares the general subdivision into a ventral and a dorsal processing stream with other sensory systems and suggest that this is a global principle, independent of sensory channels.

  14. Age-related hearing loss: ear and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    Loss of sensory function in the aged has serious consequences for economic productivity, quality of life, and healthcare costs in the billions each year. Understanding the neural and molecular bases will pave the way for biomedical interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse these conditions. This chapter summarizes new information regarding age changes in the auditory system involving both the ear (peripheral) and brain (central). A goal is to provide findings that have implications for understanding some common biological underpinnings that affect sensory systems, providing a basis for eventual interventions to improve overall sensory functioning, including the chemical senses.

  15. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if they don't get enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because they may be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some ...

  16. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. General community. EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age 66.7) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) of >25 dB hearing level in either ear, visual impairment was a Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of visual, and olfactory impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk (hearing: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-3.26; vision: HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.24-3.38; olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% CI = 2.45-6.26)). Nevertheless, 85% of participants with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system, suggesting that sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement."

  18. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  19. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  20. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28 or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB, and calretinin (CR neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6. Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  1. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  2. Pectoral fins aid in navigation of a complex environment by bluegill sunfish under sensory deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2013-08-15

    Complex structured environments offer fish advantages as places of refuge and areas of greater potential prey densities, but maneuvering through these environments is a navigational challenge. To successfully navigate complex habitats, fish must have sensory input relaying information about the proximity and size of obstacles. We investigated the role of the pectoral fins as mechanosensors in bluegill sunfish swimming through obstacle courses under different sensory deprivation and flow speed conditions. Sensory deprivation was accomplished by filming in the dark to remove visual input and/or temporarily blocking lateral line input via immersion in cobalt chloride. Fish used their pectoral fins to touch obstacles as they swam slowly past them under all conditions. Loss of visual and/or lateral line sensory input resulted in an increased number of fin taps and shorter tap durations while traversing the course. Propulsive pectoral fin strokes were made in open areas between obstacle posts and fish did not use the pectoral fins to push off or change heading. Bending of the flexible pectoral fin rays may initiate an afferent sensory input, which could be an important part of the proprioceptive feedback system needed to navigate complex environments. This behavioral evidence suggests that it is possible for unspecialized pectoral fins to act in both a sensory and a propulsive capacity.

  3. Commuting Dual Toeplitz Operators on the Polydisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Feng LU; Shu Xia SHANG

    2007-01-01

    On the polydisk, the commutativity of dual Toeplitz operators is studied. We obtain characterizations of commuting dual Toeplitz operators, essentially commuting dual Toeplitz operators and essentially semi-commuting dual Toeplitz operators.

  4. Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. Overall, 10% of the population has a hearing loss in the US, and this age-related hearing disorder is projected to afflict more than 28 million Americans by 2030. Age-related hearing loss is associated with loss of sensory hair cells (sensory hearing loss) and/or spiral ganglion neurons (neuronal hearing loss) in the cochlea of the inner ear. Many lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress and associated mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and are a cause of age-related neurosensory hearing loss. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of how oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction lead to hearing loss during aging remain unclear, and currently there is no treatment for this age-dependent disorder. Several mouse models of aging and age-related diseases have been linked to age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Evaluation of these animal models has offered basic knowledge of the mechanism underlying hearing loss associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Here we review the evidence that specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that affect mitochondrial function result in increased oxidative damage and associated loss of sensory hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea during aging, thereby causing hearing loss in these mouse models. Future studies comparing these models will provide further insight into fundamental knowledge about the disordered process of hearing and treatments to improve the lives of individuals with communication disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main...... the ill parent. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the traumatic process of parental ABI that some children experience and emphasize the importance of family-centred interventions that include the children....

  6. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  7. Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    One of the great challenges of systems neuroscience is to understand how the neocortex transforms neuronal representations of the physical characteristics of sensory stimuli into the percepts which can guide the animal's decisions. Here we present progress made in understanding behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of a highly efficient sensory apparatus, the rat whisker system. Beginning with the 1970s discovery of "barrels" in the rat and mouse brain, one line of research has focused on unraveling the circuits that transmit information from the whiskers to the sensory cortex, together with the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensory responses. A second, more recent line of research has focused on tactile psychophysics, that is, quantification of the behavioral capacities supported by whisker sensation. The opportunity to join these two lines of investigation makes whisker-mediated sensation an exciting platform for the study of the neuronal bases of perception and decision-making. Even more appealing is the beginning-to-end prospective offered by this system: the inquiry can start at the level of the sensory receptor and conclude with the animal's choice. We argue that rats can switch between two modes of operation of the whisker sensory system: (1) generative mode and (2) receptive mode. In the generative mode, the rat moves its whiskers forward and backward to actively seek contact with objects and to palpate the object after initial contact. In the receptive mode, the rat immobilizes its whiskers to optimize the collection of signals from an object that is moving by its own power. We describe behavioral tasks that rats perform in these different modes. Next, we explore which neuronal codes in sensory cortex account for the rats' discrimination capacities. Finally, we present hypotheses for mechanisms through which "downstream" brain regions may read out the activity of sensory cortex in order to extract the significance of sensory stimuli and, ultimately

  8. Making decisions with unknown sensory reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a "chicken and egg" problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning.

  9. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  10. Dual effect of CTCF loss on neuroprogenitor differentiation and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Watson (L. Ashley); X. Wang (Xu); A. Elbert (Adrienne); K.D. Kernohan (Kristin); N.J. Galjart (Niels); N.G. Bérubé (Nathalie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of proteins involved in genome organization have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, highlighting the importance of chromatin architecture in the developing CNS. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a zinc finger DNA binding protein involved in higher-orde

  11. Dual effect of CTCF loss on neuroprogenitor differentiation and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Watson (L. Ashley); X. Wang (Xu); A. Elbert (Adrienne); K.D. Kernohan (Kristin); N.J. Galjart (Niels); N.G. Bérubé (Nathalie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of proteins involved in genome organization have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, highlighting the importance of chromatin architecture in the developing CNS. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a zinc finger DNA binding protein involved in higher-orde

  12. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  13. Sensory Marketing:Designing Pleasurable Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lageat Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Luxury products, household appliances, cosmetics and products for the general public all use the techniques of sensory marketing in the very first phases of conception to specify or give a distinct character to the way they are perceived. Creating the visio-tactile qualities of a mobile phone or dashboard, designing the acoustics used in a lipstick tube closure: these considerations offer industry a way of managing and mastering the sensorial identity which will set their products apart from those of their competitors. Sensory marketing is based upon the objective definition, the analysis and the mastering of the qualitative characteristics of the object to be conceived.

  14. Directional cell movements downstream of Gbx2 and Otx2 control the assembly of sensory placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Steventon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial placodes contribute to sensory structures including the inner ear, the lens and olfactory epithelium and the neurons of the cranial sensory ganglia. At neurula stages, placode precursors are interspersed in the ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate before segregating into distinct placodes by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we perform live imaging to follow placode progenitors as they aggregate to form the lens and otic placodes. We find that while placode progenitors move with the same speed as their non-placodal neighbours, they exhibit increased persistence and directionality and these properties are required to assemble morphological placodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these factors are components of the transcriptional networks that coordinate placode cell behaviour including their directional movements. Together with previous work, our results support a dual role for Otx and Gbx transcription factors in both the early patterning of the neural plate border and the later segregation of its derivatives into distinct placodes.

  15. High Power Combiner/Divider Design for Dual Band RF Power Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Flattery, Kyle; Amin, Shoaib; Rönnow, Daniel; Mahamat, Yaya; Eroglu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Design of low loss with an enhanced thermal profile power divider/combiner for high power dual-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier applications is given. The practical implementation, low loss and substrate characteristics make this type of combiner ideal for high power microwave applications.  The combiner operational frequencies are chosen to operate at 900 MHz and 2.14 GHz, which are common frequencies for concurrent dual band RF power amplifiers. The analytical results are verified ...

  16. Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-10-07

    Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.

  17. Positive Effect of Noises on Sensory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Guang Li

    2004-01-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon in the biological sensory systems has been studied through the signal detection theories and the psychophysical experiments. In this paper, sensory systems are considered as a threshold detector including the receiver part and the classifier part. Compared with conventional models regarding the receiver part of sensory system as a linear or single non-linear system, a summing network was constructed by MacCulloch-Pitts neurons to simulate the receiver part. The simulation results show that the relevant index of the detectability of signal exhibit the stochastic resonance behaviours. The psychophysical experiments were carried out through the 2IFC (two interval two alternative forced choice) method. The experimental results qualitatively verify the conclusion in accordance with the theoretical model.These works give a proof that stochastic resonance is not only epiphenonmenon in sensory systems.

  18. [Sensory illusions in hang-gliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, F; Bizeau, A; Resche-Rigon, P; Taillemite, J P; De Rotalier

    1997-01-01

    Sensory illusions in hang-gliding and para-gliding. Hang-gliding and para-gliding are at the moment booming sports. Sensory illusions are physiological phenomena sharing the wrong perception of the pilote's real position in space. These phenomena are very familiar to aeroplane pilotes, they can also be noticed on certain conditions with hang-gliding pilotes. There are many and various sensory illusions, but only illusions of vestibular origin will be dealt with in this article. Vestibular physiology is reminded with the working principle of a semicircular canal. Physiology and laws of physics explain several sensory illusions, especially when the pilote loses his visual landmarks: flying through a cloud, coriolis effect. Also some specific stages of hang-gliding foster those phenomena: spiraling downwards, self-rotation, following an asymetric closing of the parachute, spin on oneself. Therefore a previous briefing for the pilotes seems necessary.

  19. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  20. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...... hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z...

  1. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available service provision. Traditional approaches of solving water loss problems are not enough to make a significant improvement; for this, new approaches involving increased automation and monitoring are needed. Furthermore, the sensory and automation ICT...

  2. P50 sensory gating in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

    2013-12-26

    Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.

  3. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy with iatrogenic sensory neuronopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R S; Brown, W F

    1995-02-01

    An 18-year-old man was treated from birth with chronic high dose pyridoxine (vitamin B6) up to 2000 mg per day for pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Within two years of onset of treatment, he developed a sensory neuropathy which did not progress over the following 16 years. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with a pure sensory neuronopathy expressed as centripetal degeneration of processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells.

  4. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L. A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S. P.; Bright, P

    2015-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants addit...

  5. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex.

  6. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  7. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  8. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  9. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to un- derstand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\\sigma}/E $\\approx$ 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.

  10. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  11. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  12. Dual Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  13. Dual-comb MIXSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S. M.; Zaugg, C. A.; Klenner, A.; Mangold, M.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2015-03-01

    We present a single semiconductor disk laser simultaneously emitting two different gigahertz modelocked pulse trains. A birefringent crystal inside a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface-emitting laser (MIXSEL) separates the cavity beam into two spatially separated beams with perpendicular polarizations on the MIXSEL chip. This MIXSEL then generates two orthogonally polarized collinear modelocked pulse trains from one simple straight cavity. Superimposing the beams on a photo detector creates a microwave beat signal, representing a strikingly simple setup to down-convert the terahertz optical frequencies into the electronically accessible microwave regime. This makes the dual-comb MIXSEL scheme an ultra-compact and cost-efficient candidate for dual-comb spectroscopy applications.

  14. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument (panel

  15. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  16. Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raspopovic, Stanisa; Capogrosso, Marco; Petrini, Francesco Maria

    2014-01-01

    Hand loss is a highly disabling event that markedly affects the quality of life. To achieve a close to natural replacement for the lost hand, the user should be provided with the rich sensations that we naturally perceive when grasping or manipulating an object. Ideal bidirectional hand prostheses...... should involve both a reliable decoding of the user’s intentions and the delivery of nearly “natural” sensory feedback through remnant afferent pathways, simultaneously and in real time. However, current hand prostheses fail to achieve these requirements, particularly because they lack any sensory...... feedback. We show that by stimulating the median and ulnar nerve fascicles using transversal multichannel intrafascicular electrodes, according to the information provided by the artificial sensors from a hand prosthesis, physiologically appropriate (near-natural) sensory information can be provided...

  17. Effects of Sensory Deficit on Phalanx Force Deviation During Power Grip Post Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Leah R; Seo, Na Jin

    2017-01-01

    The effect of sensory deficits on power grip force from individual phalanges was examined. The authors found that stroke survivors with sensory deficits (determined by the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test) gripped with phalanx force directed more tangential to the object surface, than those without, although both groups had similar motor deficits (Chedoke-McMaster and Fugl-Meyer), grip strength, and skin friction. Altered grip force direction elevates risk of finger slippage against the object thus grip loss/object dropping, hindering activities of daily living. Altered grip force direction was associated with altered muscle activation patterns. In summary, the motor impairment level alone may not describe hand motor control in detail. Information about sensory deficits helps elucidate patients' hand motor control with functional relevance.

  18. Determination of shelf life of sous vide salmon (Salmo salard) based on sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2009-10-01

    Sous vide technology permits precooked dishes of high sensory and nutritional quality to be obtained with a longer shelf life than is possible using other cooking-cooling methods. Salmon portions (200 g; 0.5, w:w; greased with olive oil) were par-roasted (300 degrees C/3 min), cooked using sous vide technology (80 degrees C/43 min), and maintained in anaerobic conditions at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 25 d. At each control day, Enterobacteriaceae counts were made and the attributes of sensory spoilage were determined (3 visual, 2 odor, 2 flavor, and 3 texture attributes) by a panel of trained judges. A loss of smell, taste, color, and juiciness was detected during storage, along with the appearance of off-odors and off-flavors. The shelf life of the sous vide salmon based on sensory analysis was established at 18 d.

  19. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; P. Genova; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.(INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia, Italy)

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to understand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in n...

  20. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented.

  1. Design and analysis of defected ground structure transformer for dual-band antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Wa Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel dual-band antenna design methodology utilising a dual-frequency impedance transformer with defected ground structure (DGS. The proposed dual-frequency DGS impedance transformer generates a second resonant frequency from a conventional single-band antenna, resulting dual-band operation. Simulation studies illustrate that the adopted design achieves versatile configurations for arbitrary operating frequencies and diverse input impedance ranges in planar antenna structures. To experimentally verify the proposed design methodology, a dual-frequency DGS impedance transformer was implemented for a 2.4 GHz monopole antenna to obtain a 900/2400 MHz dual-band antenna. Measurement shows that the 10 dB return loss bandwidth in 900 MHz band is 34.4 MHz, whereas that in 2400 MHz band is wider than 530 MHz. Typical monopole radiation patterns are observed at both operating bands.

  2. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: an otologic emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, H; Buggaveeti, Greeshma; Parikh, Bhavin; Sangitha, R

    2012-03-01

    The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of steroids, volume expanders and antivirals in the management of idiopathic sudden sensory neural hearing loss and to establish importance of early medical intervention. In this prospective study, thirty-four patients presenting with idiopathic sudden hearing loss of 30 db or more were enrolled in study group between 2005 and 2009. Patient variables as they related to recovery were studied and include patient age, time to onset of therapy, status of contralateral ear, presence of diabetes, severity of hearing loss, pattern of hearing loss in audiogram and presence of associated symptoms, (tinnitus, vertigo). Treatment protocol with intravenous hydrocortisone, intravenous dextran and oral anti-viral agent was followed. Pre-treatment and post-treatment pure tone average was analyzed. With combination therapy the overall improvement in pure tone threshold was seen in 27 patients (79.4%). A statistically significant association was found between the time at which medical intervention was started and hearing improvement. Early intervention in patients presenting before 3 days has given 77.8% complete type 1 recovery Idiopathic sudden sensory neural hearing loss is a medical emergency. It should not be misdiagnosed. Early detection and management with volume expanders, steroids and antivirals will improve the chances of complete recovery.

