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Sample records for dual sample clearance

  1. Characterisation of foot clearance during gait in people with early Parkinson׳s disease: Deficits associated with a dual task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Lisa; Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-09-06

    Tripping is a common cause of falls in older adults and people with Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Foot clearance during gait may be impaired when distracted by a dual task and thus inform trip risk. This study aimed to evaluate whether foot clearance is impaired in PD and is adversely affected by a dual task. 81 older adults and 76 PD walked at a comfortable pace for two minutes under single and dual task conditions (digit recall). Temporal spatial gait was measured using an instrumented walkway. Heel and toe trajectories were obtained bilaterally using 3-dimensional motion capture. Foot clearance was reduced in PD (pclearance in late swing) and gait velocity (landing gradient). Distinct differences in foot clearance were observed even in the early clinical stages of PD. Dual tasking may increase trip risk due to insufficient toe clearance (early swing) for both older adults and PD. Inadequate heel clearance (late swing) may increase falls risk in PD. Clearance deficits in PD are partially related to a reduced gait velocity and step length which may be targeted in tailored therapies. Further work is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying this pathology-associated deficit.

  2. Comparison of glomerular filtration rates by dynamic renal scintigraphy and dual-plasma sample clearance method in diabetic nephropathy%肾动态显像法与双血浆法测定糖尿病肾病患者GFR的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解朋; 黄建敏; 潘莉萍; 刘晓梅; 魏玲格; 高建青

    2010-01-01

    目的 以双血浆法测得的肾小球滤过率(GFR)为参考标准,评价99Tcm-DTPA肾动态显像法测得的糖尿病肾病患者GFR的可靠性及准确性.方法 选择46例确诊为糖尿病肾病的患者,分别采用肾动态显像法和双血浆法测定其GFR(GFR肾动态法和GFR双血浆法).用配对t检验分析经体表面积标准化(1.73 m-2)的GFR肾动态法与GFR双血浆法间的差异有无统计学意义,并行相关性分析.结果 46例糖尿病肾病患者的GFR肾动态法范围为11.87~107.00 ml·min-1,均值为(51.08±26.78)ml·min-1;GFR双血浆法范围为4.17~118.56ml·min-1,均值为(44.06±29.43)ml·sin-1;两者间差异有统计学意义(t=4.209,P=0.000),前者略高于后者,且两者呈显著正相关(r=0.923,P=0.000),直线回归方程为GFR双血浆法=1.015×GFR肾动态法-7.773(F=254.656,P=0.000).结论 GFR肾动志法与GFR双血浆法的差异有统计学意义,对于糖尿病肾病患者尚不能用GFR肾动态法代替GFR双血浆法;但肾动态显像法能够较准确评价糖尿病肾病患者的肾滤过功能.%Objective To evaluate the accuracy of renal scintigraphy for the estimation of glomerular filtration rates (dGFR) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as compared to the conventional dual-plasma sample clearance method (pscGFR). Methods Forty-six patients with diabetic nephropathy underwent both dynamic renal scintigraphy and dual-plasma sample measurement after 99Tcm-DTPA injection. Paired student t-test and correlation analysis were performed to compare dGFR and pscGFR (normalized to body surface area,1.73 m-2). Results The mean dGFR was higher than mean pscGFR ((51.08±26.78)ml·min-1vs (44.06±29.43)ml·min-1,t=4.209,P=0.000). The dGFR correlated with pscGFR ( r=0.923,P=0.000) linearly (regression equation:pscGFR=1.015×dGFR-7.773,F=254. 656,P=0.000).Conclusions dGFR correlated well with pscGFR. Although it could not absolutely replace the latter in patients with diabetic nephropathy,dGFR could

  3. 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance in severe renal failure determined by one plasma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, S L

    1989-01-01

    at zero-time was derived from injected dose and body surface area. This method might provide values 1.5 ml/min below or 0.8 ml/min above the established method of 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance, which would be acceptable for clinical purposes. It is concluded that exact plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA in severe......Two hundred and thirty-four measurements of standard 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance were made in 50 patients with severe chronic renal failure. Based on these data two calculation methods were attempted using one plasma sample drawn 24 h after injection of 51Cr-EDTA. One of the methods used the 'one...... sample clearance' formulas disregarding exact time of plasma sampling. This method might provide values 3.1 ml/min below or 2.9 ml/min above the established method of total 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance, and would thus provide insufficient agreement. In the other method an estimate of plasma activity...

  4. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in adults: accuracy of five single-sample plasma clearance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Rabøl, A

    1989-01-01

    After an intravenous injection of a tracer that is removed from the body solely by filtration in the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be determined from its plasma clearance. The method requires a great number of blood samples but collection of urine is not needed. In the present...

  5. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in adults: accuracy of five single-sample plasma clearance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Rabøl, A

    1989-01-01

    After an intravenous injection of a tracer that is removed from the body solely by filtration in the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be determined from its plasma clearance. The method requires a great number of blood samples but collection of urine is not needed. In the present......-acetate) was determined simultaneously. Using these clearance values as reference the accuracy of six simplified methods were studied: five single-sample methods and one five-sample method. The standard error of estimate (SEE) of the single-sample methods ranged from 4.2 to 7.5 ml min-1 using EDTA, and from 3.8 to 6.3 ml...... min-1 using DTPA. SEE of the five-samples method was 3.0 ml min-1 (EDTA) and 3.1 ml min-1 (DTPA). The single-sample methods given by Christensen & Groth (1986) and by Tauxe (1986) are recommended for daily use, as SEE was small even at low GFR values. In patients with GFR less than 80 ml min-1...

  6. Dual-Filter Estimation for Rotating-Panel Sample Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A. Roesch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual-filter estimators are described and tested for use in the annual estimation for national forest inventories. The dual-filter approach involves the use of a moving widow estimator in the first pass, which is used as input to Theil’s mixed estimator in the second pass. The moving window and dual-filter estimators are tested along with two other estimators in a sampling simulation of 152 simulated populations, which were developed from data collected in 38 states and Puerto Rico by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the USDA Forest Service. The dual-filter estimators are shown to almost always provide some reduction in mean squared error (MSE relative to the first pass moving window estimators.

  7. Voltammetric and mathematical evidence for dual transport mediation of serotonin clearance in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin M; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-08-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain's functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata. In response to medial forebrain bundle stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism, and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  9. Accurate and precise plasma clearance measurement using four 99mTc-DTPA plasma samples over 4 h

    OpenAIRE

    Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Barnfield, Mark C.; Waller, Michael L.; Murray, Anthony W.; Burniston, Maria T.; Babyn, Paul S.; Wesolowski, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular filtration rate can be measured as the plasma clearance (CL) of a glomerular filtration rate marker despite body fluid disturbances using numerous, prolonged time samples. We desire a simplified technique without compromised accuracy and precision. Materials and methods We compared CL values derived from two plasma concentration curve area methods – (a) biexponential fitting [CL (E2)] and (b) Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting [CL (Tk-GV)] – for 4 vers...

  10. Dual diagnosis and suicide risk in a Spanish outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, Nestor; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Arias, Francisco; Morant, Consuelo; Babín, Francisco; Mesías, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Vega, Pablo; Baca-García, Enrique

    2012-03-01

    The present study compares dual-diagnosis patients with other groups of psychiatric patients to determine the differential characteristics in suicide risk and other clinical variables between them. During 2008 in Madrid, 837 outpatients were evaluated in addiction and mental health services. Three comparison groups were created according to current diagnosis: (i) dual patients, (ii) patients with substance use disorders but no other mental disorders, and (iii) patients with mental disorders but no substance use disorders. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to explore the risk associated with dual diagnosis. Criteria for dual diagnosis were met at the time of the study by 440 patients (52.6%). Dual patients showed several demographic and clinical differences and a higher risk for suicide than the other two comparison groups. Further research is needed to define suicide preventive strategies for dual patients.

  11. Dual-filter estimation for rotating-panel sample designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis Roesch

    2017-01-01

    Dual-filter estimators are described and tested for use in the annual estimation for national forest inventories. The dual-filter approach involves the use of a moving widow estimator in the first pass, which is used as input to Theil’s mixed estimator in the second pass. The moving window and dual-filter estimators are tested along with two other estimators in a...

  12. Global distribution of polymorphisms associated with delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance following artemisinin treatment: genotyping of archive blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kenji; Culleton, Richard; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Mita, Toshihiro

    2015-06-01

    The recent emergence and spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates is a growing concern for global malaria-control efforts. A recent genome-wide analysis study identified two SNPs at genomic positions MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, which are linked to delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It is expected that continuous artemisinin pressure will affect the distribution of these SNPs. Here, we investigate the worldwide distribution of these SNPs using a large number of archived samples in order to generate baseline data from the period before the emergence of ACT resistance. The presence of SNPs in MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 was assessed by nested PCR RFLP and direct DNA sequencing using 653 global P. falciparum samples obtained before the reported emergence of ACT resistance. SNPs at MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 associated with delayed parasite clearance following ACT administration were observed in 8% and 3% of parasites, respectively, mostly in Cambodia and Thailand. Parasites harbouring both SNPs were found in only eight (1%) isolates, all of which were from Cambodia and Thailand. Linkage disequilibrium was detected between MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, suggesting that this SNP combination may have been selected by ACT drug pressure. Neither of the SNPs associated with delayed parasite clearance were observed in samples from Africa or South America. Baseline information of the geographical difference of MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 SNPs provides a solid basis for assessing whether these SNPs are selected by artemisinin-based combination therapies.

  13. Simulation for clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials applying a peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate oral clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kazuya; Kayano, Yuichiro; Taguchi, Masato; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2007-11-01

    We performed a simulation for the clinical pharmacokinetic study, in which blood was sampled at two time points corresponding to the peak concentration (C(peak)) and trough concentration (C(trough)) following repetitive oral drug administration to subjects. We estimated the approximate oral clearance (CL/F(approx)) as 2.D/(C(peak).tau+C(trough).tau), where D is the dose, and tau is the dosing interval. The CL/F(approx) value was accurate for drugs with a long-elimination half-life, and the estimation error of the CL/F value was slightly increased for drugs with a shorter elimination half-life. The accuracy of CL/F(approx) in each subject was not affected by the magnitude of the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, but was significantly decreased by the larger measurement error of drug concentrations (or intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability). We further performed several computer simulations to mimic statistical hypothesis testing following the clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials. The statistical power to detect the difference of oral clearance between two groups was marginally dependent on the measurement error of drug concentration, but was highly dependent on the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. These findings suggested that the peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate the CL/F(approx) value is useful for clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials, and that the study design and protocol should be evaluated carefully by computer simulation prior to a real clinical trial.

  14. Development of a scientific torsional system experiment containing controlled single or dual-clearance non-linearities: Examination of step-responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Michael D.; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-02-01

    The chief goal of this paper is to propose a new laboratory experiment that exhibits the step-response of a torsional system containing one or two controlled clearances. This work is motivated by the disadvantages of prior large-scale experiments which utilize production vehicle drivelines and their components with significant real-life complexities. The conceptual and physical design features, which include sizing, modal properties, excitation, and instrumentation, are discussed with the goal of creating a controlled experiment. Like prior literature, a step-down torque excitation is selected and all analyses are performed on the acceleration signals to observe vibro-impact in the time domain. Typical measurements (for both the single and dual-clearance configurations) exhibit rich non-linear behavior, including the double-sided impact regime and a time-varying oscillatory period. Additionally, new measurements are compared to predictions from simple reduced order non-linear models to verify the feasibility of the proposed experiment. Finally, the utility of this experiment is demonstrated by comparing its measurements to a prior large-scale experiment that accommodates a production vehicle clutch damper with multiple stages. The hardening and softening effects in both experiments are discussed in the context of double and single-sided impacts as well as the oscillatory periods that vary with time.

  15. Dual Targeting of Amyloid-beta Clearance and Neuroinflammation as a Novel Therapeutic Approach against Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarseh, Yazan S.

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) cascade hypothesis suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to an imbalance between the production and clearance of Abeta peptide. Sporadic AD has been related to faulty clearance of Abeta. Accumulation of Abeta oligomers (Abetao) has been linked to several downstream toxic effects including neuroinflammation, synaptic loss, and cellular death. Abeta transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the primary pathways for reducing Abeta load in the brain, which work hand in hand with other parenchymal mechanisms to reduce Abeta levels including intra and extracellular degradation by a family of Abeta degrading enzymes. Established AD drugs, such as the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, have been reported to have several additional non-cholinergic effects that alter Abeta pathology; reduce Abeta load, anti-inflammatory response, and attenuate synaptic loss. However, their limited effect only lead to minor improvements in AD symptoms without improving the prognosis of the disease. The lack of effective medical treatment for AD led to several studies focusing on establishing new therapeutic approaches to reduce Abeta pathology. We aimed to identify and characterize natural products that are capable of enhancing the BBB clearance of Abeta in addition to reducing neuroinflammation. Our first project was to investigate the role of oleocanthal (one of the active ingredients in extra-virgin olive oil; EVOO) on attenuating Abeta toxic effects on neurons and astrocytes. We developed Abeta oligomers (Abetao) induced inflammatory environment by exposing neurons and astrocytes to accumulative doses of Abetao to investigate oleocanthal effect on modulating Abetao pathological changes in neurons and astrocytes. Our findings demonstrated oleocanthal prevented Abetao-induced synaptic proteins, SNAP-25 and PSD-95, down-regulation in neurons, attenuated Abetao-induced inflammation, and restored glutamine transporter (GLT1) and glucose

  16. Analysis of Pivot Sampling in Dual-Pivot Quicksort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebel, Markus E.; Wild, Sebastian; Martinez, Conrado

    2016-01-01

    The new dual-pivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy—used in Oracle’s Java runtime library since version 7—features intriguing asymmetries. They make a basic variant of this algorithm use less comparisons than classic single-pivot Quicksort. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the case where...

  17. INDIRECT SAMPLING in the CONTEXT of DUAL FRAME SURVEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Maia; Paula Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Under-coverage is one of the most common problems of sampling frames. To reduce the impact of coverage error on survey estimates several frames can be combined in order to achieve a complete (or nearly complete) coverage of the target population. Multiple frame estimators have been developed to be used in the context of multiple frame surveys. Sampling frames may overlap which is the case when a single unit of the sampling frame is related with more than one element of the target population. ...

  18. The dynamics of cylindrical samples in dual wind-up extensional rheometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Marín, Jose Manuel Román

    2011-01-01

    Numerical computations of the extension of circular cylindrical shaped samples in a dual wind-up drum rheometer of Sentmanat extensional rheometer type M. L. Sentmanat, Rheol. Acta 43, 657 (2004); R. Garritano and H. Berting, US Patent No. 7,096,728 (08/29/2006) are presented. These time-dependen...

  19. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  20. Additional notes on clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials applying a peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate oral clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaai, Mari; Kayano, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Takako; Taguchi, Masato; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2008-01-01

    In the previous study, we performed a simulation of a clinical pharmacokinetic trial, in which blood was sampled at two time points corresponding to the peak concentration (C(peak)) and trough concentration (C(trough)) following repetitive oral administration at the dose, D, and dosing interval, tau. The approximate oral clearance (CL/F(approx)), estimated as 2 x D/(C(peak) x tau+C(trough) x tau), is accurate for drugs with an elimination half-life comparative to or longer than tau; however, it was suggested that we might not use CL/F(approx) for drugs with a considerably short elimination half-life relative to tau. In the present study, we evaluated the accuracy of the alternative oral clearance (CL/F(exp)) estimated by the simple monoexponential model. In contrast to CL/F(approx), CL/F(exp) was accurate for drugs with a short elimination half-life relative to tau. The present finding in conjunction with our previous study suggested that the peak-and-trough sampling design is promising for the clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trial for drugs with not only slow but also rapid elimination from the body. We think that the accuracy and precision of the two analysis methods to estimate oral clearance (CL/F(approx) and CL/F(exp)) for a target drug should be evaluated carefully before and after a real clinical trial.

  1. A Dual Color Immunohistochemistry Assay for Measurement of Cereblon in Multiple Myeloma Patient Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Wang, Maria; Couto, Suzana; Hansel, Donna E; Miller, Karen; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Bjorklund, Chad C; Gandhi, Anita K; Thakurta, Anjan; Chopra, Rajesh; Breider, Michael

    Clinical interest in the measurement of Cereblon (CRBN), the primary target of the IMiDs immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide, has been fueled by its essential requirement for antitumor or immunomodulatory activity of both drugs in multiple myeloma (MM). However, limited analyses of clinical samples for CRBN gene expression or protein levels have utilized unvalidated reagents and assays, raising uncertainty about the interpretation of these results. We previously described a highly specific rabbit monoclonal antibody CRBN65 against 65-76 AA of human Cereblon. Here we describe a validated dual color bright-field Cereblon/CD138 immunohistochemical (IHC) assay utilizing CRBN65 and a commercial mouse monoclonal CD138 antibody. Sensitivity and specificity of the assay was determined and assay precision was shown for both cytoplasmic and nuclear Cereblon in MM bone marrow samples with coefficient of variation values of 5% and 2%, respectively. The dual IHC assay was effective for detecting a continuous range of Cereblon levels in 22 MM patient bone marrow core biopsies and aspirate clots, as shown by average cytoplasmic H-scores ranging from 63 to 267 and nuclear H-scores ranging from 17 to 250. Interpathologist comparison of MM sample H-scores by 3 pathologists demonstrated good concordance (R=0.73). This dual assay demonstrated superior Cereblon IHC measurement in MM samples compared with the single IHC assay using a published commercial rabbit polyclonal Cereblon antibody and could be used to explore the potential utility of Cereblon as a biomarker in the clinic.

  2. A Novel Dual-Rate Sampling Switched-Capacitor Configuration and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qi; YANG Mohua; CHENG Yu; WANG Xiangzhan; LIU Changxiao; LAN Jialong

    2003-01-01

    In order to realize accurate bilinear transformation from s- to z-domain, a novel switched- capacitor configuration is proposed in the light of principles of dual-rate sampling and charge conservation, which has also been used for building a 5th-order elliptic lowpass filter. The filter is simulated and measured in typical 0.34 μm/3.3 V Si CMOS process models, special full differential operational amplifiers and CMOS transfer gate switches, which achieves 80 MHz sampling rate, 17.8MHz cutoff frequency, 0.052 dB maximum passband ripple, 42.1 dB minimum stopband attenuation and 74 mW quiescent power dissipation. At the same time, the dual-rate sampling topology breaks the traditional restrictions of filter introduced by unit-gain bandwidth and slew rate of operational amplifiers and also improves effectively their performances in high-frequency applications. It has been applied for the design of an anti-alias filter in analog front-end of video decoder IC with 15 MHz signal frequency yet.

  3. Global mean estimation using a self-organizing dual-zoning method for preferential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuchun; Ren, Xuhong; Gao, Bingbo; Liu, Yu; Gao, YunBing; Hao, Xingyao; Chen, Ziyue

    2015-03-01

    Giving an appropriate weight to each sampling point is essential to global mean estimation. The objective of this paper was to develop a global mean estimation method with preferential samples. The procedure for this estimation method was to first zone the study area based on self-organizing dual-zoning method and then to estimate the mean according to stratified sampling method. In this method, spreading of points in both feature and geographical space is considered. The method is tested in a case study on the metal Mn concentrations in Jilin provinces of China. Six sample patterns are selected to estimate the global mean and compared with the global mean calculated by direct arithmetic mean method, polygon method, and cell method. The results show that the proposed method produces more accurate and stable mean estimates under different feature deviation index (FDI) values and sample sizes. The relative errors of the global mean calculated by the proposed method are from 0.14 to 1.47 % and they are the largest (4.83-8.84 %) by direct arithmetic mean method. At the same time, the mean results calculated by the other three methods are sensitive to the FDI values and sample sizes.

  4. Automated liver sampling using a gradient dual-echo Dixon-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mustafa R; Dale, Brian M; Merkle, Elmar M; Boll, Daniel T

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver requires input from a physicist or physician at the time of acquisition to insure proper voxel selection, while in multiecho chemical shift imaging, numerous regions of interest must be manually selected in order to ensure analysis of a representative portion of the liver parenchyma. A fully automated technique could improve workflow by selecting representative portions of the liver prior to human analysis. Complete volumes from three-dimensional gradient dual-echo acquisitions with two-point Dixon reconstruction acquired at 1.5 and 3 T were analyzed in 100 subjects, using an automated liver sampling algorithm, based on ratio pairs calculated from signal intensity image data as fat-only/water-only and log(in-phase/opposed-phase) on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Using different gridding variations of the algorithm, the average correct liver volume samples ranged from 527 to 733 mL. The average percentage of sample located within the liver ranged from 95.4 to 97.1%, whereas the average incorrect volume selected was 16.5-35.4 mL (2.9-4.6%). Average run time was 19.7-79.0 s. The algorithm consistently selected large samples of the hepatic parenchyma with small amounts of erroneous extrahepatic sampling, and run times were feasible for execution on an MRI system console during exam acquisition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dual Exosite-binding Inhibitors of Insulin-degrading Enzyme Challenge Its Role as the Primary Mediator of Insulin Clearance in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy B; Toth, James L; Klimkowski, Valentine J; Cao, Julia X C; Siesky, Angela M; Alexander-Chacko, Jesline; Wu, Ginger Y; Dixon, Jeffrey T; McGee, James E; Wang, Yong; Guo, Sherry Y; Cavitt, Rachel Nicole; Schindler, John; Thibodeaux, Stefan J; Calvert, Nathan A; Coghlan, Michael J; Sindelar, Dana K; Christe, Michael; Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Michael, M Dodson; Sloop, Kyle W

    2015-08-14

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin) is the best characterized catabolic enzyme implicated in proteolysis of insulin. Recently, a peptide inhibitor of IDE has been shown to affect levels of insulin, amylin, and glucagon in vivo. However, IDE(-/-) mice display variable phenotypes relating to fasting plasma insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity depending on the cohort and age of animals. Here, we interrogated the importance of IDE-mediated catabolism on insulin clearance in vivo. Using a structure-based design, we linked two newly identified ligands binding at unique IDE exosites together to construct a potent series of novel inhibitors. These compounds do not interact with the catalytic zinc of the protease. Because one of these inhibitors (NTE-1) was determined to have pharmacokinetic properties sufficient to sustain plasma levels >50 times its IDE IC50 value, studies in rodents were conducted. In oral glucose tolerance tests with diet-induced obese mice, NTE-1 treatment improved the glucose excursion. Yet in insulin tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp experiments, NTE-1 did not enhance insulin action or increase plasma insulin levels. Importantly, IDE inhibition with NTE-1 did result in elevated plasma amylin levels, suggesting the in vivo role of IDE action on amylin may be more significant than an effect on insulin. Furthermore, using the inhibitors described in this report, we demonstrate that in HEK cells IDE has little impact on insulin clearance. In total, evidence from our studies supports a minimal role for IDE in insulin metabolism in vivo and suggests IDE may be more important in helping regulate amylin clearance.

  6. Identification of Dual-Rate Sampled Hammerstein Systems with a Piecewise-Linear Nonlinearity Using the Key Variable Separation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification difficulties for a dual-rate Hammerstein system lie in two aspects. First, the identification model of the system contains the products of the parameters of the nonlinear block and the linear block, and a standard least squares method cannot be directly applied to the model; second, the traditional single-rate discrete-time Hammerstein model cannot be used as the identification model for the dual-rate sampled system. In order to solve these problems, by combining the polynomial transformation technique with the key variable separation technique, this paper converts the Hammerstein system into a dual-rate linear regression model about all parameters (linear-in-parameter model and proposes a recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the parameters of the dual-rate system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade.

  8. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  9. Recyclable non-ligand dual cloud point extraction method for determination of lead in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Han, Juan; Liu, Yingying; Wang, Lei; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A new pH-mediated non-ligand dual cloud point extraction (NL-DCPE) was first developed for extraction Pb(II) from food samples. The NL-DCPE method includes two cloud point extraction (CPE) steps and the recycling of the copolymer. The first procedure was based on the forming of lead hydroxide at pH 9.5 and subsequent lead hydroxide was entrapped in a thermoseparating triblock copolymer [(PEO)10(PPO)23(PEO)10] (L44) phase. At second stage, the copolymer-rich phase was treated with the acidic solution, and Pb(II) was back extracted into the aqueous phase. So the problem emerging from the high viscosity of the copolymer-rich phase can be well solved. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency of 97.20% and detection limit of 1.9 μg L(-1) were obtained. Moreover, the copolymer L44 was successfully recycled and reused for more than two times. This method was successfully used for analyzing Pb(II) in food samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 94.01-101.19%.

  10. Determination of appropriate sampling frequency and time of multiple blood sampling dual exponential method with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for calculating GFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Ho; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Le Ryung; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Lee, Hyoung Koo [Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    To determine appropriate sampling frequency and time of multiple blood sampling dual exponential method with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for calculating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Thirty four patients were included in this study. Three mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was intravenously injected and blood sampling at 9 different times, 5 ml each, were done. Using the radioactivity of serum, measured by gamma counter, the GFR was calculated using dual exponential method and corrected with the body surface area. Using spontaneously chosen 2 data points of serum radioactivity, 15 collections of 2-sample GFR were calculated. And 10 collections of 3-sample GFR and 12 collections of 4-sample GFR were also calculated. Using the 9-sample GFR as a reference value, degree of agreement was analyzed with Kendall's {tau} correlation coefficients, mean difference and standard deviation. Although some of the 2-sample GFR showed high correlation coefficient, over or underestimation had evolved as the renal function change. The 10-120-240 min 3-sample GFR showed a high correlation coefficient {tau} =0.93), minimal difference (Mean{+-}SD= -1.784{+-}3.972), and no over or underestimation as the renal function changed. Th 4-sample GFR showed no better accuracy than the 3-sample GFR. Int the wide spectrum or renal function, the 10-120-240 min 3-sample GFR could be the best choice for estimating the patients' renal function.

  11. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...

  12. Limited sampling strategy of partial area-under-the-concentration-time-curves to estimate midazolam systemic clearance for cytochrome P450 3A phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Joanna C.; Harano, Denise M.; Greenberg, Howard E.; Tsunoda, Shirley M.; Jang, In-Jin; Ma, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intravenous (IV) midazolam is the preferred cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A probe for phenotyping, with systemic clearance (CL) estimating hepatic CYP3A activity. A limited sampling strategy was conducted to determine if partial area-under-the-concentration-time-curves (AUCs) could reliably estimate midazolam systemic CL during conditions of CYP3A baseline activity, inhibition and induction/activation. Methods Midazolam plasma concentrations during CYP3A baseline (n=93), inhibition (n=40), and induction/activation (n=33) were obtained from seven studies in healthy adults. Non-compartmental analysis determined observed CL (CLobs) and partial AUCs. Linear regression equations were derived from partial AUCs to estimate CL (CLpred) during CYP3A baseline, inhibition and induction/activation. Pre-established criterion for linear regression analysis was r2 ≥0.9. CLpred was compared to CLobs, and relative bias and precision were assessed using percent mean prediction error (%MPE) and percent mean absolute error (%MAE). Results During CYP3A baseline and inhibition, all evaluated partial AUCs failed to meet criterion of r2 ≥0.9 and/or %MAE midazolam partial AUC0–1, AUC0–2, and AUC0–4 reliably estimated systemic CL, and consequently hepatic CYP3A activity in healthy adults. PMID:25004135

  13. Estimating GFR in children with 99mTc-DTPA renography: a comparison with single-sample 51Cr-EDTA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Møller, Michael L; Pfeifer, Andreas K

    2010-01-01

    study was to evaluate the accuracy of this non-invasive method in children. We calculated GFR from (99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography and compared with (51)Cr-EDTA plasma clearance of 29 children between the age of 1 month and 12 years (mean 4.7 years). The correlation...... between (99m)Tc-DTPA renography and (51)Cr-EDTA plasma clearance was for all children R = 0.96 (n = 29, P...

  14. Creatinine clearance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003611.htm Creatinine clearance test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The creatinine clearance test helps provide information about how well the ...

  15. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining

    2016-03-01

    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one.

  16. Analysis of friction effects on satellite antenna driving mechanism with clearance joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Z. F.; Chen, J.; Bian, S.; Shi, X.

    2017-01-01

    The existence of clearance in joints of mechanism is inevitable. In this paper, the friction effects in clearance joints on dynamic responses of driving mechanism of satellite antenna are studied. Considering clearances in joints, the contact force model in clearance joints is established using a nonlinear continuous contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. Then the dual-axis driving mechanism of satellite antenna with clearance joints is used as the application example. The numerical simulation of dual-axis driving mechanism with clearance joints is presented. The friction effects of clearance joint on dynamic responses of the dual-axis driving mechanism are discussed and analyzed quantitatively for four cases with different friction coefficients. The investigation results show that the increase of friction coefficient will decrease the vibration amplitude of the driving mechanism system.

  17. The coexistence of dual form of malnutrition in a sample of rural Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Ihab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The coexistence of under and over nutrition might be influenced by a marked shift in dietary and lifestyle practices of people in developing countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with the occurrence of dual form of malnutrition in the same households in a rural district in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a 223 mother-child pairs based on several inclusion criteria such as; non-pregnant, non lactating mothers and having youngest children aged from 2 to 12 years old. Anthropometric indices of Weight-for-age Z score (WAZ ≤ 1SD was used to classify underweight status in children and body mass index (BMI ≥25kg/m 2 was used to measure overweight status among mothers. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, whereas food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the diet diversity. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of overweight mother/underweight child (OWM/UWC pairs was 29.6%, whereas the prevalence of normal weight mother/normal weight child (NWM/NWC pairs was 15.2%. Out of mother-child pairs measured, 61.0% of the children were underweight and 61.4% were stunted, whereas the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 35.0% and 17.0%, respectively. The study did not report any association between the dual burden of malnutrition and household size, number of children, educational level of the mother, total income, income per capita, and food expenditure, except with household type (OR:5.01;95% CI:1.63,15.34; P = 0.005. In general, the total diet diversity score of both types of mother-child pairs was low. Conclusions: Dual forms of malnutrition in the same household exists in Malaysian households. This phenomenon will be a big challenge especially for food intervention programs to be implemented in the future.

  18. The coexistence of dual form of malnutrition in a sample of rural malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihab, A N; Rohana, A J; Manan, W M Wan; Suriati, W N Wan; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A M

    2013-06-01

    The coexistence of under and over nutrition might be influenced by a marked shift in dietary and lifestyle practices of people in developing countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with the occurrence of dual form of malnutrition in the same households in a rural district in Peninsular Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted on a 223 mother-child pairs based on several inclusion criteria such as; non-pregnant, non lactating mothers and having youngest children aged from 2 to 12 years old. Anthropometric indices of Weight-for-age Z score (WAZ) ≤ 1SD was used to classify underweight status in children and body mass index (BMI) ≥25kg/m(2) was used to measure overweight status among mothers. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, whereas food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the diet diversity. The results showed that the prevalence of overweight mother/underweight child (OWM/UWC) pairs was 29.6%, whereas the prevalence of normal weight mother/normal weight child (NWM/NWC) pairs was 15.2%. Out of mother-child pairs measured, 61.0% of the children were underweight and 61.4% were stunted, whereas the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 35.0% and 17.0%, respectively. The study did not report any association between the dual burden of malnutrition and household size, number of children, educational level of the mother, total income, income per capita, and food expenditure, except with household type (OR:5.01;95% CI:1.63,15.34; P = 0.005). In general, the total diet diversity score of both types of mother-child pairs was low. Dual forms of malnutrition in the same household exists in Malaysian households. This phenomenon will be a big challenge especially for food intervention programs to be implemented in the future.

  19. A disposable amperometric dual-sensor for the detection of hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin in a finger prick blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Min; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Moo Hyun; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jung, Dong-Keun; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2017-05-15

    A disposable microfluidic amperometric dual-sensor was developed for the detection of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and total hemoglobin (Hb), separately, in a finger prick blood sample. The accurate level of total Hb was determined through the measurements of the cathodic currents of total Hb catalyzed by a toluidine blue O (TBO)-modified working electrode. Subsequently, after washing unbound Hb in the fluidic channel of dual sensor with PBS, the cathodic current by only HbA1C captured on aptamer was monitored using another aptamer/TBO-modified working electrode in the channel. To modify the sensor probe, poly(2,2´:5´,5″-terthiophene-3´-p-benzoic acid) and a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite layer (pTBA@MWCNT) was electropolymerized on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE), followed by immobilization of TBO for the total Hb probe and aptamer/TBO for the HbA1C probe, respectively. The characterization of each sensor surface was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental conditions affecting the analytical signal were optimized in terms of the amount of TBO, pH, temperature, binding time, applied potential, and the content ratio of monomer and MWCNT. The dynamic ranges of Hb and HbA1C were from 0.1 to 10µM and from 0.006 to 0.74µM, with detection limits of 82(±4.2)nM and 3.7(±0.8)nM, respectively. The reliability of the proposed microfluidic dual-sensor for a finger prick blood sample (1µL) was evaluated in parallel with a conventional method (HPLC) for point-of-care analysis.

  20. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K;

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...... of conventional arterial sampling underestimated these parameters compared with independent measurements of hepatic flow and hepatic blood volume. In contrast, the linear Gjedde-Patlak analysis, being less informative but more robust, gave similar parameter estimates (K, V) with both input functions...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE AGNs. I. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF NEW DUAL AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FI-02540, Kylmaelae (Finland); Chavushyan, Vahram H., E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    A sample of 10 nearby intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is presented. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the black hole (BH) mass for the sample galaxies from the dynamics of the broad-line region. For this purpose, a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the objects was done. Using Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams, we have carefully classified the objects as true intermediate-type AGNs and found that 80%{sup +7.2%} {sub -17.3%} are composite AGNs. The BH mass estimated for the sample is within 6.54 {+-} 0.16 < log M {sub BH} < 7.81 {+-} 0.14. Profile analysis shows that five objects (J120655.63+501737.1, J121607.08+504930.0, J141238.14+391836.5, J143031.18+524225.8, and J162952.88+242638.3) have narrow double-peaked emission lines in both the red (H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548,6583 and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6731) and the blue (H{beta} and [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007) regions of the spectra, with velocity differences ({Delta}V) between the double peaks within 114 km s{sup -1} < {Delta}V < 256 km s{sup -1}. Two of them, J121607.08+504930.0 and J141238.14+391836.5, are candidates for dual AGNs since their double-peaked emission lines are dominated by AGN activity. In searches of dual AGNs, type 1, type II, and intermediate-type AGNs should be carefully separated, due to the high serendipitous number of narrow double-peaked sources (50% {+-} 14.4%) found in our sample.