  3. Neurofibromatosis: The role of guanosine triphosphatase activating proteins in sensory neuron function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cynthia M. Hingtgen

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disease characterized by formation of multiple benign and malignant tumors. People with this disorder also experience chronic pain, which can be disabling. Neurofibromin, the protein product of the Nfl gene, is a gnanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for p21Ras (Ras). Loss of Nfl results in an increase in activity of the Ras transduction cascade. Because of the growing evidence suggesting involvement of downstream components of the Ras transduction cascade in the sensitization of nociceptive sensory neurons, we examined the stimulus-evoked release of the neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), from primary sensory neurons of mice with a mutation of the Nfl gene (NfI+1-). Measuring the levels of SP and CGRP by radioimmunoassay, we demonstrated that capsaicin-stimulated release of neuropep-tides is 3-5 folds higher in spinal cord slices from Nfl+1-mice than that from wildtype mouse tissue. In addition, the potassium- and capsaicin-stimulated release of CGRP from the culture of sensory neurons isolated from Nfl+1- mice was more than double that from the culture of wildtype neurons. Using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques, we also examined the excitability of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons. It was found that the number of action potentials generated by the neurons from Nfl+1- mice, responsing to a ramp of depolarizing current, was more than three times of that generated by wildtype neurons. Consistent with that observation, neurons from Nfl+1- mice had lower firing thresholds, lower rheobase currents and shorter firing latencies compared with wildtype neurons. These data clearly demonstrate that GAPs, such as neurofihromin, can alter the excitability of nociceptive sensory neurons. The augmented response of sensory neurons with altered Ras signaling may explain the abnormal pain sensations experienced by people with NFI and suggests an important

  4. The role of sensory pathways in Pavlovian conditioning in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Russell, I; Russell, M I; Castiglioni, J A; Setlow, B; Werka, T

    2008-02-01

    In an earlier experiment we showed that selective attention plays a critical role in rabbit eye blink conditioning (Steele-Russell et al. in Exp Brain Res 173:587-602, 2006). The present experiments are concerned to examine the extent to which visual recognition processes are a separate component from the motor learning that is also involved in conditioning. This was achieved by midline section of the optic chiasma which disconnected the direct retinal projections via the brainstem to the cerebellar oculomotor control system. By comparing both normal and chiasma-sectioned rabbits it was possible to determine the dependence or independence of conditioning on the motor expression of the eye blink response during training. Both normal and chiasma-sectioned animals were tested using a multiple test battery to determine the effect of this redirection of the visual input pathways on conditioning. All animals were first tested for any impairment in visual capability following section of the optic chiasma. Despite the loss of 90% of retinal ganglion cell fibres, no visual impairment for either intensity or pattern vision was seen in the chiasma animals. Also no difference was seen in nictitating membrane (NM) conditioning to an auditory signal between normal and chiasma animals. Testing for motor learning to a visual signal, the chiasma rabbits showed a complete lack of any NM conditioning. However the sensory tests of visual conditioning showed that chiasma-sectioned animals had completely normal sensory recognition learning. These results show that NM Pavlovian conditioning involves anatomically separate and independent sensory recognition and motor output components of the learning.

  5. Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Ortuzar, Naiara; Bulnes, Susana; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Lafuente, José Vicente; Argandoña, Enrike G.

    2012-01-01

    During postnatal development, sensory experience modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific for each system, postnatal development acts as a whole, and if one cortical area is deprived of its normal sensory inputs during early stages, it will be reorganized by the nondeprived senses in a process of cross-modal plasticity that not only increases performance in the remaining senses when one is deprived, but also rewires the brain allowing the deprived cortex to process inputs from other senses and cortices, maintaining the modular configuration. This paper summarizes our current understanding of sensory systems development, focused specially in the visual system. It delineates sensory enhancement and sensory deprivation effects at both physiological and anatomical levels and describes the use of enriched environment as a tool to rewire loss of brain areas to enhance other active senses. Finally, strategies to apply restorative features in human-deprived senses are studied, discussing the beneficial and detrimental effects of cross-modal plasticity in prostheses and sensory substitution devices implantation. PMID:22848849

  6. Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkaitz Bengoetxea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, sensory experience modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific for each system, postnatal development acts as a whole, and if one cortical area is deprived of its normal sensory inputs during early stages, it will be reorganized by the nondeprived senses in a process of cross-modal plasticity that not only increases performance in the remaining senses when one is deprived, but also rewires the brain allowing the deprived cortex to process inputs from other senses and cortices, maintaining the modular configuration. This paper summarizes our current understanding of sensory systems development, focused specially in the visual system. It delineates sensory enhancement and sensory deprivation effects at both physiological and anatomical levels and describes the use of enriched environment as a tool to rewire loss of brain areas to enhance other active senses. Finally, strategies to apply restorative features in human-deprived senses are studied, discussing the beneficial and detrimental effects of cross-modal plasticity in prostheses and sensory substitution devices implantation.

  7. Sensory deficits in ipsilesional upper-extremity in chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Maria Freire Vieira Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate somatosensory deficits in the ipsilesional wrist and hand in chronic stroke patients and correlate these deficits with contralesional sensorimotor dysfunctions, functional testing, laterality and handedness.Methods Fifty subjects (twenty-two healthy volunteers and twenty-eight stroke patients underwent evaluation with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, the sensory and motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Nottingham Sensory Assessment in both wrists and hands and functional tests.Results Twenty-five patients had sensory changes in the wrist and hand contralateral to the stroke, and eighteen patients (64% had sensory deficits in the ipsilesional wrist and hand. The most significant ipsilesional sensory loss was observed in the left-handed patients. We found that the patients with brain damage in the right hemisphere had better scores for ipsilesional tactile sensation.Conclusions A reduction in ipsilesional conscious proprioception, tactile or thermal sensation was found in stroke subjects. Right hemisphere damage and right-handed subjects had better scores in ipsilesional tactile sensation.

  8. Diacetyl increases sensory innervation and substance P production in rat trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Hubbs, Ann F; Fedan, Jeffery S; Kashon, Michael L; Battelli, Lori A; Mercer, Robert R; Goldsmith, W Travis; Jackson, Mark C; Cumpston, Amy; Frazer, David G; Dey, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of diacetyl, a butter flavoring, causes airway responses potentially mediated by sensory nerves. This study examines diacetyl-induced changes in sensory nerves of tracheal epithelium. Rats (n = 6/group) inhaled 0-, 25-, 249-, or 346-ppm diacetyl for 6 hr. Tracheas and vagal ganglia were removed 1-day postexposure and labeled for substance P (SP) or protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5). Vagal ganglia neurons projecting to airway epithelium were identified by axonal transport of fluorescent microspheres intratracheally instilled 14 days before diacetyl inhalation. End points were SP and PGP9.5 nerve fiber density (NFD) in tracheal epithelium and SP-positive neurons projecting to the trachea. PGP9.5-immunoreactive NFD decreased in foci with denuded epithelium, suggesting loss of airway sensory innervation. However, in the intact epithelium adjacent to denuded foci, SP-immunoreactive NFD increased from 0.01 ± 0.002 in controls to 0.05 ± 0.01 after exposure to 346-ppm diacetyl. In vagal ganglia, SP-positive airway neurons increased from 3.3 ± 3.0% in controls to 25.5 ± 6.6% after inhaling 346-ppm diacetyl. Thus, diacetyl inhalation increases SP levels in sensory nerves of airway epithelium. Because SP release in airways promotes inflammation and activation of sensory nerves mediates reflexes, neural changes may contribute to flavorings-related lung disease pathogenesis.

  9. The brain ages optimally to model its environment: evidence from sensory learning over the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rosalyn J; Symmonds, Mkael; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    The aging brain shows a progressive loss of neuropil, which is accompanied by subtle changes in neuronal plasticity, sensory learning and memory. Neurophysiologically, aging attenuates evoked responses--including the mismatch negativity (MMN). This is accompanied by a shift in cortical responsivity from sensory (posterior) regions to executive (anterior) regions, which has been interpreted as a compensatory response for cognitive decline. Theoretical neurobiology offers a simpler explanation for all of these effects--from a Bayesian perspective, as the brain is progressively optimized to model its world, its complexity will decrease. A corollary of this complexity reduction is an attenuation of Bayesian updating or sensory learning. Here we confirmed this hypothesis using magnetoencephalographic recordings of the mismatch negativity elicited in a large cohort of human subjects, in their third to ninth decade. Employing dynamic causal modeling to assay the synaptic mechanisms underlying these non-invasive recordings, we found a selective age-related attenuation of synaptic connectivity changes that underpin rapid sensory learning. In contrast, baseline synaptic connectivity strengths were consistently strong over the decades. Our findings suggest that the lifetime accrual of sensory experience optimizes functional brain architectures to enable efficient and generalizable predictions of the world.

  10. An examination of the sensory structures in the oral cavity of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehorek, Susan J; Duffy, Michael; Zacherl, Janelle R; Anand, Kusuma; Elsey, Ruth M; Smith, Timothy S

    2014-11-01

    The location and distribution of mucosal sensory structures of the crocodilian oral cavity are poorly understood. Although there are several descriptions of these structures in adults, nothing is known about their development. The purpose of this study was to document location, morphology, and relative abundance of these mucosal sensory structures in both hatchling and subadult alligators. Numerous mucosal sensory structures and pale staining dome-shaped papillae were observed only in the upper palate and tongue. In hatchlings, these papillae, which house either mechanoreceptive or chemosensory (taste buds) structures, were larger and more prevalent on the tongue than the upper palate. In the subadult, however, these papillae housed primarily mechanoreceptive structures and possibly degenerate taste buds. Although the presence of the mechanoreceptive structures in the palates of the suabadult alligator are to be expected, the loss of most taste buds is hitherto undocumented. Thus, there is morphological support for an ontogenetic shift in the role of the sensory palate, from a prey detection gustatory sensory system in hatchlings to a prey-manipulative mechanoreceptive system in subadults.

  11. Eph:ephrin-B1 forward signaling controls fasciculation of sensory and motor axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxey, Maëva; Jungas, Thomas; Laussu, Julien; Audouard, Christophe; Garces, Alain; Davy, Alice

    2013-11-15

    Axon fasciculation is one of the processes controlling topographic innervation during embryonic development. While axon guidance steers extending axons in the accurate direction, axon fasciculation allows sets of co-extending axons to grow in tight bundles. The Eph:ephrin family has been involved both in axon guidance and fasciculation, yet it remains unclear how these two distinct types of responses are elicited. Herein we have characterized the role of ephrin-B1, a member of the ephrinB family in sensory and motor innervation of the limb. We show that ephrin-B1 is expressed in sensory axons and in the limb bud mesenchyme while EphB2 is expressed in motor and sensory axons. Loss of ephrin-B1 had no impact on the accurate dorso-ventral innervation of the limb by motor axons, yet EfnB1 mutants exhibited decreased fasciculation of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. Using tissue-specific excision of EfnB1 and in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that ephrin-B1 controls fasciculation of axons via a surround repulsion mechanism involving growth cone collapse of EphB2-expressing axons. Altogether, our results highlight the complex role of Eph:ephrin signaling in the development of the sensory-motor circuit innervating the limb.

  12. IGF-1 potentiates sensory innervation signalling by modulating the mitochondrial fission/fusion balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Hao; Li, Zhenzhong

    2017-01-01

    Restoring the contractile function of long-term denervated skeletal muscle (SKM) cells is difficult due to the long period of denervation, which causes a loss of contractility. Although sensory innervation is considered a promising protective approach, its effect is still restricted. In this study, we introduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as an efficient protective agent and observed that IGF-1 potentiated the effects of sensory protection by preventing denervated muscle atrophy and improving the condition of denervated muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. IGF-1-induced Akt phosphorylation suppressed the mitochondrial outer-membrane protein Mul1 expression, which is a key step on preserving contractile property of sensory innervated SKM cells. Mul1 overexpression interfered with the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission and was a key node for blocking the effects of IGF-1 that preserved the contractility of sensory-innervated SKM cells. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), a mitochondrial downstream target, could block the effects of IGF-1. These data provide novel evidence that might be applied when searching for new approaches to improve the functional condition of long-term denervated SKM cells by increasing sensory protection using the IGF-1 signalling system to modulate the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission. PMID:28276453

  13. Early bilateral sensory deprivation blocks the development of coincident discharge in rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Ayan; Pouget, Pierre; Popescu, Maria; Ebner, Ford

    2009-02-25

    Several theories have proposed a functional role for synchronous neuronal firing in generating the neural code of a sensory perception. Synchronous neural activity develops during a critical postnatal period of cortical maturation, and severely reducing neural activity in a sensory pathway during this period could interfere with the development of coincident discharge among cortical neurons. Loss of such synchrony could provide a fundamental mechanism for the degradation of acuity shown in behavioral studies. We tested the hypothesis that synchronous discharge of barrel cortex neurons would fail to develop after sensory deprivation produced by bilateral whisker trimming from birth to postnatal day 60. By studying the correlated discharge of cortical neuron pairs, we found evidence for strong correlated firing in control animals, and this synchrony was almost absent among pairs of cortical barrel neurons in deprived animals. The degree of synchrony impairment was different in subregions of rat barrel cortex. The model that best fits the data is that cortical neurons receiving direct inputs from the primary sensory (lemniscal) pathway show the greatest decrement in synchrony following sensory deprivation, while neurons with diverse inputs from other areas of thalamus and cortex are relatively less affected in this dimension of cortical function.

  14. Neurotrophin-3 administration attenuates deficits of pyridoxine-induced large-fiber sensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgren, M E; Cliffer, K D; Torrento, K; Cavnor, C; Curtis, R; DiStefano, P S; Wiegand, S J; Lindsay, R M

    1997-01-01

    Chronic treatment of adult rats for 2-3 weeks with high doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) produced a profound proprioceptive loss, similar to that found in humans overdosed with this vitamin or treated with the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Pyridoxine toxicity was manifest as deficits in simple and precise locomotion and sensory nerve function and as degeneration of large-diameter/large-fiber spinal sensory neurons. As assessed quantitatively in a beam-walking task and by EMG recording of H waves evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation, coadministration of the neurotrophic factor neurotrophin-3 (NT-3; 5-20 mg . kg-1 . d-1, s.c.) during chronic pyridoxine treatment largely attenuated the behavioral and electrophysiological sequelae associated with pyridoxine toxicity. Furthermore, NT-3 administration prevented degeneration of sensory fibers in the dorsal column of the spinal cord. These data are consistent with the evidence that NT-3 is a target-derived neurotrophic factor for muscle sensory afferents and suggest that pharmacological doses of NT-3 may be beneficial in the treatment of large-fiber sensory neuropathies.

  15. Peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyeth, Russell C; Croll, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    The peripheral nervous system in gastropods plays a key role in the neural control of behaviors, but is poorly studied in comparison with the central nervous system. Peripheral sensory neurons, although known to be widespread, have been studied in a patchwork fashion across several species, with no comprehensive treatment in any one species. We attempted to remedy this limitation by cataloging peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis employing backfills, vital stains, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. By using at least two independent methods to corroborate observations, we mapped four different cell types. We have found two different populations of bipolar sensory cells that appear to contain catecholamines(s) and histamine, respectively. Each cell had a peripheral soma, an epithelial process bearing cilia, and a second process projecting to the central nervous system. We also found evidence for two populations of nitric oxide-producing sensory cells, one bipolar, probably projecting centrally, and the second unipolar, with only a single epithelial process and no axon. The various cell types are presumably either mechanosensory or chemosensory, but the complexity of their distributions does not allow formation of hypotheses regarding modality. In addition, our observations indicate that yet more peripheral sensory cell types are present in the cephalic sensory organs of L. stagnalis. These results are an important step toward linking sensory cell morphology to modality. Moreover, our observations emphasize the size of the peripheral nervous system in gastropods, and we suggest that greater emphasis be placed on understanding its role in gastropod neuroethology.