  2. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  3. A Dynamic Range Expansion Technique for CMOS Image Sensors with Dual Charge Storage in a Pixel and Multiple Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Itoh, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic range expansion technique for CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple sampling technique is presented. Each pixel contains a photodiode and a storage diode which is connected to the photodiode via a separation gate. The sensitivity of the signal charge in the storage diode can be controlled either by a separation gate which limits the charge to flow into the storage diode or by controlling the accumulation time in the storage diode. The operation of the sensitivity control with separation gate techniques is simulated and it is found that a blocking layer to the storage diode plays an important role for high controllability of sensitivity of the storage diode. A prototype chip for testing multiple short time accumulations is fabricated and measured. PMID:27879802

  4. A Dynamic Range Expansion Technique for CMOS Image Sensors with Dual Charge Storage in a Pixel and Multiple Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Itoh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic range expansion technique for CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple sampling technique is presented. Each pixel contains a photodiode and a storage diode which is connected to the photodiode via a separation gate. The sensitivity of the signal charge in the storage diode can be controlled either by a separation gate which limits the charge to flow into the storage diode or by controlling the accumulation time in the storage diode. The operation of the sensitivity control with separation gate techniques is simulated and it is found that a blocking layer to the storage diode plays an important role for high controllability of sensitivity of the storage diode. A prototype chip for testing multiple short time accumulations is fabricated and measured.

  5. A dual wedge microneedle for sampling of perilymph solution via round window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirobumi; Cardoso, Luis; Lalwani, Anil K; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-01

    Precision medicine for inner-ear disease is hampered by the absence of a methodology to sample inner-ear fluid atraumatically. The round window membrane (RWM) is an attractive portal for accessing cochlear fluids as it heals spontaneously. In this study, we report on the development of a microneedle for perilymph sampling that minimizes the size of RWM perforation, facilitates quick aspiration, and provides precise volume control. Here, considering the mechanical anisotropy of the RWM and hydrodynamics through a microneedle, a 31G stainless steel pipe was machined into wedge-shaped design via electrical discharge machining. The sharpness of the needle was evaluated via a surface profilometer. Guinea pig RWM was penetrated in vitro, and 1 μL of perilymph was sampled and analyzed via UV-vis spectroscopy. The prototype wedge shaped needle was successfully fabricated with the tip curvature of 4.5 μm and the surface roughness of 3.66 μm in root mean square. The needle created oval perforation with minor and major diameter of 143 and 344 μm (n = 6). The sampling duration and standard deviation of aspirated volume were 3 s and 6.8 % respectively. The protein concentration was 1.74 mg/mL. The prototype needle facilitated precise perforation of RWMs and rapid aspiration of cochlear fluid with precise volume control. The needle design is promising and requires testing in human cadaveric temporal bone and further optimization to become clinically viable.

  6. Ultrasensitive and rapid screening of mercury(II) ions by dual labeling colorimetric method in aqueous samples and applications in mercury-poisoned animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi; Wang, Xin; Xue, Feng [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zheng, Lei [School of Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jian [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yan, Feng [Applied Physics Department, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Fan, E-mail: xiafan@hust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenweishnu@163.com [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-04-08

    Highlights: • Rapid and ultrasensitive screening of mercury ions are achieved by using gold nanoparticles based colorimetric method. • Dual labeling strategy is adopted for sensing signal amplification. • The proposed method is successfully used for analysis of mercury-poisoned animal tissues. - Abstract: Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of trace heavy metal mercury(II) ions (Hg{sup 2+}) are of significant importance due to the induced serious risks for environment and human health. This presented article reports the gold nanoparticle-based dual labeling colorimetric method (Dual-COLO) for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Hg{sup 2+} using the specific thymine–Hg{sup 2+}–thymine (T–Hg{sup 2+}–T) as recognition system and the dual labeling strategy for signal amplification. Both qualitative and quantitative detections of Hg{sup 2+} are achieved successfully in aqueous samples. More importantly, the achieved detection limit of 0.005 ng mL{sup −1} (0.025 nM) without any instruments is very competitive to other rapid detection methods even ICP-MS based methods. This Dual-COLO method is also applied directly for real water sample monitoring and, more importantly, applied in analysis of mercury poisoned animal tissues and body fluidic samples, indicating a potentially powerful and promising tool for environmental monitoring and food safety control.

  7. Dual FITC lateral flow immunoassay for sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunmei; Liu, Jinxin; Li, Jianwu; Liu, Qing

    2016-11-15

    A pattern of signal amplification lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for pathogen detection, which used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antigen and antibody for dual FITC-LFIA was developed. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7) was selected as the model analyte. In the signal amplification LFIA method, FITC was mixed with sample culture medium, with the presence of E.coli O157:H7 in the samples, the bacteria could emit a yellow-green fluorescence after incubation, creating a fluorescent antigen probe. This antigen probe was added to LFIA, which already contained E.coli O157:H7 monoclonal antibodies-FITC (McAb-E.coli O157:H7-FITC) dispersed in the conjugate pad. Another E.coli O157:H7 McAb was the test line, and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was the control line in nitrocellulose (NC) membrane. The visual limit of detection (LOD) of the strip for qualitative detection was 10(5) CFU/mL while the LOD for semi-quantitative detection could down to 10(4) CFU/mL by using scanning reader. Signal amplification LFIA was perfectly applied to the detection of food samples with E.coli O157:H7. The LOD was substantially improved to 1 CFU/mL of the original bacterial content after pre-incubation of the bread, milk and jelly samples in broth for 10, 8 and 8h respectively. The results of this method was more sensitive by 10-fold than the conventional colloidal gold (CG) based strips and comparable to the traditional ELISA. This simple, low-cost and easy to be popularized method served as a significant step towards the development of monitoring food-borne pathogens in food-safety testing.

  8. The endothelial deprotection hypothesis for lupus pathogenesis: the dual role of C1q as a mediator of clearance and regulator of endothelial permeability [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/50o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Prechl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a heterogeneous multifactorial systemic autoimmune disease affecting several organs. SLE can start relatively early in life and results in impaired quality of life and shortened life expectancy because of a gradual disease progression leading to cardiovascular, renal and neoplastic disease. The basic mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the disease still remain to be clarified. It is clear that complement proteins play a key and complex role in the development of SLE. Complement component C1q has been known to be a fundamental component of lupus development, but most explanations focus on its role in apoptotic debris removal. Importantly, C1q was recently found to play a key role in the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity. We suggest that apoptotic products, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix components, which display negatively charged moieties, compete for binding to molecules of the innate humoral immune response, like C1q. Genetic or acquired factors leading to an increased load of apoptotic cell debris and decrease or absence of C1q therefore interfere with the regulation of endothelial permeability and integrity. Furthermore, we suggest that lupus is the net result of an imbalance between the two functions of immune clearance and vascular endothelial integrity maintenance, an imbalance triggered and sustained by autoimmunity, which skews C1q consumption by IgG-mediated complement classical pathway activation on autoantigens. In this triangle of innate clearance, autoimmunity and endothelial integrity, C1q plays a central role. Hence, we interpret the pathogenesis of lupus by identifying three key components, namely innate immune clearance, autoimmunity and endothelial integrity and we establish a link between these components based on the protective role that innate clearance molecules play in endothelial renewal. By including the vasoprotective role of C1q in the interpretation of SLE

  9. The endothelial deprotection hypothesis for lupus pathogenesis: the dual role of C1q as a mediator of clearance and regulator of endothelial permeability [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5d5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Prechl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a heterogeneous multifactorial systemic autoimmune disease affecting several organs. SLE can start relatively early in life and results in impaired quality of life and shortened life expectancy because of a gradual disease progression leading to cardiovascular, renal and neoplastic disease. The basic mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the disease still remain to be clarified. It is clear that complement proteins play a key and complex role in the development of SLE. Complement component C1q has been known to be a fundamental component of lupus development, but most explanations focus on its role in apoptotic debris removal. Importantly, C1q was recently found to play a key role in the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity. We suggest that apoptotic products, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix components, which display negatively charged moieties, compete for binding to molecules of the innate humoral immune response, like C1q. Genetic or acquired factors leading to an increased load of apoptotic cell debris and decrease or absence of C1q therefore interfere with the regulation of endothelial permeability and integrity. Furthermore, we suggest that lupus is the net result of an imbalance between the two functions of immune clearance and vascular endothelial integrity maintenance, an imbalance triggered and sustained by autoimmunity, which skews C1q consumption by IgG-mediated complement classical pathway activation on autoantigens. In this triangle of innate clearance, autoimmunity and endothelial integrity, C1q plays a central role. Hence, we interpret the pathogenesis of lupus by identifying three key components, namely innate immune clearance, autoimmunity and endothelial integrity and we establish a link between these components based on the protective role that innate clearance molecules play in endothelial renewal. By including the vasoprotective role of C1q in the interpretation of SLE

  10. A wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with dual charge storage in a pixel and a multiple sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic range expansion technique of CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple exposures. Each pixel contains two photodiodes, PD1 and PD2 whose sensitivity can be set independently by the accumulation time. The difference of charge accumulation time in both photodiode can be manipulated to expand the dynamic range of the sensor. It allows flexible control of the dynamic range since the accumulation time in PD2 is adjustable. The multiple exposure technique used in the sensor reduces the motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image when capturing fast-moving objects. It also reduces the signal-to-nose ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signals in the synthesized wide dynamic range image. A wide dynamic range camera with 320x240 pixels image sensor has been tested. It is found that the sampling of 4 times for the short accumulation time signals is sufficient for the reduction of motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image, and the signal-to-noise ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signal is improved by 6 dB using 4 short-time exposures.

  11. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    1998-01-01

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  12. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    1998-01-01

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  13. Single plasma sampling to predict oral clearance of CYP3A probe midazolam%单点采血反映口服CYP3A探针咪达唑仑的代谢清除率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冰; 欧阳冬生; 程泽能; 黄松林; 周宏灏

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究中国男性健康受试者口服咪达唑仑后其1′-羟化代谢的药代动力学规律,并寻找适合的单个采血点血浆中1′-羟化咪达唑仑/咪达唑仑的浓度比值来反映咪达唑仑的血浆清除率.方法:10名受试者禁食8小时后清晨空腹口服7.5 mg咪达唑仑,利用非房室模型计算药代动力学参数.结果:咪达唑仑药代动力学参数Cmax为(191±17)nmol/L,tmax为(1.01±0.14)h,t1/2为(3.2±0.4)h,AUCo→∞为(681±43)nmol·h·L-1,Clora1为(0.54±0.04)L/(h·kg),Ke为(0.2415±0.0021)h-1,Kα为(0.82±0.18) h-1.1小时血浆中咪达唑仑与其代谢产物1′-羟化咪达唑仑的比值与其清除率的相关性统计学上具有显著意义(r=0.7,P<0.05,n=10).结论:可用口服咪达唑仑后1小时单个采血点的代谢产物1′-羟化咪达唑仑与咪达唑仑浓度的比值来反映其血浆清 除率,应用于CYP3A活性测定的人群试验.%AIM: To find out a single plasma sampling to estimate oral clearance of midazolam (MDZ) and CYP3A activi ty, and explore the pharmacokinetics of midazolam hy droxylation in Chinese subjects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of midazolam was assessed in ten healthy male individuals after an oral dose of 7.5 mg midazolam. RESULTS: A significant correlation ( r = 0.7, P < 0.05, n = 10) was found between plasma MDZ clearance and the plasma ratio of 1′-hydroxymida zolam to midazolam, which was assessed at 1 h after MDZ intake in the volunteers. Pharmacokinetics param eters of midazolam were as follows: Cmax (191 ± 17) mol/L, tmuax (1.01 ± 0.14) h, t1/2 (3.2 ± 0.4) h, AUC0→∞ (681±43) nmol·h·L-1, Clora1 (0.54±0.04) L·h-1·kg-1, Ke (0.2415±0.0021) h-1, Kα (0.82± 0.18) h-1. CONCLUSION: Single plama sampling of 1 h after 7.5 mg oral MDZ intake can be used to predict the oral clearance of midazolam.

  14. Room-temperature dual-wavelength erbium-doped fibre laser based on a sampled fibre Bragg grating and a photonic Robin Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Tongyi; Sun, Chuandong; Wang, Yishan; Hou, Xun; Chen, Guofu

    2006-12-01

    With the assistance of a kind of photonic Robin Hood that is originated from four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened high-nonlinearity photonic-crystal fibre, a novel dual-wavelength erbium-doped fibre (EDF) laser is proposed and demonstrated by using a sampled fibre Bragg grating. The experiments show that, due to the contribution of the photonic Robin Hood, the proposed fibre laser has the advantage of excellent uniformity, high stability and stable operation at room temperature. Our dual-wavelength EDF laser has the unique merit that the wavelength spacing remains unchanged when tuning the two wavelengths of laser, and this laser is simpler and more stable than the laser reported by Liu et al. [Opt. Express, 13 142 (2005)].

  15. Prevalence and determinants of personality disorders in a clinical sample of alcohol-, drug-, and dual-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Kathy; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; De Maeyer, Jessica; Broekaert, Eric; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-05-01

    The present study compares the prevalence rates of 12 personality disorders (PDs) among patients with alcohol, drug, and dual dependence through chi-square tests and analyses of variance. It further investigates possible predictors of these PDs through multiple linear regression analyses. Data were gathered in 2007-2008 among 274 patients admitted to intensive, residential substance abuse treatment programs in Belgium, using the ADP-IV (Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders), the EuropASI (European version of the Addiction Severity Index), and the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The analyses showed that drug- and dual-dependent patients have higher PD prevalence rates than alcohol-dependent patients. The severity, but not the nature of the dependence, appears as an important predictor for personality pathology.

  16. Site clearance working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  17. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-09-21

    The Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) was created by presidential proclamation in 2000. It is located along the Columbia River in south central Washington and consists of five distinct units. The McGee Ranch-Riverlands and the North Slope units are addressed in this report. North Slope refers to two of the HRNM units: the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. The Saddle Mountain and Wahluke Slope Units are located north of the Columbia River, while the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit is located south of the Columbia River and north and west of Washington State Highway 24. To fulfill internal U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, the DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Authorized limits for residual radioactive contamination were developed based on the DOE annual exposure limit to the public (100 mrem) using future potential land-use scenarios. The DOE Office of Environmental Management approved these authorized limits on March 1, 2004. Historical soil monitoring conducted on and around the HRNM indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the authorized limits (Fritz et al. 2003). However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units were below the authorized limits. Sixty-seven soil samples were collected from the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units. A software package (Visual Sample Plan) was used to plan the collection to assure an adequate number of samples were collected. The number of samples necessary to decide with a high level of confidence (99%) that the soil concentrations of radionuclides on the North Slope and McGee Ranch-Riverlands units did not exceed the

  18. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  19. 32 CFR 154.48 - Issuing clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing clearance. 154.48 Section 154.48... PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.48 Issuing clearance. (a... personnel security clearance in the DCII (see § 154.43). A record of the clearance issued shall also...

  20. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance. 35.1340 Section 35.1340... Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1340 Clearance. Clearance examinations required... provisions of this section. (a) Clearance following abatement. Clearance examinations performed...

  1. Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karac...

  2. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    fund sharing options.................................................................................. 18 3.12 ATP 3.3.4.2...publication of the original document and its eventual publication in ATP -56 (B). Workgroup 5 spent several Workgroup/JSB sessions reviewing and updating...Clearance Compatibility Assessment Checklist. 21 Aug 2014 ATP 3.3.4.2 SRD 1 - Guide to Obtaining AAR Refuelling Clearances & Compatibility Certification

  3. Evaluation of p16INK4a/Ki-67 dual stain in comparison with an mRNA human papillomavirus test on liquid-based cytology samples with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrom, M.; Christensen, R. K.; Ornskov, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to investigate the clinical performance of detecting high-grade lesions with the CINtec PLUS p16INK4a/Ki-67 dual stain and the APTIMA human papillomavirus (HPV) Assay in a cohort of women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL...... INK4a/Ki-67 dual-staining test in LSIL cytology samples demonstrated high...

  4. Quantitative image reconstruction for dual-isotope parathyroid SPECT/CT: phantom experiments and sample patient studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Chamoiseau, S.; Celler, A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the quantitative accuracy of the model-based dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (DI-SPECT) reconstructions that use Klein-Nishina expressions to estimate the scattered photon contributions to the projection data. Our objective was to examine the ability of the method to recover the absolute activities pertaining to both radiotracers: Tc-99m and I-123. We validated our method through a series of phantom experiments performed using a clinical hybrid SPECT/CT camera (Infinia Hawkeye, GE Healthcare). Different activity ratios and different attenuating media were used in these experiments to create cross-talk effects of varying severity, which can occur in clinical studies. Accurate model-based corrections for scatter and cross-talk with CT attenuation maps allowed for the recovery of the absolute activities from DI-SPECT/CT scans with errors that ranged 0-10% for both radiotracers. The unfavorable activity ratios increased the computational burden but practically did not affect the resulting accuracy. The visual analysis of parathyroid patient data demonstrated that our model-based processing improved adenoma/background contrast and enhanced localization of small or faint adenomas.

  5. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor surfaces, or between uninsulated conductor surfaces and grounded metal surfaces, within the enclosure...

  6. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  7. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  8. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance gauges. 117.47 Section... OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.47 Clearance gauges. (a) Clearance gauges are required for... specify otherwise for particular drawbridges, clearance gauges shall be designed, installed,...

  9. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11010 Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair... to indicate an impaired clearance....

  10. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance...

  11. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010... Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  12. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11008 Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance shall be conspicuously marked....

  13. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  14. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section 154.16... clearance. (a) General. (1) The authorities designated in paragraph A, Appendix E are the only authorities authorized to grant, deny or revoke DoD personnel security clearances. The granting of such clearances...

  15. 28 CFR 524.74 - Activities clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities clearance. 524.74 Section 524... clearance. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the Warden is the clearance... Security cases. Central Office Inmate Monitoring Section staff shall be the clearance authority on...

  16. Dual-cloud point extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace sulfonamide antimicrobials in urine and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Chunyan; Niu, Zongliang; Li, Pengyao; Wang, Chunping; Li, Wanyu; Wen, Yingying

    2017-03-01

    Dual-cloud point extraction (dCPE) was successfully developed for simultaneous extraction of trace sulfonamides (SAs) including sulfamerazine (SMZ), sulfadoxin (SDX), sulfathiazole (STZ) in urine and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction were optimized, such as sample pH, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction temperature and time, centrifugation rate and time, back-extraction solution pH, back-extraction temperature and time, back-extraction centrifugation rate and time. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied for the SAs analysis. Under the optimum extraction and detection conditions, successful separation of the SAs was achieved within 9min, and excellent analytical performances were attained. Good linear relationships (R(2)≥0.9990) between peak area and concentration for SMZ and STZ were optimized from 0.02 to 10μg/mL, for SDX from 0.01 to 10μg/mL. Detection limits of 3.0-6.2ng/mL were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 85 to 108% were determined with urine, lake and tap water spiked at 0.2, 0.5 and 1μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 1.5-7.7%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative tool to existing methods for analysing trace residues of SAs in urine and water samples.

  17. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-31

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  18. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Laasch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitat Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions. - Highlights: • First dual-pulse and ambient gas deep VUV LIBS plasma emission study • Optimization of inter-pulse delay time for vacuum and ambient gas environments • A sharp intensity peak implies optimal inter-pulse delay of 100 ns for all conditions. • A broad peak appears in the microsecond delay range, but only in ambient gases. • Pressure dependence implies a different enhancement process.

  19. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Shen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN, electronic-thermal noise (ETN, flicker noise (FN and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN. The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF. There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  20. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  1. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  2. Improved proteomic discovery by sample pre-fractionation using dual-column ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havugimana, Pierre C; Wong, Peter; Emili, Andrew

    2007-02-15

    Clinically relevant biomarkers are urgently needed for improving patient diagnosis, risk stratification, prognosis and therapeutic treatments. There is a particularly compelling motivation for identifying protein-based indicators of early-stage disease for more effective interventions. Despite recent progress, the proteomic discovery process remains a daunting challenge due to the sheer heterogeneity and skewed protein abundances in biofluids. Even the most advanced mass spectrometry systems exhibit limiting overall dynamic ranges and sensitivities relative to the needs of modern biomedical applications. To this end, we report the development of a robust, rapid, and reproducible high performance ion-exchange liquid chromatography pre-fractionation method that allows for improved proteomic detection coverage of complex biological specimens using basic tandem mass spectrometry screening procedures. This form of sample simplification prior to global proteomic profiling, which we refer to collectively as 'fractionomics', increases the number and diversity of proteins that can be confidently identified in tissue and cell lysates as compared to the straight analysis of unfractionated crude extracts.

  3. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  4. High precision dual-inlet IRMS measurements of the stable isotopes of CO2 and the N2O/CO2 ratio from polar ice core samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Bauska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important constraint on mechanisms of past carbon cycle variability is provided by the stable isotopic composition of carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide (δ13C-CO2 trapped in polar ice cores, but obtaining very precise measurements has proven to be a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a new technique to determine the δ13C of CO2 at exceptional precision, as well as measuring the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios. In this method, ancient air is extracted from relatively large ice samples (~ 400 grams with a dry-extraction "ice-grater" device. The liberated air is cryogenically purified to a CO2 and N2O mixture and analyzed with a micro-volume equipped dual-inlet IRMS (Thermo MAT 253. The reproducibility of the method, based on replicate analysis of ice core samples, is 0.02‰ for δ13C-CO2 and 2 ppm and 4 ppb for the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios, respectively (1-sigma pooled standard deviation. Our experiments show that minimizing water vapor pressure in the extraction vessel by housing the grating apparatus in a ultra-low temperature freezer (−60 °C improves the precision and decreases the experimental blank of the method. We describe techniques for accurate calibration of small samples and the application of a mass spectrometric method based on source fragmentation for reconstructing the N2O history of the atmosphere. The oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 is also investigated, confirming previous observations of oxygen exchange between gaseous CO2 and solid H2O within the ice archive. These data offer a possible constraint on oxygen isotopic fractionation during H2O and CO2 exchange below the H2O bulk melting temperature.

  5. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  6. Solvent-dependent turn-on probe for dual monitoring of Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} in living biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zheng; She, Mengyao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Yin, Bing [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, XinJieKouWai St., HaiDian District, Beijing 100875 (China); Hao, Likai; Obst, Martin [Center for Applied Geoscience, Institute for Geoscience, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Hoelderlinstr. 12, Tuebingen 72074 (Germany); Liu, Ping, E-mail: liuping@nwu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Li, Jianli, E-mail: lijianli@nwu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2015-04-08

    Highlights: • A solvent-dependent probe was presented for dual monitoring of Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+}. • The probe exhibited special selectivity and sensitivity at physiological range. • The mechanism was investigated both experimentally and computationally. • The probe was highly suitable for mapping Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} in biological samples. - Abstract: A novel, solvent-dependent “off–on” probe with benzoylthiourea moiety as the functional receptor and fluorescein as the fluorophore was designed for monitoring of Ag{sup +} in EtOH–H{sub 2}O (2:8, v/v) solution and Zn{sup 2+} in CH{sub 3}CN–H{sub 2}O (2:8, v/v) solution at physiological range with sufficient selectivity and sensitivity. The Ag{sup +} promoted desulfurization of thiosemicarbazide functionality in formation of the 1,3,4-oxadiazole and the coordination of Zn{sup 2+} to the O atom and N atom of the spoirolactam moiety and the S atom of the benzoylthiourea moiety were investigated to be the power that promoted the fluorescent enhancement. This probe was tested highly suitable for mapping Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} in living human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells and microbial cell–EPS–mineral aggregates, thus, providing a wonderful candidate for tracking Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} in biological organisms and processes.

  7. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Hayden, P.; Laasch, R.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions.

  8. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  9. Novel Pb2+ ion imprinted polymers based on ionic interaction via synergy of dual functional monomers for selective solid-phase extraction of Pb2+ in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Ruichen; Chen, Lingxin

    2014-01-08

    A novel kind of Pb(2+) ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) was prepared based on ionic interactions via the synergy of dual functional monomers of methacrylic acid and vinyl pyridine for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Pb(2+) in water samples. Suspension polymerization was employed for the formation of template Pb(2+)/monomer complex by self-assembly in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linker. The resulted Pb(2+) IIPs showed fast kinetics, high binding capacity, and the adsorption processes obeyed intraparticle diffusion kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models. The IIPs displayed excellent selectivity toward Pb(2+) over other metal ions such as Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) with selective coefficients above 30, as well as high anti-interference ability for Pb(2+) confronting with common coexisting various ions. Through 10 adsorption-desorption cycles, the reusable IIPs exhibited a good recoverability with the standard error within 5%. These features suggested the IIPs were ideal candidates for extraction and removal of Pb(2+) ions. Consequently, the IIPs were utilized as SPE sorbents and related parameters were optimized. An excellent linearity was presented in the range of 0.2-50 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9998), as well as the limits of detection and quantification were achieved of 0.06 and 0.19 μg L(-1), respectively. A good repeatability was obtained with the relative standard deviation of 2.8%. Furthermore, real water samples were successfully analyzed and satisfactory recoveries varying from 95.5 to 104.6% were attained. The IIPs-SPE demonstrated potential application perspectives for rapid and high-effective cleanup and enrichment of trace Pb(2+) ions in complicated matrices.

  10. Multivariate optimization and simultaneous determination of hydride and non-hydride-forming elements in samples of a wide pH range using dual-mode sample introduction with plasma techniques: application on leachates from cement mortar material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Mesay; Wibetoe, Grethe; Engelsen, Christian J; Asfaw, Alemayehu

    2009-02-01

    Analytical methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of hydride-forming (As, Sb) and non-hydride-forming (Cr, Mo, V) elements in aqueous samples of a wide pH range (pH 3-13). The methods used dual-mode (DM) sample introduction with ICP-AES and ICP-MS instruments. The effect of selected experimental variables, i.e., sample pH and concentrations of HNO(3), thiourea, and NaBH(4), were studied in a multivariate way using face-centered central composite design (FC-CCD). Compromised optimum values of the experimental parameters were identified using a response optimizer. The statistically found optimum values were verified experimentally. The methods provided improved sensitivities for the hydride-forming elements compared with the respective conventional nebulization (Neb) systems by factors of 67 (As) and 64 (Sb) for ICP-AES and 36 (As) and 54 (Sb) for ICP-MS. Slight sensitivity improvements were also observed for the non-hydride-forming elements. The limits of detection (LOD) of As and Sb were lowered, respectively, to 0.8 and 0.9 microg L(-1) with the DM-ICP-AES system and to 0.01 and 0.02 microg L(-1) with the DM-ICP-MS system. The short-term stabilities of both methods were between 2.1 and 5.4%. The methods were applied for the analysis of leachates of a cement mortar material prepared in the pH range 3-13. The elemental concentration of the leachates determined by the two DM methods were statistically compared with the values obtained from Neb-ICP-MS analysis; the values showed good agreement at the 95% confidence level. Quantitative spike recoveries were obtained for the analytes from most of the leachates using both DM methods.

  11. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated with...

  12. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kanai, Yasukazu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Minato, Kotaro; Shimizu, Keiji; Senda, Michio; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-07-07

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to approximately 50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed

  13. CLEARANCE OF INDOMETHACIN OCCURS PREDOMINANTLY BY RENAL GLUCURONIDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOLENAAR, F; CRANCRINUS, S; VISSER, J; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    1992-01-01

    In this report we describe the conditions of collection, storage and handling of urine samples, collected after oral dosing with indometacin in man, in order to maintain the integrity of the labile glucuronide formed. We found that the body clearance occurs predominantly by renal metabolism, due to

  14. Mannitol clearance for the determination of glomerular filtration rate-a validation against clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Katalin; Molnár, Miklós; Söndergaard, Sören; Molnár, Gyula; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2016-06-03

    We studied the agreement between plasma clearance of mannitol and the reference method, plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in outpatients with normal to moderately impaired renal function. Forty-one patients with a serum creatinine clearance was measured with the standard bolus injection technique and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by the single-sample method described by Jacobsson. Mannitol, 0·25 g kg(-1) body weight (150 mg ml(-1) ), was infused for 4-14 min and blood samples taken at 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-h (n = 24) or 2-, 3-, 3·5- and 4-h after infusion (n = 17). Mannitol in serum was measured by an enzymatic method. Plasma clearance for mannitol and its apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated according to Brøchner-Mortensen. Mean plasma clearance (±SD) for (51) Cr-EDTA was 59·7 ± 18·8 ml min(-1) . The mean plasma clearance for mannitol ranged between 57·0 ± 20·1 and 61·1 ± 16·7 ml min(-1) and Vd was 21·3 ± 6·2% per kg b.w. The between-method bias ranged between -0·23 and 2·73 ml min(-1) , the percentage error between 26·7 and 39·5% and the limits of agreement between -14·3/17·2 and -25·3/19·9 ml min(-1) . The best agreement was seen when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained and when sampling started 60 min after injection. Furthermore, accuracy of plasma clearance determinations was 88-96% (P30) and 41-63% (P10) and was highest when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained, including the first hour after the bolus dose. We conclude that there is a good agreement between plasma clearances of mannitol and (51) Cr-EDTA for the assessment of GFR.

  15. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  16. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  17. Tip Clearance Flows in Turbine Cascades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Qiao Weiyang; Sun Dawei

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the effects of some factors on the tip clearance flow in axial linear turbine cascades.The measurements of the total pressure loss coefficient are made at the cascade outlets by using a five-hole probe at exit Mach numbers of 0.10,0.14 and 0.19.At each exit Mach number,experiments axe performed at the tip clearance heights of 1.0%,1.5%,2.0%,2.5% and 3.0% of the blade height.The effects of the non-uniform tip clearance height of each blade in the pitchwise direction are also studied.The results show that at a given tip clearance height,generally,total pressure loss rises with exit Mach numbers proportionally.At a fixed exit Mach number,the total pressure loss augments nearly proportionally as the tip clearance height increases.The increased tip clearance heights in the tip regions of two adjacent blades are to be blame for the larger clearance loss of the center blade.Compared to the effects of the tip clearance height,the effects of the exit Mach number and the pitchwise variation of the tip clearance height on the cascade total pressure loss are so less significant to be omitted.

  18. Elastic clearance change in axisymmetric shearing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    An axisymmetric shearing experiment is conducted for a sheet of low carbon steel and stainless steel. Elastic change in the clearance between punch and die is measured. The increase of the clearance in shearing is confirmed and the influence of sheared material's flow stress on the clearance change is shown. Finite element analysis (FEA) of shearing with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlman model (GTN model) is conducted for shearing of the carbon steels with rigid tools as a numerical experiment. Burr height is predicted in the FEA and the result is compared with the experimental result. In addition, the influence of the clearance on stress state in the material is investigated.

  19. Critical evaluation of mannitol determination and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout Mees, E.J.; Kampman, J.W.; Verschure, J.C.M.

    1958-01-01

    The mannitol clearance in normal persons was found to be lower than is indicated by most authors. The method of the blood collection appeared to have an unexpected influence on the clearance values obtained. In this manner at least some of the discrepancies can be explained.

  20. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated...

  1. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  2. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  3. Effect of clearance on cartilage tribology in hip hemi-arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizhang, Jia; Taylor, Simon D; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip (an artificial femoral head articulating against the natural acetabulum) is used to treat fractured necks of femur; however, there is evidence that articulation causes erosion of the cartilage, resulting in pain for the patient. Parameters that may influence this cartilage erosion include head material and roughness, clearance between the head and acetabulum and activity levels of the patient. This study has assessed the effect of clearance of hemi-arthroplasty articulations on the contact stress, friction and cartilage deformation in an in vitro tribological simulation of the hemi-arthroplasty joint that applied dynamic loads and motion. It has been demonstrated that peak contact stress increased from 5.6 to 10.6 MPa as radial clearance increased from small (1.8 mm). In all samples, friction factor increased with time and was significantly less with extra-large clearances compared to small (<0.6 mm), medium (0.6-1.2 mm) and large (1.2-1.8 mm) clearances. The cartilage deformation observed was significantly greater in acetabulum samples paired to give small or extra-large clearances compared to those with medium or large clearances.

  4. Numerical Simulation on the Effect of Tip Clearance Size on Unsteadiness in Tip Clearance Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Du; Feng Lin; Hongwu Zhang; Jingyi Chen

    2008-01-01

    Unsteadiness of tip clearance flow with three different tip clearance sizes is numerically investigated in this paper. NASA Rotor 67 is chosen as the computational model. It is found that among all the simulated cases, the un-steadiness exists when the size of the tip clearance is equal to or larger than design tip clearance size. The relative total pressure coefficient contours indicate that region of influence by tip leakage flow augments with the increase of tip clearance size at a fixed mass flow rate. Root Mean Square contours of static pressure distribution in the rotor tip region are provided to illustrate that for design tip clearance (1.1% tip chord) the strongest fluctuating region is located on pressure side of blade near leading edge, while for the larger tip clearance (2.2% tip chord), it is in the region of the interaction between the shock wave and the tip leakage flow.