  16. Update on the sudden hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bullo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Sudden hearing loss is defined as a sensory neural hearing deafness of at least 30 dB in three consecutive speech frequencies that as occurred within the 3 days. It is a medical emergency and the treatment should start as soon as possible; up to now therapies are empirically addressed to improve hearing. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated 558 patients with a diagnosis of sudden hearing loss. In our study, we have investigated possible prognostic factors of hearing loss and their influence on the recovery of the pathology. Results and Discussion: Sudden hearing loss requires an immediate therapeutic intervention. The corticosteroid therapy remains the most accredited one at which are reported the most satisfactory results. We have recognized as negative prognostic factors hearing loss on acute frequencies in the audiometric exam, the presence of a severe-deep hearing loss and a delay in starting therapy. Conclusion: The sudden hearing loss is an otologic emergency which requires an immediate therapeutic intervention. The most accredited therapy remains the corticosteroid therapy. Frequencies we have recognized as negative prognostic factors hearing loss on acute frequencies. The presence of a severe-deep hearing loss, and a delay in starting therapy.

  17. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles: algorithm and sample size recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bouhassira, Didier; Enax-Krumova, Elena K.; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Freynhagen, Rainer; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Hüllemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S.; Magerl, Walter; Ramirez, Juan D.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Schuh-Hofer, Sigrid; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Shillo, Pallai R.; Sindrup, Soeren; Tesfaye, Solomon; Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Tölle, Thomas R.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and/or allodynia, or loss of thermal detection and mild mechanical hyperalgesia and/or allodynia. Here, we present an algorithm for allocation of individual patients to these subgroups. The algorithm is nondeterministic—ie, a patient can be sorted to more than one phenotype—and can separate patients with neuropathic pain from healthy subjects (sensitivity: 78%, specificity: 94%). We evaluated the frequency of each phenotype in a population of patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy (n = 151), painful peripheral nerve injury (n = 335), and postherpetic neuralgia (n = 97) and propose sample sizes of study populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping and not additive). In peripheral nerve injury, frequencies were 37%, 59%, and 50%, and in postherpetic neuralgia, frequencies were 31%, 63%, and 46%. For parallel study design, either the estimated effect size of the treatment needs to be high (>0.7) or only phenotypes that are frequent in the clinical entity under study can realistically be performed. For crossover design, populations under 200 patients screened are sufficient for all phenotypes and clinical entities with a minimum estimated treatment effect size of 0.5. PMID:28595241

  18. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hlawatsch, Stefan; Ostrowski, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    ... adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS...

  19. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  20. A dual anteroposterior approach to the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H T; Woo, S H; Lee, J S; Cheon, S J

    2009-07-01

    When the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is performed through an anterior approach, the ischial and retroacetabular osteotomies and manual fracture of the incompletely osteotomized ischium are conducted with an incomplete view resulting in increased risk and morbidity. We have assessed the dual anteroposterior approach which appears to address this deficiency. We compared the results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy performed in 11 patients (13 osteotomies) through a single anterior approach with those in 12 patients (13 osteotomies) in whom the procedure was carried out through a dual anteroposterior approach. The estimated blood loss, the length of anaesthesia, duration of surgery and radiological parameters were measured. The mean operative time and length of anaesthesia were not significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.781 and p = 0.698, respectively). The radiological parameters improved to a similar extent in both groups after the operation but there was significantly less blood loss in the dual osteotomy group (p = 0.034). The dual anteroposterior approach provides a direct view of the retroacetabular and ischial parts of the osteotomy, within a reasonable operating time and with minimal blood loss and gives a satisfactory outcome.

  1. Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Hentig

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the apical surface of the sensory region was absent of ciliated structures, but microvilli were still present. Behavioral analysis showed significant loss of the ability to perceive bile salts and some fish also had no response to amino acids. Over the next several days, olfactory organ morphology, epithelial structure, and anti-calretinin labeling returned to control-like conditions, although the ability to perceive bile salts remained lost until day 14. Thus, exposure to zinc sulfate results in rapid degeneration of the olfactory organ, followed by restoration of morphology and function within two weeks. Zinc sulfate appears to have a greater effect on ciliated olfactory sensory neurons than on microvillous olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting differential effects on sensory neuron subtypes.

  2. Sensory Coding in Oscillatory Peripheral Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmical activity have been observed in several types of peripheral sensory receptors, e.g. in senses of hearing, balance and electroreception. We use two examples of spontaneously oscillating peripheral sensory receptors: bullfrog saccular hair cells and electroreceptors of paddlefish, to discuss how oscillations emerge, how these sensors may utilize oscillations to optimize their sensitivity and information processing. In the hair cell system oscillations occur on two very different levels: first, the mechano-sensory hair bundle itself can undergo spontaneous mechanical oscillations and second, self-sustained voltage oscillations across the membrane of the hair cell have been documented. Modelling show that interaction of these two compartment results in enhanced sensitivity to periodic mechanical stimuli. The second example, a single peripheral electroreceptor, is a complex system comprised of several thousands of sensory epithelial cells innervated by a few primary sensory neurons. It embeds two distinct oscillators: one residing in a population of epithelial cells, synaptically coupled to another oscillator residing in a branched myelinated afferent axon. We show how neuronal oscillations emerge in a complex network of excitable nodes. We further demonstrate that epithelial oscillations results in extended serial correlations of neruonal discharges enhancing coding of external stimuli.

  3. Ebi/AP-1 suppresses pro-apoptotic genes expression and permits long-term survival of Drosophila sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mi Lim

    Full Text Available Sensory organs are constantly exposed to physical and chemical stresses that collectively threaten the survival of sensory neurons. Failure to protect stressed neurons leads to age-related loss of neurons and sensory dysfunction in organs in which the supply of new sensory neurons is limited, such as the human auditory system. Transducin β-like protein 1 (TBL1 is a candidate gene for ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness, a form of X-linked age-related hearing loss. TBL1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved F-box-like and WD40 repeats-containing subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor/silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and other transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Here we report that a Drosophila homologue of TBL1, Ebi, is required for maintenance of photoreceptor neurons. Loss of ebi function caused late-onset neuronal apoptosis in the retina and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Ebi formed a complex with activator protein 1 (AP-1 and was required for repression of Drosophila pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expression. These results suggest that Ebi/AP-1 suppresses basal transcription levels of apoptotic genes and thereby protects sensory neurons from degeneration.

  4. Sensorial evaluation genuineness of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Tomášek

    2008-01-01

    seems less typical and characteristic substitute in evaluation.Riesling rhine – the most suitable location was chosen vineyard Šobes by judges, which gives incommutable features to smell and taste by sandy soils of Dyje massif above river Dyje. A specimen No. 9 represented the smell; specimens No. 10 and 11 were evaluated as average and untypical. They had quite different features in recognizing vintages.The authenticity was extended by sensorial evaluation and at the same time the outstanding locations were chosen, which can give wines of unusual quantity every year in connecting certain variety. The most suitable locations for singular type of wine with extending authenticity are Riesling rhine – vineyard Šobes, Sauvignon blanc – vineyard Knížecí vrch, Veltliner grun – vineyard Weinperky.

  5. Alexander Duals of Multipermutohedron Ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajay Kumar; Chanchal Kumar

    2014-02-01

    An Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal has many combinatorial properties. The standard monomials of an Artinian quotient of such a dual correspond bijectively to some -parking functions, and many interesting properties of these Artinian quotients are obtained by Postnikov and Shapiro (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 356 (2004) 3109–3142). Using the multigraded Hilbert series of an Artinian quotient of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals, we obtained a simple proof of Steck determinant formula for enumeration of -parking functions. A combinatorial formula for all the multigraded Betti numbers of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals are also obtained.

  6. Dual massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, Kevin, E-mail: Kevin.Morand@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-08-29

    The linearized massive gravity in three dimensions, over any maximally symmetric background, is known to be presented in a self-dual form as a first order equation which encodes not only the massive Klein-Gordon type field equation but also the supplementary transverse-traceless conditions. We generalize this construction to higher dimensions. The appropriate dual description in d dimensions, additionally to a (non-symmetric) tensor field h{sub {mu}{nu}}, involves an extra rank-(d-1) field equivalently represented by the torsion rank-3 tensor. The symmetry condition for h{sub {mu}{nu}} arises on-shell as a consequence of the field equations. The action principle of the dual theory is formulated. The focus has been made on four dimensions. Solving one of the fields in terms of the other and putting back in the action one obtains two other equivalent formulations of the theory in which the action is quadratic in derivatives. In one of these representations the theory is formulated entirely in terms of a rank-2 non-symmetric tensor h{sub {mu}{nu}}. This quadratic theory is not identical to the Fierz-Pauli theory and contains the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of h{sub {mu}{nu}}. Nevertheless, the only singularity in the propagator is the same as in the Fierz-Pauli theory so that only the massive spin-2 particle is propagating. In the other representation, the theory is formulated in terms of the torsion rank-3 tensor only. We analyze the conditions which follow from the field equations and show that they restrict to 5 degrees of freedom thus producing an alternative description to the massive spin-2 particle. A generalization to higher dimensions is suggested.

  7. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    countries acknowledged as forerunners in gender equality, which also have ‘fairly strong’ parliamentary standing committees. The results show that both committees on gender equality can be regarded as ‘feminist’ in character and both interact with relevant civil society organisations. Their impact......Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...

  8. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  9. STDP in the developing sensory neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylan S Larsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP has been proposed as a mechanism for optimizing the tuning of neurons to sensory inputs, a process that underlies the formation of receptive field properties and associative memories. The properties of STDP must adjust during development to enable neurons to optimally tune their selectivity for environmental stimuli, but these changes are poorly understood. Here we review the properties of STDP and how these may change during development in primary sensory cortical layers 2/3 and 4, initial sites for intracortical processing. We provide a primer discussing postnatal developmental changes in synaptic proteins and neuromodulators that are thought to influence STDP induction and expression. We propose that STDP is shaped by, but also modifies, synapses to produce refinements in neuronal responses to sensory inputs.

  10. [Thurstone model application to difference sensory tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ofelia; O'Mahony, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Part of understanding why judges perform better on some difference tests than others requires an understanding of how information coming from the mouth to the brain is processed. For some tests it is processed more efficiently than others. This is described by what has been called Thurstonian modeling. This brief review introduces the concepts and ideas involved in Thurstonian modeling as applied to sensory difference measurement. It summarizes the literature concerned with the theorizing and confirmation of Thurstonian models. It introduces the important concept of stimulus variability and the fundamental measure of sensory difference: d'. It indicates how the paradox of discriminatory non-discriminators, which had puzzled researchers for years, can be simply explained using the model. It considers how memory effects and the complex interactions in the mouth can reduce d' by increasing the variance of sensory distributions.

  11. [Sensory disturbances caused by multivitamin preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijk, J R; Notermans, N C

    2005-11-12

    2 patients, men aged 60 and 65 years, presented with symptoms of chronic sensory polyneuropathy. Symptoms in the first patient were bilateral numbness in the hands and leg pain and, in the second patient, painful tingling in the legs. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) toxicity due to daily use of multivitamin supplements was diagnosed. The patients were taking 24 and 40 mg per day, respectively. Neurotoxic syndromes due to pyridoxine overdose have been described before in patients taking high-dose vitamin B. These patients mostly developed progressive sersory neuronopathy with sensory ataxia. Chronic sensory polyneuropathy has not been associated with the use of vitamin supplements, which have previously been considered harmless. Both patients recovered after discontinuation of supplement intake.

  12. Extinction reveals that primary sensory cortex predicts reinforcement outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2012-02-01

    Primary sensory cortices are traditionally regarded as stimulus analysers. However, studies of associative learning-induced plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) indicate involvement in learning, memory and other cognitive processes. For example, the area of representation of a tone becomes larger for stronger auditory memories and the magnitude of area gain is proportional to the degree that a tone becomes behaviorally important. Here, we used extinction to investigate whether 'behavioral importance' specifically reflects a sound's ability to predict reinforcement (reward or punishment) vs. to predict any significant change in the meaning of a sound. If the former, then extinction should reverse area gains as the signal no longer predicts reinforcement. Rats (n = 11) were trained to bar-press to a signal tone (5.0 kHz) for water-rewards, to induce signal-specific area gains in A1. After subsequent withdrawal of reward, A1 was mapped to determine representational areas. Signal-specific area gains, estimated from a previously established brain-behavior quantitative function, were reversed, supporting the 'reinforcement prediction' hypothesis. Area loss was specific to the signal tone vs. test tones, further indicating that withdrawal of reinforcement, rather than unreinforced tone presentation per se, was responsible for area loss. Importantly, the amount of area loss was correlated with the amount of extinction (r = 0.82, P reinforcement, and that the number of cells tuned to a stimulus can dictate its ability to command behavior.

  13. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  14. Sequoia regulates cell fate decisions in the external sensory organs of adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hillary K; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Yamamoto, Shinya; Schulze, Karen L; Bellen, Hugo J

    2009-06-01

    The adult Drosophila external sensory organ (ESO), comprising the hair, socket, neuron, sheath and glia cells, arises through the asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). In a mosaic screen designed to identify new components in ESO development, we isolated mutations in sequoia, which encodes a putative zinc-finger transcription factor that has previously been shown to have a role in dendritogenesis. Here, we show that adult clones mutant for seq exhibit a loss of hair cells and a gain of socket cells. We propose that the seq mutant phenotype arises, in part, owing to the loss of several crucial transcription factors known to be important in peripheral nervous system development such as D-Pax2, Prospero and Hamlet. Thus, Sequoia is a new upstream regulator of genes that orchestrates cell fate specification during development of the adult ESO lineage.

  15. Sensory exotropia subsequent to senile cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Ding-hua; XU Ye-sheng; LI Yu-min

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in patients with sensory exotropia subsequent to senile cataract. The authors prospectively studied the role of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation on 25 patients by observing visual acuity, ocular alignment, binocular vision and diplopia pre-, 1 month post- and 3 months post-operation. The patients underwent follow-up for three months. Postoperatively, one patient had a corrected visual acuity of 20/50, and 24 patients had 20/40 or better. The ocular alignment, binocular vision and diplopia were resolved spontaneously. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation performed together is effective on sensory exotropia subsequent to senile cataract.

  16. Sensory neuropeptide effects in human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, R W; Conradson, T. B.; Dixon, C M; Crossman, D.C.; Barnes, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    1 Neuropeptides released from sensory nerves may account for cutaneous flare and wheal following local trauma. In 28 normal subjects we have studied the effects of four sensory neuropeptides given by intradermal injection on the forearm or back. 2 All peptides caused a flare distant from the site of injection, presumably due to an axon reflex. Substance P (SP) was the most potent (geometric mean dose causing 50% of maximum flare, 4.2 pmol). Neurokinin A (NKA) was the next most potent with neu...

  17. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  18. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  19. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  20. Efficient FES triggering applying Kalman filter during sensory supported treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikajlo, I; Matjacić, Z; Bajd, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for a functional electrical stimulation (FES) gait re-education system for incomplete spinal cord injured persons, providing efficient stimulation triggering, is presented. During neurological impaired gait FES was provided as motor augmentation support. Simultaneously the gait kinematics were recorded using the proposed sensory system, which is equipped with a dual-axial accelerometer and a gyroscope. The sensory device was placed at the shank of the paretic leg. The data assessed were input into a mathematical algorithm applied for shank angle estimation. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter, estimating the angle error and correcting the actual measurement. Furthermore the information was combined with other kinematic data for the purpose of efficient and reliable stimulation triggering. The algorithm was tested with preliminary measurements on several neurologically intact persons during even terrain and treadmill walking. Trial measurements were verified with a contactless optical measurement system, with FES only simulated on controller output. Later on a treadmill training in combination with FES triggering was carried out. The outcome of the measurements shows that the use of sensory integration may successfully solve the problem of data assessment in dynamic movement where an inclinometer does not provide sufficient information for efficient control of FES.

  1. Robust dual-response optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanikoglu, Ihsan; den Hertog, Dick; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a robust optimization reformulation of the dual-response problem developed in response surface methodology. The dual-response approach fits separate models for the mean and the variance and analyzes these two models in a mathematical optimization setting. We use metamodels esti

  2. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  3. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  4. Dual Card,Double Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As Christmas Day and New Year Day draw near, why not treat yourself with a smart digital gizmo. Then, the Samsung Dual-card Cellphone is what you are longing for. Samsung B5712C, the first dual-card model released by Samsung,

  5. Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.

  6. Benefits of Dual Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstrum, Kiara

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper examines how dual language education (DLE) programs are valuable. The literature shows that children do much more than just thrive in a dual language environment. According to research, children who are bilingual are cognitively, academically, intellectually, socially and verbally more advantaged than their monolingual…

  7. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  8. Visual Impairment, Hearing Loss and Cognitive Function in an Older Population: Longitudinal Findings from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hong

    Full Text Available The presence of visual impairment (VI and hearing loss (HL with may be a marker for subsequent cognitive decline over time in older people. A prospective, longitudinal population-based study of the 3654 participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study were assessed for the associations between VI and HL and a decline in mini-mental state examination (MMSE scores over a duration of 10 years from the 5-year (baseline of this report to the 15-year follow-up visits. MMSE was assessed at the 5-, 10- and 15-year follow-up visits. A decline ≥3 scores from 5-year to 10- or 15-year visits indicated possible cognitive decline. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity 40 decibels in the worse-ear and dual sensory impairment (DSI was defined by the co-presence of VI and HL, detected at 5-year follow-up (baseline of this report. Participants with no VI and HL over the same 5- or 10-year corresponding period were controls. Associations of VI, HL and DSI with possible cognitive decline were assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for age and sex after excluding subjects with a stroke history. The presence of VI, HL or DSI was not associated with possible cognitive decline over 5 years (odds ratio (OR 0.84, 95% confidence-intervals (CI 0.40-1.79, OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.61-1.70 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.54-3.72, respectively or 10 years (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.52-2.30, OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.65-1.82 and 1.15, 95% CI 0.28-4.73, respectively. There were no changes to these findings after adjustment for other potential confounders. Age was significantly associated with possible cognitive decline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10 for both periods. Neither visual impairment, hearing loss nor dual sensory impairment was independently associated with subsequent decline in cognition.

  9. The role of visual deprivation and experience on the performance of sensory substitution devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronks, H Christiaan; Nau, Amy C; Ibbotson, Michael R; Barnes, Nick

    2015-10-22

    It is commonly accepted that the blind can partially compensate for their loss of vision by developing enhanced abilities with their remaining senses. This visual compensation may be related to the fact that blind people rely on their other senses in everyday life. Many studies have indeed shown that experience plays an important role in visual compensation. Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown that the visual cortices of the blind are recruited by other functional brain areas and can become responsive to tactile or auditory input instead. These cross-modal plastic changes are more pronounced in the early blind compared to late blind individuals. The functional consequences of cross-modal plasticity on visual compensation in the blind are debated, as are the influences of various etiologies of vision loss (i.e., blindness acquired early or late in life). Distinguishing between the influences of experience and visual deprivation on compensation is especially relevant for rehabilitation of the blind with sensory substitution devices. The BrainPort artificial vision device and The vOICe are assistive devices for the blind that redirect visual information to another intact sensory system. Establishing how experience and different etiologies of vision loss affect the performance of these devices may help to improve existing rehabilitation strategies, formulate effective selection criteria and develop prognostic measures. In this review we will discuss studies that investigated the influence of training and visual deprivation on the performance of various sensory substitution approaches.

  10. Dual adaptation and adaptive generalization of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, R. B.; Bridgeman, B.; Williams, J. A.; Semmler, R.

    1998-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the possibility that the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is subject to dual adaptation (the ability to adapt to a sensory rearrangement more rapidly and/or more completely after repeated experience with it) and adaptive generalization (the ability to adapt more readily to a novel sensory rearrangement as a result of prior dual adaptation training). In Experiment 1, the subjects actively turned the head during alternating exposure to a visual-vestibular rearrangement (target/head gain = 0.5) and the normal situation (target/head gain = 0.0). These conditions produced both adaptation and dual adaptation of the VOR but no evidence of adaptive generalization when tested with a target/head gain of 1.0. Experiment 2, in which exposure to the 0.5 gain entailed externally controlled (i.e., passive) whole body rotation, resulted in VOR adaptation but no dual adaptation. As in Experiment 1, no evidence of adaptive generalization was found.

  11. An Efficient Primal-Dual Prox Method for Non-Smooth Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tianbao; Mehdavi, Mehrdad; Zhu, Shenghuo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the non-smooth optimization problems in machine learning, where both the loss function and the regularizer are non-smooth functions. Previous studies on efficient empirical loss minimization assume either a smooth loss function or a strongly convex regularizer, making them unsuitable for non-smooth optimization. We develop an efficient method for a family of non-smooth optimization where the dual form of the loss function is bilinear in primal and dual variables. We cast a non-smooth optimization problem into a minimax optimization problem, and develop a primal dual prox method that solves the minimax optimization problem at a rate of $O(1/T)$, significantly faster than a standard gradient descent method ($O(1/\\sqrt{T})$). Our empirical study verifies the efficiency of the proposed method for non-smooth optimization by comparing it to the state-of-the-art first order methods.

  12. Sensory Evaluation in Characterization of Fabric Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludovic Koehl; Zhou Bin(周斌); Zeng Xian-yi; Ding Yong-sheng(丁永生)

    2004-01-01

    This paper is divided in two parts. The first part presents optimized methods for formalizing and analyzing sensory data provided by different panels on fabric hand evaluation. For achieving this challenge, we first transform each evaluation into fuzzy sets and we submit criteria for assessing the fabric hand evaluation given by experts as well as criteria for computing the distances between different panels and the employed linguistic terms in different evaluation spaces. This sensory data analysis allows us to check expert's and customer's behaviors on fabric hand.Based on this first procedure about formalization and sensory data analysis, we can study the relationships between sensory evaluation given by different experts for a fabric set and the objective data set provided by appropriate measurements. From a set of fabric samples, a database with nearly 10 parameters characterizing the touch handle is built. This way of evaluation is performed by measuring a set of physical parameters on fabrics. Those parameters constitute the input variables of our model. For the textile industry, the major difficulty lies in the fact that the performed measurements on fabrics lead to precise numerical data describing indirectly fabric hand but their relationships with the evaluation given by experts should be exploited. We implement a fuzzy model which predicts the marks reached for a set of linguistic terms.The effectiveness of these methods and criteria is shown through a number of knitted cotton fabrics.

  13. Temporal structure in audiovisual sensory selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kösem

    Full Text Available In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object: the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar. Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency.

  14. Thurstone and Sensory Scaling: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R. Duncan

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief summary of the ideas and assumptions of L. L. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment, this article reviews the subsequent major developments of this model in the sensory area. The law of comparative judgments is part of the body of work called Thurstonian scaling. (SLD)

  15. Sensory source strength of used ventilation filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, Ole Martin; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A two-year-old filter was placed in a ventilation system recirculating the air in an experimental space. Via glass tubes supplied with a small fan it was possible to extract air upstream and downstream of the filter to an adjacent room. A panel could thus perform sensory assessments of the air fr...

  16. Communication shapes sensory response in multicellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett D; Byrd, Tommy A; Mugler, Andrew; Sun, Bo

    2016-09-13

    Collective sensing by interacting cells is observed in a variety of biological systems, and yet, a quantitative understanding of how sensory information is collectively encoded is lacking. Here, we investigate the ATP-induced calcium dynamics of monolayers of fibroblast cells that communicate via gap junctions. Combining experiments and stochastic modeling, we find that increasing the ATP stimulus increases the propensity for calcium oscillations, despite large cell-to-cell variability. The model further predicts that the oscillation propensity increases with not only the stimulus, but also the cell density due to increased communication. Experiments confirm this prediction, showing that cell density modulates the collective sensory response. We further implicate cell-cell communication by coculturing the fibroblasts with cancer cells, which we show act as "defects" in the communication network, thereby reducing the oscillation propensity. These results suggest that multicellular networks sit at a point in parameter space where cell-cell communication has a significant effect on the sensory response, allowing cells to simultaneously respond to a sensory input and the presence of neighbors.

  17. A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

  18. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  19. Sensory source strength of used ventilation filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, Ole Martin; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A two-year-old filter was placed in a ventilation system recirculating the air in an experimental space. Via glass tubes supplied with a small fan it was possible to extract air upstream and downstream of the filter to an adjacent room. A panel could thus perform sensory assessments of the air from...

  20. Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Franz, R.; Welle, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers s

  1. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD.

  2. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  3. Degeneration of proprioceptive sensory nerve endings in mice harboring amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sydney K; Kemp, Zachary; Hatzipetros, Theo; Vieira, Fernando; Valdez, Gregorio

    2015-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily targets the motor system. Although much is known about the effects of ALS on motor neurons and glial cells, little is known about its effect on proprioceptive sensory neurons. This study examines proprioceptive sensory neurons in mice harboring mutations associated with ALS, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. In both transgenic lines, we found fewer proprioceptive sensory neurons containing fluorescently tagged cholera toxin in their soma five days after injecting this retrograde tracer into the tibialis anterior muscle. We asked whether this is due to neuronal loss or selective degeneration of peripheral nerve endings. We found no difference in the total number and size of proprioceptive sensory neuron soma between symptomatic SOD1(G93A) and control mice. However, analysis of proprioceptive nerve endings in muscles revealed early and significant alterations at Ia/II proprioceptive nerve endings in muscle spindles before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Although these changes occur alongside those at α-motor axons in SOD1(G93A) mice, Ia/II sensory nerve endings degenerate in the absence of obvious alterations in α-motor axons in TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. We next asked whether proprioceptive nerve endings are similarly affected in the spinal cord and found that nerve endings terminating on α-motor neurons are affected during the symptomatic phase and after peripheral nerve endings begin to degenerate. Overall, we show that Ia/II proprioceptive sensory neurons are affected by ALS-causing mutations, with pathological changes starting at their peripheral nerve endings.

  4. From the ultrasonic to the infrared: molecular evolution and the sensory biology of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Great advances have been made recently in understanding the genetic basis of the sensory biology of bats. Research has focused on the molecular evolution of candidate sensory genes, genes with known functions [e.g., olfactory receptor (OR) genes] and genes identified from mutations associated with sensory deficits (e.g., blindness and deafness). For example, the FoxP2 gene, underpinning vocal behavior and sensorimotor coordination, has undergone diversification in bats, while several genes associated with audition show parallel amino acid substitutions in unrelated lineages of echolocating bats and, in some cases, in echolocating dolphins, representing a classic case of convergent molecular evolution. Vision genes encoding the photopigments rhodopsin and the long-wave sensitive opsin are functional in bats, while that encoding the short-wave sensitive opsin has lost functionality in rhinolophoid bats using high-duty cycle laryngeal echolocation, suggesting a sensory trade-off between investment in vision and echolocation. In terms of olfaction, bats appear to have a distinctive OR repertoire compared with other mammals, and a gene involved in signal transduction in the vomeronasal system has become non-functional in most bat species. Bitter taste receptors appear to have undergone a "birth-and death" evolution involving extensive gene duplication and loss, unlike genes coding for sweet and umami tastes that show conservation across most lineages but loss in vampire bats. Common vampire bats have also undergone adaptations for thermoperception, via alternative splicing resulting in the evolution of a novel heat-sensitive channel. The future for understanding the molecular basis of sensory biology is promising, with great potential for comparative genomic analyses, studies on gene regulation and expression, exploration of the role of alternative splicing in the generation of proteomic diversity, and linking genetic mechanisms to behavioral consequences.

  5. From the ultrasonic to the infrared: molecular evolution and the sensory biology of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eJones

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Great advances have been made recently in understanding the genetic basis of the sensory biology of bats. Research has focused on the molecular evolution of candidate sensory genes, genes with known functions (e.g. olfactory receptor genes and genes identified from mutations associated with sensory deficits (e.g. blindness and deafness. For example, the FoxP2 gene, underpinning vocal behaviour and sensorimotor coordination, has undergone diversification in bats, while several genes associated with audition show parallel amino acid substitutions in unrelated lineages of echolocating bats and, in some cases, in echolocating dolphins, representing a classic case of convergent molecular evolution. Vision genes encoding the photopigments rhodopsin and the long-wave sensitive opsin are functional in bats, while that encoding the short-wave sensitive opsin has lost functionality in rhinolophoid bats using high-duty cycle laryngeal echolocation, suggesting a sensory trade-off between investment in vision and echolocation. In terms of olfaction, bats appear to have a distinctive olfactory receptor repertoire compared with other mammals, and a gene involved in signal transduction in the vomeronasal system has become non-functional in most bat species. Bitter taste receptors appear to have undergone a ‘birth-and death’ evolution involving extensive gene duplication and loss, unlike genes coding for sweet and umami tastes that show conservation across most lineages but loss in vampire bats. Common vampire bats have also undergone adaptations for thermoperception, via alternative splicing resulting in the evolution of a novel heat-sensitive channel. The future for understanding the molecular basis of sensory biology is promising, with great potential for comparative genomic analyses, studies on gene regulation and expression, exploration of the role of alternative splicing in the generation of proteomic diversity, and linking genetic mechanisms to

  6. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  7. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed.

  8. Zero-Loss Broadband Dispersion Compensation Scheme for G.652 Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamna; Pande; M.R.; Shenoy; B.P.; Pal; K.Thyagarajan

    2003-01-01

    We have evaluated the gain characteristics of an erbium-doped broadband dual-core dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) to achieve a loss-less dispersion compensating module for long-haul G.652 fiber links.

  9. Dual-horizon Peridynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Huilong; Cai, Yongchang; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new Peridynamic approach that naturally includes varying horizon sizes and completely solves the "ghost force" issue. Therefore, the concept of dual-horizon is introduced to consider the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation is proved to fulfill both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum. Neither the "partial stress tensor" nor the "`slice" technique are needed to ameliorate the ghost force issue in \\cite{Silling2014}. The consistency of reaction forces is naturally fulfilled by a unified simple formulation. The method can be easily implemented to any existing peridynamics code with minimal changes. A simple adaptive refinement procedure is proposed minimizing the computational cost. The method is applied here to the three Peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based Peridynamics. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthof-Winkler experi...

  10. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... risk and utility that economists traditionally assume, allowance for rank-dependent decision weights, and consideration of income thresholds. We examine the issues involved in full maximum likelihood estimation of the model using observed choice data. We propose a general method for integrating...... the multiple criteria, using the logic of mixture models, which we believe is attractive from a decision-theoretic and statistical perspective. The model is applied to observed choices from a major natural experiment involving intrinsically dynamic choices over highly skewed outcomes. The evidence points...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions HSAN5 hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Description Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V ( HSAN5 ) is a condition that primarily affects the ...