  5. Lymphatic clearance of synovial fluid in conscious pigs: the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, H P;

    1993-01-01

    investigated the transport of PIIINP from the knee cavity into the circulation after intra-articular injection of radiolabelled PIIINP followed by sequential sampling of thoracic duct lymph, serum and urine. Clearance from the joint space was evaluated by external detection of 131I-HSA, used as co......-life of the joint clearance of HSA by bulk flow was assessed to be 8.3 h. The clearance of PIIINP from the joint was estimated to be equal to that of HSA, which indicates that PIIINP leaves the joint space by bulk flow as has been proposed for HSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  6. Parameters Identification Method for Dual-rate Sampling Systems with Output Signal Quantization%输出信号量化的双率采样系统参数辨识方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢林柏; 张涛; 丁锋

    2009-01-01

    针对双率采样和信号量化(signal quantization)[BFQB]的控制系统,采用随机重复性试验测量信息,提出基于辅助模型的双率采样量化控制系统辨识方法.分析了在随机重复试验和放松估计误差方差条件下,双率采样量化系统的模型特征并给出了分两步辨识的策略,推导了进行参数辨识所满足的持续激励条件,并给出了基于辅助模型的双率采样量化控制系统量化辨识递推算法;接着分析了所给出量化辨识递推算法的收敛性,得到了双率采样量化系统参数估计误差上界的计算式,最后数字仿真验证了该算法及结论的有效性.%To the control systems with dual-rate sampling and signal quantization, an auxiliary model based system identification method is presented by employing repeated stochastic empirical measurements. The model features of dual-rate sampling system are analyzed and a two-step identification strategy is presented under relaxed estimated error conditions.That the dual-rate quantized system based on repeated stochastic empirical measurements involves time-varying estimation error, and the persistent exciting condition for parameter identification is derived. The auxiliary model based quantized recursive identification algorithm for dual-rate sample quantized systems is also given. Convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm provides an upper bound value for parameter identification error estimation. The simulation results show the validity of the conclusions.

  7. Airway clearance therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisi, Giovanna; Chetta, Alfredo

    2009-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening inherited disease affecting Caucasian people. In CF, the major feature of lung disease is the retention of mucus due to impaired clearance of abnormally viscous airway secretions. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) may significantly improve mucociliary clearance and gas exchange, thereby being of clinical benefit in reducing pulmonary complications in CF patients. ACTs include conventional chest physiotherapy, active cycle of breathing techniques, autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure and high-frequency chest compression. In order to suit the needs of patients, families and care-givers, ACTs need to be individually and continuously adapted.

  8. Dual diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dual diagnosis denotes intertwining of intellectual disabilities with mental disorders. With the help of systematic examination of literature, intellectual disabilities are determined (they are characterized by subaverage intellectual activity and difficulties in adaptive skills), along side mental disorders. Their influence is seen in changes of thinking, perception, emotionality, behaviour and cognition. Mental disorders often occur with people with intellectual disabilities (data differs f...

  9. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...... nerve, however, only the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been demonstrated to be involved in stimulus-evoked K(+) clearance. The glial cell swelling associated with K(+) clearance is prevented under conditions that block the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter. The Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter...

  10. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  11. Determination of tooth clearances at trochoidal pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović, Lozica T.; Erić, Milan D.; Stojanović, Blaža Ž.; id_orcid 0000-0003-4790-2856; Ilić, Andreja B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a mathematical model of trochoidal gearing with clearances. Gearing of a trochoidal pump's gear set with an outer gear having one gear tooth more than an inner gear is analyzed. The inner gear tooth profile is described by peritrochoidal equidistance and the outer gear profile by a circular arc. Upon the basic principles of ideal profile generation, a mathematical model of gearing with clearances is developed. Using an analytical model, the calculation o...

  12. The evidence for secretion clearance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D R

    2001-11-01

    Many acute and chronic respiratory diseases are associated with increased respiratory secretions in the airways. Narrative reviews and a few systematic reviews of secretion clearance techniques have been published. These reviews raise concerns regarding the lack of evidence to support the various secretion clearance techniques. I conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the following subjects: chest physical therapy, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, forced expiratory technique, autogenic drainage, high-frequency chest wall compression, flutter device and secretions, positive expiratory pressure and secretions, intrapulmonary percussion, mechanical in-exsufflation and secretions. This was followed by a comprehensive search of cross-references to identify additional studies. The results of this review are reported herein. There are a number of methodological limitations of the literature reporting studies of the use of secretion clearance techniques. Most of the studies were small, most used crossover designs, and few used sham therapy. Many studies were limited to short-term outcomes such as sputum clearance with a single treatment session. Despite the clinical observation that retained secretions are detrimental to respiratory function and despite anecdotal associations between secretion clearance and improvements in respiratory function, there is a dearth of high-level evidence to support any secretion clearance technique.

  13. Human placenta as a 'dual' biomarker for monitoring fetal and maternal environment with special reference to potentially toxic trace elements. Part 1: physiology, function and sampling of placenta for elemental characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, G V; Rapp, A

    2001-12-03

    Choice of specimen from human subjects for monitoring pollutants proven to be detrimental to human health depends on the criteria chosen, namely real-time monitoring (RTM) or long-term monitoring (LTM). Specimens such as whole blood, urine, saliva and breast milk are commonly used from living subjects for RTM of toxic metals. However, sampling blood requires an invasive procedure. On the other hand, hair (with some limitations), bone (especially for the assessment of bone seeking elements), adipose tissue (mainly for organic pollutants) and liver (for both organic and inorganic toxicants) are used as specimens for LTM. With the exception of hair, generally these specimens are obtained at post-mortem. In context of health-related biomonitoring, placenta as a specimen has not received as much attention as it deserves. It is a unique sample requiring no invasive procedure, and offers possibilities for RTM, in particular as a dual purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. Obtaining representative samples of placenta for elemental composition studies is a difficult task, because of heterogeneous mix of placental cells and decidual matter tainted with maternal and fetal blood. Therefore, the present sampling practices for placental tissue, and guidelines to safeguard the validity of the sampled material have been reviewed in part 1 with the following conclusions: medico-legal and ethical matters should be properly addressed before collecting the placenta; it is advisable to collect the entire placenta even if it includes the umbilical cord; further preparatory work is to be carried out in a clean laboratory and depends upon the purpose of the investigation; homogenising the entire sample may prove to be technically challenging but this step is crucial to obtain representative samples, handling the entire sample may be unavoidable; and an alternative method of procuring representative samples would require random

  14. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...... fixed point. Remarkably this value is identical to the maximum bound predicted in the nonpertubative regime via the all-orders conjectured beta function for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories.......We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  15. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  16. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  17. 75 FR 38959 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  18. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  19. A prototype wireless inertial-sensing device for measuring toe clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel T H; Charry, E; Begg, R; Palaniswami, M

    2008-01-01

    Tripping and slipping are serious health concerns for the elderly because they result in life threatening injuries i.e., fractures and high medical costs. Our recent work in detection of tripping gait patterns has demonstrated that minimum toe clearance (MTC) is a sensitive falls risk predictor. MTC measurement has previously been done in gait laboratories and on treadmills which potentially imposes controlled walking conditions. In this paper, we describe a prototype design of a wireless device for monitoring vertical toe clearance. The sensors consists of a tri-axis accelerometer and dual-axis gyroscope connected to Crossbow sensor motes for wireless data transmission. Sensor data are transmitted to a laptop and displayed on a Matlab graphic user interface (GUI). We have performed zero base and treadmill experiments to investigate sensor performance to environmental variations and compared the calculated toe clearance against measurements made by an Optotrak motion system. It was found that device outputs were approximately independent of small ambient temperature variations, had a reliable range of 20m indoors and 50m outdoors and a maximum transmission rate of 20 packets/s. Toe clearance measurements were found to follow the Optotrak measurement trend but could be improved further by dealing with double integration errors and improving data transmission rates.

  20. Rapid clearance of Giardia lamblia DNA from the gut after successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bijllaardt, W; Overdevest, I T; Buiting, A G; Verweij, J J

    2014-11-01

    To assess the time it takes for a real-time PCR to become negative after treatment of a Giardia lamblia infection, we evaluated two consecutive follow-up samples from 75 infected patients. Approximately 1 week after treatment all samples tested negative, indicating rapid clearance of parasitic DNA after successful treatment.

  1. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between

  2. Reduced erythrocyte susceptibility and increased host clearance of young parasites slows Plasmodium growth in a murine model of severe malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E.; James, Kylie R.; Sebina, Ismail; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-05-01

    The best correlate of malaria severity in human Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection is the total parasite load. Pf-infected humans could control parasite loads by two mechanisms, either decreasing parasite multiplication, or increasing parasite clearance. However, few studies have directly measured these two mechanisms in vivo. Here, we have directly quantified host clearance of parasites during Plasmodium infection in mice. We transferred labelled red blood cells (RBCs) from Plasmodium infected donors into uninfected and infected recipients, and tracked the fate of donor parasites by frequent blood sampling. We then applied age-based mathematical models to characterise parasite clearance in the recipient mice. Our analyses revealed an increased clearance of parasites in infected animals, particularly parasites of a younger developmental stage. However, the major decrease in parasite multiplication in infected mice was not mediated by increased clearance alone, but was accompanied by a significant reduction in the susceptibility of RBCs to parasitisation.

  3. Clearance rates of jellyfish and their potential predation impact on zooplankton and fish larvae in a neritic ecosystem (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. J.; Moeslund, O.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    comparatively low. These data were used to assess the impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and fish larvae in Limfjorden, Denmark. Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish larvae and medusae was undertaken during the first half of 2003. Nine taxa of hydromedusae and 4 taxa of scyphomedusae were...... identified. Abundance estimates were combined with estimated clearance rates of individual medusae to calculate potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in Limfjorden. Copepoda was used as a model prey group to estimate the collective predation impact by all medusae. Medusa species with unknown...... clearance potential were given assumed clearance rate values, but the collective predation potential by these species was evaluated to be small. Hydromedusae dominated numerically and had their highest potential clearance impact in spring, but overall jellyfish clearance potential on copepods was low during...

  4. Characterizing clearance of helper adenovirus by a clinical rAAV1 manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Barbara A; Quigley, Paulene; Nichols, Gina; Moore, Christine; Pastor, Eric; Price, David; Ament, Jon W; Takeya, Ryan K; Peluso, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) are being developed as gene therapy delivery vehicles and as genetic vaccines, and some of the most scaleable manufacturing methods for rAAV use live adenovirus to induce production. One aspect of establishing safety of rAAV products is therefore demonstrating adequate and reliable clearance of this helper virus by the vector purification process. The ICH Q5A regulatory guidance on viral safety provides recommendations for process design and characterization of viral clearance for recombinant proteins, and these principles were adapted to a rAAV serotype 1 purification process for clinical vectors. Specific objectives were to achieve overall adenovirus clearance factors significantly greater than input levels by using orthogonal separation and inactivation methods, and to segregate adenovirus from downstream operations by positioning a robust clearance step early in the process. Analytical tools for process development and characterization addressed problematic in-process samples, and a viral clearance validation study was performed using adenovirus and two non-specific model viruses. Overall clearance factors determined were >23 LRV for adenovirus, 11 LRV for BVDV, and >23 LRV for AMuLV.

  5. Predicting Clearance Mechanism in Drug Discovery: Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefanus J; Allerton, Charlotte; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2015-12-01

    Early prediction of clearance mechanisms allows for the rapid progression of drug discovery and development programs, and facilitates risk assessment of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with drug interactions and pharmacogenomics. Here we propose a scientific framework--Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS)--which can be used to predict the predominant clearance mechanism (rate-determining process) based on physicochemical properties and passive membrane permeability. Compounds are classified as: Class 1A--metabolism as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with molecular weight (MW) ≤400 Da), Class 1B--transporter-mediated hepatic uptake as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), Class 2--metabolism as primary clearance mechanism (high permeability bases/neutrals), Class 3A--renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW ≤400 Da), Class 3B--transporter mediated hepatic uptake or renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), and Class 4--renal clearance (low permeability bases/neutrals). The performance of the ECCS framework was validated using 307 compounds with single clearance mechanism contributing to ≥70% of systemic clearance. The apparent permeability across clonal cell line of Madin - Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, with a cut-off of 5 × 10(-6) cm/s was used for permeability classification, and the ionization (at pH7) was assigned based on calculated pKa. The proposed scheme correctly predicted the rate-determining clearance mechanism to be either metabolism, hepatic uptake or renal for ~92% of total compounds. We discuss the general characteristics of each ECCS class, as well as compare and contrast the framework with the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS

  6. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-05

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications.

  7. Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Xiangyang DENG; Jingyi CHEN; Weiguang HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates effects of operating conditions, tip clearance sizes and external unsteady excitations on the unsteady tip clearance flow in an isolated axial compressor rotor by unsteady 3D Navier-Stokes simulations. The results show that the unsteady tip clearance vortex takes a periodic flow behavior in the rotor tip region. With the decrease of the flow coefficient, the unsteady tip clearance vortex is enhanced and its frequency becomes lower. A larger tip clearance size can cause bigger unsteady fluctuation amplitude and a lower fluctuation frequency of the tip clearance vortex at the near stall operating condition. The unsteady excitation with the natural frequency of the tip clearance vortex can enhance the unsteadiness of the tip clearance vortex and improve the overall rotor performance. The frequency of the unsteady tip clearance vortex is independent of external unsteady excitations with different frequencies.

  8. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  9. Gamma-variate plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Stefan; Henriksen, Ulrik L; Hansen, Hanne Boskov

    2016-01-01

    In patients with fluid retention, the plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA (Clexp obtained by multiexponential fit) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was undertaken to compare a gamma-variate plasma clearance (Clgv) with the urinary plasma clearance of (51) Cr......-EDTA (Clu ) in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. A total of 81 patients with cirrhosis (22 without fluid retention, 59 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51) Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 h. Clgv was determined from...... the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, obtained by a gamma-variate iterative fit. Clexp and Clu were determined by standard technique. In patients without fluid retention, Clgv , Clexp and Clu were closely similar. The difference between Clgv and Clu (Clgv - Clu = ΔCl) was mean -0...

  10. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  11. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or...

  14. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seven inches (for each airplane with nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically.... Positive clearance for airplanes using leaf spring struts is shown with a deflection corresponding to...

  15. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure was firstly developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of trace metal ions combining with ICP-OES. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed d-CPE can significantly eliminate the surfactant of Triton X-114 and successfully extend to the determination of water samples with good performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designed method is simple, high efficient, low cost, and in accordance with the green chemistry concept. - Abstract: A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH = 7.0, Triton X-114 = 0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ = 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, HNO{sub 3} = 0.8 mol L{sup -1}), the detection limits for Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion in water samples.

  16. College Course Grades for Dual Enrollment Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Jill D.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study compared college course grade outcomes, both during and after high school, of dual-enrollment students to those of traditional students. The study was based on a large, multiyear sample of Iowa high school and community college students. The results showed that while in high school, dual-enrollment students consistently outperformed…

  17. Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use.

  18. The clearance concept with special reference to determination of glomerular filtration rate in patients with fluid retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ulrik L; Henriksen, Jens H

    2015-01-01

    In subjects without fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of a renal filtration indicator (inulin, (99m) Tc-DTPA, (51) Cr-EDTA) is close to the urinary plasma clearance. Conversely, in patients with fluid retention (oedema, pleural effusions, ascites), there is a substantial discrepancy between the total plasma clearance and the urinary plasma clearance. This is owing to delayed indicator distribution to smaller or larger parts of the interstitial space, which in patients with ascites may simulate a peritoneal dialysator. In patients with fluid retention, urinary plasma clearance should be assessed to obtain a correct measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In theory, total plasma clearance with late samples (24-h, 48-h) may be applied in patients with fluid retention, but validation hereof has not been performed. Until such studies are completed, it is recommended that patients with fluid retention have their GFR measured by a urinary plasma clearance technique with controlled quantitative urinary sampling within a few hours after indicator injection.

  19. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng; Chen, Jianrong

    2012-11-15

    A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH=7.0, Triton X-114=0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ=2.0×10(-4) mol L(-1), HNO3=0.8 mol L(-1)), the detection limits for Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 μg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 μg L(-1) were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ion in water samples.

  20. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  1. Dynamics modeling and simulation of mechanism with joint clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zheng-feng; TIAN Hao; ZHAO Yang

    2010-01-01

    The existence of clearance in the joints of mechanisms system is inevitable.The movements of the real mechanism are deftection from the ideal mechanism due to the clearances and the motion accuracv is decreased.The effects of the hinge clearance on the crank and rocker mechanism system are studied.The svstem dynamics equation with clearance is presented.The contact dynamics model is established using the nonlinear equivalent spring-damp model and the friction effect is considered by using Coulomb friction model.Then the models are incorporated into ADAMS,and based on the model,large numbers numeric simulations are made.The regularity of contact forces in clearance are studied in detail.And the effects of clearance size.clearance friction on the mechanism dynamics characteristic are analyzed.The simulation resuhs Can predict the effects of clearance on the mechanism dynamics characteristic preferably.

  2. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  3. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  4. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J.; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  6. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on dual signal amplification process for p16(INK4a) cervical cancer detection in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangkaew, Pattasuda; Tapaneeyakorn, Satita; Apiwat, Chayachon; Dharakul, Tararaj; Laiwejpithaya, Somsak; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2015-12-15

    The p16(INK4a) (p16) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which has been evaluated in several studies as a diagnostic marker of cervical cancer. Immunostaining using p16 specific antibody has confirmed an over-expression of p16 protein in cervical cancer cells and its association with disease progression. This article reports an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for specific detection of p16 and demonstrates its performance for detection of solubilized p16 protein in cell lysates obtained from patients. Sandwich-based immunoreaction couple with double signal amplification strategy based on catalytic enlargement of particle tag was used for high sensitivity and specificity. The conditions were optimized to create an immunoassay protocol. Disposable screen-printed electrode modified with capture antibodies (Ab1) was selected for further implementation towards point-of-care diagnostics. Small gold nanoparticles (15 nm diameter) conjugated with detection antibodies (Ab2) were found to better serve as a detection label due to limited interference with antigen-antibody interaction. Double signal enhancement was performed by sequential depositions of gold and silver layers. This gave the sensitivity of 1.78 μA mL(ng GST-p16)(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.3 ng mL(-1) for GST-p16 protein which is equivalent to 0.49 ng mL(-1) for p16 protein and 28 cells for HeLa cervical cancer cells. In addition to purified protein, the proposed immunosensor effectively detected elevated p16 level in cervical swab samples obtained from 10 patients with positive result from standard Pap smear test, indicating that an electrochemical immunosensors hold an excellent promise for detection of cervical cancer in clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 512—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number for this part 512 is 2127-0025....

  8. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  9. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27.661 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  10. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Inspection and Clearance of Wildlife § 14.53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer...

  11. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1327 - OMB Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Clearance B Appendix B to Part 1327 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATING..., App. B Appendix B to Part 1327—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number of this regulation is OMB...

  12. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  13. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.23 Section 95.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance....

  14. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.527 Recording Statements of Clearance. On property disposals for...

  15. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29.661 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  16. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  17. 19 CFR 122.157 - Documents required for clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documents required for clearance. 122.157 Section 122.157 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... clearance. As a condition precedent to clearance, the aircraft commander shall present to Customs: (a)...

  18. 33 CFR 157.455 - Minimum under-keel clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum under-keel clearance. 157... § 157.455 Minimum under-keel clearance. (a) The owner or operator of a tankship, that is not fitted with... written under-keel clearance guidance that includes— (1) Factors to consider when calculating the...

  19. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  20. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  1. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  2. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.521 Limitations on clearance cost. The following principles...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main frame...

  4. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  5. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were m...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  7. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. Conciliators and arbitrators who are regularly assigned to DOE cases may be processed for “Q” clearance at...

  8. Guangzhou Customs Guide to Clearance of Import/Export Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Management of the Enterprises Granted for Convenient and Quick Customs Clearance 1.What is the enterprise granted for convenient and quick customs clearance? Customs General Administration and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation jointly issued policy measures to facilitate customs clearance in 2001 to further support the development of hightech industries.The enterprise .

  9. Simultaneous determination of hydride (Se) and non-hydride-forming (Ca, Mg, K, P, S and Zn) elements in various beverages (beer, coffee, and milk), with minimum sample preparation, by ICP-AES and use of a dual-mode sample-introduction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Wibetoe, Grethe [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Blindern (Norway)

    2005-05-01

    A method has been developed enabling direct analysis (i.e. after dilution only) of beer, instant coffee, milk, and milk powder by ICP-AES. Analysis of the beverages after dilution with a low concentration of HNO{sub 3} was used for accurate determination of essential minor and trace elements (Ca, Mg, K, P, S, and Zn). Selenium, introduced as the hydride, was determined simultaneously with the other non-hydride-forming elements using the commercial multi-mode sample-introduction system (MSIS). To obtain accurate results, however, some simple pre-treatment was needed. Analysis was also performed after microwave-assisted decomposition of the samples. Three different modes of sample-preparation, i.e. dilution only, partial decomposition (aqua regia treatment), and complete decomposition were compared. The results obtained by use of the three different sample-preparation methods were in very good agreement. Results from analysis of certified reference material (SRM 1459 non-fat milk powder) also verified the accuracy of the methods. The limit of detection obtained for Se using dual-mode sample introduction was 0.5 ng mL{sup -1}, which corresponds to approximately 2 ng g{sup -1} in beer and approximately 4 ng g{sup -1} in coffee and milk when using the recommended procedure. (orig.)

  10. ADSORBENTS USED IN THE CLEARANCE OF ENDOTOXIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei; LIU Tao; Hou Guanghui; YUAN Zhi

    2003-01-01

    A series of modified poly (methyl methacrylate, PMMA) resins were prepared and compared their adsorption abilities to endotoxin. The results showed that adsorbents, which were grafted with tertiary amine and long spacing arms, had the best adsorption capacities and good blood compatibility, It is hopeful to be used as adsorbent in hemoperfusion for clinical clearance of endotoxin. The influence of original concentration of endotoxin on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were also investigated.

  11. Airway clearance strategies for the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn L

    2002-07-01

    Clinicians who care for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have many techniques to choose from to facilitate mucus clearance. Little has been published about when to introduce the various techniques and in what order to teach them. Debates have occurred over these issues in the CF community, and there is now consensus on some topics. It is very important to teach adherence to therapy at an early age. Adherence to an airway clearing regimen assists in maintaining good pulmonary function in CF patients. Knowing when and how to introduce airway clearance techniques beyond chest physiotherapy (CPT) is clinically relevant and useful. A 5-position modified CPT routine can be used with infants and children, and it takes less time and may improve adherence. Infants and toddlers can be taught breathing games that eventually lead them to perform diaphragmatic breathing and huffing. Once they have mastered diaphragmatic breathing and huffing, children can be taught the active cycle of breathing technique. Modified CPT can be phased out at that point. Positive expiratory pressure therapy can usually be introduced around 6-7 years of age. High-frequency chest wall oscillation, oscillating positive expiratory pressure, and autogenic drainage all follow. CF patients should be given every opportunity to learn and master various techniques to promote mucus clearance.

  12. Beta 2-Microglobulin clearance as measured by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.

    1980-07-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 mu) in serum and urine. We incubated aliquots of diluted samples at room temperature for 1 h with /sup 125/I-labeled beta 2 mu and a rabbit antiserum monospecific for human beta 2 mu, and separated the phases by the double-antibody technique. The logit-log transformed dose-response curve was linear in the range 2 to 64 ng, equivalent to 0.5 to 16 mg/L of serum and 0.5 to 320 mg/L of urine. Assay sensitivity was 2.4 ng of beta 2 mu. Validation studies included tests of precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 25 normal individuals, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mg/L and 40 to 360 micrograms/24 h; the clearance of beta 2 mu was 8 to 130 microL/min. In 21 renal allograft recipients tested one to five weeks after transplantation, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 mg/L and 7.2 to 611 mg/24 h; beta 2 mu clearance was 0.60 to 33.3 mL/min. Values for both serum and urine correlated well with severity of allograft rejection.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere.

  14. [Ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffter, D; Reichlin, B; Gyr, K

    1981-05-30

    In 21 healthy volunteers the ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance (Cam/Ccr) was determined in urine collected at admission, after a 1-hour collection period and after a 2-hour collection period. The normal values were 1.8 +/- 1.6%, 1.9 +/- 2% and 2.0 +/- 1.7% respectively. They were comparable with those published by others. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable (r = 0.62). When compared with serum amylase determinations, Cam/Ccr showed neither better sensitivity in 19 patients suffering an acute episode of proven pancreatitis, nor better specificity in 19 patients with acute abdomen but no evidence of pancreatitis.

  15. The economics of landmine clearance in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Geoff

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of landmine clearance in Afghanistan. The main benefits comprise increased agricultural output, saved transport time and running costs, saved human casualties and the saved costs of supporting refugees and displaced persons. An investment of US$100 million between 1988 and 1998 is estimated to provide annual benefits of $50.3 million per annum between 1999 and 2008. This translates into net present values of between $935 and $1,744 million, depending on the rate of discount used. This contrasts with the negative NPVs estimated for several other countries.

  16. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...main molded blade with a span of 3.42 in., a removable molded blade segment with a span of 0.1875 in., and removable blade tip winglets made of glass...segment and the main blade to vary the distance between the blade end and the front wall of the cascade section. The winglets were machined using a

  17. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level.

  18. Hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in lactating northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melinda A; Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2008-09-01

    Northern elephant seals exhibit the rare strategy of fasting and lactating concomitantly. We investigated hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in northern elephant seals using glucose tolerance tests (GTT) performed early in lactation and again just prior to weaning. For comparison, identical measurements were made on separate females late in the molt fast. Serial blood samples were used to assess glucose clearance and hormone responses for 3 h post glucose injection. Plasma glucose remained elevated at the end of the sampling period in all groups. Glucose clearance rates were not significantly different among test groups. A significant insulin response was observed in early lactation, no significant response was observed late in lactation and an intermediate response was observed late in the molt fast. The insulin response to a glucose load decreased with adipose tissue proportions. Plasma glucagon decreased significantly following GTT in early and late lactation, although the magnitude of the depression was small in comparison to other species. Hypoinsulemia may be critical to facilitate net lipolysis late in lactation. Consistently low glucose clearance among test groups suggests insulin insensitivity within peripheral tissues. Glucagon suppression independent of insulin release suggests modification of the typical insulin-glucagon counter-regulation. These findings suggest that metabolic features of diabetic-like conditions may be adaptive in the context of long-term fasting.

  19. One-sample determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. An evaluation based on 75 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim. From a clinical point of view determination of glomerular filtration rate (clearance) is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the one-sample clearance to reference multiple-sample (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in consecutively referred children suspected of ...

  20. Physiotherapy for airway clearance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, J A

    1999-12-01

    Techniques for augmenting, when necessary, the normal mucociliary and cough clearance mechanisms of the lungs are not new, but, in more recent years, techniques have been developed which are effective, comfortable and can be used independent of an assistant in the majority of adolescents and adults. Postural drainage with chest clapping and chest shaking has, in most parts of the world, been replaced by the more effective techniques of the active cycle of breathing, autogenic drainage, R-C Cornet, Flutter, positive expiratory pressure mask, high-frequency chest wall oscillation and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation. Glossopharyngeal breathing is being considered again and is often a useful technique for increasing the effectiveness of cough in patients with tetraplegia or neuromuscular disorders. The evidence in support of these techniques is variable, and the literature is confusing and conflicting. There may or may not be significant differences among the techniques in the short or long term. Many of the regimens now include the forced expiratory manoeuvre of a "huff" and this has probably increased the effectiveness of airway clearance. If objective differences are small, individual preferences and cultural influences may be significant in increasing adherence to treatment and in the selection of an appropriate regimen or regimens for an individual patient.

  1. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Svsg; Quadar, Mohammed Akhil; Veluru, Sindhuri

    2016-01-01

    Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate), filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate), and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy) groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  2. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVSG Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. Objectives: To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate, filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate, and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Results: Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dark chocolate had a high fall in pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  3. DOD Personnel Clearances. DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... Delays in determining eligibility for a clearance can heighten the risk that classified information will be disclosed to unauthorized sources, increase contract costs, and pose problems in attracting...

  4. Dual use of tobacco among Bangladeshi men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dual use of tobacco (using smoking and smokeless forms in Bangladesh is uncommon in women but common in men. Dual users are at additional risk of cancers and heart diseases compared with a single form of tobacco use. Knowledge about their socioeconomic background is necessary for planning appropriate interventions. We report here socioeconomic background of the dual users of tobacco from a nationally representative survey. Methods: The study adopted a probability proportionate to size sampling technic of divisional population stratified into urban and rural areas to recruit men aged 25 years or older from their households. A total of 4312 men were recruited. Variables included questions on 20 household assets, tobacco use and other behavioral risk factors, and measurement of body weight and height. Results: The average age of dual users was 46.7 years old compared to 43.4 and 52.3 years for smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Prevalence of "smoking only," "smokeless only" and "dual use" of tobacco was 40.6%, 15.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Among all tobacco users, dual users constituted 20%. These dual users had lower educational achievement, rural residence, lower intake of fruit, and higher intake of alcohol. They were more undernourished as indicated by a thin body mass index compared to nonusers and smokers. Dual users were of socioeconomically deprived as measured by wealth quartiles constructed out of household assets. Conclusion: Dual use of tobacco is common in Bangladesh, and it is intimately linked with socioeconomic deprivation. Poverty reduction strategy and campaigns should address tobacco control not only tobacco in general, but its dual use in particular.

  5. Hepatic and Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Are Differentially Regulated: Results From a Novel Model-Based Analysis of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David C; Bergman, Richard N; Chung, Stephanie T; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    Insulin clearance is a highly variable and important factor that affects circulating insulin concentrations. We developed a novel model-based method to estimate both hepatic and extrahepatic insulin clearance using plasma insulin and C-peptide profiles obtained from the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Data from 100 African immigrants without diabetes (mean age 38 years, body weight 81.7 kg, fasting plasma glucose concentration 83 mg/dL, and fasting insulin concentration 37 pmol/L) were used. Endogenous insulin secretion (calculated by C-peptide deconvolution) and insulin infusion rates were used as inputs to a new two-compartment model of insulin kinetics and hepatic and extrahepatic clearance parameters were estimated. Good agreement between modeled and measured plasma insulin profiles was observed (mean normalized root mean square error 6.8%), and considerable intersubject variability in parameters of insulin clearance among individuals was identified (the mean [interquartile range] for hepatic extraction was 25.8% [32.7%], and for extrahepatic insulin clearance was 20.7 mL/kg/min [11.7 mL/kg/min]). Parameters of insulin clearance were correlated with measures of insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response to glucose. The method described appears promising for future research aimed at characterizing variability in insulin clearance and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of insulin clearance.

  6. CSF clearance in Alzheimer Disease measured with dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-03-16

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) comes from primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents where predominant extra-cranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Using dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F-THK5117 a tracer for tau pathology, the ventricular CSF time activity was used as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested three hypotheses: 1. Extra-cranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; 2. CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and 3. CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: 15 subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers were examined with (18)F-THK5117. 10 subjects additionally received (11)C-PiB PET scans and 8 were PiB positive. Ventricular time activity curves (TAC) of (18)F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated TAC from extra-cranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF positive extra-cranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinates CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA...... clearance in the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with documented prior spontaneous HCV clearance, and at least one subsequently collected plasma sample, were examined. The last sample was tested for HCV RNA and those with HCV RNA ≥ 615 IU/mL were defined as having HCV recurrence...

  8. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  9. A case of delayed methotrexate clearance following administration of a complementary medication containing chlorophyll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sally L; Sanders, Julie; Seymour, John F; Mellor, James D

    2014-06-01

    A 54-year-old male with relapsed primary cerebral lymphoma and normal renal function was treated with methotrexate (MTX) 3 g/m(2) monthly by intravenous infusion. Throughout treatment the patient self-administered a complementary medicine (Jason Winter's chlorophyll®), which he was advised to cease during methotrexate treatment due to the potential for unknown interactions. For the first four cycles, chlorophyll was ceased two days prior to commencement of methotrexate and withheld until clearance. These cycles were administered without complication, and the methotrexate level reduced to chlorophyll was not ceased and there were no changes to concomitant medications. A literature search found no documented interactions between methotrexate and chlorophyll and the chemotherapy was administered without a delay in treatment. The methotrexate level three days post-administration was 0.36 µmol/L and did not reduce to chlorophyll 48 h prior to methotrexate administration until clearance. There were no further episodes of delayed methotrexate clearance. No impurities were detected in a sample of Jason Winter's chlorophyll®. It is therefore likely that the patient's delayed methotrexate clearance was due to an interaction with chlorophyll. It is recommended that such chlorophyll containing preparations be avoided in patients treated with methotrexate.

  10. [Mucociliary clearance function and medicamentous modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, F

    1996-09-01

    Mucociliary clearance represents a complex self-cleaning mechanism of the lung and is based on the functional unity of ciliated columnar cells and the special viscoelastic properties of the secretion produced in the tracheobronchial system. It has been known for a long time that intubation and mechanical ventilation can impair mucous transport and lead to morphological damage to the tracheobronchial mucosa. Recent studies made it clear, however, that mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia using an appropriate anaesthesiological technique has no deleterious effect on mucus transport in patients with healthy lungs. Ventilated patients in the intensive-care unit frequently have impaired mucus transport, which is associated with the development of retention of secretion and nosocomial pneumonia. In these patients a number of factors combine to form a formidable potential insult to the mucociliary transport mechanism. Numerous drugs can affect mucociliary transport. Beta-mimetics and theophylline, in particular, have a favourable effect on mucociliary transport, whereas the effect of mucolytic agents is controversial.

  11. Ocular silicon distribution and clearance following intravitreal injection of porous silicon microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R; Cheng, Lingyun

    2013-11-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles have been investigated for intravitreal drug delivery and demonstrated good biocompatibility. With the appropriate surface chemistry, pSi can reside in vitreous for months or longer. However, ocular distribution and clearance pathway of its degradation product, silicic acid, are not well understood. In the current study, rabbit ocular tissue was collected at different time point following fresh pSi (day 1, 5, 9, 16, and 21) or oxidized pSi (day 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35) intravitreal injection. In addition, dual-probe simultaneous microdialysis of aqueous and vitreous humor was performed following a bolus intravitreal injection of 0.25 mL silicic acid (150 μg/mL) and six consecutive microdialysates were collected every 20 min. Silicon was quantified from the samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The study showed that following the intravitreal injection of oxidized pSi, free silicon was consistently higher in the aqueous than in the retina (8.1 ± 6.5 vs. 3.4 ± 3.9 μg/mL, p = 0.0031). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the retina was only about 24% that of the aqueous. The mean residence time was 16 days for aqueous, 13 days for vitreous, 6 days for retina, and 18 days for plasma. Similarly, following intravitreal fresh pSi, free silicon was also found higher in aqueous than in retina (7 ± 4.7 vs. 3.4 ± 4.1 μg/mL, p = 0.014). The AUC for the retina was about 50% of the AUC for the aqueous. The microdialysis revealed the terminal half-life of free silicon in the aqueous was 30 min and 92 min in the vitreous; the AUC for aqueous accounted for 38% of the AUC for vitreous. Our studies indicate that aqueous humor is a significant pathway for silicon egress from the eye following intravitreal injection of pSi crystals.