  12. Sensory integration: neuronal filters for polarized light patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Holger G

    2014-09-22

    Animal and human behaviour relies on local sensory signals that are often ambiguous. A new study shows how tuning neuronal responses to celestial cues helps locust navigation, demonstrating a common principle of sensory information processing: the use of matched filters.

  13. Sensory integration therapy for autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Healy, O.; Rispoli, M.; Lydon, H.; Streusand, W.; Davis, T.; Kang, S.Y.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Giesbers, S.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables

  14. Growth, carcass and sensory characteristics of m. longissimus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Therefore, this practice would be particularly ... lucerne hay (C) was included for sensory evaluation purposes only. ... the sensory panel room remained relatively free from food odours, the minced ..... Principles and Procedures of Statistics.

  15. Sensory perception during sleep and meditation: common features and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, K V; Telles, Shirley

    2003-06-01

    Sleep and meditation are both physiological conditions in which peripheral sensory input is voluntarily reduced, but sensory perception of internally generated information continues. However, the two conditions differ in the level of awareness retained.

  16. Sensory characteristics of meat and composition of carcass fat from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    subcutaneous fat composition and sensory characteristics. Keywords: sensory .... increased juiciness was associated with an increased carcass fat content. In the present study carcass fat .... Fat:Muscle ratio (%). Little. Medium. Abundant.

  17. Comment entrainer la memoire sensorielle (How to Train Sensory Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Regine

    1993-01-01

    At the University of Queensland (Australia), second-language instruction techniques involving principles of sensory training are being used experimentally. The method promotes sensory integration of speech events through auditory, visual, and kinesthetic memory. (MSE)

  18. Sensory Neuron-Specific Deletion of TRPA1 Results in Mechanical Cutaneous Sensory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is known to be a key contributor to both somatosensation and pain. Recent studies have implicated TRPA1 in additional physiologic functions and have also suggested that TRPA1 is expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Thus, it has become necessary to resolve the importance of TRPA1 expressed in primary sensory neurons, particularly since previous research has largely used global knock-out animals and chemical TRPA1 antagonists. We therefore sought to isolate the physiological relevance of TRPA1 specifically within sensory neurons. To accomplish this, we used Advillin-Cre mice, in which the promoter for Advillin is used to drive expression of Cre recombinase specifically within sensory neurons. These Advillin-Cre mice were crossed with Trpa1fl/fl mice to generate sensory neuron-specific Trpa1 knock-out mice. Here, we show that tissue-specific deletion of TRPA1 from sensory neurons produced strong deficits in behavioral sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, while sensitivity to cold and heat stimuli remained intact. The mechanical sensory deficit was incomplete compared to the mechanosensory impairment of TRPA1 global knock-out mice, in line with the incomplete (∼80%) elimination of TRPA1 from sensory neurons in the tissue-specific Advillin-Cre knock-out mice. Equivalent findings were observed in tissue-specific knock-out animals originating from two independently-generated Advillin-Cre lines. As such, our results show that sensory neuron TRPA1 is required for mechanical, but not cold, responsiveness in noninjured skin.

  19. Comparing excitability at 37°C with 20°C: differences between motor and sensory axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Maria O; Franssen, Hessel; van Schelven, Leonard; Sleutjes, Boudewijn T H M

    2017-09-06

    In some peripheral nervous system disorders cold induces symptoms of muscle weakness without loss of sensation. To understand this selective effect on motor function, it is first necessary to delineate the effects of cooling in motor and sensory axons of healthy subjects. In 17 healthy volunteers, we performed excitability and clinical tests of median nerve motor and sensory axons at 37°C and 20°C. Clinical tests consisted of assessing thenar muscle strength, 2-point discrimination and joint position sense of the 3(rd) finger. Excitability-tests showed that cooling induced opposite changes to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus (motor: decreased threshold change, sensory: increased threshold change) and I/V-slopes (motor: steepening, sensory: less steep). Clinical tests showed worsening in motor function but no consistent changes in sensory function. Cooling induces changes in motor axons consistent with depolarization and more complicated changes in sensory axons, possibly related to differences in HCN-channel expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel W.; Schiefer, Matthew A.; Keith, Michael W.; Anderson, J. Robert; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Approach. Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Main results. Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. Significance. We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees.

  1. How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair eHaigh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory substitution devices (SSDs aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. The vOICe is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into soundscapes such that an experienced user can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naïve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations live. A positive correlation was found between participants’ musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a sensory substitution device draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naïve users is promising.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  3. Glia Are Essential for Sensory Organ Function in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Bacaj, Taulant; Tevlin, Maya; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2008-01-01

    Sensory organs are composed of neurons, which convert environmental stimuli to electrical signals, and glia-like cells, whose functions are not well-understood. To decipher glial roles in sensory organs, we ablated the sheath glial cell of the major sensory organ of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that glia-ablated animals exhibit profound sensory deficits and that glia provide activities that affect neuronal morphology, behavior generation, and neuronal uptake of lipophilic dyes. To underst...

  4. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  5. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  6. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fründt, Odette; Grashorn, Wiebke; Schöttle, Daniel; Peiker, Ina; David, Nicole; Engel, Andreas K.; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Münchau, Alexander; Bingel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Altered sensory perception has been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be related to aberrant sensory perception thresholds. We used the well-established, standardized Quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain to investigate 13 somatosensory parameters including…

  7. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory…

  8. ONE CASE REPORT OF PURE SENSORY GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨咏梅; 夏中信; 魏岗之

    2004-01-01

    @@ The existence of purely sensory form of GuillianBarre syndrome is still subject to controversy. We report the case of patient who was admitted in our hospital in October, 1999 and had acute sensory neuropathy which, due to its clinicial, cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiological characteristics, may be considered a sensory form of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

  9. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory…

  10. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  11. Characterization of thoracic motor and sensory neurons and spinal nerve roots in canine degenerative myelopathy, a potential disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brandie R; Coates, Joan R; Johnson, Gayle C; Shelton, G Diane; Katz, Martin L

    2014-04-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive, adult-onset, multisystem degenerative disease with many features in common with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As with some forms of ALS, DM is associated with mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Clinical signs include general proprioceptive ataxia and spastic upper motor neuron paresis in pelvic limbs, which progress to flaccid tetraplegia and dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to characterize DM as a potential disease model for ALS. We previously reported that intercostal muscle atrophy develops in dogs with advanced-stage DM. To determine whether other components of the thoracic motor unit (MU) also demonstrated morphological changes consistent with dysfunction, histopathologic and morphometric analyses were conducted on thoracic spinal motor neurons (MNs) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in motor and sensory nerve root axons from DM-affected boxers and Pembroke Welsh corgis (PWCs). No alterations in MNs or motor root axons were observed in either breed. However, advanced-stage PWCs exhibited significant losses of sensory root axons, and numerous DRG sensory neurons displayed evidence of degeneration. These results indicate that intercostal muscle atrophy in DM is not preceded by physical loss of the motor neurons innervating these muscles, nor of their axons. Axonal loss in thoracic sensory roots and sensory neuron death suggest that sensory involvement may play an important role in DM disease progression. Further analysis of the mechanisms responsible for these morphological findings would aid in the development of therapeutic intervention for DM and some forms of ALS.

  12. The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    the sensory cells. In October of 2005 a symposium entitled "Pharmacologic Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Hearing Loss and Tinnitus " was...above and depressed between 1 and 2 kHz (Figs. 45 and 46). The sensory cell loss is similar to the lesion calibration group (N = 20) shown in Figure...loss at 8 kHz. (Fig. 53). DPOAEs were effectively absent or severely depressed from 2 kHz and above (Figs. 54 & 55). Individual cochleograms for all

  13. Curing Hearing Loss: Patient Expectations, Health Care Practitioners, and Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kazuo; Suchert, Steffen; Blevins, Nikolas H.; Heller, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Millions of patients are debilitated by hearing loss, mainly caused by degeneration of sensory hair cells in the cochlea. The underlying reasons for hair cell loss are highly diverse, ranging from genetic disposition, drug side effects, traumatic noise exposure, to the effects of aging. Whereas modern hearing aids offer some relief of the symptoms…

  14. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  15. Curing Hearing Loss: Patient Expectations, Health Care Practitioners, and Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kazuo; Suchert, Steffen; Blevins, Nikolas H.; Heller, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Millions of patients are debilitated by hearing loss, mainly caused by degeneration of sensory hair cells in the cochlea. The underlying reasons for hair cell loss are highly diverse, ranging from genetic disposition, drug side effects, traumatic noise exposure, to the effects of aging. Whereas modern hearing aids offer some relief of the symptoms…

  16. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  17. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

  18. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Clinical Populations with Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review evidence for cross-modal cortical re-organization in clinical populations with hearing loss. Cross-modal plasticity refers to the ability for an intact sensory modality (e.g., vision or somatosensation to recruit cortical brain regions from a deprived sensory modality (e.g., audition to carry out sensory processing. We describe evidence for cross-modal changes in hearing loss across the age-spectrum and across different degrees of hearing impairment, including children with profound, bilateral deafness with cochlear implants, single-sided deafness before and after cochlear implantation, and adults with early-stage, mild-moderate, age-related hearing loss. Understanding cross-modal plasticity in the context of auditory deprivation, and the potential for reversal of these changes following intervention, may be vital in directing intervention and rehabilitation options for clinical populations with hearing loss.

  19. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen - Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse.

  20. Dopamine Depletion Impairs Bilateral Sensory Processing in the Striatum in a Pathway-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzef, Maya; Spigolon, Giada; Johansson, Yvonne; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Fisone, Gilberto; Silberberg, Gilad

    2017-05-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation, particularly to the striatum. PD patients often exhibit sensory impairments, yet the underlying network mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined how dopamine (DA) depletion affects sensory processing in the mouse striatum. We used the optopatcher for online identification of direct and indirect pathway projection neurons (MSNs) during in vivo whole-cell recordings. In control mice, MSNs encoded the laterality of sensory inputs with larger and earlier responses to contralateral than ipsilateral whisker deflection. This laterality coding was lost in DA-depleted mice due to adaptive changes in the intrinsic and synaptic properties, mainly, of direct pathway MSNs. L-DOPA treatment restored laterality coding by increasing the separation between ipsilateral and contralateral responses. Our results show that DA depletion impairs bilateral tactile acuity in a pathway-dependent manner, thus providing unexpected insights into the network mechanisms underlying sensory deficits in PD. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychostimulant and sensory stimulation interventions that target the reading and math deficits of students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving sensory stimulation. A comprehensive examination of the literature was conducted on children with ADHD with and without co-occurring disabilities, summarizing their reading and math achievement and the effects of psychostimulant and sensory stimulant interventions on these academic areas. Students without co-occurring disabilities (ADHD-) had fewer deficits in reading than in math and than students with co-occurring disabilities (ADHD+). Furthermore, students with ADHD+ demonstrated greater responsiveness to psychostimulants through improved reading recognition and math calculations, with limited gains in literal reading comprehension. Added sensory stimulation produced differential gains for both groups in reading recognition and comprehension and in math calculations and problem solving. The efficacy of psychostimulants was documented on specific areas of achievement for the ADHD+ group, but this review did not support the administration of psychostimulants for students with ADHD-. For both groups of students, differential gains, losses, and habituation were documented in response to sensory stimulation for both subareas within reading and math, which were interpreted as support for the optimal stimulation theory.

  2. Distinct Nav1.7-dependent pain sensations require different sets of sensory and sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Michael S; Nassar, Mohammed A; Clark, Anna K; Passmore, Gayle; Dickenson, Anthony H; Wang, Fan; Malcangio, Marzia; Wood, John N

    2012-04-24

    Human acute and inflammatory pain requires the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 but its significance for neuropathic pain is unknown. Here we show that Nav1.7 expression in different sets of mouse sensory and sympathetic neurons underlies distinct types of pain sensation. Ablating Nav1.7 gene (SCN9A) expression in all sensory neurons using Advillin-Cre abolishes mechanical pain, inflammatory pain and reflex withdrawal responses to heat. In contrast, heat-evoked pain is retained when SCN9A is deleted only in Nav1.8-positive nociceptors. Surprisingly, responses to the hotplate test, as well as neuropathic pain, are unaffected when SCN9A is deleted in all sensory neurons. However, deleting SCN9A in both sensory and sympathetic neurons abolishes these pain sensations and recapitulates the pain-free phenotype seen in humans with SCN9A loss-of-function mutations. These observations demonstrate an important role for Nav1.7 in sympathetic neurons in neuropathic pain, and provide possible insights into the mechanisms that underlie gain-of-function Nav1.7-dependent pain conditions.

  3. Requirement for Dicer in Maintenance of Monosynaptic Sensory-Motor Circuits in the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Fumiyasu; Chen, Xiaoting; Weirauch, Matthew T; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2016-11-22

    In contrast to our knowledge of mechanisms governing circuit formation, our understanding of how neural circuits are maintained is limited. Here, we show that Dicer, an RNaseIII protein required for processing microRNAs (miRNAs), is essential for maintenance of the spinal monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit in which group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons form direct connections with motor neurons. In postnatal mice lacking Dicer in proprioceptor sensory neurons, there are no obvious defects in specificity or formation of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections. However, these circuits degrade through synapse loss and retraction of proprioceptive axonal projections from the ventral spinal cord. Peripheral terminals are also impaired without retracting from muscle targets. Interestingly, despite these central and peripheral axonal defects, proprioceptive neurons survive in the absence of Dicer-processed miRNAs. These findings reveal that Dicer, through its production of mature miRNAs, plays a key role in the maintenance of monosynaptic sensory-motor circuits.

  4. The use of sensory action potential to evaluate inferior alveolar nerve damage after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Francesca; Sellek, Lucy; Gugole, Fabio; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Trevisol, Lorenzo; Bertolasi, Laura; D'Agostino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    To assess and monitor the common event of neurosensory disturbance to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, we used clinical sensory tests and neurophysiologic test sensory action potentials. The diagnostic value of these tests was evaluated by comparing them with the degree of nerve damage reported by patients. Fourteen patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were analyzed preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Patients were evaluated bilaterally for positive and negative symptoms: light touch sensation, paraesthesia, hyperesthesia, and dysaesthesia; a "sensation score" was then calculated for each patient. Patients were also asked if they would be willing to repeat the procedure knowing the sensation loss they had now. Next, the right and left IAN were evaluated using sensory action potential and correlated with the other results. Before surgery, the medium latency difference between left and right was lower compared with postsurgery, with all patients having some deficit. The reduction in medium amplitude of 67% after the intervention was statistically significant. The frequency of abnormal findings in the electrophysiologic tests indicating IAN injury correlated with subjective sensory alteration. All patients said that they would repeat the surgery. Electrophysiologic testing is recommended for the evaluation of nerve dysfunction and seems a sensitive method for accurately assessing postsurgical nerve conduction.

  5. Reading performance and central field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanonidou, E

    2011-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in Europe and the U.S. and a leading cause of significant loss of visual acuity in elderly patients. Reading is a key visual task in everyday living involving a synthesis of a number of different motor, sensory and cognitive functions. When the centre of a reader's visual field is obscured, reading speed declines and oculomotor pattern differs, compared to normal reading. Improvement in the generation of visual stimuli using computer-generated images and projection/display systems as well as advances in eye movement recording techniques, including infrared pupil tracking and magnetic search coils, have contributed greatly to our understanding of these sensorimotor abnormalities. The developed reading strategies have been thoroughly investigated in individuals with central field loss either induced artificially or related to eye pathology.The following review aims at presenting the contemporary literature regarding the sensory and oculomotor deficits in reading ability, resulting from central field loss and should contribute to a greater understanding of the functional visual deficit caused by this visual impairment.

  6. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound the...

  7. Theoretical study of the dual harmonic system and its application on the CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Yao-Shuo; Xu, Shou-Yan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The dual harmonic system has been widely used in high intensity proton synchrotrons to suppress the space charge effect, as well as reduce the beam loss. To investigate the longitudinal beam dynamics in the dual rf system, the potential well, the sub-buckets in the bunch and the multi-solutions of the phase equation have been studied theoretically. Based on these theoretical studis, the optimization of bunching factor and rf voltage waveform are made for the dual harmonic rf system in the upgrade phase of the CSNS/RCS. In the optimization process, the simulation with space charge effect is done by using a newly developed code C-SCSIM.

  8. Dual-Band Terahertz Left-Handed Metamaterial with Fishnet Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiu-Jiao; LIU Jin-Song; WANG Ke-Jia; YI Xu-Nong; YANG Hong-Wu

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of a dual-band left-handed metamaterial with fishnet structure in the terahertz regime. Its left-handed properties are described by the retrieved effective electromagnetic parameters. We introduce an equivalent circuit which offers a theoretical explanation for the left-handed behavior of the dual-band fishnet metamaterial, and investigate its losses receiving higher figure of merit. The design is beneficial to the development of frequency agile and broadband THz materials and devices. The dual-band fishnet metamaterial can be extended to infrared and optical frequency ranges by regulating the structural parameters.

  9. Effect of low dose irradiation on the microbial and sensory characteristics of fresh pork loins. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.G.; Rust, R.E.; Kraft, A.A.; Walker, H.W.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packed pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4/sup 0/C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Effect of ageing time in vacuum package on veal longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris physical and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study evaluated the effects of vacuum ageing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 days on veal loin (longissimus dorsi; LD and silverside (biceps femoris; BF physical and sensory characteristics. Ageing did not affect cooking loss, increased LD pH and L*, a* and b* in both muscles. Shear force (SF decreased until day 6 in LD and day 10 in BF. Aroma, flavor and taste were not affected, while texturetraits were improved. SF was negative correlated with tenderness and juiciness and positive correlated with BF fibrousness and stringy sensation. Ageing improved texture properties withoutaltering other sensory traits.

  11. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We reveal a hierarchy of sensing modes (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing, and echolocation) where body size determines the available battery of sensing modes and where larger body size means...... a longer sensing range. The size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We characterize the governing mechanisms and theoretically...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  12. Overlapping Structures in Sensory-Motor Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots. PMID:24392118

  13. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presman, Benjamin; Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven Robert

    2015-01-01

    University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. RESULTS: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire......%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin....... Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88...

  14. Drawings between Sensory Appeal and Cultural Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    contribute to the development of drawing and art activity as a transformative learning method for psycho-social intervention for all age groups. Children’s drawings present sensory information about children’s engagements, experiences and perceptual interactions with their world (Fink-Jensen & Nielsen 2000...... of social interaction in the everyday life including gendered visual symbolic connotations and a realm of existential expressions of the individual including gendered symbolic connotations (Nielsen 1993, 1994). Sensory appeal and attunement A phenomenological approach with the concepts of ‘appeal...... of drawings as data in empirical research and to reflect upon opportunities for aesthetic learning processes in psycho-social intervention from a socio-cultural participatory perspective. The paper present results from empirical research in gendered characteristics in children’s drawings and discusses...

  15. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André

    2015-09-22

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Subtle Sensory Abnormalities Detected by Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta; Rasche, Dirk; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Rolko, Claudia; Yilmaz, Pinar; Ruppolt, Marc; Capelle, H Holger; Tronnier, Volker; Krauss, Joachim K

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls. Observational study. University Hospital, Departments of Neurosurgery, Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. QST was conducted on 48 patients with idiopathic TN and 27 controls matched for age and gender using the standardized protocol of the German Neuropathic Pain Network. Stimulations were performed bilaterally in the distribution of the trigeminal branches. The patients had no prior invasive treatment, and medications at the time of examination were noted. In patients with TN deficits in warm and cold sensory detection thresholds in the affected and also the non-affected nerve branches were found. Tactile sensation thresholds were elevated in the involved nerve branches compared to the contralateral side. More data are needed on the correlation of such findings with the length of history of TN and with changes of the morphology of the trigeminal nerve. QST shows subtle sensory abnormalities in patients with TN despite not being detected in routine clinical examination. Our data may provide a basis for further research on the development of TN and also on improvement after treatment. Quantitative sensory testing, trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, neuropathic pain, microvascular decompression, cranial nerve.

  17. Sensory deprivation disrupts homeostatic regeneration of newly generated olfactory sensory neurons after injury in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagayama, Shin; Kanaya, Kaori; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-11

    Although it is well known that injury induces the generation of a substantial number of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the adult olfactory epithelium (OE), it is not well understood whether olfactory sensory input influences the survival and maturation of these injury-induced OSNs in adults. Here, we investigated whether olfactory sensory deprivation affected the dynamic incorporation of newly generated OSNs 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after injury in adult mice. Mice were unilaterally deprived of olfactory sensory input by inserting a silicone tube into their nostrils. Methimazole, an olfactotoxic drug, was also injected intraperitoneally to bilaterally ablate OSNs. The OE was restored to its preinjury condition with new OSNs by day 28. No significant differences in the numbers of olfactory marker protein-positive mature OSNs or apoptotic OSNs were observed between the deprived and nondeprived sides 0-7 d after injury. However, between days 7 and 28, the sensory-deprived side showed markedly fewer OSNs and mature OSNs, but more apoptotic OSNs, than the nondeprived side. Intrinsic functional imaging of the dorsal surface of the olfactory bulb at day 28 revealed that responses to odor stimulation were weaker in the deprived side compared with those in the nondeprived side. Furthermore, prevention of cell death in new neurons 7-14 d after injury promoted the recovery of the OE. These results indicate that, in the adult OE, sensory deprivation disrupts compensatory OSN regeneration after injury and that newly generated OSNs have a critical time window for sensory-input-dependent survival 7-14 d after injury.

  18. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  19. The role of sensory cortex in behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Ponvert, Nicholas D; Jaramillo, Santiago

    2017-03-14

    To thrive in a changing environment, organisms evolved strategies for rapidly modifying their behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. In this review, we investigate the role of sensory cortical circuits in these flexible behaviors. First, we provide a framework for classifying tasks in which flexibility is required. We then present studies in animal models which demonstrate that responses of sensory cortical neurons depend on the expected outcome associated with a stimulus. Last, we discuss inactivation studies which indicate that sensory cortex facilitates behavioral flexibility, but is not always required for adapting to changes in environmental conditions. This analysis provides insights into the contributions of cortical and subcortical sensory circuits to flexibility in behavior.

  20. Sensory evaluation of rice fortified with iron

    OpenAIRE

    Beinner,Mark Anthony; Soares,Anne Danieli Nascimento; Barros,Ana Laura Antunes; Monteiro,Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sensory differences between conventional rice and iron-fortified Ultra Rice rice (UR) and determine consumer acceptance. Differences between both types of rice were analyzed using the Duo-Trio Test on 37 non-trained judges. The Acceptance Test evaluated general rice appearance, color, aroma and taste by 43 non-trained judges, using a 7-point hedonic scale with extremes ranging from "really disliked" and "really liked." There were no significant diffe...

  1. Modeling diabetic sensory neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Nigel A

    2004-01-01

    The procedures to induce insulin-deficient diabetes in rats using streptozotocin are described along with a number of insulin treatment regimes that can be used to maintain these animals at different degrees of glycemia for periods of weeks to months. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats develop tactile allodynia, hyperalgesia following paw formalin injection and abnormal responses to thermal stimulation and the detailed methods used to evaluate these behavioral indices of abnormal sensory function are provided.

  2. Pure Sensory Stroke due to Lenticulocapsular Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益阶; 王国瑾; 潘松青

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pure sensory stroke (PSS) caused by lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage is rare. In this article, we re-ported 4 patients with PSS due to lenticulocapsularhemorrhage, including 3 men and 1 woman (mean age,58 years; range, 54 to 65 years), whose lesions couldbe identified by head computed tomographic (CT)scan and clinical findings correlated with the radio-logical lesions. All patients except 1 had hyperten-sion.

  3. Origins of the sensory examination in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Cassiopeia; Okun, Michael S

    2002-12-01

    Formal testing of sensation as part of the neurological examination followed the improvements in examination techniques as well as advances in neuroscience. By the 1890s, the observation that temperature sense was frequently impaired at the same time that pain was appreciated led to the supposition that the two paths traveled closely. Through the works of Brown-Séquard and Edinger the existence of a crossed afferent tract was verified. The distinction between two sensory pathways was clear by 1898, when van Gehuchten reported a case of syringomyelia and suggested that the pain and temperature fibers were carried anterolaterally and the position sense fibers carried posteriorly in the spinal cord. Many authors describing patients with tabes dorsalis suspected the posterior columns of the spinal cord played a key role in position sense. It is difficult to determine in the 19th century who first employed the use of movements of joints as a test for proprioceptive function; however, Bell in 1826 recognized what he termed a sixth sense, which later was characterized as proprioceptive function. Goldscheider went on to report the degrees of movement that were considered normal for each joint. Although vibratory sense had been described by Cardano and Ingrassia in the 16th century and tests had been developed by Rinne and Rumpf by the 19th century, it was not until 1903 that Rydel and Seiffer found that vibratory sense and proprioceptive sense were closely related and that both senses were carried in the posterior columns of the spinal cord. By 1955, the sensory examination included tests for light-touch, superficial pain, temperature, position sense, vibration, muscle (deep pain), and two-point discrimination. Tests for these sensibilities still remain in use. We will review the origins of the understanding of sensation, which ultimately led to the development of the sensory examination. We will highlight individuals who made important discoveries and observations, as

  4. Acupuncture, connective tissue, and peripheral sensory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Helene M

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable controversy surrounds the legitimacy of acupuncture as a treatment, a growing literature on the physiological effects of acupuncture needling in animals and humans is providing new insights into basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and purinergic signaling. This review summarizes these findings and proposes a model combining connective tissue plasticity and peripheral sensory modulation in response to the sustained stretching of tissue that results from acupuncture needle manipulation.

  5. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Ofélia; Frazão, David; Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-01-01

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, tota...

  6. Sensory neuropathy with low-dose pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, G J; Bredesen, D E

    1985-10-01

    We describe 16 patients with neuropathy associated with pyridoxine abuse. The clinical picture of a pure sensory central-peripheral distal axonopathy was consistent. Pyridoxine dose was 0.2 to 5 g/d, and duration of consumption before symptoms was inversely proportional to the daily intake. In all patients with adequate follow-up, improvement followed discontinuation of pyridoxine. The ready availability of up to 1-gram tablets makes it likely that this neuropathy will continue to be seen.

  7. Lp-dual Quermassintegral sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we first introduce a concept of L_p-dual Quermassintegral sum function of convex bodies and establish the polar projection Minkowski inequality and the polar projection Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for L_p-dual Quermassintegral sums.Moreover,by using Lutwak’s width-integral of index i,we establish the L_p-Brunn-Minkowski inequality for the polar mixed projec- tion bodies.As applications,we prove some interrelated results.

  8. Dual pairs in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Balmaz, François

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a rigorous study of the dual pair structure of the ideal fluid and the dual pair structure for the $n$-dimensional Camassa-Holm (EPDiff) equation, including the proofs of the necessary transitivity results. In the case of the ideal fluid, we show that a careful definition of the momentum maps leads naturally to central extensions of diffeomorphism groups such as the group of quantomorphisms and the Ismagilov central extension.

  9. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ragavi; G. Geetha

    2013-01-01

    The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS) attack.

  10. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  11. Sensory brain areas in mesopelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H J

    2001-03-01

    Four areas of the brain that receive primary projections from chemical senses ([1] olfactory bulb, [2] facial and vagal lobes), the eye ([3] optic tectum), and somato- and mechanosensory systems such as the lateral line, vestibular and auditory systems ([4] trigeminal and octavolateral regions) have been studied and relative size differences used to deduce the sensory specializations of 67 species of mesopelagic fishes. One type of analysis used the average relative volumes of brain areas and identified 'specialists' with only one brain area above-average (36%), species 'dominated' by two sensory brain regions (49%), and generalists (15%), with three areas above-average. In addition, a cluster analysis was performed that separated 49 species which were mostly visually oriented from 18 non-visual species, among which 16 were characterized by an association of above-average trigeminal/octavolateral and gustatory areas, and a single species with a dominant olfactory bulb. The results support the idea that these species occupy a rich sensory environment for which the absence of sunlight is compensated by chemical and mechanosensory stimuli as well as by bioluminescent signals. This has lead to the development of specializations for the perception of single stimulus-modes, most notably for the visual system, as well as for combinations of various receptors and central processing areas, with a preference for associating either the chemical senses, including the olfactory and facial/vagal systems, or the trigeminal/octavolateral systems.

  12. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS,to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling. Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated excitatory and inhibitory stimulation.Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronalsynchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, ourresults indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindlingcan even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  13. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  14. Fast dual tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  15. Fast dual tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA - Campus Universitario da Federacao, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects bad data which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model. In this paper, the author derives basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  16. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  17. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  18. 50 MHz dual-mode buck DC—DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Xing, Wang; Wencheng, Yu; Ye, Tan; Yizhong, Yang; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-08-01

    A 50 MHz 1.8/0.9 V dual-mode buck DC—DC converter is proposed in this paper. A dual-mode control for high-frequency DC—DC converter is presented to enhance the conversion efficiency of light-load in this paper. A novel zero-crossing detector is proposed to shut down synchronous rectification transistor NMOS when the inductor crosses zero, which can decrease the power loss caused by reverse current and the trip point is adjusted by regulating IBIAS (BIAS current). A new logic control for pulse-skipping modulation loop is also presented in this paper, which has advantages of simple structure and low power loss. The proposed converter is realized in SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed signal CMOS process. With switching loss, conduction loss and reverse current related loss optimized, an efficiency of 57% is maintained at 10 mA, and a peak efficiency of 71% is measured at nominal operating conditions with a voltage conversion of 1.8 to 0.9 V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Material and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, CAS (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  19. Changes in Wine Ethanol Content Due to Evaporation from Wine Glasses and Implications for Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, David; Pham, Duc-Truc; Wilkinson, Kerry Leigh

    2016-10-12

    The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence the perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions while in wine glasses was monitored over time. No change in wine ethanol content was observed where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but where glasses were not covered, evaporation had a significant impact on wine ethanol content, with losses from 0.9 to 1.9% alcohol by volume observed for wines that received direct exposure to airflow for 2 h. Evaporation also resulted in decreases in the concentration of some fermentation volatiles (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and a perceptible change in wine aroma. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by exposure to airflow (i.e., from the laboratory air-conditioning unit), together with certain glass shape and wine parameters; glass headspace in particular. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant potential for ethanol evaporation from wine in wine glasses. Research findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties; in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice.

  20. What's Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches What's Hearing Loss? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Hearing Loss? Print A ... brain, allowing you to hear. continue Types of Hearing Loss There are a few different types of hearing ...

  1. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as many ...