  12. Delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (≥ 72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ≥ 72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time

  13. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  14. 10 CFR 95.53 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.53 Section 95.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.53 Termination of facility...

  15. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  16. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  17. 30 CFR 77.514 - Switchboards; passageways and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Switchboards; passageways and clearance. 77.514 Section 77.514 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.514 Switchboards; passageways and clearance....

  18. 33 CFR 160.115 - Withholding of clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withholding of clearance. 160.115... § 160.115 Withholding of clearance. Each District Commander or Captain of the Port may request the Secretary of the Treasury, or the authorized representative thereof, to withhold or revoke the...

  19. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section 93.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency,...

  20. 48 CFR 245.7310-8 - Antitrust clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust clearance. 245.7310-8 Section 245.7310-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Antitrust clearance. When property with an acquisition cost of $3 million or more is to be sold, include...

  1. 5 CFR 720.307 - Interagency report clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency report clearance. 720.307 Section 720.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Interagency report clearance. The reports contained in this regulation have been cleared in accordance...

  2. 24 CFR 58.22 - Limitations on activities pending clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on activities pending clearance. 58.22 Section 58.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... clearance. (a) Neither a recipient nor any participant in the development process, including public...

  3. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in...

  4. Do dialysate conductivity measurements provide conductivity clearance or ionic dialysance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, T

    2006-11-01

    Dialysate conductivity measurements allow on-line estimation of urea clearance during hemodialysis session. Conductivity measurements provide a value of 'conductivity clearance' for some authors, but a value of 'ionic dialysance' for others. This paper aims at explaining which term should be the more appropriate. Clearance is a parameter defined for measuring the power of a mechanism, which aims at 'clearing' a solution by depurating some solutes. In hemodialysis, clearance measures the efficacy of patient's depuration. In contrast, dialysance measures the capability of transferring solutes between blood and dialysate. The conventional definition of dialysance, requiring the absence of convective transfer, should be generalized to the case of the usual presence of ultrafiltration during the hemodialysis session. For a solute (as urea) absent from the dialysate delivered to the dialyzer inlet, the clearance is equal to its dialysance. In order to avoid a dramatic fall in ionic concentrations during hemodialysis treatment, the clearance of ions is reduced by adding these ions in the dialysate and becomes lower than their dialysance. Conductivity measurements provide a value of electrolytes dialysance. Thus the term of 'ionic dialysance' is more appropriate than the term of 'conductivity clearance'. Nevertheless ionic dialysance represents a good estimation of urea clearance.

  5. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  6. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue

    2015-01-01

    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance.

  7. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation of clearance. 151.1508 Section 151.1508 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  8. Lung fluid clearance in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Lawrence, Mark D; Cavallaro, Elena; Rubino, Vito; Bersten, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv) consistently leads to alveolocapillary barrier thickening and reduction in the filtration coefficient. In animal models of chronic heart failure (CHF) the lung remains dry despite hydrostatic forces. As fluid flux is bi-directional, it has been postulated that an increase in alveolar fluid clearance may facilitate the dry lung when Pmv is chronically elevated. In this study we aimed to examine alveolar fluid clearance in ambulatory patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared against non-CHF controls. Lung clearance following aerosol delivery of (99m)technetium (Tc)-diethyl triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was measured non-invasively by scintigraphy and half time of (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (T (1/2)) was calculated by mono-exponential curve fit. Alveolar fluid clearance measured as half time DTPA clearance was significantly faster in CHF patients than controls (P=0.001). This was further defined by NYHA classification. No correlation was found between DTPA clearance and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine or aldosterone hormone (P>0.05). Our results support an association between increasing alveolar fluid clearance and disease severity in CHF, and the concept of controlled bi-directional fluid flux in CHF associated with increasing Pmv, and represents another defence mechanism of the lung against pulmonary oedema. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 50 CFR 14.55 - Exceptions to clearance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to clearance requirements. 14... Wildlife § 14.55 Exceptions to clearance requirements. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to... specimens or parts thereof taken as a result of sport hunting. ...

  10. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  11. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... to fall in the sitting position, and fell significantly to 26 +/- 5 ml/min (p less than 0.025) in walking subjects. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption rate of fluid correspondingly rose from 83 +/- 16 to 92 +/- 15 ml/min (p less than 0.005) and sodium clearance fell from 1.52 +/- 0.81 to 1.00 +/- 0...

  12. Numerical simulation and optimization of clearance in sheet shearing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦泗吉; 李洪波; 彭加耕; 李硕本

    2003-01-01

    An analysis model to simplify the shearing and blanking process was developed. Based on the simplified model, the shearing process was simulated by FEM and analyzed for various clearances. An optimum clearance in the process was determined by new approach based on orientation of the maximum shearing stress on the characteristic line linking two blades, according to the law of crack propagation and experiments. The optimum clearance determined by this method can be used to dictate the range of reasonable clearance. By the new approach, the optimum clearance can be obtained conveniently and accurately even if there is some difference between the selected points, where the initial crack is assumed originated, and the actual one, where the initial crack occurs really.

  13. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  14. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  15. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  16. Voltammetric and mathematical evidence for dual transport mediation of serotonin clearance in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wood, Kevin M; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain's functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression...

  17. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  18. Conventional measurements of GFR using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA overestimate true renal clearance by 10 percent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Park-Holohan, So-Jin; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Guy' s Hospital, St Thomas Street, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    It is widely believed that measurement of the area under the plasma clearance curve (AUC) following a single intravenous injection of chromium-51 labelled ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) is a gold standard method for determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, there are reports that {sup 51}Cr-EDTA may have a significant extrarenal clearance. The aim of this study was to identify the non-renal component of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA plasma clearance contributing to the AUC measurement of GFR. Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, range 45-79 years) were injected with 3 MBq {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and 0.25 MBq iodine-125 labelled human serum albumin and 11 blood samples taken between 0 and 4 h through an indwelling venous cannula. For the first 21 subjects, two complete urine collections were made 0-2 h and 2-4 h after injection, and for the final 49 patients, four 1-h urine collections were made. The mean {sup 51}Cr-EDTA total plasma clearance was 84 ml/min (range 50-132 ml/min). The mean ratio (SEM) of urine to total clearance determined from the cumulative 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-h data was 0.903 (0.018), 0.891 (0.013), 0.898 (0.011) and 0.899 (0.010) respectively and remained constant despite the mean urine concentration decreasing from 122% to 15%/litre during this period. A least squares fit to data from the 238 individual urine collections was used to determine the fraction of the total plasma clearance attributable to renal clearance, {alpha}{sub 0}, and the residual urine volume, {delta}V. The results were {alpha}{sub 0}=0.910 (95% CI: 0.889-0.932) and {delta}V=14 ml (95% CI: -4 to +34 ml). The overestimation of the true renal clearance of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA by the AUC method is believed to be due to the failure of the plasma clearance curve to reach the true terminal exponential by 2 h after injection as usually assumed. As a result, conventional measurements of GFR using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA overestimate the true renal clearance of tracer

  19. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  20. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  1. Inter-individual variation in midazolam clearance in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Mohammed I; Sammons, Helen; Choonara, Imti

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent of inter-individual variation in clearance of midazolam in children and establish which factors are responsible for this variation. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify papers describing the clearance of midazolam in children. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. From the papers, the range in plasma clearance and the coefficient of variation (CV) in plasma clearance were determined. Results 25 articles were identified. Only 13 studies gave the full range of clearance values for individual patients. The CV was greater in critically ill patients (18%–170%) than non-critically ill patients (13%–54%). Inter-individual variation was a major problem in all age groups of critically ill patients. The CV was 72%–106% in preterm neonates, 18%–73% in term neonates, 31%–130% in infants, 21%–170% in children and 47%–150% in adolescents. The mean clearance was higher in children (1.1–16.7 mL/min/kg) than in neonates (0.78–2.5 mL/min/kg). Conclusions Large inter-individual variation was seen in midazolam clearance values in critically ill neonates, infants, children and adolescents. PMID:25281734

  2. The Dual Career Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  3. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  4. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions are...

  5. Self-Dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Self-dual gravity is a diffeomorphism invariant theory in four dimensions that describes two propagating polarisations of the graviton and has a negative mass dimension coupling constant. Nevertheless, this theory is not only renormalisable but quantum finite, as we explain. We also collect various facts about self-dual gravity that are scattered across the literature.

  6. Optical dual self functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 王宁

    1997-01-01

    A recipe to construct the exact dual self-Fourier-Fresnel-transform functions is shown, where the Dirac comb function and transformable even periodic function are used. The mathematical proof and examples are given Then this kind of self-transform function is extended to the feasible optical dual self-transform functions.

  7. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  8. Research on Dual Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Fucai Qian; Peilin Fu

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress by the authors in developing two solution frameworks for dual control. The first solution framework considers a class of dual control problems where there exists a parameter uncertainty in the observation equation of the LQG problem. An analytical active dual control law is derived by a variance minimization approach. The issue of how to determine an optimal degree of active learning is then addressed, thus achieving an optimality for this class of dual control problems. The second solution framework considers a general class of discrete-time LQG problems with unknown parameters in both state and observation equations. The best possible (partial) closed-loop feedback control law is derived by exploring the future nominal posterior probabilities, thus taking into account the effect of future learning when constructing the optimal nominal dual control.

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TIP-CLEARANCE FLOW IN CASCADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The tip-clearance flow in a cascade was numerically simulated by solving the RANS equations of incompressible fluids. The computational model was based upon the artificial compressibility formulation proposed by Chorin. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was used to make the governing equations closed. For the specific structure of tip-clearance flow, a multi-block grid structure was adopted to facilitate numerical computations. The comparison of numerical results with experimental data indicates that the present method is capable of simulating tip-clearance flows with satisfactory accuracy.

  10. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Clearance of xenon-133 from bone marrow in patients with small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Friberg, L; Jensen, J

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate bone-marrow blood flow (BMBF) in man and to correlate this with myelosuppression induced by cytostatic treatment dosed as a function of surface area. Twenty-four patients suffering from small-cell lung cancer participated in the study. Blood flow was measured...... with the xenon-133 washout technique. The 133Xe clearance measurement took place in conjunction with the pre-treatment bone-marrow staging procedure (ad modern Radner). Tissue samples were taken for microscopy and for the determination of the blood-to-tissue partition coefficient lambda. After the bone...... found, but microscopy of the bone marrow showed a fairly large admixture of peripheral blood. Therefore, the lambda values should be taken with caution and absolute blood-flow values were not calculated. The results demonstrated no correlation between 133Xe clearance from crista iliaca and leucocyte...

  12. Natural History of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Mexican Schoolchildren: Incidence and Spontaneous Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Ximena; Vilchis, Jenny; Mera, Robertino; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Goodman, Karen J.; Mendoza, Maria-Eugenia; Navarro, Fabiola; Roque, Victoria; Moran, Segundo; Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and spontaneous clearance rate of Helicobacter pylori infection and the effect of some variables on these outcomes in schoolchildren. Methods From May 2005 to December 2010, 718 schoolchildren enrolled in 3 public boarding schools in Mexico City participated in the follow-up. At the beginning of the study and every 6 months thereafter, breath samples were taken to detect H pylori infection; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were taken to evaluate nutritional status. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected. Results The prevalence of H pylori infection was 38%. The incidence rate was 6.36%/year. Schoolchildren with anemia or iron deficiency at the beginning of the study (who received iron supplements) showed a higher infection acquisition rate than those with normal iron nutritional status, hazard ratio (HR) 12.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.01%–39.12%), P <0.001 and HR 2.05 (95% CI 1.09%–3.87%), P = 0.027, respectively. The spontaneous clearance rate of the infection was 4.74%/year. The spontaneous clearance rate was higher in children who had iron deficiency (who received iron supplements), HR 5.02 (95% CI 1.33%–18.99%), P = 0.017, compared with those with normal nutritional iron status. It was lower in schoolchildren with ≥2 siblings compared with schoolchildren with 1 or no siblings, HR 0.23 (95% CI 0.08%–0.63%), P = 0.004. Conclusions H pylori infection status is dynamic in schoolchildren. Variables related to health status and infection transmission, such as iron status and number of siblings, are important for the incidence and spontaneous clearance of H pylori infection. PMID:22227999

  13. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R

    1983-01-01

    into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...... in the exposure chamber to investigate a possible acute change in liver function and was repeated two weeks later, shortly before the summer vacation. Antipyrine clearance was measured again at the end of the summer vacation-four weeks after exposure. To study a possible effect of chronic exposure on antipyrine...... clearance 12 printing trade workers with 17 years (median) of occupational exposure to toluene vapour at concentrations of about 100 ppm were investigated before and four weeks after cessation of exposure. No difference in antipyrine clearance was found either within the groups or between the groups at any...

  14. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Patrick G.

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  15. The compliance contact model of cylindrical joints with clearances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caishan Liu; Ke Zhang; Lei Yang; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determination of the normal force-displacement (NFD) relation for the contact problem of cylindrical joints with clearance. A simple formulation for this contact problem is developed by modeling the pin as a rigid wedge and the elastic plate as a simple Winkler elastic foundation. The numerical results show that the normal displacement relation based on Hertz theory is only valid for the case of large clearance with a small normal load, and the NFD relation based on Persson theory is only effective in the case of very small clearance. The proposed approximate model in this paper gives better results than Hertz theory and Persson theory in a large range of clearances as seen from the comparison with the results of FEM.

  16. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  17. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  18. Enhancement of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, R; Neuray, F; Van Melsen, A; Delcourt, A

    1979-01-01

    The renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance (Cam/-Ccr), was determined in 131 women in various stages of pregnancy. No abnormal serum levels of amylase were found. A moderate but significant increase in Cam/Ccr occurred during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes for this change were investigated in smaller groups of subjects. No increase in rapidly cleared isoamylase could be detected. No modification in renal tubular handling of protein could be evidenced, as assessed by measurements of the renal clearance of beta 2 microglobulin, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance. An incrased glomerular permeability to amylase probably accounts for elevated Cam/Ccr in pregnancy.

  19. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following...

  20. Antibody-Mediated Clearance of Alphavirus Infection from Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Beth; Hardwick, J. Marie; Trapp, Bruce D.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Griffin, Diane E.

    1991-11-01

    Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression.

  1. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  2. Airway clearance techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadnik, Christian R; McDonald, Christine F; Jones, Arthur P; Holland, Anne E

    2012-03-14

    Cough and sputum production are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) aim to remove sputum from the lungs, however evidence of their efficacy during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) or stable disease is unclear. To assess the safety and efficacy of ACTs for individuals with AECOPD and stable COPD. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to October 2011, and PEDro in October 2009. We included randomised parallel trials and randomised cross-over trials which compared an ACT to no treatment, cough or sham ACT in participants with investigator-defined COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Two review authors independently conducted data extraction and assessed the risk of bias. We analysed data from studies of AECOPD separately from stable COPD, and classified the effects of ACTs as 'immediate' (less than 24 hours), 'short-term' (24 hours to eight weeks) or 'long-term' (greater than eight weeks). One subgroup analysis compared the effects of ACTs that use positive expiratory pressure (PEP) to those that do not. Twenty-eight studies on 907 participants were included in the review. Study sample size was generally small (range 5 to 96 people) and overall quality was generally poor due to inadequate blinding and allocation procedures. Meta-analyses were limited by heterogeneity of outcome measurement and inadequate reporting of data.In people experiencing AECOPD, ACT use was associated with small but significant short-term reductions in the need for increased ventilatory assistance (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.85; data from four studies on 171 people), the duration of ventilatory assistance (mean difference (MD) -2.05 days, 95% CI -2.60 to -1.51; mean duration for control groups seven days; data from two studies on 54 people) and hospital length of stay (MD -0.75 days, 95% CI -1.38 to -0

  3. Fluid damping clearance in a control valve of injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianming; ZHANG Weigang; YANG Bing; WANG Yawei

    2007-01-01

    A force model of a control valve of injector is set up, and the changes of the fluid damping clearance are investigated on the basis of the results of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the experiments of control valve of injector. Results indicate that a damping clearance of 0.02-0.03 mm between the poppet and the valve guide is the most sufficient to dampen any excessive control valve poppet bouncing.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid clearance in Alzheimer disease measured with dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Leon, Mony J.; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribrif......Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing...

  5. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  6. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  7. Experimental study on fluid flow in arciform clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 汤卉; 贾慧娟

    2002-01-01

    The system damping and dynamic characteristics can be further improved by properly increasing thedamping coefficient ξh. For a special hydraulic damping structure, an arciform damping clearance often used inFCS, a mathematical model has been established for fluid flow using the theory of laminar flow in the clearanceof parallel plates. Analytical calculations are made for fluid flow in the arciform clearance and relational expres-sion is deduced for flow rate along the arciform cleaance height, pressure difference, maximum arciform clear-ance height, the flow rate for the fluid flow in arciform clearance as well, and its simplified formula is obtainedby using the theory of hydrodynamics and the curve - fitting method. This paper consists of two sections: the firstsection focuses on the theoretical analysis by using the simplified mathematical model and the second sectionmainly describes experimental analysis. The simplified formula is corrected with experimental results by consid-erig various boundary conditions of the damping clearance. Experimental results show that this study of arciformdamping clearance is reliable and practical.

  8. Design of Data Abandoned Dual-port RAM Based on FPGA and Application in High-speed Data Sampling System%基于FPGA的数据遗弃式双口RAM的设计及其在数据采样中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张问谦; 王时胜

    2012-01-01

    This article designs a kind of data abandoned dual-port RAM based on FPGA,and introduces its application in data sampling.The dual-port RAM has some merits,such as memory not large,data saving faster and so on,and more important is that the data its memory always is data of the latest time slice.Then it combine with AD976,which is a piece of 16-bit A/D converter,to construct a kind of high-speed data sampling system that to carry out faster data sampling.%本文设计了一种基于FPGA的数据遗弃式双口RAM,并介绍了其在高速数据采样中的应用。这种双口RAM有存储量不大、数据存储快等优点,更重要的是其存储的数据始终是系统最新时间片的数据。然后结合AD转换芯片AD976A构建一种高速数据采样系统,实现系统的快速采样。

  9. Effects of regular exercise and dual tasking on spatial and temporal parameters of obstacle negotiation in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, E C; da Rocha, E S; Mota, C B; Carpes, F P

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of regular exercise and dual tasking on bilateral spatial and temporal parameters of obstacle negotiation in elderly women. Sedentary (n=12) and physically active (n=12) elderly women volunteered to participate in this study. Gait kinematics were recorded during obstacle crossing when performing a dual task and when not performing a dual task. Physically active participants crossed obstacles more safely, in terms of clearance or distance to or over the obstacle, both with and without dual tasking, and usually for both lead and trail legs. Performing the dual task increased toe distance, and decreased heel distance and gait speed in the active participants, and increased toe clearance and heel distance, and decreased gait speed in the sedentary participants. Differences between preferred and non-preferred leg were accentuated for toe clearance in the lead limb. These results suggest that specialized exercises may not be needed for improvement in obstacle avoidance skills in the elderly, and participation in multi-activities, including aerobic exercises, may be sufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exogenous L-lactate clearance in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro, Pedro; Wilkins, Pamela A; McMichael, Maureen A; Dirikolu, Levent; Lascola, Kara M; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Boston, Raymond C

    2012-10-01

    To determine endogenous production of L-lactate and the clearance of exogenous sodium L-lactate (ExLC) in healthy adult horses. A sodium L-lactate solution (1 mmol/kg body weight qs to 500 mL final volume in 0.9% NaCl) was adminstered IV over 15 minutes. Blood samples for L-lactate concentration [LAC] measurement were collected immediately prior to infusion, at 5, 10, and 15 minutes during infusion and at 1 minute intervals for 15 minutes, at 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 minutes postinfusion. Disposition modeling and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using proprietary software. University Teaching Hospital. Six clinically healthy adult horses. Median (range) baseline [LAC] was 0.43 (0.20-0.72) mmol/L for samples obtained every 3 hours over the 24 hours prior to ExLC and demonstrated variability primarily associated with horse. Median [LAC] immediately prior to ExLC was 0.43 (0.35-0.52) mmol/L. A 2-compartment model was used to specify the pharmacokinetic parameters. Median (range) ExLC was 1.05 (0.073-1.75) L·h(-1) ·kg(-1) and t(1/2) β was 29.54 (20.8-38.6) min. Median lactate production based on basal [LAC] immediately prior to ExLC was was 0.49 (0.31-0.93) mmol·h(-1) ·kg(-1) . ExLC in healthy adult horses is greater than that of hyperlactemic human patients but similar to normolactemic-sick human patients examined using the same model, supporting development of species, and disease specific ExLC parameters. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  11. Walkable dual emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Hai-Bing; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Walkable dual emissions, in which the emission bands of the walker reversibly cross or leave those of the stationary ones depending on temperature and concentration, have been demonstrated in cyclic...

  12. Preparation of Hemodialyzer Made from Polyethersulfone Membrane by Dual-bath Coagulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The dual-bath coagulation method was used for the preparation of PES membrane in this experiment . The main intent of this study was to assess the efforts of gelation conditions on the structures and properties .The dense top layer as well as porous supporting layer can be made by dnel-bath coagulation method simultaneously. Different internal quench medium obtained different membrane with different structures. With the increase in time in the first coagulation bath, pure water flux decreased and the clearance rates of urea and creatirine both first increased then decreased and increased slightly in the end. With the temperature of the second coagulation bath increasing, pure water flux increases and the clearance rates of urea and creatinine first increases then decreases and increases a little at last. Higher DMSO concentration ( wt/ wt ) in the second coagulation bath results in the increase of pure water flux and the decrease of urea & creatinine clearance rates.

  13. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  14. Influence of Cold Exposure on Ventilation, Respiratory Heat Loss, and Pulmonary Deposition/Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-25

    13 Particle Deposition in the Lung. .......... 15 Particle Clearance from the Airways . ........ 17 REFERENCES.........................21 III... airways and lung. Should hypoventilation result in increased deposition or decreased clearance , it could not be considered advantageous in this regard, but...cold and cold-induced hypoventilation upon the clearance rate of particles from the upper airways is addressed in Chapter V. Nasal clearance rate was

  15. Carbon Fiber-gold/mercury Dual-electrode Detection for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon fiber-gold/mercury dual-electrode for capillary electrophoresis is constructed. Cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid and uric acid can be detected simultaneously and selectively at the dual-electrode, respectively. The capillary electrophoresis / dual-electrode detection system has been used to determine these compounds in human blood samples.

  16. Evaluation of terrain geomorphometric characteristics for ground clearance charts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko A. Borisov

    2011-01-01

    into the standard military procedure OCOKA (Observation and fields of fires; Cover and concealment; Obstacles and movement; Key terrain; Avenues of approach. A few parameters of relief significantly influencing the possibilities for cover and concealment (visibility, slope and aspect were included into the definition of the model of terrain spatial analysis The morphometric data included in partial assessment categories were determined on the basis of the digital model relief analysis and by using GIS tools and given morphometric relief exploration methods. Analysis of vegetation effects on ground clearance for military forces Vegetation, in addition to terrain slope, presents one of the main factors in cross-country analyses and ground clearance assessments. In classification and extraction of vegetation from satellite images, numerous algorithms of two basic classification types, supervised and unsupervised classification, are applied. Supervised classification requires the identification of cover types of interest by user. Samples of pixels are then selected, based on available ground real information to represent each cover type. These samples are called training areas. The selection of appropriate training areas is based on the analyst's familiarity with the geographical area and his knowledge of the actual surface cover types presented in the image. Thus, the analyst 'supervises' the categorization of a set of specific classes. Unsupervised classification basically reverses the supervised classification process. Spectral classes are grouped first, based solely on the numerical information in the data, and then they are matched by the analyst to information classes (if possible. Programs, called clustering algorithms, are used to determine the natural (statistical groupings or structures in the data. The analyst usually specifies how many groups or clusters are to be looked for in the data. In addition to specifying the desired number of classes, the analyst may

  17. Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski

    2003-06-29

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.

  18. Continuous plasma perfusion of dual cartridges in series: rationale and early clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Yan, Peng-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Wei, Lu-Qing; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of plasma perfusion on eliminating plasma paraquat (PQ), we designed continuous plasma perfusion of dual cartridges in series (CPPDCS) on Diapact Braun CRRT machine. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effective of CPPDCS on paraquat removal in patients with acute paraquat intoxication. Our results show that the PQ clearance rate of dual cartridges was significantly higher than that of single cartridge at 1st, 2nd, 3(rd), and 4th plasma perfusion. Compared with single-cartridge plasma perfusion, CPPDCS significantly reduced the frequency of cartridge replacement, shorten the time of perfusion. These results indicate that CPPDCS is effective than plasma perfusion of single cartridge on PQ clearance rate and may provide an effective treatment for PQ poisoning.

  19. Effect of surface-active substance on nasal mucociliary clearance time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, K E; Svane-Knudsen, V

    1993-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance measured by saccharin clearance time is depending on ciliary function and on the physiological characteristics of mucus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of surface-active substances changed the mucociliary transport time. Twenty healthy persons...... were manually sprayed with surface-active substance in one of their nose cavities. The saccharin clearance time was measured before spraying and statistically compared with saccharin clearance time after spraying. Saccharin clearance time was significantly shortened immediately after spraying...

  20. Hepatic Clearance Prediction of Nine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate-limiting step in the overall hepatic clearance of the marketed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) in rats by predicting the experimentally determined hepatic in vivo clearance of these drugs based on in vitro clearance values for uptake and/or metabolism. In vitro uptake and metabolic clearance values were determined in suspended rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. In vivo hepatic clearance was determined afte...

  1. Application of the efficiency tracing method to the liquid scintillation metrology of 3H and 14C dual-labelled samples; Aplicacion del metodo de la figura de merito a la metrologia por centelleo liquido de muestras doblemente marcadas con 3H y 14C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Casallo, M. T.; Los Arcos, J. M.; Grau, A.

    1989-07-01

    Two calculation procedures have been tested for the application of the efficiency tracing method to the activity determination of 3H and 14C dual- -labelled samples in the liquid scintillation metrology. A procedure Ieads to the statement of a linear equations system as a function of the quenching parameter, while the other one uses a least-square algorithm to fit the total count rate against the quenching parameter. The first procedure is strongly sensitive to the statistical uncertainty on the partial efficiencies and produces discrepancies which may reach more than 100% compared to the real values. The second procedure leads to more reliable results, showing discrepancies between 0.1% and 0.6% for the 3H activity and between 0.6% and 5% for the 14C activity, as that the efficiency tracing method can be applied to the metro- logy of dual-labelled samples of 3H and 14C by means of this procedure. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Exaggerated natriuresis and lithium clearance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Kanters, J K; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    Since hypertension is associated with changes in the handling of various cations (including sodium and lithium) across the cell membrane, the present study investigated the validity of the lithium clearance method in hypertension by comparing two measures of proximal reabsorption. Thus, fractional...... lithium excretion and transit time (TT)-occlusion time (OT; e-TT/T) were determined successively in the same spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, Okamoto strain). The rats were examined both before and after an acute saline load. The results show that the lithium clearance method can be used...... for the determination of proximal reabsorption in SHR. Utilizing the lithium clearance method, the changes in renal sodium handling underlying the exaggerated natriuresis were investigated in unanaesthetized catheterized rats. It was found that the exaggerated natriuresis was associated with an increased output from...

  3. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi [St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-09-15

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ({sup 198}Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  4. Fiber-optic laser Doppler turbine tip clearance probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades.

  5. Cervical spine clearance in obtunded patients after severe polytrauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong-xing; LI Ming

    2009-01-01

    To provide clinicians with data support-ing three different clearance techniques in the obtunded patients after severe polytrauma, Methods: This study gave an overview of the avail-able and pertinent literature regarding cervical spine clear-ance in obtunded patients after severe polytrauma. Results: Currently, there were three accepted tech-niques for clearance of the cervical spine in obtunded pa-tients after severe polytrauma. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages to both of the patients and the clinicians. Condusions: There are continuous improvements in both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that increase their sensitivities. The continued use of plain radiographs is called into ques-tion with respect to cost and time requirements. An algo-rithmic approach to the evaluation of the cervical spine in the obtunded patients will lead to fewer missed injuries.

  6. Improving mucociliary clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Angshu; Chahal, Kamaljeet; Austin, Gillian; Chakravorty, Indranil

    2009-04-01

    Patients with COPD usually experience mucus hypersecretion as a result of airway inflammation and response to noxious stimuli. These in turn lead to worsening airway resistance, impaired airflow, increased work of breathing, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Mucus hypersecretion may also lead to increased exacerbations and poor health related quality of life (HRQL). Institution based pulmonary rehabilitation programs incorporating airway clearance techniques have been shown to improve HRQL, reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance but are often difficult to provide due to restricted accessibility and resource implications. This review examines the current evidence base and best clinical practice in the area of airway clearance. Mechanical devices such as the flutter valves, positive end expiratory pressure and high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) may be able to provide the benefits of improved airway clearance in the patient's home potentially with reduced demands on healthcare resources.

  7. APPLICATION OF DSM IN OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURVEYING OF AERODROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM, digital surface model (DSM receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  8. Application of Dsm in Obstacle Clearance Surveying of Aerodrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.; Lv, S. H.; Li, L. L.; Zhou, X. J.; Wang, H. Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM), digital surface model (DSM) receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  9. Quinidine does not affect the renal clearance of moxonidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen D; Chan, Clark; Schaefer, Hans G; He, Minxia M; Pouliquen, Isabelle J; Mitchell, Malcolm I

    2002-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that the renal clearance of moxonidine decreases when dosed with quinidine. Methods A randomized, two-period study was conducted with six healthy, male subjects orally dosed with either 0.2 mg moxonidine alone or 1 h after 400 mg quinidine sulphate. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis method. Results When coadministered, quinidine significantly increased moxonidine AUC and t1/2 by 11% and 15%, respectively, and decreased CL/F by 10% compared with the control dosing. CLR and Aeur were not significantly different. Clinically, both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Quinidine does not affect the renal clearance of moxonidine. The decrease in apparent total clearance of moxonidine with quinidine coadministration was possibly due to metabolic inhibition, though not likely to be clinically significant. PMID:12236844

  10. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M

    1994-10-01

    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the end of exposure, and the fiber numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant difference in length of residual ceramic fibers in the lungs was found among the groups. The geometric mean diameter and number of ceramic fibers, however, decreased according to the clearance period. These findings suggest that the fibers were dissolved at their surface.

  11. Genetic Variation in the IL-6 and HLA-DQB1 Genes Is Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ravi Waldron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Millions of people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV worldwide and 30% spontaneously clear the infection. Reasons for HCV clearance without antiviral treatment are not well understood. Methods. Blood was collected for DNA analysis from patients with chronic HCV infection or evidence of spontaneous clearance. To overcome anticipated limitations of small sample size, primary analyses consisted of a candidate gene analysis of 12 preselected genes based on known association with host immunologic response to HCV infection. To further reduce the impact of multiple testing on power, a single likelihood ratio test was conducted for each gene using all associated SNPs assayed on the Illumina Quad 610/660W chip. Step-down permutation methods were used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses. Results. Ninety-five and 62 patients with HCV chronic infection or spontaneous clearance, respectively, were included for analysis. HLA-DQB1 (p=1.76⁎10-5 and IL-6 (p=0.0007 genes were significantly associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. IL-28B was not significantly associated with spontaneous clearance (p=0.17. Conclusion. Our whole-gene analytic strategy identified a previously unreported association of IL-6 with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. We also confirmed the finding that HLA-DQB1 is associated with spontaneous resolution of HCV infection.

  12. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  13. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and tubular proteinuria in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankisch, P G; Wolfrum, D I; Koop, H; Winckler, K

    1979-01-01

    Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (CAm/CCr), urinary protein concentration and urinary protein pattern were studied in 102 samples from 27 patients with acute pancreatitis and in 46 controls. Raised CAm/CCr, proteinuria and a tubular protein pattern were present in 74, 56 and 96% of the patients, respectively. However, CAm/CCr and proteinuria and CAm/CCr and tubular protein pattern were not correlated. These results do not support the suggestion that an elevated CAm/CCr in acute pancreatitis is due to generalized tubular protein reabsorption failure presenting with tubular proteinuria.

  14. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...... to improve clearance of airway secretions from the lungs. The utility of MCC/CC as a biomarker for disease progression and therapeutic intervention is gaining increased recognition as a valuable tool in the clinical research community. A number of investigators currently active in using MCC/CC for diagnostic...

  15. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  16. Derivation methods for clearance levels applied to reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Seki, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    In order to support the discussion by the Nuclear Safety Commission, JAERI derived the unconditional clearance levels for concrete and metal arising from the operation and dismantling of nuclear reactors. The clearance levels of 20 radionuclides were derived from 10 {mu}Sv/y of individual doses by deterministic approach. In this approach, calculation models were established to assess individual doses resulting from 73 exposure pathways related to disposal and recycle/reuse, and realistic parameter values were selected considering Japanese natural and social conditions. The appropriateness of selected parameter values was confirmed by stochastic analyses. (author)

  17. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 mo...

  18. Total plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Hansen, Hanne B; Ring-Larsen, Helmer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim. In patients with fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA (ClP) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was therefore undertaken in order to compare ClP with the urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA (ClU) in patients...... with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. Material and methods. A total of 136 patients with cirrhosis (24 without fluid retention, 112 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51)Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 hours. ClP was determined from...... the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, extrapolated to infinity. ClU was determined as urinary excretion relative to the plasma concentration-time area up to voiding. Results. In patients without fluid retention, the difference between ClP and ClU (ClP - ClU = ClΔ) was mean 4.5 m...

  19. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  20. Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice D. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups. t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P=0.005. Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks.