  2. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  3. Parents grieving the loss of their child : interdependence in coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Dijkstra, Iris

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal study was conducted among bereaved parents, to examine the relationship between parents' own and their partners' ways of coping in terms of the constructs loss-orientation and restoration-orientation (coping strategies based on the bereavement-specific Dual Process Model (

  4. What is Sensory about Multi-Sensory Enhancement of Vision by Sounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pérez-Bellido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Can auditory input influence the sensory processing of visual information? Many studies have reported cross-modal enhancement in visual tasks, but the nature of such gain is still unclear. Some authors argue for ‘high-order’ expectancy or attention effects, whereas others propose ‘low-order’ stimulus-driven multisensory integration. The present study applies a psychophysical analysis of reaction time distributions in order to disentangle sensory changes from other kind of high-order (not sensory-specific effects. Observers performed a speeded simple detection task on Gabor patches of different spatial frequencies and contrasts, with and without accompanying sounds. The data were adjusted using chronometric functions in order to separate changes is sensory evidence from changes in decision or motor times. The results supported the existence of a stimulus unspecific auditory-induced enhancement in RTs across all types of visual stimuli, probably mediated by higher-order effects (eg, reduction of temporal uncertainty. Critically, we also singled out a sensory gain that was selective to low spatial frequency stimuli, highlighting the role of the magno-cellular visual pathway in multisensory integration for fast detection. The present findings help clarify previous mixed findings in the area, and introduce a novel form to evaluate cross-modal enhancement.

  5. Evolution of a polymodal sensory response network

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    Sternberg Paul W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other stimuli require a unimodal sensory neuron, which senses a single stimulus. Polymodality might have evolved to help animals quickly detect and respond to diverse noxious stimuli. Nematodes inhabit diverse habitats and most nematode nervous systems are composed of a small number of neurons, despite a wide assortment in nematode sizes. Given this observation, we speculated that cellular contribution to stereotyped avoidance behaviors would also be conserved between nematode species. The ASH neuron mediates avoidance of three classes of noxious stimuli in Caenorhabditis elegans. Two species of parasitic nematodes also utilize the ASH neuron to avoid certain stimuli. We wanted to extend our knowledge of avoidance behaviors by comparing multiple stimuli in a set of free-living nematode species. Results We used comparative behavioral analysis and laser microsurgery to examine three avoidance behaviors in six diverse species of free-living nematodes. We found that all species tested exhibit avoidance of chemo-, mechano- and osmosensory stimuli. In C. elegans, the bilaterally symmetric polymodal ASH neurons detect all three classes of repellant. We identified the putative ASH neurons in different nematode species by their anatomical positions and showed that in all six species ablation of the ASH neurons resulted in an inability to avoid noxious stimuli. However, in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the ADL neuron in addition to the ASH neuron contributed to osmosensation. In the species Caenorhabditis sp. 3, only the ASH neuron was required to mediate nose touch avoidance instead of three neurons in C. elegans. These data suggest that different species can increase or decrease the contribution of additional, non-ASH sensory

  6. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  8. Pyridoxine megavitaminosis produces degeneration of peripheral sensory neurons (sensory neuronopathy) in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinke, G; Schaumburg, H H; Spencer, P S; Suter, J; Thomann, P; Hess, R

    1981-01-01

    Pyridoxine, a water-soluble vitamin, produces a sensory neuronopathy when administered in high doses to dogs. Beagles who received a daily oral dose of 300 mg/kg of pyridoxol hydrochloride developed a swaying gait within 9 days. They eventually became unable to walk, but were not weak. Animals were sacrificed at intervals up to 78 days. Morphological examination revealed widespread neuronal degeneration in the dorsal root ganglia and the Gasserian ganglia. Cytoplasmic changes were first observed after 8 days and consisted of small, electronlucent vacuoles that subsequently coalesced leading to death of the cells. Degeneration of sensory nerve fibers in peripheral nerves, dorsal columns of the spinal cord and the descending spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve was apparent. The pathogenesis of these changes is unclear, but may, in part, reflect the selective permeability of blood vessels in the peripheral ganglia. It is apparent that the peripheral neuropathy previously attributed to pyridoxine actually represents a toxic, peripheral sensory neuronopathy.

  9. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  10. Recent advances in the genetics of hereditary axonal sensory-motor neuropathies type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Teepu

    2011-06-01

    Hereditary axonal motor and sensory neuropathies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) are characterized clinically by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and foot deformities. Conduction velocities are usually in the normal range or mildly slowed. The majority of CMT2 are autosomal-dominant but autosomal-recessive forms have been described. The number of genes associated with CMT2 have significantly increased in the past decade, with the gene causing CMT2C/SPSMA being the last one discovered. More than 10 genes are now associated with different subtypes of CMT2, which are classified from CMT2A to CMT2N. These genes have distinct functions, but some appear to be involved in common biological pathways, therefore, providing important clues for understanding the pathogenic mechanism of these heterogeneous disorders.

  11. An optimal state estimation model of sensory integration in human postural balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Arthur D.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a model for human postural balance, combining state feedback control with optimal state estimation. State estimation uses an internal model of body and sensor dynamics to process sensor information and determine body orientation. Three sensory modalities are modeled: joint proprioception, vestibular organs in the inner ear, and vision. These are mated with a two degree-of-freedom model of body dynamics in the sagittal plane. Linear quadratic optimal control is used to design state feedback and estimation gains. Nine free parameters define the control objective and the signal-to-noise ratios of the sensors. The model predicts statistical properties of human sway in terms of covariance of ankle and hip motion. These predictions are compared with normal human responses to alterations in sensory conditions. With a single parameter set, the model successfully reproduces the general nature of postural motion as a function of sensory environment. Parameter variations reveal that the model is highly robust under normal sensory conditions, but not when two or more sensors are inaccurate. This behavior is similar to that of normal human subjects. We propose that age-related sensory changes may be modeled with decreased signal-to-noise ratios, and compare the model's behavior with degraded sensors against experimental measurements from older adults. We also examine removal of the model's vestibular sense, which leads to instability similar to that observed in bilateral vestibular loss subjects. The model may be useful for predicting which sensors are most critical for balance, and how much they can deteriorate before posture becomes unstable.

  12. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  13. Microbiological and sensorial quality assessment of ready-to-cook seafood products packaged under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, B; Corbo, M R; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2009-01-01

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (30:40:30 O(2):CO(2):N(2) and 5:95 O(2):CO(2)) on the quality of 4 ready-to-cook seafood products were studied. In particular, the investigation was carried out on hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, chub mackerel fillets, and entire eviscerated cuttlefish. Quality assessment was based on microbiological and sensorial indices determination. Both packaging gas mixtures contributed to a considerable slowing down of the microbial and sensorial quality loss of the investigated seafood products. Results showed that sensorial quality was the subindex that limited their shelf life. In fact, based primarily on microbiological results, samples under MAP remained acceptable up to the end of storage (that is, 14 d), regardless of fish specie. On the other hand, results from sensory analyses showed that chub mackerel fillets in MAP were acceptable up to the 6th storage d, whilst hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, and entire cuttlefish became unacceptable after 10 to 11 d. However, compared to control samples, an increase in the sensorial shelf life of MAP samples (ranging from about 95% to 250%) was always recorded. Practical Application: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is an inexpensive and uncomplicated method of extending shelf life of packed seafood. It could gain great attention from the fish industrial sector due to the fact that MAP is a practical and economic technique, realizable by small technical expedients. Moreover, there is great attention from the food industry and retailers to react to the growing demand for convenience food, thus promoting an increase in the assortments of ready-to-cook seafood products.

  14. Hierarchical sparse coding in the sensory system of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Liani, Idan; Shtangel, Oshrat; Ginzburg, Shira; Yee, Lisa; Sternberg, Paul W

    2015-01-27

    Animals with compact sensory systems face an encoding problem where a small number of sensory neurons are required to encode information about its surrounding complex environment. Using Caenorhabditis elegans worms as a model, we ask how chemical stimuli are encoded by a small and highly connected sensory system. We first generated a comprehensive library of transgenic worms where each animal expresses a genetically encoded calcium indicator in individual sensory neurons. This library includes the vast majority of the sensory system in C. elegans. Imaging from individual sensory neurons while subjecting the worms to various stimuli allowed us to compile a comprehensive functional map of the sensory system at single neuron resolution. The functional map reveals that despite the dense wiring, chemosensory neurons represent the environment using sparse codes. Moreover, although anatomically closely connected, chemo- and mechano-sensory neurons are functionally segregated. In addition, the code is hierarchical, where few neurons participate in encoding multiple cues, whereas other sensory neurons are stimulus specific. This encoding strategy may have evolved to mitigate the constraints of a compact sensory system.

  15. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children. Aim This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation) and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems. Method Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation) or with prematurity as a risk factor. Results Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies. Conclusions Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems. PMID:28182680

  16. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  17. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  18. Effect of Different Sanitizers on Microbial, Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Jalapeno Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ruiz-Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sanitation is a critical step to insure safety of fresh-cut produce. The inadequacies of chlorine, currently used as a sanitizer, have stimulated interest in finding safer, more effective sanitizers, however little is known on the impact of these novel sanitizers on sensory and nutrimental quality of the treated products. Approach: The effect of four sanitizers: Sodium hypochlorite (OCl, Peroxiacetic Acid (PA, Acidified Sodium Chlorite (ASC and carvacrol on microbiological, sensorial and nutritional quality (total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers stored at 5°C during 27 days was evaluated. Results: All sanitizers (except carvacrol maintained microbiological and overall quality of jalapeno peppers during 27 days. ASC (500 and 250 mg L-1 maintained the best microbiological and sensorial properties at the end of the storage period. Carvacrol, active ingredient of oregano essential oil, maintained shelf life for only 17 days. At the end of the storage period, all treatments showed a decrease of 12-43% respect to the initial vitamin C values. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity decreased in a lesser degree. None of the treatments except ACS 500 mg L-1, induced higher losses of vitamin C, total phenols or antioxidant capacity compared to control. Conclusion: Our results showed that all sanitizers were capable of controlling microbial growth without inducing major loss of antioxidant capacity and photochemical. Carvacrol was the only sanitizer that reduced sensory acceptability of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers, however carvacrol treated samples retained the highest levels of photochemical and antioxidant capacity. ASC was the most effective sanitizer even though it was used at concentrations lower that those currently approved by the FDA.

  19. Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb

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    Man C Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB. Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss.

  20. Is sensory processing an issue for infants with colic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Tracy; Frederiksen, Nadine; Hill, Rebecca J

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association between sensory functioning, sleep, cry/fuss, and feeding behaviors of infants with colic younger than 4 months of age. Dunn's Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile™ and a modified Barr Baby Day Diary(©) were used to assess 44 breastfed infants with colic under four months of age. Colic was defined according to Wessel's criteria. Thirty-four of the 44 infants with colic (77%) scored as atypical for sensory processing. Of these, 56% scored atypical for sensory processing on quadrant one (Q1) (Low Registration), with 24%, 65%, and 18% scoring as atypical for sensory processing on Q2 (Sensory seeking), Q3 (Sensory sensitivity), and Q4 (Sensation avoiding), respectively. All infants demonstrating sensation avoiding also scored as Low Threshold. A moderate statistically significant correlation was found between sensation seeking and time spent sleeping (r=0.31; p=0.04). No other statistically significant associations between infant behaviors and their sensory functioning were demonstrated. Overall, infants demonstrating atypical sensory responses (in any quadrant) slept significantly more than infants demonstrating typical sensory responses (mean difference=-67.8min/day; 95% CI=-133.6 to -2.1; p=0.04). Very limited associations between infant behaviors and sensory functioning were demonstrated, suggesting that sensory functioning may not be a significant factor in the multifactorial nature of infant colic. Further well-designed studies using validated tools for infants with colic are required to determine whether associations between infant behaviors and sensory functioning exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    parameters in the extremities in patients with CRPS. The primary limitations of this study would be the variability of self-reported data (each subject's assessment of pain/ discomfort to a tested parameter) and the challenge to uniformly administer each parameter's assessment since simple tools and not precision instruments were used (with the exception of skin temperature). TBP and objective sensory loss occur in 20% of patients with refractory long-standing CRPS.

  2. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ala I Sharara; Hamza Daroub; Camille Georges; Rani Shayto; Ralph Nader; Jean Chalhoub; Ammar Olabi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations.METHODS: Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution(PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid(PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate(SPS), and oral sodium sulfate(OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted(n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand? sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing(n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right(JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products.RESULTS: Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes(P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showedsignificant differences between the various samples(P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel(P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results.CONCLUSION: Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions.

  3. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWhyatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely characterised as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2 to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with hyperdexterity witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardised assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being secondary level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential route of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  4. Sensory-motor problems in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with "hyperdexterity" witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being "secondary" level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  5. Comparing gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, A Peter; Larsen, Jeff T; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David

    2010-10-01

    Loss aversion in choice is commonly assumed to arise from the anticipation that losses have a greater effect on feelings than gains, but evidence for this assumption in research on judged feelings is mixed. We argue that loss aversion is present in judged feelings when people compare gains and losses and assess them on a common scale. But many situations in which people judge and express their feelings lack these features. When judging their feelings about an outcome, people naturally consider a context of similar outcomes for comparison (e.g., they consider losses against other losses). This process permits gains and losses to be normed separately and produces psychological scale units that may not be the same in size or meaning for gains and losses. Our experiments show loss aversion in judged feelings for tasks that encourage gain-loss comparisons, but not tasks that discourage them, particularly those using bipolar scales.

  6. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC ...

  7. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  8. Dermatomal sensory manifestations in lateral medullary infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yasutaka; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Ryota; Hattori, Nobutaka; Urabe, Takao

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man who experienced a sudden onset of unstable gait followed by nuchal pain was admitted to our department. The neurologic examination revealed right-sided limb ataxia, right partial ptosis, and decreased sensation to 50% of the normal side to pinprick and temperature stimuli on the left side below the level of the T-6 dermatome. A lateral medullary infarction caused by spontaneous vertebral artery dissection was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography angiography. In conclusion, lateral medullary infarction is an important entity to consider in the differential diagnosis of dermatomal sensory manifestations.

  9. Surgical Results in Cases of Sensory Strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfle Yeflim Oral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine horizontal deviation type and to evaluate the correlation between deviation type/etiology and surgical results for sensory strabismus. Patients and Methods: The reports of 29 patients operated for sensory strabismus (12 female, 17 male whose mean age was 22.17±11.52 (range: 4-57 years were evaluated retrospectively. Sixteen cases (55.2% had exotropia (XT and 13 cases (44.8% had esotropia (ET. Etiologies, ages during surgeries, and preoperative/postoperative deviation amounts were noted for the total of the patients as well as for ET and XT groups separately. The results for ET and XT groups were compared statistically using t test. The mean follow-up time was 4.27±3.5 years (range: 4 months-12 years and deviation in ±10 prism diopters (PD in the last visit was considered as success. Results: Etiologies in all cases examined were as follows: anisometropia in 13 (44.8%, trauma in 10 (34.5%, congenital cataracts in 2, and congenital glaucoma, keratoconus, choroidal coloboma, and hypoplastic optic disc in one case each. The visual acuity of the squinting eyes ranged from no light perception to 0.8 logMAR. The mean preoperative deviation was 46.24±19.29 PD, and the mean postoperative deviation decreased to 9.55±11.86 PD in the last visit. When the ET and XT groups were compared, the congenital causes were more common in the ET group (30.75% compared to the XT group (6.25%, otherwise, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of mean age, preoperative and postoperative deviation amounts and follow-up time between the two groups (p>0.05. In contrast, while the surgical success rate was found to be 75.9 % for all cases and 87.5% for the XT group, it was 61.5% for the ET group. Discussion: Despite the deep amblyopia in sensory strabismus, satisfactory surgical results are achieved; nevertheless, the success may be more limited in sensory esotropia particularly due to congenital causes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011

  10. Enhanced efficacy and sensory properties of an anti-dandruff shampoo containing zinc pyrithione and climbazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G A; Matheson, J R; Li, G-Z; Fei, X-Q; Zhu, D; Baines, F L

    2013-02-01

    Dandruff is a common complaint and is suffered by as much as half of the population at some time post puberty. The condition is characterized by the presence of flakes on the scalp and in the hair, and is often accompanied by itch. The most common treatment for dandruff is the use of shampoo formulations that contain fungistatic agents such as zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and octopirox. Whilst most antidandruff shampoos are effective in resolving the symptoms of dandruff these shampoos can often result in hair condition that is less than acceptable to consumers which can lead to a tendency for them to revert to use of a non-antidandruff shampoo. This can result in a rapid return of dandruff symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to study the impact of using a combination of antidandruff actives and silicones on the resolution of dandruff and to deliver superior sensory properties to the hair. We have demonstrated that shampoo containing the dual active system of ZPT/Climbazole deposits both active agents onto a model skin surface (VitroSkin) and reduces Malassezia furfur regrowth in vitro. Clinical evaluation of the dual active shampoo demonstrated superior efficacy and retained superiority during a regression phase where all subjects reverted to using a non-antidandruff shampoo. We have also demonstrated that it is possible to deposit silicone materials from antidandruff shampoo uniformly over both virgin and damaged hair fibres that results in smoother hair fibres (as evidenced by reduced dry friction). This combination of antidandruff agents and conditioning silicones delivered from a shampoo provides subjects with superior antidandruff efficacy and desired end sensory benefits ensuring compliance and longer term dandruff removal. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  12. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  13. Just do it: action-dependent learning allows sensory prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Novick

    Full Text Available Sensory-motor learning is commonly considered as a mapping process, whereby sensory information is transformed into the motor commands that drive actions. However, this directional mapping, from inputs to outputs, is part of a loop; sensory stimuli cause actions and vice versa. Here, we explore whether actions affect the understanding of the sensory input that they cause. Using a visuo-motor task in humans, we demonstrate two types of learning-related behavioral effects. Stimulus-dependent effects reflect stimulus-response learning, while action-dependent effects reflect a distinct learning component, allowing the brain to predict the forthcoming sensory outcome of actions. Together, the stimulus-dependent and the action-dependent learning components allow the brain to construct a complete internal representation of the sensory-motor loop.