  1. Commuting Dual Toeplitz Operators on the Polydisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Feng LU; Shu Xia SHANG

    2007-01-01

    On the polydisk, the commutativity of dual Toeplitz operators is studied. We obtain characterizations of commuting dual Toeplitz operators, essentially commuting dual Toeplitz operators and essentially semi-commuting dual Toeplitz operators.

  2. 轴承游隙计算分析%Analysis and calculation of bearing clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉朋

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the original common bearing clearance, installation clearance,clearance work,what used to solve bearing in C0,C3 clearance clearance work group size,select the project for future reference bearing clearance.%本文通过分析常用轴承的原始游隙,安装游隙,工作游隙,来求解一下常用轴承在C0,C3游隙组中的工作游隙的大小,作为以后项目选取轴承游隙的参考。

  3. EMS Adherence to a Pre-hospital Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, David

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the degree of adherence to a cervical spine (c-spine clearance protocol by pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS personnel by both self-assessment and receiving hospital assessment, to describe deviations from the protocol, and to determine if the rate of compliance by paramedic self-assessment differed from receiving hospital assessment. Methods: A retrospective sample of pre-hospital (consecutive series and receiving hospital (convenience sample assessments of the compliance with and appropriateness of c-spine immobilization. The c-spine clearance protocol was implemented for Orange County EMS just prior to the April-November 1999 data collection period. Results: We collected 396 pre-hospital and 162 receiving hospital data forms. From the pre-hospital data sheet. the percentage deviation from the protocol was 4.096 (16/396. Only one out of 16 cases that did not comply with the protocol was due to over immobilization (0.2%. The remaining 15 cases were under immobilized, according to protocol. Nine of the under immobilized cases (66% that should have been placed in c-spine precautions met physical assessment criteria in the protocol, while the other five cases met mechanism of injury criteria. The rate of deviations from protocol did not differ over time. The receiving hospital identified 8.0% (13/162; 6/16 over immobilized, 7/16 under immobilized of patients with deviations from the protocol; none was determined to have actual c-spine injury. Conclusion: The implementation of a pre-hospital c-spine clearance protocol in Orange County was associated with a moderate overall adherence rate (96% from the pre-hospital perspective, and 92% from the hospital perspective, p=.08 for the two evaluation methods. Most patients who deviated from protocol were under immobilized, but no c-spine injuries were missed. The rate of over immobilization was better than previously reported, implying a saving of resources.

  4. Quality by design approach for viral clearance by protein a chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Miesegaes, George R; Lee, Michael; Coleman, Daniel; Yang, Bin; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Norling, Lenore; Lester, Philip; Brorson, Kurt A; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely used as a capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification processes. Antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can be efficiently purified from the majority of other complex components in harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF). Protein A chromatography is also capable of removing modest levels of viruses and is often validated for viral clearance. Historical data mining of Genentech and FDA/CDER databases systematically evaluated the removal of model viruses by Protein A chromatography. First, we found that for each model virus, removal by Protein A chromatography varies significantly across mAbs, while remains consistent within a specific mAb product, even across the acceptable ranges of the process parameters. In addition, our analysis revealed a correlation between retrovirus and parvovirus removal, with retrovirus data generally possessing a greater clearance factor. Finally, we describe a multivariate approach used to evaluate process parameter impacts on viral clearance, based on the levels of retrovirus-like particles (RVLP) present among process characterization study samples. It was shown that RVLP removal by Protein A is robust, that is, parameter effects were not observed across the ranges tested. Robustness of RVLP removal by Protein A also correlates with that for other model viruses such as X-MuLV, MMV, and SV40. The data supports that evaluating RVLP removal using process characterization study samples can establish multivariate acceptable ranges for virus removal by the protein A step for QbD. By measuring RVLP instead of a model retrovirus, it may alleviate some of the technical and economic challenges associated with performing large, design-of-experiment (DoE)—type virus spiking studies. This approach could also serve to provide useful insight when designing strategies to ensure viral safety in the manufacturing of a biopharmaceutical product. PMID:23860745

  5. Reproducibility of CSF quantitative culture methods for estimating rate of clearance in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Jonathan; Akampurira, Andrew; Rhein, Joshua; Morawski, Bozena M; Kiggundu, Reuben; Nabeta, Henry W; Musubire, Abdu K; Bahr, Nathan C; Williams, Darlisha A; Bicanic, Tihana; Larsen, Robert A; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures provide a measure of disease severity in cryptococcal meningitis. The fungal clearance rate by quantitative cultures has become a primary endpoint for phase II clinical trials. This study determined the inter-assay accuracy of three different quantitative culture methodologies. Among 91 participants with meningitis symptoms in Kampala, Uganda, during August-November 2013, 305 CSF samples were prospectively collected from patients at multiple time points during treatment. Samples were simultaneously cultured by three methods: (1) St. George's 100 mcl input volume of CSF with five 1:10 serial dilutions, (2) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) method using 1000, 100, 10 mcl input volumes, and two 1:100 dilutions with 100 and 10 mcl input volume per dilution on seven agar plates; and (3) 10 mcl calibrated loop of undiluted and 1:100 diluted CSF (loop). Quantitative culture values did not statistically differ between St. George-ACTG methods (P= .09) but did for St. George-10 mcl loop (P< .001). Repeated measures pairwise correlation between any of the methods was high (r≥0.88). For detecting sterility, the ACTG-method had the highest negative predictive value of 97% (91% St. George, 60% loop), but the ACTG-method had occasional (∼10%) difficulties in quantification due to colony clumping. For CSF clearance rate, St. George-ACTG methods did not differ overall (mean -0.05 ± 0.07 log10CFU/ml/day;P= .14) on a group level; however, individual-level clearance varied. The St. George and ACTG quantitative CSF culture methods produced comparable but not identical results. Quantitative cultures can inform treatment management strategies.

  6. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  7. Further training in the fields of radiological characterisation and clearance; Weiterbildung auf den Gebieten radiologische Charakterisierung und Freigabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M. [VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik und Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Feinhals, J. [DMT GmbH und Co.KG, Hamburg (Germany); Neukaeter, E. [BKW Energie AG, Muehleberg (Switzerland). KKW Muehleberg

    2016-07-01

    Radiological characterisation and clearance require specific knowledge and skills. Targeted further training of the staff is one possibility to get this knowledge and skills. A modular concept was established, which allows adaption to specific requests of the institution and state of knowledge and skills of participants. The modules have following focuses: ''radiological characterisation and clearance'', ''sampling'' and ''measurement and sampling plans'' and consist half-and-half of lectures and group works. In group works participants apply new knowledge to examples of the installation or simulated scenarios and afterwards they present and discuss the results. This concept was carried out for different institutions and is planned for some more.

  8. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M-1 cm-1 and 1.5 × 108 M-1 cm-1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  9. OMB Forms Clearance: Restrictions on Educational Research Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Donald L.

    Forms Clearance standards and regulations are used by the Office of Management and Budget and by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in order to upgrade the quality of federal data collection, to minimize cost, minimize reporting burden, maximize utility, and to protect the privacy rights of respondents.…

  10. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  11. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter...

  12. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organized, chartered or incorporated under the laws of any country other than the United States or its... pose an undue risk to the common defense and security as a result of its access to classified... of the government agency(ies) that granted or will be granting those clearances; and (5) A summary...

  13. Functional interferon system is required for clearance of lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Poussard, Allison L; Seregin, Alexey V; Walker, Aida G; Smith, Jennifer K; Aronson, Judith F; Smith, Jeanon N; Soong, Lynn; Paessler, Slobodan

    2012-03-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LF) in humans, a deadly disease endemic to West Africa that results in 5,000 to 10,000 deaths annually. Here we present results demonstrating that functional type I and type II interferon (IFN) signaling is required for efficient control of LASV dissemination and clearance.

  14. Dependence between temperature and clearance rate of Balanion comatum Wulff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rychert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The dependence between temperature and clearance rate of the ciliate Balanion comatum Wulff 1919 was assessed in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. Five in situ experiments were carried out with the use of wheat starch as a surrogate of food particles. The clearance rate rose from 1.4 to 7.0 µl cell-1 h-1 with a temperature rise from 8 to 19°C. B. comatum preferred particles of size 1.9-4.4 µm, and the clearance rates calculated for the preferred particles were consistently higher than those measured for the whole range of particles ingested (Wilcoxon's signed rank test, p = 0.04. The exponential dependence between temperature and clearance rates for preferred particles was statistically significant (R2 = 0.86, p = 0.02 and enabled the Q10 coefficient to be calculated. This amounted to 2.9 and lay within the range of typical values. The linear dependence (also drawn for preferred particles demonstrated a higher significance (R2 = 0.91, p = 0.02, indicating the linear dynamics of the process.

  15. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  16. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  17. 19 CFR 4.61 - Requirements for clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../examination of the vessel, cargo, passenger, or crew. Report of departure together with providing information... vessel agent or other personal representative of the master. Necessary information may also be transmitted electronically pursuant to a system authorized by Customs. Clearance will be granted by Customs...

  18. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  19. In Vivo Renal Clearance, Biodistribution, Toxicity of Gold nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiu; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Fei-Yue; Fan, Sai-Jun; 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.03.020

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have shown great prospective in cancer diagnosis and therapy, but they can not be metabolized and prefer to accumulate in liver and spleen due to their large size. The gold nanoclusters with small size can penetrate kidney tissue and have promise to decrease in vivo toxicity by renal clearance. In this work, we explore the in vivo renal clearance, biodistribution, and toxicity responses of the BSA- and GSH-protected gold nanoclusters for 24 hours and 28 days. The BSA-protected gold nanoclusters have low-efficient renal clearance and only 1% of gold can be cleared, but the GSH-protected gold nanoclusters have high-efficient renal clearance and 36 % of gold can be cleared after 24 hours. The biodistribution further reveals that 94% of gold can be metabolized for the GSH-protected nanoclusters, but only less than 5% of gold can be metabolized for the BSA-protected nanoclusters after 28 days. Both of the GSH- and BSA-protected gold nanoclusters cause acute infection, inflammation, and kidney fu...

  20. Model of mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kurbatova (Polina); N. Bessonov; V. Volpert; H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); C. Cornu (Catherine); P. Nony; D. Caudri (Daan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMucus clearance is a primary innate defense mechanism in the human airways. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CF is characterized by dehydration of airway surface

  1. Determinant factor for clearance of ceramic fibres from rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M

    1992-03-01

    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles from lungs are known to be important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of alumina silicate ceramic fibres from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibre particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 4.2 micron, for six hours a day, five days a week for two weeks. The average exposure concentration was 20.7 (standard deviation (SD) 4.5) mg/m3. The rats were killed at one day, three months, and six months after the end of exposure, and the fibre numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant differences in number and geometric mean length of residual ceramic fibres in the lungs were found between the groups. The geometric mean diameter, however, decreased according to the duration of the clearance period. These findings suggest that solubility of fibre contributes most in the clearance of the inhaled ceramic fibres from the lungs.

  2. Multistage Axial Compressor Program on Tip Clearance Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    clearance differs from previous studies in that the main emphasis lies on measure- ment of the secondary flow rather than the tip gap flow and the flow...however in both approaches there is a strong tendancy to focus on the gap flow as the primary loss mechanism. It is not entirely clear that this is the

  3. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C after Liver and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Dale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV is rare in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation. It has been recognized that patients receiving liver transplantation for HCV-related disease have decreased graft and patient survival compared with those transplanted for other etiologies. There is a growing trend toward treating HCV recurrence aggressively after liver transplantation. For other organ transplant recipients with concurrent HCV, treatment is not often an option, given the high rates of graft rejection and loss secondary to interferon and its immunomodulatory effects. Although spontaneous clearance of HCV has been reported in recipients of solitary liver and renal transplants, a common factor arising in these cases has been previous exposure to interferon. To date, no reports of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA have been reported in a multiorgan transplant recipient. A case of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA in an immunocompromised patient, within five months of simultaneous liver and kidney retransplantation is described. Importantly, this patient had no previous exposure to interferon.

  4. Metabolism of nanomaterials in vivo: blood circulation and organ clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; He, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue

    2013-03-19

    Before researchers apply nanomaterials (NMs) in biomedicine, they need to understand the blood circulation and clearance profile of these materials in vivo. These qualities determine the balance between nanomaterial-induced activity and unwanted toxicity. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics: they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and their highly active contact interfaces exhibit diverse functionalities. Any new and unexpected circulation features and clearance patterns are of great concern in toxicological studies and pharmaceutical screens. A number of studies have reported that NMs can enter the bloodstream directly during their application or indirectly via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Due to the small size of NMs, the blood can then transport them throughout the circulation and to many organs where they can be stored. In this Account, we discuss the blood circulation and organ clearance patterns of NMs in the lung, liver, and kidney. The circulation of NMs in bloodstream is critical for delivery of inhalable NMs to extrapulmonary organs, the delivery of injectable NMs, the dynamics of tissue redistribution, and the overall targeting of drug carriers to specific cells and organs. The lung, liver, and kidney are the major distribution sites and target organs for NMs exposure, and the clearance patterns of NMs in these organs are critical for understanding the in vivo fate of NMs. Current studies suggest that multiple factors control the circulation and organ clearance of NMs. The size, shape, surface charge, surface functional groups, and aspect ratio of NMs as well as tissue microstructures strongly influence the circulation of NMs in bloodstream, their site-specific extravasation, and their clearance profiles within organs. Therefore structure design and surface modification can improve biocompatibility, regulate the in vivo metabolism, and reduce the toxicity of NMs. The biophysicochemical interactions

  5. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-03-02

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit.

  6. A novel, Q-PCR based approach to measuring endogenous retroviral clearance by capture protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Lute, Scott; Norling, Lenore; Hong, Connie; Safta, Aurelia; O'Connor, Deborah; Bernstein, Lisa J; Wang, Hua; Blank, Greg; Brorson, Kurt; Chen, Qi

    2009-04-01

    Quantification of virus removal by the purification process during production is required for clinical use of biopharmaceuticals. The current validation approach for virus removal by chromatography steps typically involves time-consuming spiking experiments with expensive model viruses at bench scale. Here we propose a novel, alternative approach that can be applied in at least one instance: evaluating retroviral clearance by protein A chromatography. Our strategy uses a quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay that quantifies the endogenous type C retrovirus-like particle genomes directly in production Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture harvests and protein A pools. This eliminates the need to perform spiking with model viruses, and measures the real virus from the process. Using this new approach, clearance values were obtained that was comparable to those from the old model-virus spike/removal approach. We tested the concept of design space for CHO retrovirus removal using samples from a protein A characterization study, where a wide range of chromatographic operating conditions were challenged, including load density, flow rate, wash, pooling, temperature, and resin life cycles. Little impact of these variables on CHO retrovirus clearance was found, arguing for implementation of the design space approach for viral clearance to support operational ranges and manufacturing excursions. The viral clearance results from Q-PCR were confirmed by an orthogonal quantitative product-enhanced reverse transcriptase (Q-PERT) assay that quantifies CHO retrovirus by their reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that protein A chromatography is a robust retrovirus removal step and CHO retrovirus removal can be directly measured at large scale using Q-PCR assays.

  7. Rapid hepatic clearance of full length CCN-2/CTGF: a putative role for LRP1-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, K G F; Bovenschen, N; Nguyen, T Q; Sprengers, D; Koeners, M P; van Koppen, A N; Joles, J A; Goldschmeding, R; Kok, R J

    2016-12-01

    CCN-2 (connective tissue growth factor; CTGF) is a key factor in fibrosis. Plasma CCN-2 has biomarker potential in numerous fibrotic disorders, but it is unknown which pathophysiological factors determine plasma CCN-2 levels. The proteolytic amino-terminal fragment of CCN-2 is primarily eliminated by the kidney. Here, we investigated elimination and distribution profiles of full length CCN-2 by intravenous administration of recombinant CCN-2 to rodents. After bolus injection in mice, we observed a large initial distribution volume (454 mL/kg) and a fast initial clearance (120 mL/kg/min). Immunosorbent assay and immunostaining showed that CCN-2 distributed mainly to the liver and was taken up by hepatocytes. Steady state clearance in rats, determined by continuous infusion of CCN-2, was fast (45 mL/kg/min). Renal CCN-2 clearance, determined by arterial and renal vein sampling, accounted for only 12 % of total clearance. Co-infusion of CCN-2 with receptor-associated protein (RAP), an antagonist of LDL-receptor family proteins, showed that RAP prolonged CCN-2 half-life and completely prevented CCN-2 internalization by hepatocytes. This suggests that hepatic uptake of CCN-2 is mediated by a RAP-sensitive mechanism most likely involving LRP1, a member of the LDL-receptor family involved in hepatic clearance of various plasma proteins. Surface plasmon resonance binding studies confirmed that CCN-2 is an LRP1 ligand. Co-infusion of CCN-2 with an excess of the heparan sulphate-binding protamine lowered the large initial distribution volume of CCN-2 by 88 % and reduced interstitial staining of CCN-2, suggesting binding of CCN-2 to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Protamine did not affect clearance rate, indicating that RAP-sensitive clearance of CCN-2 is HSPG independent. In conclusion, unlike its amino-terminal fragment which is cleared by the kidney, full length CCN-2 is primarily eliminated by the liver via a fast RAP-sensitive, probably LRP1-dependent

  8. 77 FR 19673 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To Conduct Voluntary Customer/Partner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To... and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Generic Clearance to Conduct... strategy in ] accomplishing reinvention goals is the ability to periodically receive input and...

  9. 78 FR 56222 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance OMB... disadvantaged students) are taught by teachers participating in an alternative route to certification...

  10. 78 FR 67344 - Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance; Extension of Public Comment Period; Correction AGENCY: Department of... comment for an information collection entitled, ``Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance,''...

  11. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  12. First order formalism for the holographic duals of defect CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Yegor [KdV Institute for Mathematics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); School of Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-24

    We develop a first order formalism for constructing gravitational duals of conformal defects in a bottom up approach. Similarly as for the flat domain walls a single function specifies the solution completely. Using this formalism we construct several novel families of analytic solutions dual to conformal interfaces and boundaries. As a sample application we study the boundary OPE and entanglement entropy for one of the found defects.

  13. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to un- derstand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\\sigma}/E $\\approx$ 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.

  14. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  15. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  16. Dual Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  17. Dual-comb MIXSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S. M.; Zaugg, C. A.; Klenner, A.; Mangold, M.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2015-03-01

    We present a single semiconductor disk laser simultaneously emitting two different gigahertz modelocked pulse trains. A birefringent crystal inside a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface-emitting laser (MIXSEL) separates the cavity beam into two spatially separated beams with perpendicular polarizations on the MIXSEL chip. This MIXSEL then generates two orthogonally polarized collinear modelocked pulse trains from one simple straight cavity. Superimposing the beams on a photo detector creates a microwave beat signal, representing a strikingly simple setup to down-convert the terahertz optical frequencies into the electronically accessible microwave regime. This makes the dual-comb MIXSEL scheme an ultra-compact and cost-efficient candidate for dual-comb spectroscopy applications.

  18. 10 CFR 95.20 - Grant, denial or termination of facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant, denial or termination of facility clearance. 95.20 Section 95.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... termination of facility clearance. The Division of Security Operations shall provide notification in...

  19. 77 FR 66794 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Master Address File (MAF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... of each activity conducted. The generic clearance enables OMB to review our overall strategy for MTdb... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Master Address File... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Census Bureau presently operates a generic clearance...

  20. Postprandial chylomicron clearance rate in late teenagers with diabetes mellitus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, WM; Odink, RJ; Rouwe, C; Stellaard, F; Westers, M; Vonk, RJ; Sauer, PJJ; Verkade, HJ

    2001-01-01

    A delayed chylomicron (CM) clearance rate, a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, has been described in adults with diabetes type I (DMI). We determined the CM clearance rate in late teenagers with DM1, and the relationship between CM clearance rate and elevated plasma lipid concentrations in DMI

  1. Railway Tunnel Clearance Inspection Method Based on 3D Point Cloud from Mobile Laser Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mei, Xi; Yin, Wangling; Lin, Chunfeng; Hu, Qingwu; Mao, Qingzhou

    2017-09-07

    Railway tunnel clearance is directly related to the safe operation of trains and upgrading of freight capacity. As more and more railway are put into operation and the operation is continuously becoming faster, the railway tunnel clearance inspection should be more precise and efficient. In view of the problems existing in traditional tunnel clearance inspection methods, such as low density, slow speed and a lot of manual operations, this paper proposes a tunnel clearance inspection approach based on 3D point clouds obtained by a mobile laser scanning system (MLS). First, a dynamic coordinate system for railway tunnel clearance inspection has been proposed. A rail line extraction algorithm based on 3D linear fitting is implemented from the segmented point cloud to establish a dynamic clearance coordinate system. Second, a method to seamlessly connect all rail segments based on the railway clearance restrictions, and a seamless rail alignment is formed sequentially from the middle tunnel section to both ends. Finally, based on the rail alignment and the track clearance coordinate system, different types of clearance frames are introduced for intrusion operation with the tunnel section to realize the tunnel clearance inspection. By taking the Shuanghekou Tunnel of the Chengdu-Kunming Railway as an example, when the clearance inspection is carried out by the method mentioned herein, its precision can reach 0.03 m, and difference types of clearances can be effectively calculated. This method has a wide application prospects.

  2. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; P. Genova; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.(INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia, Italy)

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to understand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in n...

  3. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  4. Multiwavelet sampling theorem in Sobolev spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to establish the multiwavelet sampling theorem in Sobolev spaces. Sampling theorem plays a very important role in digital signal communication. The most classical sampling theorem is Shannon sampling theorem, which works for bandlimited signals. Recently, sampling theorems in wavelets or multiwavelets subspaces are extensively studied in the literature. In this paper, we firstly propose the concept of dual multiwavelet frames in dual Sobolev spaces (H s (R) , H-s (R)). Then we construct a special class of dual multiwavelet frames, from which the multiwavelet sampling theorem in Sobolev spaces is obtained. That is, for any f ∈ H s (R) with s > 1/2, it can be exactly recovered by its samples. Especially, the sampling theorem works for continuous signals in L 2 (R), whose Sobolev exponents are greater than 1 /2.

  5. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  6. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  7. Numerical analysis of bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; XU Huai-jin; ZHANG Guang-hui

    2008-01-01

    Bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance were analyzed. An air film thickness model and a bearing theoretical analytical model were developed accounting for air compressibility and foil deformation. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of bump foil beatings with different operating eccentricities, the air film thickness equation and Reynolds equation were coupled through pressure and solved by Newton-Raphson Method(NRM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). The characteristics of an bump foil bearing model were dis-cussed including load carrying capacity, film thickness and pressure distributions. The results of simulation show that bump foil beating without nominal radial clearance can provide better stability and greater load capaci-ty. This numerical analytical method also reveals a good convergence in numerical calculation.

  8. Nonlinear dynamic characteristic analysis of jointed beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Hong-Wei; Liu, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Kou, Zi-Ming; Deng, Zong-Quan

    2016-12-01

    The impact and elasticity of discontinuous beams with clearance frequently affect the dynamic response of structures used in space missions. This study investigates the dynamic response of jointed beams which are the periodic units of deployable structures. The vibration process of jointed beams includes free-play and impact stages. A method for the dynamic analysis of jointed beams with clearance is proposed based on mode superposition and instantaneous static deformation. Transfer matrix, which expresses the relationship of the responses before and after the impact of jointed beams, is derived to calculate the response of the jointed beams after a critical position. The dynamic responses of jointed beams are then simulated. The effects of various parameters on the displacement and velocity of beams are investigated.

  9. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients.

  10. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2014-03-01

    The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.

  11. Guangzhou Customs Guide to "Local Declaration & Port Clearance"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.Characteristic of the supervision mode of "Local Declaration & Port Clearance" This new mode means that the consignor,consignee or agent (hereafter referred to as "declarant") could choose any competent customs under the jurisdiction of Guangzhou Customs to make declaration and go through the formalities of document-checking and duty-paying,and then finish the cargo-examination and cargo-release at the customs office of entry or exit.

  12. Dextran fractional clearance studies in acute dengue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nguyen-Pouplin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although increased capillary permeability is the major clinical feature associated with severe dengue infections the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Dextran clearance methodology has been used to investigate the molecular sieving properties of the microvasculature in clinical situations associated with altered permeability, including during pregnancy and in various renal disorders. In order to better understand the characteristics of the vascular leak associated with dengue we undertook formal dextran clearance studies in Vietnamese dengue patients and healthy volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out serial clearance studies in 15 young adult males with acute dengue and evidence of vascular leakage a during the phase of maximal leakage and b one and three months later, as well as in 16 healthy control subjects. Interestingly we found no difference in the clearance profiles of neutral dextran solutions among the dengue patients at any time-point or in comparison to the healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The surface glycocalyx layer, a fibre-matrix of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins, forms a complex with the underlying endothelial cells to regulate plasma volume within circumscribed limits. It is likely that during dengue infections loss of plasma proteins from this layer alters the permeability characteristics of the complex; physical and/or electrostatic interactions between the dextran molecules and the glycocalyx structure may temporarily restore normal function, rendering the technique unsuitable for assessing permeability in these patients. The implications for resuscitation of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS are potentially important. It is possible that continuous low-dose infusions of dextran may help to stabilize the permeability barrier in patients with profound or refractory shock, reducing the need for repeated boluses, limiting the total

  13. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Paddock. Meals—Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner will be available in the mess tent (See Schedule, Section 2.1). Snacks – Snack foods and bottled water...ROBOTIC RANGE CLEARANCE COMPETITION (R2C2) Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE Air...other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This

  14. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  15. Search for the presence of occult hepatitis C in patients with treatment-induced viral clearance using an ultrasensitive assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzekova-Vidimliski Pavlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Occult hepatitis C is defined by the presence of virus in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and/or liver cells, in the absence of serum viremia. Objective. To detect the persistence of occult hepatitis C in hemodialysis (HD patients and patients without renal disease (non-renal with treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, using assays with a very low detection limit of viremia. Methods. A group of 13 HD patients and a group of 43 non-renal patients, with treatment-induced HCV infection clearance were investigated in the study. The HD patients were treated with pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN-α only, while the non-renal patients were treated with a combination therapy of PEGIFN- α and ribavirin. Detection of a possible persistence of HCV RNA in the PBMCs and plasma samples was assessed by an ultrasensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay (2 IU/ml. Results. HCV RNA was not detected in the PBMCs and plasma samples of HD patients and of non-renal patients, when assessed by the ultrasensitive RT-PCR assay. Conclusion. When a sensitive RT-PCR assay was applied, to determine if treatment induced clearance of HCV infection had been successful, occult hepatitis C could not be detected by an ultrasensitive assay, neither in HD nor in non-renal patients.

  16. Comparison of Two Alternate Methods for Tracking Toe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of toe clearance during the swing phase of locomotion has often been utilized in determining a subject s propensity to trip while either walking or stepping over an obstacle. In the literature, toe clearance has been studied using a marker on the superior aspect of the second toe (rtoe), a marker on the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head (mth5), or a virtual marker positioned at the anterior tip of the toe (vtoe). The purpose of this study was to compute toe clearance and associated parameters using a fifth metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare the results with those of the standard toe marker. Subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at five different speeds while performing a visual acuity task at two separate target distances (ten 60-second trials). The minimum vertical height (TCl) was determined for each stride, along with its point of occurence in the gait cycle, and the angles of the foot and ankle at that time. A regression analysis was performed on the vtoe and mth5 results versus rtoe individually. For all TCl parameters, the mth5 marker did not correlate well with rtoe; the vtoe marker showed better agreement. Most importantly, the mth5 marker predicted a later occurence of TCl than rtoe and vtoe - thereby missing the most dangerous point in swing phase for a trip. From this analysis, the vtoe marker proved to be a better analog to rtoe than mth5, especially for determining a subject s propensity to trip.

  17. Effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Oyelami, O A; Olatunya, O S; Adeyemi, L A

    2011-10-01

    One hundred and twenty children with acute uncomplicated malaria who were managed at the children's outpatient department of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa (a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria) were recruited into the study to determine the effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. These children were randomized into treatment with World Health Organization recommended antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapy, ACT) either alone or with lime juice. Nine of them were lost to follow-up, four were in the group that were managed with ACT and lime, and five in the group that were managed on ACT alone. The average (SD) time to achieve >75% reduction in parasite load was significantly lower in patients on ACT and lime; 30.5 ± 2.4 h against 38.6 ± 3.3 h for those on ACT alone (p lime juice achieved complete parasite clearance by 72 h of therapy (p = 0.007), ten (18.2%) patients without lime had early treatment failure (p = 0.003). There were no side effects with the use of lime juice. It may therefore be inferred, from this preliminary work, that lime juice when used with the appropriate antimalarial may enhance malaria parasite clearance especially in those with uncomplicated malaria.

  18. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  19. Tamponade Relief by Active Clearance of Chest Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistarini, Nicola; Gabrysz-Forget, Fanny; Beaulieu, Yanick; Perrault, Louis P

    2016-03-01

    Chest tubes are used in every case of cardiac surgery to evacuate shed blood from around the heart and lungs. Chest tubes can become partially or totally occluded, leading to tamponade. The purpose of this article is to discuss a novel method of maintaining chest tube patency in the early recovery after cardiothoracic surgery. The PleuraFlow Active Clearance Technology is a system to prevent chest tube clogging that can be used to help routinely maintain chest tube patency at the bedside in the intensive care unit. A patient exhibited physiologic tamponade that was confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography. The chest tube was successfully reopened by actively clearing the chest tube using Active Clearance Technology, resulting in resolution of the tamponade. The present study reports the case of a patient with massive postoperative pericardial effusion with tamponade, successfully managed by active clearance chest tube. Further studies will help define the role for this technology in routine cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William

    2012-01-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:22307908

  1. Fast automated dual-syringe based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Tan, Shufang; Li, Xiao; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-03-18

    An automated procedure, combining low density solvent based solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. Capitalizing on a two-rail commercial autosampler, fast solvent transfer using a large volume syringe dedicated to the DLLME process, and convenient extract collection using a small volume microsyringe for better GC performance were enabled. Extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of dispersive solvent and demulsification solvent, extraction and demulsification time, and the speed of solvent injection were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity ranged from 0.1 to 50 μg/L, 0.2 to 50 μg/L, and 0.5 to 50 μg/L, depending on the analytes. Limits of detection were determined to be between 0.023 and 0.058 μg/L. The method was applied to determine PAHs in environmental water samples.

  2. The effects of pneumoperitoneum and controlled ventilation on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance: experimental results in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Angelo Casaroli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum, both alone and in combination with controlled ventilation, on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance using a rat bacterial peritonitis model. METHOD: A total of 69 male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally inoculated with an Escherichia coli solution (109 colony-forming units (cfu/mL and divided into three groups of 23 animals each: A (control group, B (pneumoperitoneum under 5 mmHg of constant pressure, and C (endotracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, and pneumoperitoneum as in Group B. The animals were sacrificed after 30 min under these conditions, and blood, mediastinal ganglia, lungs, peritoneum, liver, and spleen cultures were performed. RESULTS: Statistical analyses comparing the number of cfu/sample in each of the cultures showed that no differences existed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we concluded that pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in association with mechanical ventilation, did not modify the bacterial clearance through the diaphragmatic lymphatic system of the peritoneal cavity.

  3. The CYP3A4*22 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced midazolam and tacrolimus clearance in stable renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, H; Elens, L; de Loor, H; van Schaik, R H; Kuypers, D R J

    2015-04-01

    Tacrolimus, a dual substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has a narrow therapeutic index and is characterized by high between-subject variability in oral bioavailability. This study investigated the effects of the recently described CYP3A4*22 intron 6 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism on in vivo CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam (MDZ) clearance and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in two cohorts of renal allograft recipients, taking into account the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and other determinants of drug disposition. In CYP3A5 non-expressers, the presence of one CYP3A4*22T-allele was associated with a 31.7-33.6% reduction in MDZ apparent oral clearance, reflecting reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity. In addition, at ⩾12 months after transplantation, steady-state clearance of tacrolimus was 36.8% decreased compared with homozygous CYP3A4*22CC-wild type patients, leading to 50% lower dose requirements. Both concurrent observations in stable renal allograft recipients are consistent with a reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity for the CYP3A4*22T-allele.

  4. Coupling Effect of Double Lungs on a VCV Ventilator with Automatic Secretion Clearance Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing

    2017-02-16

    For patients with mechanical ventilation, secretions in airway are harmful and sometimes even mortal, it's of great significance to clear secretion timely and efficiently. In this paper, a new secretion clearance method for VCV (volume-controlled ventilation) ventilator is put forward, and a secretion clearance system with a VCV ventilator and double lungs is designed. Furthermore, the mathematical model of the secretion clearance system is built and verified via experimental study. Finally, to illustrate the influence of key parameters of respiratory system and secretion clearance system on the secretion clearance characteristics, coupling effects of two lungs on VCV secretion clearance system are studied by an orthogonal experiment, it can be obtained that rise of tidal volume adds to efficiency of secretion clearance while effect of area, compliance and suction pressure on efficiency of secretion clearance needs further study. Rise of compliance improves bottom pressure of secretion clearance while rise of area, tidal volume and suction pressure decreases bottom pressure of secretion clearance. This paper can be referred to in researches of secretion clearance for VCV.

  5. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

  6. Increased hepatic insulin clearance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils B;

    2013-01-01

    Context:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glucose tolerance and ameliorates fasting hyperinsulinemia within days after surgery. Improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance could contribute importantly to these effects.Objective:The objective of the investigation...... was to study changes in insulin clearance after RYGB.Design:This was a prospective study of fasting hepatic insulin clearance and, in a subgroup of patients, postprandial insulin clearance after a meal test before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB.Setting:The study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital......:Fasting hepatic insulin clearance (fasting C-peptide/fasting insulin). Postprandial insulin clearance (incremental areas under the curve of insulin secretion rates/incremental areas under the curve of insulin).Results:Fasting hepatic insulin clearance increased after 1 week (P

  7. Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongle, Ding; Baowei, Song; Peng, Wang

    2015-09-01

    Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

  8. Alexander Duals of Multipermutohedron Ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajay Kumar; Chanchal Kumar

    2014-02-01

    An Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal has many combinatorial properties. The standard monomials of an Artinian quotient of such a dual correspond bijectively to some -parking functions, and many interesting properties of these Artinian quotients are obtained by Postnikov and Shapiro (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 356 (2004) 3109–3142). Using the multigraded Hilbert series of an Artinian quotient of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals, we obtained a simple proof of Steck determinant formula for enumeration of -parking functions. A combinatorial formula for all the multigraded Betti numbers of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals are also obtained.

  9. Dual massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, Kevin, E-mail: Kevin.Morand@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-08-29

    The linearized massive gravity in three dimensions, over any maximally symmetric background, is known to be presented in a self-dual form as a first order equation which encodes not only the massive Klein-Gordon type field equation but also the supplementary transverse-traceless conditions. We generalize this construction to higher dimensions. The appropriate dual description in d dimensions, additionally to a (non-symmetric) tensor field h{sub {mu}{nu}}, involves an extra rank-(d-1) field equivalently represented by the torsion rank-3 tensor. The symmetry condition for h{sub {mu}{nu}} arises on-shell as a consequence of the field equations. The action principle of the dual theory is formulated. The focus has been made on four dimensions. Solving one of the fields in terms of the other and putting back in the action one obtains two other equivalent formulations of the theory in which the action is quadratic in derivatives. In one of these representations the theory is formulated entirely in terms of a rank-2 non-symmetric tensor h{sub {mu}{nu}}. This quadratic theory is not identical to the Fierz-Pauli theory and contains the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of h{sub {mu}{nu}}. Nevertheless, the only singularity in the propagator is the same as in the Fierz-Pauli theory so that only the massive spin-2 particle is propagating. In the other representation, the theory is formulated in terms of the torsion rank-3 tensor only. We analyze the conditions which follow from the field equations and show that they restrict to 5 degrees of freedom thus producing an alternative description to the massive spin-2 particle. A generalization to higher dimensions is suggested.

  10. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    countries acknowledged as forerunners in gender equality, which also have ‘fairly strong’ parliamentary standing committees. The results show that both committees on gender equality can be regarded as ‘feminist’ in character and both interact with relevant civil society organisations. Their impact......Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...

  11. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  12. Prevalence of Victimization in Patients With Dual Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Marleen Maria; Dekker, Jacobus Johannes Maria; Goudriaan, Anna Emma

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of victimization in patients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) and compare them to the general population. In this cross-sectional survey study conducted in the Netherlands, 9 different types of victimization (e.g., physical assault) were assessed with the Safety Monitor in patients with dual diagnosis (n = 243) and a sample of the general population (n = 10,865). Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with a weighted sample of the general population. Compared to the general population, patients with dual diagnosis were more likely to have been a victim of violence (60% vs. 11%), property crime (58% vs. 30%), and vandalism (21% vs. 14%) in the year preceding the assessment. Threats, sexual assault, physical assault, robbery, bicycle theft, other theft, and vandalism were more prevalent in patients with dual diagnosis compared to the general population. Car theft was more prevalent in the general population. The risk of burglary did not differ significantly between groups. Patients with dual diagnosis are highly prone to victimization. In patients with severe mental illness, victimization is associated with psychopathology, substance use, homelessness, and engagement in criminal activity. Future research is necessary to explore underlying mechanisms in patients with dual diagnosis and develop interventions to reduce their vulnerability for victimization.

  13. UXT plays dual opposing roles on SARM-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethurathinam, Shalini; Singh, Laishram Pradeepkumar; Panneerselvam, Porkodi; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2013-10-11

    Apoptosis is a vital defense mechanism for the clearance of infected cells. Ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), which exists in two isoforms (V1 and V2), interact with both apoptotic and cellular proteins. By yeast two-hybrid analysis, we found that UXT interacts with SARM (sterile α and HEAT armadillo motif-containing protein). Since SARM is a TLR adaptor which induces intrinsic apoptosis following immune activation, we were prompted to query whether UXT and SARM might co-regulate apoptosis. We found that the UXT isoforms elicit dual opposing regulatory effects on SARM-induced apoptosis; while UXT V1, co-expressed with SARM, caused a reduction in caspase 8 activity, UXT V2 strongly increased caspase 8 activity and enhanced SARM-induced apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway and depolarizing the mitochondria. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagrammatic Monte Carlo for dual fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, Sergei; Antipov, Andrey E.; Gull, Emanuel

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a numerical algorithm to stochastically sample the dual fermion perturbation series around the dynamical mean field theory, generating all topologies of two-particle interaction vertices. We show results in the weak and strong coupling regime of the half-filled Hubbard model in two dimensions, illustrating that the method converges quickly where dynamical mean field theory is a good approximation, and show that corrections are large in the strong correlation regime at intermediate interaction. The fast convergence of dual corrections to dynamical mean field results illustrates the power of the approach and opens a practical avenue towards the systematic inclusion of nonlocal correlations in correlated materials simulations. An analysis of the frequency scale shows that only low-frequency propagators contribute substantially to the diagrams, putting the inclusion of higher order vertices within reach.

  15. Dual station visualization measuring method of LRCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Cao, Guohuaa; Lv, Qiongyinga; Zhang, Xina

    2016-10-01

    Based on the physical meaning of the laser radar scattering cross section (LRCS), When the target is the standard target or the extension target, the LRCS analytical expressions and numerical expression are deduced. Based on the LRCS expression, Proposed a dual station visualization comparison measurement method, the purpose is to use a known radar cross section of the standard target, by the power detector, and CCD images obtained gray value, calculated the target's radar cross section. In the paper, we designed the optical emission system and the optical receiving system, then detected target backscatter light power, Sampled the target image, Using MATLAB calculate the power density ratio of test objectives and reference target., compared the measured data with the empirical data, verify the feasibility of the dual station visualization comparison measurement method.

  16. Host candidate gene polymorphisms and clearance of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockett Kirk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to anti-malarial drugs is a widespread problem for control programmes for this devastating disease. Molecular tests are available for many anti-malarial drugs and are useful tools for the surveillance of drug resistance. However, the correlation of treatment outcome and molecular tests with particular parasite markers is not perfect, due in part to individuals who are able to clear genotypically drug-resistant parasites. This study aimed to identify molecular markers in the human genome that correlate with the clearance of malaria parasites after drug treatment, despite the drug resistance profile of the protozoan as predicted by molecular approaches. Methods 3721 samples from five African countries, which were known to contain genotypically drug resistant parasites, were analysed. These parasites were collected from patients who subsequently failed to clear their infection following drug treatment, as expected, but also from patients who successfully cleared their infections with drug-resistant parasites. 67 human polymorphisms (SNPs on 17 chromosomes were analysed using Sequenom's mass spectrometry iPLEX gold platform, to identify regions of the human genome, which contribute to enhanced clearance of drug resistant parasites. Results An analysis of all data from the five countries revealed significant associations between the phenotype of ability to clear drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infection and human immune response loci common to all populations. Overall, three SNPs showed a significant association with clearance of drug-resistant parasites with odds ratios of 0.76 for SNP rs2706384 (95% CI 0.71-0.92, P = 0.005, 0.66 for SNP rs1805015 (95% CI 0.45-0.97, P = 0.03, and 0.67 for SNP rs1128127 (95% CI 0.45-0.99, P = 0.05, after adjustment for possible confounding factors. The first two SNPs (rs2706384 and rs1805015 are within loci involved in pro-inflammatory (interferon-gamma and anti-inflammatory (IL-4

  17. The implementation and evaluation of cognitive milieu therapy for dual diagnosis inpatients: A pragmatic clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jørn; Oestrich, I.; Austin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    milieu therapy (CMT) among a group of dual diagnosis inpatients. CMT is an integrated treatment for both mental illness and substance abuse based on cognitive behavioral principles and carried out within a supportive inpatient environment. A convenience sample of dual diagnosis inpatients (N = 136......Dual diagnosis is chronic psychiatric condition involving serious mental illness and substance abuse. Experts recommend the integration of treatment for concurrent substance abuse and serious psychiatric problems. The following pragmatic trial examined the implementation and outcomes of cognitive...

  18. Robust dual-response optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanikoglu, Ihsan; den Hertog, Dick; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a robust optimization reformulation of the dual-response problem developed in response surface methodology. The dual-response approach fits separate models for the mean and the variance and analyzes these two models in a mathematical optimization setting. We use metamodels esti

  19. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  20. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  1. Dual Card,Double Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As Christmas Day and New Year Day draw near, why not treat yourself with a smart digital gizmo. Then, the Samsung Dual-card Cellphone is what you are longing for. Samsung B5712C, the first dual-card model released by Samsung,

  2. Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.

  3. Benefits of Dual Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstrum, Kiara

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper examines how dual language education (DLE) programs are valuable. The literature shows that children do much more than just thrive in a dual language environment. According to research, children who are bilingual are cognitively, academically, intellectually, socially and verbally more advantaged than their monolingual…

  4. Addition of 20-kDa PEG to Insulin Lispro Alters Absorption and Decreases Clearance in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knadler, Mary Pat; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Campanale, Kristina; De Veer, Michael J; Beals, John M; Li, Shun; Hansen, Ryan; Siesky, Angela; Michael, M Dodson; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-12-01

    Determine the pharmacokinetics of insulin peglispro (BIL) in 5/6-nephrectomized rats and study the absorption in lymph duct cannulated (LDC) sheep. BIL is insulin lispro modified with 20-kDa linear PEG at lysine B28 increasing the hydrodynamic size to 4-fold larger than insulin lispro. Pharmacokinetics of BIL and insulin lispro after IV administration were compared in 5/6-nephrectomized and sham rats. BIL was administered IV or SC into the interdigital space of the hind leg, and peripheral lymph and/or serum samples were collected from both LDC and non-LDC sheep to determine pharmacokinetics and absorption route of BIL. The clearance of BIL was similar in 5/6-nephrectomized and sham rats, while the clearance of insulin lispro was 3.3-fold slower in 5/6-nephrectomized rats than in the sham rats. In non-LDC sheep, the terminal half-life after SC was about twice as long vs IV suggesting flip-flop pharmacokinetics. In LDC sheep, bioavailability decreased to <2%; most of the dose was absorbed via the lymphatic system, with 88% ± 19% of the dose collected in the lymph after SC administration. This work demonstrates that increasing the hydrodynamic size of insulin lispro through PEGylation can impact both absorption and clearance to prolong drug action.

  5. A prospective evaluation of propylene glycol clearance and accumulation during continuous-infusion lorazepam in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Haas, Curtis E; Habtemariam, Bahru; Kaufman, David C; Partridge, Amy; Welle, Stephen; Forrest, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Propylene glycol is a commonly used diluent in several pharmaceutical preparations, including the sedative lorazepam. Fifty critically ill patients receiving continuous-infusion lorazepam for a minimum of 36 hours were prospectively evaluated to determine the extent of propylene glycol accumulation over time, characterize propylene glycol clearance in the presence of critical illness, and develop a pharmacokinetic model that would predict clearance based on patient-specific clinical, laboratory, and demographic factors. In this cohort, the median lorazepam infusion rate was 2.1 mg/h (0.5-18). Propylene glycol concentration correlated poorly with osmolality, osmol gap, and lactate. In all, 8 patients (16%) had significant propylene glycol accumulation (>25mg/dL). When propylene glycol concentrations were >25 mg/dL, the median lorazepam infusion rate before sample collection was higher, 6.4 (1.9-11.3) versus 2.0 (0.5-7.4) mg/h (P =.0003). A linear first-order model with interoccasion variability on clearance adjusted for total body weight and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score predicted propylene glycol concentration.

  6. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another.

  7. Relative permeability in dual porosity porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deghmoum, A. [SONATRACH CRD, Boumerdes (Algeria); Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Mazouzi, A. [SONATRACH PED (Algeria)

    2000-06-01

    One of the important factors in the field of reservoir simulation of dual-porosity systems is reliable relative permeability data. Laboratory limitations hinder measurements. The real behaviour of naturally fractures reservoirs is not reflected in the reservoir core samples, which as a rule originate from zones without induced or natural fractures. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that the relative permeability of a naturally fractured system is a straight line, which can cause errors. The authors undertook to conduct special core analyses on Berea outcrop core samples, to simulate fracture opening through the cutting of the samples to get different fracture apertures, to study the effects of dual porosity on the shape of capillary pressure curves, and to evaluate absolute and relative permeability, as they are affected by fracture opening. The correlation obtained between absolute permeability and fracture aperture was good, and capillary pressure curves permitted the observation of the effect of dual porosity. High residual oil saturation was present in the matrix, since the fractures became the easiest route for water flow, and this situation prevented the use of unsteady-state tests to measure relative permeability on the samples. Instead, the centrifuge technique was successfully used. A naturally fractured reservoir (NFR), the Tin Fouye Tabankort (TFT) reservoir in Algeria was selected to extend the findings. The site was principally selected due to the availability of naturally fractured cores and published data. Core observations, well test analysis and borehole imager tools were all TFT natural fracture indicators presented in the paper. Representative data of relative permeability was obtained by conducting a displacement test on a full diameter core to solve the laboratory limitations. The correlation between permeability and fracture opening was used to estimate the aperture of natural fractures in TFT reservoir. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs.

  8. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  9. Upregulation of Phagocytic Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Autoimmune Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亮; 胡丽华; 李一荣

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of autoimmune regulator(AIRE) on phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells,a recombinant expression vector containing full-length human AIRE cDNA was transfected into 16HBE cells.After incubation with transfected 16HBE cells,engulfment of apoptotic HL-60 cells induced by camptothecin was detected by myeloperoxidase(MPO) staining.The change in the expression of Rac 1 in transfected 16HBE cells was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting.The results showed that the phagocytosis perce...

  10. [Cardiovascular clearance for competitive sport in aging people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, François

    2013-06-01

    The regular sport practice slows the physiological deleterious effects of aging. However, during intense exercise, the hazard of acute cardiovascular event is significantly increased. Whatever their cardiovascular risk factors are, aging people are more prone to coronary acute event during intense exertion than a young one. Cardiovascular exam, with resting ECG and maximal exercise test, is needed to give clearance for competitive sport in aging people (>65 y.o.). The limited value to evaluate the individual risk of acute cardiac event during intense exercise must be clearly explained to Master athletes. They must be aware to the necessity to consult their physician in case of abnormal symptom during exercise.

  11. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Maria Eugenia Mansilla; Colombo, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance.

  12. Dual-horizon Peridynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Huilong; Cai, Yongchang; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new Peridynamic approach that naturally includes varying horizon sizes and completely solves the "ghost force" issue. Therefore, the concept of dual-horizon is introduced to consider the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation is proved to fulfill both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum. Neither the "partial stress tensor" nor the "`slice" technique are needed to ameliorate the ghost force issue in \\cite{Silling2014}. The consistency of reaction forces is naturally fulfilled by a unified simple formulation. The method can be easily implemented to any existing peridynamics code with minimal changes. A simple adaptive refinement procedure is proposed minimizing the computational cost. The method is applied here to the three Peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based Peridynamics. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthof-Winkler experi...

  13. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... risk and utility that economists traditionally assume, allowance for rank-dependent decision weights, and consideration of income thresholds. We examine the issues involved in full maximum likelihood estimation of the model using observed choice data. We propose a general method for integrating...... the multiple criteria, using the logic of mixture models, which we believe is attractive from a decision-theoretic and statistical perspective. The model is applied to observed choices from a major natural experiment involving intrinsically dynamic choices over highly skewed outcomes. The evidence points...

  14. Integrated control of product quality and production process for process industry: dual-rate sampled-data method%产品质量与生产过程的集成控制:双率采样数据方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春雨; 周林娜; 马小平; 曾庆福

    2013-01-01

    In an integrated framework,we investigate the real-time united control of the product quality and the production process for a process industry.On the basis of dual-rate sampled-data,an integrated product and process control (IPPC) scheme is proposed.The design problem is reduced to solving matrix inequalities which is solved by using a homotopy algorithm.Finally,an example is given to illustrate the proposed method.%本文在集成控制的框架下研究了工业过程中产品质量和生产过程的实时一体控制问题.首先,基于双速率采样数据提出了产品质量和生产过程的集成控制方案.然后,把控制器设计问题归结为求解一组非线性矩阵不定式,进而提出基于同伦算法的控制器设计方法.最后,通过数值仿真说明所提方法的有效.

  15. A Wide Linear Range Eddy Current Displacement Sensor Equipped with Dual-Coil Probe Applied in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Eddy Current Displacement Sensor (ECDS is widely used in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel (MSFW to measure the tiny clearance between the rotor and the magnetic bearings. The linear range of the ECDS is determined by the diameter of its probe coil. Wide clearances must be measured in some new MSFWs recently designed for the different space missions, but the coil diameter is limited by some restrictions. In this paper, a multi-channel ECDS equipped with dual-coil probes is proposed to extend the linear range to satisfy the demands of such MSFWs. In order to determine the best configuration of the dual-coil probe, the quality factors of the potential types of the dual-coil probes, the induced eddy current and the magnetic intensity on the surface of the measuring object are compared with those of the conventional single-coil probe. The linear range of the ECDS equipped with the selected dual-coil probe is extended from 1.1 mm to 2.4 mm under the restrictions without adding any cost for additional compensation circuits or expensive coil materials. The effectiveness of the linear range extension ability and the dynamic response of the designed ECDS are confirmed by the testing and the applications in the MSFW.

  16. Understanding of the Interaction between Clearance Leakage Flow and Main Passage Flow in a VGT Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The clearance flow between the nozzle and endwall in a variable geometry turbine (VGT has been numerically investigated to understand the clearance effect on the VGT performance and internal flow. It was found that the flow rate through turbine increases but the turbine efficiency decreases with height of clearance. Detailed flow field analyses indicated that most of the efficiency loss resulting from the leakage flow occurs at the upstream of the rotor area, that is, in the nozzle endwall clearance and between the nozzle vanes. There are two main mechanisms associated with this efficiency loss. One is due to the formation of the local vortex flow structure between the clearance flow and the main flow. The other is due to the impact of the clearance flow on the main flow after the nozzle throat. This impact reduces the span of shockwave with increased shockwave magnitude by changing the trajectory of the main flow.

  17. Clearance of inhaled [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA predicts the clinical course of fibrosing alveolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, A.U.; Hansell, D.M.; Harrison, N.K.; Bois, R.M. du (Interstitial Lung Disease Unit and Dept. of Radiology, Royal Brompton National Heart and Lung Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Lawrence, R. (Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Black, C.M. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the speed of technetium-labelled diethylene-triamine-pentacetate ([sup 99m]Tc-DTPA) clearance from the lung is predictive of disease progression in fibrosing alveolitis, as judged by changes in respiratory function tests. 82 nonsmoking patients with fibrosing alveolitis were studied (progressive systemic sclerosis, n=53, lone cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, n=29). Normal [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA clearance identified patients at risk of deterioration. Repeat measurement of clearance, approximately 12 months later, enabled the definition of a subgroup at higher risk, with persistently abnormal [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA clearance, and a smaller subgroup in whom reversion of clearance to normal was associated with a sustained improvement in respiratory function indices. These findings were not attributable to differences in treatment between subgroups. We conclude that the speed of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA clearance discriminates between stable and progressive disease in fibrosing alveolitis. (au) (26 refs.).

  18. The implementation and evaluation of cognitive milieu therapy for dual diagnosis inpatients: A pragmatic clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jørn; Oestrich, Irene; Austin, Stephen;

    2010-01-01

    Dual diagnosis is chronic psychiatric condition involving serious mental illness and substance abuse. Experts recommend the integration of treatment for concurrent substance abuse and serious psychiatric problems. The following pragmatic trial examined the implementation and outcomes of cognitive...... milieu therapy (CMT) among a group of dual diagnosis inpatients. CMT is an integrated treatment for both mental illness and substance abuse based on cognitive behavioral principles and carried out within a supportive inpatient environment. A convenience sample of dual diagnosis inpatients (N = 136...... reported significant reductions in levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms (p dual diagnosis populations and warrants further...

  19. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality.

  20. Sulforaphane enhances progerin clearance in Hutchinson–Gilford progeria fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Diana; Roedl, Daniela; Gordon, Leslie B; Djabali, Karima

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare multisystem childhood premature aging disorder linked to mutations in the LMNA gene. The most common HGPS mutation is found at position G608G within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. This mutation results in the deletion of 50 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal tail of prelamin A, and the truncated protein is called progerin. Progerin only undergoes a subset of the normal post-translational modifications and remains permanently farnesylated. Several attempts to rescue the normal cellular phenotype with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) and other compounds have resulted in partial cellular recovery. Using proteomics, we report here that progerin induces changes in the composition of the HGPS nuclear proteome, including alterations to several components of the protein degradation pathways. Consequently, proteasome activity and autophagy are impaired in HGPS cells. To restore protein clearance in HGPS cells, we treated HGPS cultures with sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from cruciferous vegetables. We determined that SFN stimulates proteasome activity and autophagy in normal and HGPS fibroblast cultures. Specifically, SFN enhances progerin clearance by autophagy and reverses the phenotypic changes that are the hallmarks of HGPS. Therefore, SFN is a promising therapeutic avenue for children with HGPS. PMID:25510262

  1. Sulforaphane enhances progerin clearance in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Diana; Roedl, Daniela; Gordon, Leslie B; Djabali, Karima

    2015-02-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare multisystem childhood premature aging disorder linked to mutations in the LMNA gene. The most common HGPS mutation is found at position G608G within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. This mutation results in the deletion of 50 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal tail of prelamin A, and the truncated protein is called progerin. Progerin only undergoes a subset of the normal post-translational modifications and remains permanently farnesylated. Several attempts to rescue the normal cellular phenotype with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) and other compounds have resulted in partial cellular recovery. Using proteomics, we report here that progerin induces changes in the composition of the HGPS nuclear proteome, including alterations to several components of the protein degradation pathways. Consequently, proteasome activity and autophagy are impaired in HGPS cells. To restore protein clearance in HGPS cells, we treated HGPS cultures with sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from cruciferous vegetables. We determined that SFN stimulates proteasome activity and autophagy in normal and HGPS fibroblast cultures. Specifically, SFN enhances progerin clearance by autophagy and reverses the phenotypic changes that are the hallmarks of HGPS. Therefore, SFN is a promising therapeutic avenue for children with HGPS.

  2. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Astroglial Potassium and Glutamate Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Giselle; Sibille, Jérémie; Zapata, Jonathan; Rouach, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that astrocytes play essential roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Nevertheless, how neuronal activity alters astroglial functional properties and whether such properties also display specific forms of plasticity still remain elusive. Here, we review research findings supporting this aspect of astrocytes, focusing on their roles in the clearance of extracellular potassium and glutamate, two neuroactive substances promptly released during excitatory synaptic transmission. Their subsequent removal, which is primarily carried out by glial potassium channels and glutamate transporters, is essential for proper functioning of the brain. Similar to neurons, different forms of short- and long-term plasticity in astroglial uptake have been reported. In addition, we also present novel findings showing robust potentiation of astrocytic inward currents in response to repetitive stimulations at mild frequencies, as low as 0.75 Hz, in acute hippocampal slices. Interestingly, neurotransmission was hardly affected at this frequency range, suggesting that astrocytes may be more sensitive to low frequency stimulation and may exhibit stronger plasticity than neurons to prevent hyperexcitability. Taken together, these important findings strongly indicate that astrocytes display both short- and long-term plasticity in their clearance of excess neuroactive substances from the extracellular space, thereby regulating neuronal activity and brain homeostasis. PMID:26346563

  3. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mackay, C

    1977-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-two patients have been studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as a simple diagnostic test for acute pancreatitis. Sixteen out of 17 patients with acute pancreatitis had significant elevations in ACCR; in only 10 of these 17 cases was the serum amylase greater than 1200iu/l. The mean ACCR was within the normal range in control patients, in patients with chronic gastro-intestinal disease and in patients with acute abdominal conditions excluding pancreatitis; however, the mean serum amylase was significantly greater in patients with acute abdominal conditions than in the control group (P less than 0-05). The ACCR remained significantly elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis for longer than either serum or urine amylase values. The findings of the study suggest that the amylase creatinine clearance ratio is a simple yet reliable diagnostic test which could be used when screening patients suspected of having acute pancreatitis.

  4. Necroptosis Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Clearance by Inhibiting Excessive Inflammatory Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipyegon Kitur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus triggers inflammation through inflammasome activation and recruitment of neutrophils, responses that are critical for pathogen clearance but are associated with substantial tissue damage. We postulated that necroptosis, cell death mediated by the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway, would function to limit pathological inflammation. In models of skin infection or sepsis, Mlkl−/− mice had high bacterial loads, an inability to limit interleukin-1b (IL-1b production, and excessive inflammation. Similarly, mice treated with RIPK1 or RIPK3 inhibitors had increased bacterial loads in a model of sepsis. Ripk3−/− mice exhibited increased staphylococcal clearance and decreased inflammation in skin and systemic infection, due to direct effects of RIPK3 on IL-1b activation and apoptosis. In contrast to Casp1/4−/− mice with defective S. aureus killing, the poor outcomes of Mlkl−/− mice could not be attributed to impaired phagocytic function. We conclude that necroptotic cell death limits the pathological inflammation induced by S. aureus.

  5. Ketamine Inhibits Lung Fluid Clearance through Reducing Alveolar Sodium Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker, fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.

  6. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Nigro, L

    2009-05-01

    A transient reduction of hepatitis C virus replication during the course of acute hepatitis A virus infection has already been reported in the literature. The present study reports the case study of a subject with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus who went on to develop an acute hepatitis A. From the early onset of acute disease, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable. Following recovery from acute hepatitis, alanine amino-transferase levels became persistently normal and liver biopsy revealed a reduction in the Knodell histological activity index score. Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance was maintained up to 4 years after the onset of acute hepatitis A. During the course of the acute disease, a sharp increase in interferon gamma levels was detected in serum and in the supernatant of both unstimulated and phytoemagglutinin/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an immunological mechanism related to interferon gamma production.

  7. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1993-01-01

    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium......, increase baseline values of sodium clearance and effective renal plasma flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  8. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A

    1979-01-01

    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  9. Measurement and analysis of tip clearance unsteady flow spectrum in axial-flow fan rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LIU; Weimin HOU; Changyou MA; Yangang WANG; Qiang ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic pressure measurement device and test technology are described in this study. The tip clear-ance unsteady flow development from the inlet to the out-let of an axial-flow rotor was revealed by analyzing pressure frequency spectrum acquired from measuring the unsteady pressure field of the tip endwall. The experi-ment provides test basis for thoroughly understanding the tip clearance unsteady flow and building interaction mod-els of tip clearance flow and main flow.

  10. Relation between pulmonary clearance and particle burden: a Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic model.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, R. C.; Rappaport, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the validity of a Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic model of pulmonary clearance of insoluble dusts. METHODS: Data were investigated from studies of pulmonary clearance in F344 rats exposed to antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), photocopy test toner, polyvinyl chloride powder (PVC), and diesel exhaust particles. The Michaelis-Menten-like model was used to develop a relation in which the pulmonary clearance half time was a linear function of lung burden. After combining all data, linear...

  11. Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes t...

  12. ACCURACY ANALYSIS FOR PLANAR LINKAGE WITH MULTIPLE CLEAR-ANCES AT TURNING PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guojun; CHENG Qiang; SHAO Xinyu; LI Peigen

    2008-01-01

    Clearance at turning pair has a strong impact on the kinetic accuracy of linkage, but there is short of a generic model to analyze it so far. Clearance error, input error, and manufacturing tolerance of links are taken into consideration as the random variables synthetically. The kinematics and dynamics accuracy analysis models for planar linkages with multiple clearances at joints are built up as well. At last a typical planar linkage is selected for numerical illustration. These models stated in matrix resolve the relativity of output parameter errors of mechanism and therefore are of vital significance for the reliability analysis and synthesis of mechanism with clearances.

  13. Visualization of Tear Clearance Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Polymethylmethacrylate Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Sakane, Yuri; Goto, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported 2 new methods, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and polymethylmethacrylate particles suspended in fluorescein solution (PPF), for the evaluation of tear clearance and rapid tear flow after blinking (tear Krehbiel flow). Here, we investigated age-related OCT tear clearance and tear film thickness (TFT) and the potential correlation of OCT tear clearance and PPF velocity indicative of tear Krehbiel flow. Normal subjects separated into young and older groups received 5 μL of saline solution into the lower conjunctival sac, and an image of the central lower eyelid tear meniscus was captured by AS-OCT immediately and 30 seconds after natural blinking. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured, and their percentage decrease was defined as OCT clearance rate. A Spectralis OCT Anterior Segment Module captured the central corneal tear film layer for TFT measurements. OCT clearance rates were significantly higher in young versus older subjects (P = 0.0002). When all subjects were analyzed, age was significantly and negatively correlated with TMH clearance rate (r = -0.4928, P = 0.0003) and TMA clearance rate (r = -0.4596, P = 0.0008). TFT values were significantly and negatively correlated with age (r = -0.6662, P clearance rates and PPF velocity (TMH rate: r = 0.2926, P = 0.0392; TMA rate: r = 0.3274, P = 0.0205). AS-OCT and PPF might be novel techniques for quantitative evaluation of tear clearance and Krehbiel flow.

  14. 77 FR 28853 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Usability Data Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Clearance for Usability Data Collections AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST... data collections will be designed to determine requirement and evaluate the usability and utility...

  15. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted...... at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...

  16. Renal clearance of pancreatic and salivary amylase relative to creatinine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J B; McGeeney, K F; Drury, M I; Counihan, T B; O'Donnell, M D

    1978-12-01

    Pancreatic and salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were compared with those obtained for control subjects. In chronic renal insufficiency (mean GFR 30 ml/min +/- 15 SD; n = 13) the clearance ratios for pancreatic (mean 3.5 +/- 1.85 SD) and salivary (mean 2.3 +/- 1.3 SD) amylase were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those in controls. Corresponding control values (n = 26) were 2.64 +/- 0.86 (pancreatic) and 1.64 +/- 0.95 (salivary). Three patients showed values above the normal limit. In the diabetic group (mean GFR 41 ml/min +/- 22 SD; n = 10) salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios (mean 2.36 +/- 1.55 SD) were significantly higher than in controls (P less than 0.05). Three patients showed raised values. Pancreatic amylase clearance was raised in only one of these patients. Three patients with terminal disease (mean GFR 10 ml/min) showed markedly raised (two- to threefold) clearance ratios for both salivary and pancreatic amylase. Of a total of 26 patients, eight had increased total amylase/creatinine clearance ratios. Pancreatic amylase/creatinine clearance was increased in seven patients, while nine patients showed raised salivary amylase/creatinine ratios. Patients with raised clearance ratios did not have clinical evidence of pancreatitis. We suggest that, in the presence of impaired renal function, a high amylase/creatinine clearance ratio need not be indicative of pancreatic disease.

  17. Influence of Tip Clearance on Pressure Fluctuation in Low Specific Speed Mixed-Flow Pump Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the influence of tip clearance on pressure fluctuation in a low specific speed mixed-flow pump, tip clearances δ of 0.25 mm, 0.75 mm and 1.00 mm, along with no tip clearance, were selected. The reliability of the simulation was verified by comparison with the experimental data of external characteristics and fluctuation in the guide vane passage. Through ANSYS-CFX, MATLAB code and fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, pressure fluctuation characteristics in this pump were obtained. The results show that pressure fluctuation exists in all conditions due to the rotor-stator interaction. Under the no tip clearance and tip clearance conditions, the maximum fluctuation value was located near the guide inlet and impeller outlet, respectively. Clearance leakage had less influence on pressure fluctuation at the impeller inlet and central regions within a certain range of the clearance; beyond this range, fluctuations in the whole flow passage increased significantly, while the clearance variation had less effect on fluctuation in the guide vane. When the tip clearance value was 1.00 mm, pressure fluctuation of the shroud at the impeller inlet section suddenly increases, which was closely related to the obvious leakage vortexes and a larger low pressure area.

  18. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1993-01-01

    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium.......05) and 10% (P sodium clearance were significantly diminished after 450mg (P ... values of sodium clearance and effective renal plasma flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  19. Osmotic diuresis-induced hypernatremia: better explained by solute-free water clearance or electrolyte-free water clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popli, Subhash; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia may result from inadequate water intake, excessive water loss or a combination of the two. Osmotic diuresis leads to losses of both solute and water. The relationship between solute and water losses determines the resulting changes in serum osmolality and sodium concentration. Total solute loss is routinely higher than loss of water in osmotic diuresis. Theoretically, then, decreases in serum osmolality (and serum sodium concentration) should follow. In clinical situations of osmotic diuresis, however, reduction in osmolality can take place, but not reduction in serum sodium concentration. It is of note that serum sodium concentration changes are related to urinary losses of sodium and potassium but not to the loss of total solute. In osmotic diuresis, the combined loss of sodium and potassium per liter of urine is lower than the concurrent serum sodium level. Consequently, hypernatremia can ensue. A patient who presented with osmotic diuresis and hypernatremia is described here. In this patient, we have shown that electrolyte-free water clearance is a better index of the effect of osmotic diuresis on serum sodium concentration than the classic solute-free water clearance.

  20. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of {sup 99{sup m}}Tc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-12-31

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by {beta}{sub 2}-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au) 141 refs.

  1. The chemokine CXCL12 is essential for the clearance of the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchery, Tiffany; Dénécé, Gaelle; Attout, Tarik; Ehrhardt, Katharina; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Hachet-Haas, Muriel; Galzi, Jean Luc; Brotin, Emilie; Bachelerie, Françoise; Gavotte, Laurent; Moulia, Catherine; Bain, Odile; Martin, Coralie

    2012-01-01

    Litomosoides sigmodontis is a cause of filarial infection in rodents. Once infective larvae overcome the skin barrier, they enter the lymphatic system and then settle in the pleural cavity, causing soft tissue infection. The outcome of infection depends on the parasite's modulatory ability and also on the immune response of the infected host, which is influenced by its genetic background. The goal of this study was to determine whether host factors such as the chemokine axis CXCL12/CXCR4, which notably participates in the control of immune surveillance, can influence the outcome of the infection. We therefore set up comparative analyses of subcutaneous infection by L. sigmodontis in two inbred mouse strains with different outcomes: one susceptible strain (BALB/c) and one resistant strain (C57BL/6). We showed that rapid parasite clearance was associated with a L. sigmodontis-specific CXCL12-dependent cell response in C57BL/6 mice. CXCL12 was produced mainly by pleural mesothelial cells during infection. Conversely, the delayed parasite clearance in BALB/c mice was neither associated with an increase in CXCL12 levels nor with cell influx into the pleural cavity. Remarkably, interfering with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in both strains of mice delayed filarial development, as evidenced by the postponement of the fourth molting process. Furthermore, the in vitro growth of stage 4 filariae was favored by the addition of low amounts of CXCL12. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis thus appears to have a dual effect on the L. sigmodontis life cycle: by acting as a host-cell restriction factor for infection, and as a growth factor for worms.