  14. Breach of sensory integration in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziyevska Mariya.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the first moments of life, the child acquires the experience of being in the world around him through the senses such as touch, balance, proprioception, taste, sight, hearing and smell. The development of sensory integration of individual processes helps to effectively carry out every activity and function in society. Changes in the quality and quantity of sensory information may lead to sensory integration disorder child, which is immediately reflected in his behavior. In this paper we have presented information on the levels of sensory integration and testing of samples with a simple touch of activities that can be done without special equipment, both at home and in child care. Dissemination of knowledge about the processes of sensory integration, both among doctors, teachers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and psychology as well as parents can contribute to early diagnosis of problems in children sensory-social development, further impeding the normal functioning of the child in society.

  15. Sensory Responsiveness in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia L; Babb-Keeble, Alison; Westover, Erin Eitzmann; Zhang, Yi; Adams, Claire; Collins, Diane M; Karmarkar, Amol; Reistetter, Timothy A; Constantino, John N

    2016-12-01

    This study examined sensory responsiveness in unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associations between sensory responsiveness and social severity. Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaires and Social Responsiveness Scales were completed by parents of 185 children between age 4 and 10.95 years. Significant differences were found between participants with ASD and controls, and between participants with ASD and unaffected siblings for all sensory quadrants and domains, but not between controls and unaffected siblings. Social responsiveness scores were significantly correlated with scores from most sensory profile categories. Sensory responsiveness as an endophenotype of ASD is not indicated from these findings; however, studies with larger numbers of unaffected siblings and controls are needed to confirm the null hypothesis.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo Zhao; Jens Br(φ)ndum Fr(φ)kjaer; Asbj(φ)rn Mohr Drewes; Niels Ejskjaer

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes,and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed.

  17. Thoracic applications of dual energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy-Jardin, Martine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Pontana, Francois; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Tacelli, Nunzia; Santangelo, Teresa; Remy, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Recent technological advances in multidetector computed tomography (CT) have led to the introduction of dual-source CT, which allows acquisition of CT data at the same energy or at 2 distinct tube voltage settings during a single acquisition. The advantage of the former is improvement of temporal resolution, whereas the latter offers new options for CT imaging, allowing tissue characterization and functional analysis with morphologic evaluation. The most investigated application has been iodine mapping at pulmonary CT angiography. The material decomposition achievable opens up new options for recognizing substances poorly characterized by single-energy CT. Although it is too early to draw definitive conclusions on dual-energy CT applications, this article reviews the results already reported with the first generation of dual-source CT systems.

  18. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) and Frisson: Mindfully Induced Sensory Phenomena That Promote Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Marisa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many important phenomena involved in human functioning that are unnoticed, misunderstood, not applied, or do not pique the interest of the scientific community. Among these, "autonomous sensory meridian response" ("ASMR") and "frisson" are two very noteworthy instances that may prove to be therapeutically…

  19. An Intelligent Approach to Sensory Evaluation:LVQ Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁香乾; 杨宁; 肖协忠

    2004-01-01

    Converting between "fuzzy concept" and "numerical value" in computer aided assessment is rather difficult in many applications. This paper presents a LVQ neural network paradigm for sensory evaluation. This intelligent approach utilizes predefined class information for supervised learning in order to solve the converting problem and keep the fuzziness and imprecision of the whole sensory information. The method is validated by the experiment on stimulation evaluation of cigarette sensory.

  20. Pre-operative pain and sensory function in groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    mechanism. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between pre-operative pain intensity and sensory functions in the groin hernia area. METHODS: Patients with unilateral groin hernia were examined preoperatively by quantitative sensory testing (thermal, mechanical, and pressure [detection and pain thresholds...... pain is not related to findings of hyperalgesia or other changes in sensory function that may support pain-induced pre-operative neuroplasticity as a pathogenic mechanism for the development of persistent postherniotomy pain....

  1. Sensory profile of 'Douradao' peaches cold stored under controlled atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    de Santana, LRR; Benedetti, BC; Sigrist, JMM

    2011-01-01

    The sensory quality of 'Douradao' peaches cold stored in three different conditions of controlled atmosphere (CA1, CA2, CA3 and Control) was studied. After 14, 21 and 28 days of cold storage, samples were withdrawn from CA and kept for 4 days in ambient air for ripening. The sensory profile of the peaches and the descriptive terminology were developed by methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The panelists consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respecti...

  2. Prognostic factors in sensory recovery after digital nerve repair

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Tugrul; Akgun, Ulas; Citlak, Atilla; Aslan, Cihan; Sener, Ufuk; Sener, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The prognostic factors that affect sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair are variable because of nonhomogeneous data, subjective tests, and different assessment/scoring methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair and to investigate the prognostic factors in sensorial healing.Methods: Ninety-six digital nerve repairs of 63 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All nerves were repaired with end-to-end ...

  3. Responsible Effects for Sensory Character of Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    BAŽANTOVÁ, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is literature review on the subject - Responsible Effects for Sensory Character of Meat Products. The introductory part deals with the human sense. Visual sense, smell and taste are of great importance in the sensory evaluation of foods. For meat and meat products to evaluate the sensory characteristic - color, aroma, flavor, consistence, succulence, texture, general appearance and appearance on cut. Various meat products differ in the way of production. According to current legisl...

  4. Visual Perception of ADHD Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the visual perception difference between ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder, and the relationship between sensory processing and visual perception of the children with ADHD. Methods Participants were 47 outpatients, aged 6-8 years, diagnosed with ADHD. After excluding those who met exclusion criteria, 38 subjects were clustered into two groups, ADHD children with and without sensory processing disorder (SPD), us...

  5. Right Sensory Alien Hand Phenomenon from a Left Pontine Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiei, Nastaran; Chang, Gregory Youngnam

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute onset of a sensory alien hand phenomenon has been observed only from a supratentorial lesion involving the non-dominant hand, mostly from a right posterior cerebral artery infarction. A single acute vascular lesion resulting in a dominant hand sensory alien hand syndrome has not been previously documented. Case Report A 78-year old right-handed woman exhibited right sensory alien hand phenomenon from a left pontine hemorrhage. Disturbance of proprioceptive input and visuospat...

  6. Non-supervised sensory-motor agents learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wazlawick, Raul Sidnei; Costa, Antonio Carlos da Rocha

    1996-01-01

    This text discusses a proposal for creation and destruction of neurons based on the sensory-motor activity. This model, called sensory-motor schema, is used to define a sensory-motor agent as a collection of activity schemata. The activity schema permits a useful distribution of neurons in a conceptual space,creating concepts based on action and sensation. Such approach is inspired in the theory of the Swiss psychologist and epistemologist Jean Piaget, and intends to make explicit the account...

  7. Enticing consumers to enter fashion stores : a sensory marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Jeton; Sohani, Armin

    2016-01-01

    During the past years, there has been a re-emergence of sensory marketing in the paradigm of marketing. However, there is a lack of empirical studies done on the subject. Furthermore, the previous literature has focused on whether senses affects, rather than how they affect. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to study how sensory stimuli affects the consumers’ choice of entering physical fashion stores. This thesis is based on sensory marketing, consumer behaviour, and retail marketing...

  8. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  9. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  10. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ragavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS attack.

  11. Nuclearity for Dual Operator Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhe Dong; Jicheng Tao

    2010-02-01

    In this short paper, we study the nuclearity for the dual operator space $V^∗$ of an operator space . We show that $V^∗$ is nuclear if and only if $V^{∗∗∗}$ is injective, where $V^{∗∗∗}$ is the third dual of . This is in striking contrast to the situation for general operator spaces. This result is used to prove that $V^{∗∗}$ is nuclear if and only if is nuclear and $V^{∗∗}$ is exact.

  12. Multi-sensory landscape assessment: the contribution of acoustic perception to landscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yonghong; Luo, Tao; Breitung, Werner; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Tianhai

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R(2 )= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice.

  13. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was also capable of regeneration after cisplatin ototoxicity. Using cell and organ cultures of the chick cochlea and utricle, we found that cisplatin treatment caused apoptosis of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. Hair cell death in the cochlea occurred in a unique pattern, progressing from the low frequency (distal) region toward the high frequency (proximal) region. We also found that cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of cultured supporting cells as well as increased apoptosis in those cells. As a result, we observed no recovery of hair cells after ototoxic injury caused by cisplatin. Finally, we explored the potential for nonmitotic hair cell recovery via activation of Notch pathway signaling. Treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT failed to promote the direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells in cisplatin-treated utricles. Taken together, our data show that cisplatin treatment causes maintained changes to inner ear supporting cells and severely impairs the ability of the avian ear to regenerate either via proliferation or by direct transdifferentiation. PMID:20203207

  14. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  15. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  16. Sensory architectures for biologically inspired autonomous robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C M

    2001-04-01

    Engineers have a lot to gain from studying biology. The study of biological neural systems alone provides numerous examples of computational systems that are far more complex than any man-made system and perform real-time sensory and motor tasks in a manner that humbles the most advanced artificial systems. Despite the evolutionary genesis of these systems and the vast apparent differences between species, there are common design strategies employed by biological systems that span taxa, and engineers would do well to emulate these strategies. However, biologically-inspired computational architectures, which are continuous-time and parallel in nature, do not map well onto conventional processors, which are discrete-time and serial in operation. Rather, an implementation technology that is capable of directly realizing the layered parallel structure and nonlinear elements employed by neurobiology is required for power- and space-efficient implementation. Custom neuromorphic hardware meets these criteria and yields low-power dedicated sensory systems that are small, light, and ideal for autonomous robot applications. As examples of how this technology is applied, this article describes both a low-level neuromorphic hardware emulation of an elementary visual motion detector, and a large-scale, system-level spatial motion integration system.

  17. [Sensory disorders screening in learning disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; de Villèle, A; Sallée, A-S; Delteil-Pinton, F

    2013-01-01

    Inserm French collective expert's report describes sensory disorders screening. However, the causality link with learning disorders remains questionable. In auditory disorders, there are high-level proof recommendations: early and intensive treatment improves language development, at least partially. For visual disorders, consensus conferences recognize their high frequency in learning disorders but there is no proof of a direct causality link. Currently, in learning disorders, orthoptic treatment is not recommended as a specific therapy. In France, despite medical ignorance about orthoptic assessment, absence of reference values and lack of therapy benefits evaluation, orthoptic treatment is usually prescribed, without any objective criteria. This article makes a literature review concerning the link between learning and sensory disorders. It also describes a typical orthoptic assessment with vision and optic musculature evaluation, and reports its results in a prospective comparative study in three populations (controls, dyslexic and Developmental Coordination Disorders [DCD] children). Strabismus or binocular vision disorders are frequent in DCD. Combined ocular motor function is almost constantly disturbed in DCD (90 %), whereas 34 % of dyslexic children and only 13 % of controls are concerned. Visual disorders are therefore present in learning disorders but also in normal population. Orthoptic assessment results must be interpreted in a multidisciplinary evaluation context.

  18. Conflicting sensory relationships. Encounters with allergic people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaetà, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, people employ the term 'allergy' to define various pathological conditions, although the biomedical community lacks a consensus on a definition of the term. It has become a widespread and convenient label for diverse conditions, often going beyond biomedical diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to explore how allergic people narrate their illness experiences, focusing specifically on the relationship between words, senses and bodies. This paper is based on an ethnographic study in a medium-sized north Italian city conducted from 2004 to 2008, starting in a public hospital Allergy Unit, and then developing through snowball recruitment and referral methods. Interviews were conducted with 37 allergic people, four allergologists and four nurses. Allergic people's narratives constantly drew upon two main concepts: weakness and pollution. These are interpreted as sensorial dimensions expressing a conflicting relationship with the outside environment. It is argued that in times of marked individualism and social transformations, bodily states are of fundamental importance and the mobilisation of sensory concepts is an attempt to give order and meaning to a world that is perceived as constituted by threatening aspects, polluted and out of order.

  19. Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisó, Sílvia; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo

    2010-12-01

    Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood-brain barrier. These neurohaemal organs are classified as "sensory", when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This review focuses on the sensory CVOs to describe their unique structure, and their functional roles in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, and in the generation of central acute immune and febrile responses. In doing so, the main neural connections to visceral regulatory centres such as the hypothalamus, the medulla oblongata and the endocrine hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as well as some of the relevant chemical substances involved, are described. The CVOs are vulnerable to circulating pathogens and can be portals for their entry in the brain. This review highlights recent investigations that show that the CVOs and related structures are involved in pathological conditions such as sepsis, stress, trypanosomiasis, autoimmune encephalitis, systemic amyloidosis and prion infections, while detailed information on their role in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis is lacking. It is concluded that studies of the CVOs and related structures may help in the early diagnosis and treatment of such disorders.

  20. Sensory segmentation with coupled neural oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Malsburg, C; Buhmann, J

    1992-01-01

    We present a model of sensory segmentation that is based on the generation and processing of temporal tags in the form of oscillations, as suggested by the Dynamic Link Architecture. The model forms the basis for a natural solution to the sensory segmentation problem. It can deal with multiple segments, can integrate different cues and has the potential for processing hierarchical structures. Temporally tagged segments can easily be utilized in neural systems and form a natural basis for object recognition and learning. The model consists of a "cortical" circuit, an array of units that act as local feature detectors. Units are formulated as neural oscillators. Knowledge relevant to segmentation is encoded by connections. In accord with simple Gestalt laws, our concrete model has intracolumnar connections, between all units with overlapping receptive fields, and intercolumnar connections, between units responding to the same quality in different positions. An inhibitory connection system prevents total correlation and controls the grain of the segmentation. In simulations with synthetic input data we show the performance of the circuit, which produces signal correlation within segments and anticorrelation between segments.