  2. The chemokine CXCL12 is essential for the clearance of the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in resistant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Bouchery

    Full Text Available Litomosoides sigmodontis is a cause of filarial infection in rodents. Once infective larvae overcome the skin barrier, they enter the lymphatic system and then settle in the pleural cavity, causing soft tissue infection. The outcome of infection depends on the parasite's modulatory ability and also on the immune response of the infected host, which is influenced by its genetic background. The goal of this study was to determine whether host factors such as the chemokine axis CXCL12/CXCR4, which notably participates in the control of immune surveillance, can influence the outcome of the infection. We therefore set up comparative analyses of subcutaneous infection by L. sigmodontis in two inbred mouse strains with different outcomes: one susceptible strain (BALB/c and one resistant strain (C57BL/6. We showed that rapid parasite clearance was associated with a L. sigmodontis-specific CXCL12-dependent cell response in C57BL/6 mice. CXCL12 was produced mainly by pleural mesothelial cells during infection. Conversely, the delayed parasite clearance in BALB/c mice was neither associated with an increase in CXCL12 levels nor with cell influx into the pleural cavity. Remarkably, interfering with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in both strains of mice delayed filarial development, as evidenced by the postponement of the fourth molting process. Furthermore, the in vitro growth of stage 4 filariae was favored by the addition of low amounts of CXCL12. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis thus appears to have a dual effect on the L. sigmodontis life cycle: by acting as a host-cell restriction factor for infection, and as a growth factor for worms.

  3. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound the...

  4. Dual-isotope measurement of lung water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Carlile, P.V. Jr.; Basmadjian, G. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Health Sciences Center Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Veterans Administration Medical Center)

    1989-01-01

    Iodine-131-labeled iodo-antipyrine and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled erythrocytes were used to measure water content in lungs. These radioactive tracers were injected into 11 dogs with injured lungs. Blood samples were drawn and the animals sacrificed. The lungs were removed, weighed and homogenized. Samples of blood and lung homogenate were assayed for {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc. Samples were also weighed before and after drying to a constant weight at 70-76{sup 0}C. Extravascular lung water was determined by the dual-isotope technique and again by gravimetric analysis. The average ratio of the results from the two different methods was 1.14{plus minus}0.20. The two methods were also compared by regression analysis and the correlation coefficient was 0.97{plus minus}0.09. (author).

  5. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  6. Lung clearance index in the assessment of airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Alex

    2009-06-01

    In the last few years there has been a growing interest in lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of lung physiology derived from multiple breath washout tests. This resurgence of interest was initially driven by the recognition that such assessments were capable of detecting early airways disease in children, and are more sensitive and easier to perform in this population than conventional lung function tests [Aurora P, Kozlowska W, Stocks J. Gas mixing efficiency from birth to adulthood measured by multiple-breath washout. Respir Physiol Neurobiol, 2005;148(1-2):125-39]. With an appreciation of the importance of earlier identification of airways dysfunction, and prevention of irreversible structural airway changes, methods of following airways disease in these "silent years" are especially important. LCI has now been reported in studies involving all age groups, from infants to adults [Lum S, Gustafsson P, Ljungberg H, Hulskamp G, Bush A, Carr SB, et al. Early detection of cystic fibrosis lung disease: multiple-breath washout versus raised volume tests. Thorax, 2007;62(4):341-7; Horsley AR, Gustafsson PM, Macleod K, Saunders CJ, Greening AP, Porteous D, et al. Lung clearance index is a sensitive, repeatable and practical measure of airways disease in adults with cystic fibrosis. Thorax, 2008;63:135-40], and has a narrow range of normal over this wide age range, making it especially suitable for long-term follow-up studies. In cystic fibrosis (CF) particularly, there is a pressing need for sensitive and repeatable clinical endpoints for therapeutic interventions [Rosenfeld M. An overview of endpoints for cystic fibrosis clinical trials: one size does not fit all. Proc Am Thorac Soc, 2007;4(4):299-301], and LCI has been proposed as an outcome measure in future CF gene therapy studies [Davies JC, Cunningham S, Alton EW, Innes JA. Lung clearance index in CF: a sensitive marker of lung disease severity. Thorax, 2008;63(2):96-7]. This review will consider how LCI is

  7. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin and middle molecules in haemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, James

    2007-01-01

    Middle molecules, consisting mostly of peptides and small proteins with molecular weight the range of 500-60,000 Da, accumulate in renal failure and contribute to the uraemic toxic state. Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) with a molecular weight of 11,000 is considered representative of these middle molecules. These solutes are not well cleared by low-flux dialysis. High-flux dialysis will clear middle molecules, partly by internal filtration. This convective component of high-flux dialysis can be enhanced in a predictable way by haemodiafiltration (HDF). The convective and diffusive clearance rates of any middle molecule across any haemodiafilter can be predicted from known or measurable factors such as its sieving coefficient, bound fraction and molecular weight. The removal of middle molecules is also influenced by factors within the patient. Beta2-MG is distributed within the extracellular fluid. During HDF, beta2-MG must transfer into the intravascular compartment across the capillary walls. This transcapillary transfer at a rate of approximately 100 ml/min slows beta2-MG removal from the body. Continuing transfer after the end of a treatment session results in a significant rebound of beta2-MG levels. This intercompartment transfer and its effect on beta2-MG clearance and concentration can be predicted by a 2-compartment model. By extrapolation, the behaviour of other middle molecules can be predicted. The 2-compartment model, which takes non-dialytic beta2-MG clearance at a rate of 3 ml/min and beta2-MG generation at a rate of 0.1 mg/min into account, can predict the effect of any HDF schedule on beta2-MG levels. Low-flux dialysis results in a beta2-MG level of around 40 mg/l. Three times weekly, 4-hour HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 20 mg/l. Long (nocturnal) HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 10 mg/l, compared to physiological levels of less than 5 mg/l.

  8. Revisiting normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance values in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A.; Tondeur, M. [Department of Radioisotopes, CHU St Pierre, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ Ghent, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    Normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance values as a function of age were published a number of years ago. These values were based on data from children with a normal left to right ratio and a normal appearance on DMSA scintigraphy, despite the presence of an acute renal infection. At that time, the authors were unaware that hyperfiltration is a common phenomenon in patients with acute renal infection and that their normal values could have been significantly overestimated. The present work therefore aimed to re-appraise these normal values. In a first step, in order to verify the previous results, the same type of population was selected, namely patients with present or past urinary tract infection but normal images and a normal left to right ratio on DMSA scintigraphy. In a second step, the selection was based on patients who had had no recent urinary tract infection. In both series, a single blood sample method was used for the evaluation of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance. In the first group of patients, the results obtained were almost identical to those previously published. In the second group of patients, the results were significantly lower: after 2 years of age, the mean GFR value was 104 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (10th and 90th percentiles 81 and 135 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively), compared with 117 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in the first group. The data of the second group are probably more representative of the true normal GFR values and can be applied to the entire paediatric population. (orig.)

  9. Association between Interferon-Inducible Protein 6 ( Polymorphisms and Hepatitis B Virus Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun-Hee Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells are key factors mediating hepatitis B virus (HBV clearance. However, these cells are killed through HBV-induced apoptosis during the antigen-presenting period in HBV-induced chronic liver disease (CLD patients. Interferon-inducible protein 6 (IFI6 delays type I interferon-induced apoptosis in cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the IFI6 could affect the chronicity of CLD. The present study included a discovery stage, in which 195 CLD patients, including chronic hepatitis B (HEP and cirrhosis patients and 107 spontaneous recovery (SR controls, were analyzed. The genotype distributions of rs2808426 (C > T and rs10902662 (C > T were significantly different between the SR and HEP groups (odds ratio [OR], 6.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 26.52, p = 0.008 for both SNPs and between the SR and CLD groups (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 15.26; p = 0.021 and OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.18 to 14.44; p = 0.027, respectively. The distribution of diplotypes that contained these SNPs was significantly different between the SR and HEP groups (OR, 6.58; 95% CI, 1.63 to 25.59; p = 0.008 and OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.61; p = 0.008, respectively and between the SR and CLD groups (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 15.26; p = 0.021 and OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.18 to 14.44; p = 0.027, respectively. We were unable to replicate the association shown by secondary enrolled samples. A large-scale validation study should be performed to confirm the association between IFI6 and HBV clearance.

  10. Lp-dual Quermassintegral sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we first introduce a concept of L_p-dual Quermassintegral sum function of convex bodies and establish the polar projection Minkowski inequality and the polar projection Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for L_p-dual Quermassintegral sums.Moreover,by using Lutwak’s width-integral of index i,we establish the L_p-Brunn-Minkowski inequality for the polar mixed projec- tion bodies.As applications,we prove some interrelated results.

  11. Dual pairs in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Balmaz, François

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a rigorous study of the dual pair structure of the ideal fluid and the dual pair structure for the $n$-dimensional Camassa-Holm (EPDiff) equation, including the proofs of the necessary transitivity results. In the case of the ideal fluid, we show that a careful definition of the momentum maps leads naturally to central extensions of diffeomorphism groups such as the group of quantomorphisms and the Ismagilov central extension.

  12. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ragavi; G. Geetha

    2013-01-01

    The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS) attack.

  13. Biomechanical Analyses of Stair-climbing while Dual-tasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Tan, Chi Wei; Mukherjee, Mukul; Davidson, Austin J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Stair-climbing while doing a concurrent task like talking or holding an object is a common activity of daily living which poses high risk for falls. While biomechanical analyses of overground walking during dual-tasking have been studied extensively, little is known on the biomechanics of stair-climbing while dual-tasking. We sought to determine the impact of performing a concurrent cognitive or motor task during stair-climbing. We hypothesized that a concurrent cognitive task will have a greater impact on stair climbing performance compared to a concurrent motor task and that this impact will be greater on a higher-level step. Ten healthy young adults performed 10 trials of stair-climbing each under four conditions: stair ascending only, stair ascending and performing subtraction of serial sevens from a three-digit number, stair ascending and carrying an empty opaque box and stair ascending, performing subtraction of serial sevens from a random three-digit number and carrying an empty opaque box. Kinematics (lower extremity joint angles and minimum toe clearance) and kinetics (ground reaction forces and joint moments and powers) data were collected. We found that a concurrent cognitive task impacted kinetics but not kinematics of stair-climbing. The effect of dual-tasking during stair ascent also seemed to vary based on the different phases of stair ascent stance and seem to have greater impact as one climbs higher. Overall, the results of the current study suggest that the association between the executive functioning and motor task (like gait) becomes stronger as the level of complexity of the motor task increases. PMID:25773590

  14. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool…

  15. Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas land vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages

  16. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  17. Fast dual tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  18. Fast dual tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA - Campus Universitario da Federacao, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects bad data which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model. In this paper, the author derives basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  19. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  20. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2002-01-01

    Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...... parasites, SP could theoretical be slow in parasite clearance. We therefore assessed the antipyretic effects of CQ in therapeutic combination with SP, and the speed of parasite clearance by SP in an open-labelled, randomized trial of CQ alone (n=39), SP alone (n=39), SP plus CQ (n=37) and SP plus...... paracetamol (PCM) (n=38) in children with uncomplicated malaria. Over 72 h, there were eight (20.5%) treatment failures in the CQ group but none in the other groups. Although not significant (P > 0.1), irrespective of resistance CQ alone had a shorter median survival time to fever clearance than SP alone (54...

  1. A bidirectional dual-comb ring laser for simple and robust dual-comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Goda, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Fourier-transform spectroscopy is an indispensable tool for analyzing chemical samples in scientific research as well as chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, its measurement speed, sensitivity, and precision have been shown to be significantly enhanced by using dual frequency combs. However, wide acceptance of this technique is hindered by its requirement for two frequency combs and active stabilization of the combs. Here we overcome this predicament with a Kerr-lens mode-locked bidirectional ring laser that generates two frequency combs with slightly different pulse repetition rates and a tunable yet highly stable rate difference. This peculiar lasing principle builds on a slight difference in optical cavity length between two counter-propagating lasing modes due to Kerr lensing. Since these combs are produced by the one and same laser cavity, their relative coherence stays passively stable without the need for active stabilization. To show its utility, we demonstrate broadband dual-comb spectro...

  2. Dual phase steel for line pipe applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwin, M.J. [United States Steel Corp., Research and Technology Centre, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of 2 samples of commercially produced line pipe from the same melting grade. The chemistries of the steel samples were presented. The study was conducted in response to requests by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for line pipe steel with a yield-strength-to-tensile-strength ratio (Y/T) of 0.85 or less, for use in offshore installations. The United States Steel Corporation initiated this program to achieve lower Y/T for line pipe grades while maintaining robust processing capability and mechanical properties. Heat treated seamless tubular products are typically processed in a manner that can be readily modified to produce dual phase microstructures by applying intercritical soaking before quenching. The steel line pipe industry is interested in dual phase steel for use in reel barge pipe laying operations because the the yield strength of dual phase steel is lower than tensile strength. In this study, the compositions of commercially produced material already in use for the line pipe market were studied. The developed dual phase microstructures were found to be stable over a range of intercritical temperatures. Tempering temperature and small chemistry differences were found to have the greatest influence on properties. The toughness performance was found to be excellent in samples tempered at temperatures greater than 550 degrees C, a regime which produced materials with strength suitable for use in API X60 line pipe. An incomprehensible difference in tensile strength between steels of similar chemistry was also noted. Welding performance was examined through the simulation of 3 regions of the heat-affected zone. The heat-affected zone properties were not influenced by either intercritical or tempering temperature. The only significant factor was the peak temperature that was achieved in the thermal cycle. The hardness of the heat-affected zone increased continuously with increasing peak temperature

  3. [Modeling 5-FU clearance during a chronomodulated infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, F; Chevalier, V; Chevrier, R; Richard, D; Cure, H; Chollet, P

    2003-06-01

    Drugs pharmacokinetic control is a usual practice in case of flat continuous infusions. It enables among others, to modulate delivered doses when drug concentrations in blood appear too high. With chronotherapy, this possibility becomes more difficult because of sinusoidal outflows of infusion. We propose here a method that enables this follow-up, established through the study of 21 metastatic colorectal cancer patients, treated with a chronomodulated infusion of high dose 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) and folinic acid. This pharmacokinetic follow-up permitted the modelisation of 5-FU clearance and the calculation of an index, which was, in our study, correlated to the treatment response and also to main encountered toxicities.

  4. Container scanning to reduce time of customs clearance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri da Cunha Ferreira,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase customs clearance efficiency and to assure supply chain security is the use of non-intrusive inspection equipment, such as scanners. In Brazil, scanners are new, but their use at port terminals is growing rapidly. Considering the possibility of Brazilian Customs requesting 100% scanning of loads, this study aims to assess the operational impacts of this possible request at a specific port terminal. This is the originality of this research. To do so, this study uses applied simulation methods in a case study. Results show that for the current scenario, scanners do not appear to be an operational bottleneck at this port, but the scanning capacity will be exceeded with the planned port expansion. Hence, scheduling rules for single machines were applied to optimize scanning performance. These heuristics provided good performance, suggesting that scanners can provide benefits to priority cargo handling, and could eventually increase the performance of port terminals throughout the country.

  5. Clinical use of amylase clearance and isoamylase measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M D

    1979-07-01

    Isoamylase determinations and measurements of the ratio of the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine (CAm/CCr) were employed in an attempt to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the standard amylase measurement. An elevated CAm/CCr reflects defective proximal tubular reabsorption of amylase which occurs in virtually all patients with clear-cut acute pancreatitis. However, other conditions that apparently are associated with acute defective tubular function, such as burns and diabetic acidosis, may cause an elevated ratio. Thus, elevations of CAm/CCr cannot be considered to be specific for acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic isoamylase represents, on the average, about 33% of the normal serum amylase activity, whereas about 66% is salivary-type isoamylase. Isoamylase measurements are useful in determining whether an elevated value for serum amylase activity is of pancreatic origin. However, this measurement is not useful for determining whether patients with normal serum amylase activity have pancreatitis.

  6. Esophageal clearance scintigraphy in, diabetic patients; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayalcin, B.; Karayalcin, U.; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Morise, Toshio; Okada, Toshihide; Takeda, Ryoyu (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the predictive value of esophageal clearance scintigraphy (ECS) in the diagnosis of esophageal autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients without any esophageal symptoms. A single swallon ECS was performed in 12 diabetic patients and 15 normal volunteers, and esophageal transit time (ETT) and esophageal (Es) T 1/2 values were calculated. ETT and Es 1/2 were found to be significantly prolonged in the diabetic group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In this preliminary study, our results strongly suggest that ECS may be an important noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of diabetic patients with asymptomatic esophageal autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  7. Hepatic insulin clearance is closely related to metabolic syndrome components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; Bernigau, Wolfgang; Bobbert, Thomas; Isken, Frank; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Weickert, Martin O; Osterhoff, Martin; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Rudovich, Natalia

    2013-11-01

    Insulin clearance is decreased in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for unknown reasons. Subjects with metabolic syndrome are hyperinsulinemic and have an increased risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) and different components of metabolic syndrome and tested the hypothesis that HIC may predict the risk of metabolic syndrome. Individuals without diabetes from the Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Brandenburg (MeSyBePo) study (800 subjects with the baseline examination and 189 subjects from the MeSyBePo recall study) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion (insulin secretion rate [ISR]) and insulin sensitivity. Two indices of HIC were calculated. Both HIC indices showed lower values in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001) at baseline. HIC indices correlate inversely with waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and OGTT-derived insulin secretion index. During a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 0.9 years, 47 individuals developed metabolic syndrome and 33 subjects progressed to impaired glucose metabolism. Both indices of HIC showed a trend of an association with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (HICC-peptide odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI 0.97-1.31], P = 0.12, and HICISR 1.38 [0.88-2.17], P = 0.16) and impaired glucose metabolism (HICC-peptide 1.12 [0.92-1.36], P = 0.26, and HICISR 1.31 [0.74-2.33] P = 0.36), although point estimates reached no statistical significance. HIC was associated with different components of metabolic syndrome and markers of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Decreased HIC may represent a novel pathophysiological mechanism of the metabolic syndrome, which may be used additionally for early identification of high-risk subjects.

  8. DJ-1/PARK7 Impairs Bacterial Clearance in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatullah, Hajera; Shan, Yuexin; Beauchamp, Brittany L; Gali, Patricia L; Gupta, Sahil; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Speck, Edwin R; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Tsang, Jennifer L Y; Mei, Shirley H J; Mak, Tak W; Rocco, Patricia R M; Semple, John W; Zhang, Haibo; Hu, Pingzhao; Marshall, John C; Stewart, Duncan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Liaw, Patricia C; Liles, W Conrad; Dos Santos, Claudia C

    2017-04-01

    Effective and rapid bacterial clearance is a fundamental determinant of outcomes in sepsis. DJ-1 is a well-established reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Because cellular ROS status is pivotal to inflammation and bacterial killing, we determined the role of DJ-1 in bacterial sepsis. We used cell and murine models with gain- and loss-of-function experiments, plasma, and cells from patients with sepsis. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with endotoxin resulted in increased DJ-1 mRNA and protein expression. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS was increased in DJ-1-deficient ((-/-)) BMMs compared with wild-type. In a clinically relevant model of polymicrobial sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture), DJ-1(-/-) mice had improved survival and bacterial clearance. DJ-1(-/-) macrophages exhibited enhanced phagocytosis and bactericidal activity in vitro, and adoptive transfer of DJ-1(-/-) bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells rescued wild-type mice from cecal ligation and puncture-induced mortality. In stimulated BMMs, DJ-1 inhibited ROS production by binding to p47(phox), a critical component of the NADPH oxidase complex, disrupting the complex and facilitating Nox2 (gp91(phox)) ubiquitination and degradation. Knocking down DJ-1 (siRNA) in THP-1 (human monocytic cell line) and polymorphonuclear cells from patients with sepsis enhanced bacterial killing and respiratory burst. DJ-1 protein levels were elevated in plasma from patients with sepsis. Higher levels of circulating DJ-1 were associated with increased organ failure and death. These novel findings reveal DJ-1 impairs optimal ROS production for bacterial killing with important implications for host survival in sepsis.

  9. Creatinine clearance as predictor of tobramycin elimination in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D.J.; Vinks, A.A.T.M.M.; Jacobs, F.; Heijerman, H.G.M.; Bakker, Wim

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of renal function and relating this parameter to aminoglycoside clearance is important for an appropriate individualization of dosage regimens in patients with impaired renal function. However, it has been suggested that in cystic fibrosis (CF), creatinine clearance (CrCl) is not a good p

  10. Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow Pattern in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor with Micro Tip Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojuan Geng; Hongwu Zhang; Jingyi Chen; Weiguang Huang

    2007-01-01

    A numerical study of the effect of discrete micro tip injection on unsteady tip clearance flow pattern in an isolated axial compressor rotor is presented, intending to better understand the flow mechanism behind stall control measures that act on tip clearance flow. Under the influence of injection the unsteadiness of self-induced tip clearance flow could be weakened. Also the radial migration of tip clearance vortex is confined to a smaller radial extent near the rotor tip and the trajectory of tip clearance flow is pushed more downstream. So the injection is beneficial to improve compressor stability and increase static pressure rise near rotor tip region. The results of injection with different injected mass flow rates show that for the special type of injector adopted in the paper the effect of injection on tip clearance flow may be different according to the relative strength between these two streams of flow. For a fixed injected mass flow rate, reducing the injector area to increase injection velocity can improve the effect of injection on tip clearance flow and thus the compressor stability. A comparison of calculations between single blade passage and multiple blade passages validates the utility of single passage computations to investigate the tip clearance flow for the case without injection and its interaction with injected flow for the case with tip injection.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-28B are associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢俊强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between interleukin(IL)-28B variation and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods A total of 280 HCV infected patients including 200 chronic hepatitis C(CHC) patients and 80 spontaneous clearance patients of

  12. CD8+ T cells mediate antibody-independent platelet clearance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Connie M; Patel, Seema R; Sullivan, H Cliff; Winkler, Annie M; Tormey, Chris A; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Stowell, Sean R

    2016-04-07

    Platelet transfusion provides an important therapeutic intervention in the treatment and prevention of bleeding. However, some patients rapidly clear transfused platelets, preventing the desired therapeutic outcome. Although platelet clearance can occur through a variety of mechanisms, immune-mediated platelet removal often plays a significant role. Numerous studies demonstrate that anti-platelet alloantibodies can induce significant platelet clearance following transfusion. In fact, for nearly 50 years, anti-platelet alloantibodies were considered to be the sole mediator of immune-mediated platelet clearance in platelet-refractory individuals. Although nonimmune mechanisms of platelet clearance can often explain platelet removal in the absence of anti-platelet alloantibodies, many patients experience platelet clearance following transfusion in the absence of a clear mechanism. These results suggest that other processes of antibody-independent platelet clearance may occur. Our studies demonstrate that CD8(+)T cells possess the unique ability to induce platelet clearance in the complete absence of anti-platelet alloantibodies. These results suggest a previously unrecognized form of immune-mediated platelet clearance with significant implications in the appropriate management of platelet-refractory individuals.

  13. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance or permission to depart denied. 122.66 Section 122.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  14. Development of a modular virus clearance package for anion exchange chromatography operated in weak partitioning mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Timothy; Sacramo, Ashley; Gallo, Chris; Godavarti, Ranga; Chen, Shuang; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) operated under weak partitioning mode has been proven to be a powerful polishing step as well as a robust viral clearance step in Pfizer's monoclonal antibody (mAb) platform purification process. A multivariate design of experiment (DoE) study was conducted to understand the impact of operating parameters and feedstream impurity levels on viral clearance by weak partitioning mode AEX. Bacteriophage was used initially as a surrogate for neutral and acidic isoelectric point mammalian viruses (e.g., retrovirus and parvovirus). Five different mAbs were used in the evaluation of process parameters such as load challenge (both product and impurities), load pH, load conductivity, and contact time (bed height and flow-rate). The operating ranges obtained from phage clearance studies and Pfizer's historical data were used to define an appropriate operating range for a subsequent clearance study with model retrovirus and parvovirus. Both phage and virus clearance evaluations included feedstreams containing different levels of impurities such as high molecular mass species (HMMS), host cell proteins (HCPs), and host cell DNA. For all the conditions tested, over 5 log10 of clearance for both retrovirus and parvovirus was achieved. The results demonstrated that weak partitioning mode AEX chromatography is a robust step for viral clearance and has the potential to be included as part of the modular viral clearance approach.

  15. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  16. Renal Clearance: Using an Interactive Activity to Visualize a Tricky Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Renal clearance, the volume of blood cleared of a substance in a particular time period, is commonly recognized as one of the most difficult concepts in physiology. This difficulty may in part reflect the quantitative nature of renal clearance since many life sciences majors perceive that mathematics is irrelevant to their discipline. Students may…

  17. Absorptive clearance of DTPA as an aerosol-based biomarker in the cystic fibrosis airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Timothy E; Thomas, Kristina M.; Myerburg, Michael M.; Muthukrishnan, Ashok; Weber, Lawrence; Frizzell, Raymond; Pilewski, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers providing in vivo quantification of the basic elements of CF lung disease are needed. We questioned whether the absorption of a small, radiolabeled, hydrophilic molecule (Indium 111 DTPA) would be increased in CF airways. DTPA clearance has been used previously to assess epithelial permeability and may also be useful for quantifying liquid absorption. The absorptive clearance rate of DTPA was quantified in 10 CF and 11 control subjects using a novel aerosol technique. Subjects inhaled an aerosol containing non-absorbable Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) particles and Indium-111 DTPA (In-DTPA). Tc-SC clearance from the lung is exclusively mucociliary while In-DTPA is cleared by both absorption and mucociliary clearance. The difference between the In-DTPA and Tc-SC clearance rates estimates In-DTPA absorption. Tc-SC (mucociliary) clearance was similar in central and peripheral zones in CF and non-CF. Total In-DTPA clearance was increased in both zones in CF. The absorptive component of In-DTPA clearance was increased in the airway-dominated central lung zones in CF (42 vs. 32 %/hr, p=0.03). The absorption of In-DTPA is increased in the CF airway. Further study is needed to understand the relative roles of fluid absorption, inflammation, and other mechanisms potentially affecting epithelial permeability and DTPA absorption. PMID:19717485

  18. Factors Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections spontaneously clear in approximately 15–45% of infected individuals. Factors which influence spontaneous HCV clearance remain to be identified. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in a referred population of Chinese patients. The prevalence of host, viral, and environmental factors known to influence the outcome of HCV infections was compared in 92 HCV spontaneous clearance subjects and 318 HCV persistent infection subjects. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify those factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. In univariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, serologic evidence of concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype were positively associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, while alcohol consumption was negatively associated with clearance. In multivariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype remained independent variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance is more likely to occur in females, subjects with a history of icteric hepatitis, HBV coinfections, and those with the rs12979860 CC genotype.

  19. Nuclear methods in pulmonary medicine. Methodologic considerations in mucociliary clearance and lung epithelial absorption measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolovich, M.B.; Jordana, M.; Newhouse, M.

    1987-06-01

    Measurements of mucociliary clearance and lung epithelial permeability are relatively simple to perform, with minimum discomfort to the subjects. Awareness of the factors influencing the outcome of these procedures will help to avoid errors and yield useful information about these two clearance mechanisms from both a physiological and a pathological point of view.

  20. Delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Sanchez-Tapias, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B....

  1. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis July 2012...WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT If a Bacillus anthracis incident occurs in the United States or within its territories, the public health and

  2. Active generalized predictive control of turbine tip clearance for aero-engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Kai; Fan Ding; Yang Fan; Fu Qiang; Li Yong

    2013-01-01

    Active control of turbine blade tip clearance continues to be a concern in design and con-trol of gas turbines. Ever increasing demands for improved efficiency and higher operating temper-atures require more stringent tolerances on turbine tip clearance. In this paper, a turbine tip clearance control apparatus and a model of turbine tip clearance are proposed;an implicit active generalized predictive control (GPC), with auto-regressive (AR) error modification and fuzzy adjustment on control horizon, is presented, as well as a quantitative analysis method of robust per-turbation radius of the system. The active clearance control (ACC) of aero-engine turbine tip clear-ance is evaluated in a lapse-rate take-off transient, along with the comparative and quantitative analysis of the stability and robustness of the active tip clearance control system. The results show that the resultant active tip clearance control system with the improved GPC has favorable steady-state and dynamic performance and benefits of increased efficiency, reduced specific fuel consump-tion, and additional service life.

  3. 78 FR 64574 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-3057, Medical Clearance Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-3057, Medical Clearance Update ACTION: Notice of.... Fax: 703-875-4850. You must include the DS form number (if applicable), information collection title... Approved Collection. Originating Office: Office of Medical Services--Medical Clearances. Form Number: DS...

  4. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity....

  5. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental study of inter-stage seal clearance on submersible well pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongfa Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a typical submersible well pump was investigated to study the effects of inter-stage leakage on the inner flow field and external characteristics. The whole flow field of the model pump with different seal clearances was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software. The inter-stage clearance leakage calculated by numerical simulation was compared with the values obtained by the empirical formula. The pressure values were recorded with the arrangement of monitor points in the inter-stage clearance, inlet region, and outlet region, which aimed to study the effects of the change of inter-stage clearance pressure on the pump performance. Meanwhile, a comparative analysis of numerical simulation and performance test of the pump was conducted further. The results showed that the leakage at the small clearance is close to the value calculated using empirical formula. But when the clearance is large, the discrepancy between the simulation result and empirical value inclines. Comparing the numerical results of three kinds of clearance leakage, we found that the clearance leakage could not be ignored in the simulation since it has a large effect on the prediction of pump efficiency and head.

  6. Oral human papillomavirus infection incidence and clearance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Zoe C; Bain, Christopher J; Smith, David D; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection that persists for decades is likely to precede an HPV-driven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, but little is known about the natural history of oral HPV. We systematically reviewed and abstracted data from nine manuscripts that examined human immunodeficiency virus-negative and cancer-free subjects for oral HPV DNA to determine the pooled baseline prevalence and incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections, and specifically for HPV-16. We also documented the clearance rate and the median time to clearance, where data existed. Of 3762 individuals, 7.5 % had an oral infection with any HPV type (1.6 % for HPV-16). Meta-regression analysis estimated the 12-month cumulative incidence to be 4.8 % (95 % confidence interval 3.2-7.3 %). The overall oral HPV clearance was reported to be 0-80 % between studies, and the median time to clearance from 6.5 to 18 months. Oral HPV-16 clearance was 43-83 %, and median time to clearance for HPV-16 was 7-22 months. Oral HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance vary considerably between published studies from different geographical regions. Further research is required to identify predictors of persistent oral HPV infection. Measurable baseline prevalence was observed in all studies, as well as non-trivial incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections and incomplete clearance.

  7. 76 FR 63680 - Public Roundtable on Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Roundtable on Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... various issues related to the Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities. The roundtable... following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules...

  8. 78 FR 69643 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research which may be in the form of... customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed for content, utility, and user... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer...

  9. 75 FR 38775 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Bureau is requesting an extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research... on feedback from its various customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed...

  10. 33 CFR 222.3 - Clearances for power and communication lines over reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be provided when relocating existing or constructing new power and communication lines over waters of... section). (e) Required clearances. Minimum vertical clearances for power and communication lines over... communication lines over reservoirs. 222.3 Section 222.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF...

  11. Measurement of Rotating Blade Tip Clearance with Fibre-Optic Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, S Z; Duan, F J; Zhang, Y G [State Key Laboratory of Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tianjin, University. Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper described a tip clearance measuring system with fibre-optic probe. The system is based on a novel tip clearance sensor of optical fibre-bundle mounted on the casing, rotating speed synchronization sensor mounted on the rotating shaft, the tip clearance preamplification processing circuit followed by high speed data-acquisition unit. A novel tip clearance sensor of trifurcated optical fibre bundle was proposed and demonstrated. It is independent of material of measured surface but capacitive probe demands target conductive. Measurements can be taken under severe conditions such as ionization. Sensor circuitry and data acquisition circuit were successfully designed. With the help of Rotation synchronized sensor, all the blades can be detected in real-time. Because of fibre-optic sensor, the measuring system has commendably frequency response, which can work well in high rotating speed from 0-15000rpm.The measurement range of tip clearance is 0-3mm with 25um precision.

  12. Influence of tip clearance on pressure fluctuations in an axial flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jianjun; Luo, Xingqi; Guo, Pengcheng; Wu, Guangkuan [Xi' an University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-04-15

    Rotor-stator interaction in axial pumps can produce pressure fluctuations and further vibrations even damage to the pump system in some extreme case. In this paper, the influence of tip clearance on pressure fluctuations in an axial flow water pump has been investigated by numerical method. Three-dimensional unsteady flow in the axial flow water pump has been simulated with different tip clearances between the impeller blade tip and the casing wall. In addition to monitoring pressure fluctuations at some typical points, a new method based on pressure statistics was proposed to determine pressure fluctuations at all grid nodes inside the whole pump. The comparison shows that the existence of impeller tip clearance magnifies the pressure fluctuations in the impeller region, from the hub to shroud. However, the effect on pressure fluctuation in the diffuser region is not evident. Furthermore, the tip clearance vortex has also been examined under different tip clearances.

  13. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Sisson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO, we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC analyzed for NO metabolites (. Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32 μM versus after = 37 ± 17 μM; . CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism.

  14. Study on leakage flow characteristics of radial inflow turbines at rotor tip clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tip clearance leakage flow in a radial inflow turbine rotor for microturbines under the stage environment is investigated using a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation. The results indicate that the scraping flow caused by relative motion between casing and rotor tip, and the pressure difference between pressure side and suction side at rotor tip, play important roles in tip clearance leakage flow. The more the rotor tip speed increases and tip clearance height decreases, the more the scraping effect acts. Though the leakage velocity of tip clearance at midsection and exducer regions changes less when the rotor rotational speed is changing, the distance between passage vortex and rotor suction side varies in evidence. Main leakage flow rate of tip clearance takes place at region of exducer tip and some seal configurations will be quite effective for cutting leakage flow if these configurations are arranged over midsection and exducer of the radial inflow rotor.

  15. Study on leakage flow characteristics of radial inflow turbines at rotor tip clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG QingHua; NIU JiuFang; FENG ZhenPing

    2008-01-01

    Tip clearance leakage flow in a radial inflow turbine rotor for microturbines under the stage environment is investigated using a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation. The results indicate that the scraping flow caused by relative motion between casing and rotor tip, and the pressure difference between pressure side and suction side at rotor tip, play important roles in tip clearance leakage flow. The more the rotor tip speed increases and tip clearance height decreases, the more the scraping effect acta. Though the leakage velocity of tip clearance at midsection and exducer regions changes less when the rotor rotational speed is changing, the distance between passage vortex and rotor suction side varies in evidence. Main leakage flow rate of tip clearance takes place at region of exducer tip and some seal configurations will be quite effective for cutting leakage flow if these configurations are arranged over midsection and exducer of the radial inflow rotor.

  16. Iohexol plasma clearance for measuring glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice and research: a review. Part 1: How to measure glomerular filtration rate with iohexol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Ebert, Natalie; Melsom, Toralf; Gaspari, Flavio; Mariat, Christophe; Cavalier, Etienne; Björk, Jonas; Christensson, Anders; Nyman, Ulf; Porrini, Esteban; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero; Schaeffner, Elke; Soveri, Inga; Sterner, Gunnar; Eriksen, Bjørn Odvar; Bäck, Sten-Erik

    2016-01-01

    While there is general agreement on the necessity to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in many clinical situations, there is less agreement on the best method to achieve this purpose. As the gold standard method for GFR determination, urinary (or renal) clearance of inulin, fades into the background due to inconvenience and high cost, a diversity of filtration markers and protocols compete to replace it. In this review, we suggest that iohexol, a non-ionic contrast agent, is most suited to replace inulin as the marker of choice for GFR determination. Iohexol comes very close to fulfilling all requirements for an ideal GFR marker in terms of low extra-renal excretion, low protein binding and in being neither secreted nor reabsorbed by the kidney. In addition, iohexol is virtually non-toxic and carries a low cost. As iohexol is stable in plasma, administration and sample analysis can be separated in both space and time, allowing access to GFR determination across different settings. An external proficiency programme operated by Equalis AB, Sweden, exists for iohexol, facilitating interlaboratory comparison of results. Plasma clearance measurement is the protocol of choice as it combines a reliable GFR determination with convenience for the patient. Single-sample protocols dominate, but multiple-sample protocols may be more accurate in specific situations. In low GFRs one or more late samples should be included to improve accuracy. In patients with large oedema or ascites, urinary clearance protocols should be employed. In conclusion, plasma clearance of iohexol may well be the best candidate for a common GFR determination method. PMID:27679715

  17. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Factors effective on peritoneal phosphorus transport and clearance in peritoneal dialysis patients
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Egemen; Gursu, Meltem; Uzun, Sami; Karadag, Serhat; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza; Ozturk, Savas

    2017-02-01

    Transport characteristics of phosphorus are different from other small solutes that are evaluated in routine peritoneal equilibration test (PET) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We aimed to evaluate peritoneal phosphorus clearance and permeability, and their relationship with peritoneal membrane transport type and creatinine clearance as well as factors affecting peritoneal phosphorus clearance. 70 adult patients on a PD program were included in our study. Phosphorus transport status was classified according to dialysate/plasma (D/P) phosphorus at the 4th hour of PET as slow transporter ( 0.67). We evaluated the relationship of peritoneal phosphorus clearance and transport type with PD regime, phosphorus level, and presence of residual renal function in addition to investigating factors that are effective on peritoneal phosphorus clearance. D/P phosphorus and peritoneal phosphorus clearance were positively correlated with D/P creatinine and peritoneal creatinine clearance, respectively. Automated PD and continuous ambulatory PD patients were similar regarding phosphorus and creatinine clearances and transport status based on D/P phosphorus. The major determinant of peritoneal phosphorus clearance was anuria status. Anuric patients had higher dialysate volume (11.6 ± 3.0 L vs. 8.4 ± 2.1 L, p 2 vs. 48.4 ± 14.0 L/week/1.73 m2, p = 0.001). Hyperphosphatemia was present in 40% and 11% of anuric patients and those with residual renal function, respectively (p = 0.005). Peritoneal phosphorus transport characteristics are similar to that of creatinine. Although increased dialysis dose may increase peritoneal phosphorus clearance, it may be insufficient to prevent hyperphosphatemia in anuric patients.
.

  19. On the isomorphism between the medial axis and a dual of the Delaunay graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show a graph isomorphism between a dual graph of the Delaunay graph of the sampled points and the medial axis of the sampled features. This dual graph captures the fact that two Delaunay triangles share two vertices or an edge. Then, we apply it to the computation of the medial ...... of (satellite) imagery and scanned maps. Applications include coastline extraction, extraction of fields, clear cuts, clouds, as well as heating or pollution monitoring and dense forest mapping among others....

  20. Theory of dual probes on graphene structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel

    around the local probes. This necessitates a reformulation of the conventional calculation methods allowing for the description of non-periodic structures embedded within infinite samples. The two-dimensional material graphene, is a highly interesting system for multi- probe characterization as graphene......This thesis concerns the development of theoretical and computational methods for multiprobe systems and their application to nanostructured graphene. Recent experimental advances emphasize the usefulness of multi-probe techniques when analyzing the electrical properties of nanoscale samples...... is purely surface and exhibits a wide range of highly intriguing electronic properties. Using a dual probe setup, we demonstrate the application of the developed formalism to a number of different graphene-based systems. The conductance between the two probes in either scanning or spectroscopy mode, shows...

  1. Nano-phases and corrosion resistance of C+Mo dual implanted steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of C+Mo dual-implanted H13 steel wasstudied using multi-sweep cyclic voltammetry. The phase formation conditions for corrosion resistance and its effects were researched. The super-saturation solid station solution of Mo+ and C+ atoms was formed in Mo+C dual implanted steel. Precipitate phase with nanometer size Fe2Mo, FeMo, MoC, Fe5C3 and Fe7C3 were formed in dual implanted layer. The passivation layer consisted of these nanometer phases. The corrosion resistance of the dual implanted layer was better than that of single Mo implantation. Jp of the Mo implanted sample is 0.55 times that of H13 steel. The corrosion resistance of the dual implantation was enhanced when ion dose increased. When the Mo+ ion dose was 6×1017/cm2 in the dual implantation, Jp of the dual implanted sample was only 0.11 times that in H13 steel. What is important is that pitting corrosion properties of dual implanted steel were improved obviously.

  2. NONLINEAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCURRENT DUAL-BAND RF POWER AMPLIFIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ming; Liu Taijun; Ye Yan; Zhang Haili; Shen Dongya; Li Liang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the synchronous concurrent dual-band RF signal is used to drive the RF Power Amplifier (PA).The nonlinear characterization of a concurrent dual-band RF PA is discussed while two band signals in the dual-band are modulated by CDMA2000 and WCDMA signals.When the two band signals in the dual-band of the PA are modulated with the same signals,it is found that the nonlinearity of the PA can be expressed by any of the two corresponding baseband data.On the other hand,when the two band signals in the dual-band of the PA are modulated with two different signals,the PA nonlinearity cannot be characterized by any of the two corresponding baseband data.In this case,its nonlinearity has to be denoted by a composite signals consisting of the two baseband signals.Consequently,the requirements for the speed of the A/D converter can be largely reduced.The experimental results with CDMA2000 and WCDMA signals demonstrate the speed of the A/D converter required is only 30 M Sample Per Second (SaPS),but it will be at least 70 M SaPS for the conventional method.

  3. Amylase:creatinine clearance ratios, serum amylase, and lipase after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C R; Schwartz, S I

    1983-09-01

    Forty-two adults who underwent cardiac operations were studied prospectively for evidence of clinical or subclinical pancreatitis. Clinically detectable pancreatitis was not seen. Serum amylase and lipase levels did not change significantly following operation. The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) immediately following operation was abnormally elevated in 31% of the samples obtained, and the mean ACCR increased from 2.08 +/- 1.85% before operation to 6.2% +/- 6.77% (P less than 0.05). An abnormally elevated ACCR was most often associated with a low urine creatinine concentration. The mean urine creatinine level decreased significantly from 78 +/- 53 mg/dl before operation to 38 +/- 49 mg/dl immediately following operation (P less than 0.02), and 73% of the samples obtained at that time had an abnormally low urine creatinine level (P less than 0.01). The abnormalities observed in ACCR and urine creatinine could not be related to any of several variables presumed to reflect the degree of perioperative physiologic stress, nor could they be related to postoperative hemodynamic performance. It was concluded that ACCR rises following cardiac operation because of perioperative changes in renal function, and not as a reflection of subclinical pancreatic injury.

  4. Beta-cell dysfunction and low insulin clearance in insulin-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Vølund, Aage;

    2005-01-01

    with insulin sensitivity) and insulin clearance rate were reduced in lipodystrophic patients (-55%, P clearance rate correlated strongly with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.82, P ... and diabetes mellitus (63%vs. 20%, P clearance....

  5. Noscapine recirculates enterohepatically and induces self-clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkavilli, Rao; Gundala, Sushma R; Yang, Chunhua; Jadhav, Gajanan R; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-09-18

    Noscapine (Nos), an antitussive benzylisoquinoline opium alkaloid, is a non-toxic tubulin-binding agent currently in Phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. While preclinical studies have established its tumor-inhibitory properties in various cancers, poor absorptivity and rapid first-pass metabolism producing several uncharacterized metabolites for efficacy, present an impediment in translating its efficacy in humans. Here we report novel formulations of Nos in combination with dietary agents like capsaicin (Cap), piperine (Pip), eugenol (Eu) and curcumin (Cur) known for modulating Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK), organ toxicity evaluation of combinations, microsomal stability and in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition effects of Nos, Cap and Pip using human liver microsomes were performed. Single-dose PK screening of combinations revealed that the relative exposure of Nos (2 μg h/mL) was enhanced by 2-fold (4 μg h/mL) by Cap and Pip and their plasma concentration-time profiles showed multiple peaking phenomena for Nos indicating enterohepatic recirculation or differential absorption from intestine. CYP inhibition studies confirmed that Nos, Cap and Pip are not potent CYP inhibitors (IC50>1 μM). Repeated oral dosing of Nos, Nos+Cap and Nos+Pip showed lower exposure (Cmax and AUClast) of Nos on day 7 compared to day 1. Nos Cmax decreased from 3087 ng/mL to 684 ng/mL and AUClast from 1024 ng h/mL to 508 ng h/mL. In presence of Cap and Pip, the decrease in Cmax and AUClast of Nos was similar. This may be due to potential enzyme induction leading to rapid clearance of Nos as the trend was observed in Nos alone group also. The lack of effect on intrinsic clearance of Nos suggests that the potential drug biotransformation modulators employed in this study did not contribute toward increased exposure of Nos on repeated dosing. We envision that Nos-induced enzyme induction could alter the therapeutic efficacy of co

  6. Thoracic applications of dual energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy-Jardin, Martine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Pontana, Francois; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Tacelli, Nunzia; Santangelo, Teresa; Remy, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Recent technological advances in multidetector computed tomography (CT) have led to the introduction of dual-source CT, which allows acquisition of CT data at the same energy or at 2 distinct tube voltage settings during a single acquisition. The advantage of the former is improvement of temporal resolution, whereas the latter offers new options for CT imaging, allowing tissue characterization and functional analysis with morphologic evaluation. The most investigated application has been iodine mapping at pulmonary CT angiography. The material decomposition achievable opens up new options for recognizing substances poorly characterized by single-energy CT. Although it is too early to draw definitive conclusions on dual-energy CT applications, this article reviews the results already reported with the first generation of dual-source CT systems.

  7. Prognostic impact of incomplete surgical clearance of radioiodine sensitive local lymph node metastases diagnosed by post-operative {sup 124}I-NaI-PET/CT in patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Binse, Ina; Grafe, Hong; Goerges, Rainer; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Bockisch, Andreas; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J. [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Nodal involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Neither the international guidelines nor the recently introduced ongoing risk adaptation concept consider the extent of initial surgical clearance of radioiodine sensitive lymph node metastases in their stratification systems. We investigated the prognostic relevance of incomplete initial surgical clearance in patients with purely lymphogeneous metastatic PTC (pN1 M0) despite successful radioiodine therapy. Accurate assessment of pre-ablative nodal status was attempted using PET/CT studies with both {sup 124}I-NaI and {sup 18}F-FDG along with high-resolution cervical ultrasound. Sixty-five patients with histologically diagnosed lymph node metastases (pN1 M0) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with iodine-negative lymph node metastases diagnosed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT or distant metastases were excluded from the analysis. The association of disease recurrence with the pre-ablative nodal status, as well as other baseline characteristics, were examined applying nonparametric tests for independent samples and multiple regression analysis. Patients with persistent lymph node metastases in {sup 124}I-NaI PET/CT were further divided according to the additional presence or absence of FDG-uptake in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards model for uni- and multivariate analyses to assess the influence of prognostic factors on progression free survival (PFS). Incomplete metastatic lymph node resection captured by {sup 124}I-NaI PET/CT (n = 33) was an independent risk factor for recurrence (61 % vs 25 %, p = 0.006) and shorter PFS (46 months vs not reached, HR 4.0 [95 %-CI, 1.7-9.2], p = 0.001). Ultrasound could detect lymph node metastases only in 19/33 patients (58 %). Among patients with positive nodal status, FDG-avidity of metastatic iodine positive lymph nodes worsened the outcome (16 vs 69

  8. Sampling algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Tillé, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Important progresses in the methods of sampling have been achieved. This book draws up an inventory of methods that can be useful for selecting samples. Forty-six sampling methods are described in the framework of general theory. This book is suitable for experienced statisticians who are familiar with the theory of survey sampling.

  9. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  10. Sample Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1987-01-01

    This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

  11. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  12. Increased apparent oral clearance of valproic acid during intake of combined contraceptive steroids in women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Arbasino, Carla; Canevini, Maria Paola; Fattore, Cinzia; Perucca, Emilio

    2006-09-01

    To determine potential changes in total and unbound serum valproic acid (VPA) concentrations at steady-state during a cycle of intake of combined hormonal contraceptive (HC) steroids. Blood samples were collected from nine women stabilized on VPA monotherapy on two separate randomized occasions: (i) at the end of the 4- to 7-day HC-free interval, and (ii) on the last day of the HC intake period. Trough concentrations of VPA in serum and serum ultrafiltrates were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In all women, total and unbound VPA concentrations were higher during the HC-free interval than during HC intake (means +/- SD: 425 +/- 184 vs. 350 +/- 145 micromol/L, respectively, for total VPA, p = 0.002, and 55 +/- 37 vs. 39 +/- 25 micromol/L, respectively, for unbound VPA, p = 0.005). Compared with the HC-free interval, HC intake was associated with a mean 21.5% increase in VPA total apparent oral clearance (from 8.0 +/- 5.2 to 9.7 +/- 6.4 ml/h/kg, p = 0.01) and a 45.2 % increase in VPA unbound apparent oral clearance (from 79 +/- 81 to 115 +/- 121 ml/h/kg, p = 0.029). The apparent oral clearance of total and unbound VPA increases during the HC intake period compared with the HC-free interval, probably due to induction of glucuronosyltransferase by ethinylestradiol. The magnitude of the change varies across individuals, being potentially clinically relevant in some cases. Serum VPA concentrations should be monitored when adding or discontinuing HC steroids, and possibly during the on-off intervals of a HC cycle.

  13. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Pieter A J G; Standing, Joseph F; Barker, Charlotte I S; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G; Delanghe, Joris R; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].).

  14. Indocyanine green clearance varies as a function of N-acetylcysteine treatment in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Brown, Aliza; McCullough, Sandra S; Letzig, Lynda; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P

    2011-02-01

    Standard assays to assess acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in animal models include determination of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels and examination of histopathology of liver sections. However, these assays do not reflect the functional capacity of the injured liver. To examine a functional marker of liver injury, the pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) were examined in mice treated with APAP, saline, or APAP followed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment.Male B6C3F1 mice were administered APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline. Two additional groups of mice received APAP followed by NAC at 1 or 4 h after APAP. At 24 h, mice were injected with ICG (10 mg/kg IV) and serial blood samples (0, 2, 10, 30, 50 and 75 min) were obtained for determination of serum ICG concentrations and ALT. Mouse livers were removed for measurement of APAP protein adducts and examination of histopathology. Toxicity (ALT values and histology) was significantly increased above saline treated mice in the APAP and APAP/NAC 4 h mice. Mice treated with APAP/NAC 1 h had complete protection from toxicity. APAP protein adducts were increased in all APAP treated groups and were highest in the APAP/NAC 1 h group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ICG demonstrated that the total body clearance (Cl(T)) of ICG was significantly decreased and the mean residence time (MRT) was significantly increased in the APAP mice compared to the saline mice. Mice treated with NAC at 1 h had Cl(T) and MRT values similar to those of saline treated mice. Conversely, mice that received NAC at 4 h had a similar ICG pharmacokinetic profile to that of the APAP only mice. Prompt treatment with NAC prevented loss of functional activity while late treatment with NAC offered no improvement in ICG clearance at 24 h. ICG clearance in mice with APAP toxicity can be utilized in future studies testing the effects of novel treatments for APAP toxicity.

  15. Health care utilization among Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles: a count data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jaeun

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles are the beneficiaries of both Medicare and Medicaid. Dual eligibles satisfy the eligibility conditions for Medicare benefit. Dual eligibles also qualify for Medicaid because they are aged, blind, or disabled and meet the income and asset requirements for receiving Supplement Security Income (SSI assistance. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between dual eligibility and health care utilization among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods The household component of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS 1996–2000 is used for the analysis. Total 8,262 Medicare beneficiaries are selected from the MEPS data. The Medicare beneficiary sample includes individuals who are covered by Medicare and do not have private health insurance during a given year. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB regression model is used to analyse the count data regarding health care utilization: office-based physician visits, hospital inpatient nights, agency-sponsored home health provider days, and total dental visits. Results Dual eligibility is positively correlated with the likelihood of using hospital inpatient care and agency-sponsored home health services and the frequency of agency-sponsored home health days. Frequency of dental visits is inversely associated with dual eligibility. With respect to racial differences, dually eligible Afro-Americans use more office-based physician and dental services than white duals. Asian duals use more home health services than white duals at the 5% statistical significance level. The dual eligibility programs seem particularly beneficial to Afro-American duals. Conclusion Dual eligibility has varied impact on health care utilization across service types. More utilization of home healthcare among dual eligibles appears to be the result of delayed realization of their unmet healthcare needs under the traditional Medicare-only program

  16. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  17. Relationship between pressure wave amplitude and esophageal bolus clearance assessed by combined manometry and multichannel intraluminal impedance measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Tippett, Marcus; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Holloway, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Esophageal wave amplitude is an important determinant of esophageal clearance. A threshold of 30 mmHg is widely accepted as the threshold for effective clearance in the distal esophagus. However, the precise relationship between wave amplitude and clearance has received relatively little

  18. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  19. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  20. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ragavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS attack.

  1. Nuclearity for Dual Operator Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhe Dong; Jicheng Tao

    2010-02-01

    In this short paper, we study the nuclearity for the dual operator space $V^∗$ of an operator space . We show that $V^∗$ is nuclear if and only if $V^{∗∗∗}$ is injective, where $V^{∗∗∗}$ is the third dual of . This is in striking contrast to the situation for general operator spaces. This result is used to prove that $V^{∗∗}$ is nuclear if and only if is nuclear and $V^{∗∗}$ is exact.

  2. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads; Fels, Johannes Josef; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Agersø, Henrik

    2016-04-30

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rhGH in non-anesthetized rats, anesthetized rats and in nephrectomized anesthetized rats. Clearance in non-anesthetized rats was 290 ml/h/kg. This was reduced to 185 ml/h/kg by anesthesia and further reduced to 18 ml/h/kg by nephrectomy. As nephrectomy was able to reduce clearance with 90%, we conclude that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats.

  3. Airway clearance techniques used by people with cystic fibrosis in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Z H; Daniels, T; Wildman, M J; Teare, M D; Bradley, J M

    2015-12-01

    To describe the current use of airway clearance techniques among people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the UK, and the baseline characteristics for users of different airway clearance techniques. Analysis of the UK CF Registry 2011 data. All people with CF in the UK aged ≥11 years (n=6372). Of the 6372 people on the UK CF registry in 2011, 89% used airway clearance techniques. The most commonly used primary techniques were forced expiratory techniques (28%) and oscillating positive expiratory pressure (PEP) (23%). Postural drainage and high-frequency chest wall oscillation were used by 4% and 1% of people with CF, respectively. The male:female ratio of individuals who used exercise as their primary airway clearance technique was 2:1, compared with 1:1 for other techniques. Individuals with more severe lung disease tended to use devices such as non-invasive ventilation or high-frequency chest wall oscillation. Forced expiratory techniques and oscillating PEP are the most common airway clearance techniques used by people with CF in the UK, and postural drainage and high-frequency chest wall oscillation are the least common techniques. This is significant in terms of planning airway clearance technique trials, where postural drainage has been used traditionally as the comparator. The use of airway clearance techniques varies between countries, but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics in a Centrifugal Pump with Variable Axial Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearance flows in the sidewall gaps of centrifugal pumps are unsteady as well as main flows in the volute casing and impeller, which may cause vibration and noise, and the corresponding pressure fluctuations are related to the axial clearance size. In this paper, unsteady numerical simulations were conducted to predict the unsteady flows within the entire flow passage of a centrifugal pump operating in the design condition. Pressure fluctuation characteristics in the volute casing, impeller, and sidewall gaps were investigated with three axial clearance sizes. Results show that an axial clearance variation affects the pressure fluctuation characteristics in each flow domain by different degree. The greatest pressure fluctuation occurs at the blade pressure surface and is almost not influenced by the axial clearance variation which has a certainly effect on the pressure fluctuation characteristics around the tongue. The maximum pressure fluctuation amplitude in the sidewall gaps is larger than that in the volute casing, and different spectrum characteristics show up in the three models due to the interaction between the clearance flow and the main flow as well as the rotor-stator interaction. Therefore, clearance flow should be taken into consideration in the hydraulic design of centrifugal pumps.

  5. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  6. Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-07-01

    Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance are, therefore, important considerations. When a shoe is placed on a flat surface, there usually is small vertical margin (VM) between the walking surface and the minimum toe point (MTP). The current study examined the effects of VM on swing foot-ground clearance at a critical gait cycle event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). 3D coordinates of the swing foot (i.e. MTP and heel) were obtained during the swing phase. MTP represented the swing foot-ground clearance and various MTPs were modelled based on a range of VMs. The sagittal orientation of the toe and heel relative to the walking surface was also considered to evaluate effects of VM and swing foot angle on foot-ground clearance. Greater VM increased the swing foot-ground clearance. At MFC, for example, 0.09 cm increase was estimated for every 0.1cm VM. Foot angle throughout the swing phase was typically -30° and 70°. Increasing swing ankle dorsiflexion can maximise VM, which is effective for tripping prevention. Further research will be needed to determine the maximum thresholds of VM to be safely incorporated into a shoe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of glucagon infusion on the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, F J; Davila, E; Gardner, L B

    1978-10-01

    Recent data seem to support a tubular defect as the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon has been proposed by some to be an important factor in this phenomenon. To examine the role of glucagon as this "tubular dysfunction factor", we investigated the effect of intravenously infused glucagon on the fractional excretion of amylase and the tubular handling of a low molecular weight protein, beta2 microglobulin, in normal, healthy volunteers. At glucagon levels far in excess of those seen in pancreatitis, the clearance ratio of beta2 microglobulin relative to creatinine increased, whereas the clearance ratio of amylase relative to creatinine did not increase above the normal range. The dissociation between beta2 microglobulin clearance and amylase clearance allows one to question the theory that tubular dysfunction is the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon does not appear to be the sole factor responsible for the elevation of renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

  8. Influence of liquid in clearances on the operational behaviour of twin screw expanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßer, Melanie; Brümmer, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    A lot of effort has been expended on understanding the influences of an injected auxiliary liquid on a twin screw expander's performance. Sealed clearances improve performance on the one hand, but involve considerable frictional losses on the other hand. This paper contributes to an evaluation of these opposing effects with regard to the efficiency of screw expanders. First, thermodynamic analyses using the multi-chamber model-based simulation tool KaSim, developed at the Chair of Fluidics, are presented for a test screw expander in order to show the maximum potential of clearance sealing. This analysis involves thermodynamic simulations for sealed and unsealed clearances and leads to an order of priorities for different clearance types. Second, hydraulic losses within front and housing clearances are calculated, applying an analytical model of incompressible one-phase clearance flow. Subsequently dry and wet screw expanders are evaluated while both clearance sealing and frictional losses are considered for the simulation of a liquid-injected machine.

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY Dual RAAS blockade has dual effects on outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Makani and colleagues report that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with harm despite previous studies showing that this approach decreases blood pressure and albuminuria. Do these results imply that we should abandon surrogate markers? Or should we become more

  10. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ) simultaneously. The two linear polarizations have separate ports. The presented design is characterized by dual-band operation, reasonably good front-to-back ratios, average gains of 5.2 dBi and 6.2 dBi over the 2.4 and 5.2 GHz bands respectively, stable end...

  11. Mechanism of hard nanomaterial clearance by the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kim M.; MacParland, Sonya A.; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Spetzler, Vinzent N.; Echeverri, Juan; Ouyang, Ben; Fadel, Saleh M.; Sykes, Edward A.; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Kaths, Johann M.; Conneely, John B.; Alman, Benjamin A.; Selzner, Markus; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Adeyi, Oyedele A.; Zilman, Anton; McGilvray, Ian D.; Chan, Warren C.W.

    2016-01-01

    The liver and spleen are major biological barriers to translating nanomedicines because they sequester the majority of administered nanomaterials and prevent delivery to diseased tissue. Here we examined the blood clearance mechanism of administered hard nanomaterials in relation to blood flow dynamics, organ microarchitecture, and cellular phenotype. We found that nanomaterial velocity reduces 1000-fold as they enter and traverse the liver, leading to 7.5 times more nanomaterial interaction with hepatic cells relative to peripheral cells. In the liver, Kupffer cells (84.8%±6.4%), hepatic B cells (81.5±9.3%), and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (64.6±13.7%) interacted with administered PEGylated quantum dots but splenic macrophages took up less (25.4±10.1%) due to differences in phenotype. The uptake patterns were similar for two other nanomaterial types and five different surface chemistries. Potential new strategies to overcome off-target nanomaterial accumulation may involve manipulating intra-organ flow dynamics and modulating cellular phenotype to alter hepatic cell interaction. PMID:27525571

  12. Effect of Cilia Beat Frequency on Mucociliary Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedaghat M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The airway surface liquid (ASL, which is a fluid layer coating the interior epithelial surface of the bronchi and bronchiolesis, plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering lungs. Objective: Numerical investigation has been employed to solve two-layer model consisting of mucus layer as a viscoelastic fluid and periciliary liquid layer as a Newtonian fluid to study the effects of cilia beat frequency (CBF at various amounts of mucus properties on muco-ciliary transport problem. Methods: Hybrid finite difference-lattice Boltzmann-method (FB-LBM has been used to solve the momentum equations and to simulate cilia forces, and also the PCLmucus interface more accurately, immersed boundary method (IBM has been employed. The main contribution of the current study is to use an Oldroyd-B model as the constitutive equation of mucus. Results: Our results show that increasing CBF and decreasing mucus viscosity ratio have great effects on mucus flow, but the effect of viscosity ratio is more significant. The results also illustrate that the relation between cilia beat frequency and mean mucus velocity is almost linear and it has similar behavior at different values of viscosity ratio. Conclusion: Numerical investigation based on hybrid IB-FD-LBM has been used to study the effect of CBF at various mounts of mucus viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary clearance. The results showed that the effect of viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary transport process is more significant compared with CBF.

  13. A Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensor for Propulsion Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave sensor technology is being investigated by the NASA Glenn Research Center as a means of making non-contact structural health measurements in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. This type of sensor technology is beneficial in that it is accurate, it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures, and is unaffected by contaminants that are present in turbine engines. It is specifically being targeted for use in the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) and High Pressure Compressor (HPC) sections to monitor the structural health of the rotating components. It is intended to use blade tip clearance to monitor blade growth and wear and blade tip timing to monitor blade vibration and deflection. The use of microwave sensors for this application is an emerging concept. Techniques on their use and calibration needed to be developed. As a means of better understanding the issues associated with the microwave sensors, a series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate their performance for aero engine applications. This paper presents the results of these experiments.

  14. Rate of clearance of intrathecal iopamidol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J; Evill, C A; Sage, M R

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of post-myelographic side-effects has been significantly reduced since the advent of the new generation of water-soluble, non-ionic, contrast media (CM). One of these CM, iopamidol, has recently been released for clinical intrathecal use in Australia. Clinical evaluations have shown iopamidol to give excellent diagnostic results. However, many adverse side-effects have been cited in the literature. Reactions to iopamidol following myelography are thought to be due to the lack of a physiologic barrier between the extracellular fluid of the brain parenchyma and the CSF, thereby allowing CM to penetrate the brain parenchyma tissue, following subarachnoid injection. This study investigates the rate of clearance of intrathecal iopamidol from the brain in dogs by performing coronal CT scans at intervals over a 48 h, post-injection period. Analysis of similar regions of interest (ROI) for each time period indicate that iopamidol can be detected in canine brains for at least 48 h following intrathecal injection (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the disappearance of iopamidol from the brain parenchyma is approximately logarithmic in form, with a half-life of approximately 22 h.

  15. Hyperinsulinemia in Individuals with obesity: Role of Insulin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Reaven, Gerald M.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Kim, Eric; Kim, Sun H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several studies have shown decreased insulin clearance rate (ICR) in individuals with obesity, but it remains unclear whether this is predominately due to obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) or obesity itself. We aimed to clarify the complex interrelationship that exists between obesity, IR and ICR. Methods Healthy volunteers (n = 277) had measurement of IR and ICR using the insulin suppression test (IST). IR was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) during the IST. ICR was estimated by dividing the insulin infusion rate by the steady-state plasma insulin concentration. We performed our analysis by stratifying the experimental population into 4 dichotomous categories, varying in obesity and IR. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, and IR was defined as SSPG ≥ 150 mg/dl. Results Individuals with obesity had higher fasting insulin compared with individuals without obesity, regardless of IR. ICR was similar between individuals with and without obesity but was higher in IR individuals compared with insulin sensitive individuals. In multivariate analysis, both fasting insulin and SSPG were significantly associated with ICR. No significant relationships were observed between BMI and ICR. Conclusions Reduced ICR in obesity is secondary to IR, not excess adiposity. PMID:26524351

  16. Mechanism of hard-nanomaterial clearance by the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kim M.; Macparland, Sonya A.; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Spetzler, Vinzent N.; Echeverri, Juan; Ouyang, Ben; Fadel, Saleh M.; Sykes, Edward A.; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Kaths, Johann M.; Conneely, John B.; Alman, Benjamin A.; Selzner, Markus; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Adeyi, Oyedele A.; Zilman, Anton; McGilvray, Ian D.; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-11-01

    The liver and spleen are major biological barriers to translating nanomedicines because they sequester the majority of administered nanomaterials and prevent delivery to diseased tissue. Here we examined the blood clearance mechanism of administered hard nanomaterials in relation to blood flow dynamics, organ microarchitecture and cellular phenotype. We found that nanomaterial velocity reduces 1,000-fold as they enter and traverse the liver, leading to 7.5 times more nanomaterial interaction with hepatic cells relative to peripheral cells. In the liver, Kupffer cells (84.8 +/- 6.4%), hepatic B cells (81.5 +/- 9.3%) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (64.6 +/- 13.7%) interacted with administered PEGylated quantum dots, but splenic macrophages took up less material (25.4 +/- 10.1%) due to differences in phenotype. The uptake patterns were similar for two other nanomaterial types and five different surface chemistries. Potential new strategies to overcome off-target nanomaterial accumulation may involve manipulating intra-organ flow dynamics and modulating the cellular phenotype to alter hepatic cell interactions.

  17. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  18. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (gamma and x-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity and even death, due to DNA damages and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine-protected MoS2 dots as radioprotectants and investigated their application in protection against ionizing radiation. In vivo preclinical studies showed that the surviving fraction of MoS2-treated mice can appreciably increase to up to 79 % when they were exposed to high-energy ionizing radiation. Furthermore, MoS2 dots can contribute in cleaning up the accumulated free radicals within the body, repairing DNA damages and recovering all vital chemical and biochemical indicators, suggesting their unique role as free radical...

  19. Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David G; Trifilo, Matthew J.; Edelmann, Kurt H.; Teyton, Luc; McGavern, Dorian B; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2008-01-01

    Persistent viral infections are a major health concern. One obstacle inhibiting the clearance of persistent infections is functional inactivation of antiviral T cells. Although such immunosuppression occurs rapidly after infection, the mechanisms that induce the loss of T-cell activity and promote viral persistence are unknown. Herein we document that persistent viral infection in mice results in a significant upregulation of interleukin (IL)-10 by antigen-presenting cells, leading to impaired T-cell responses. Genetic removal of Il10 resulted in the maintenance of robust effector T-cell responses, the rapid elimination of virus and the development of antiviral memory T-cell responses. Therapeutic administration of an antibody that blocks the IL-10 receptor restored T-cell function and eliminated viral infection. Thus, we identify a single molecule that directly induces immunosuppression leading to viral persistence and demonstrate that a therapy to neutralize IL-10 results in T-cell recovery and the prevention of viral persistence. PMID:17041596

  20. A dual method for maximum entropy restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.