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Sample records for dual purpose cows

  1. Limitations and potentials of dual-purpose cow herds in Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Nicholson, Charles F; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Feed chemical and kinetic composition and animal performance information was used to evaluate productivity limitations and potentials of dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0) was systematically applied to specific groups of cows in structured simulations to establish probable input-output relationships for typical management, and to estimate probable outcomes from alternative management based on forage-based dietary improvements. Key herd vulnerabilities were pinpointed: chronic energy deficits among dry cows of all ages in late gestation and impeded growth for immature cows. Regardless of the forage season of calving, most cows, if not all, incur energy deficits in the final trimester of gestation; thus reducing the pool of tissue energy and constraining milking performance. Under typical management, cows are smaller and underweight for their age, which limits feed intake capacity, milk production and the probability of early postpartum return to ovarian cyclicity. The substitution of good-quality harvested forage for grazing increased predicted yields by about one-third over typical scenarios for underweight cows. When diets from first parturition properly supported growth and tissue repletion, milk production in second and third lactations was predicted to improve about 60%. Judiciously supplemented diets based on good quality grass and legume forages from first calving were predicted to further increase productivity by about 80% across a three-lactation cow lifetime. These dual-purpose herd owners have large incentives to increase sales income by implementing nutritional strategies like those considered in this study.

  2. Evaluation of tropical grasses for milk production by dual-purpose cows in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez Lagunes, F I; Fox, D G; Blake, R W; Pell, A N

    1999-10-01

    Two experiments using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System were conducted to characterize the carbohydrate and protein fractions and corresponding rates of digestion of 15 tropical pasture grasses and to evaluate their ability to support milk production by dual-purpose cows. In the first experiment, ranges in carbohydrate and protein fractions of 15 grasses at 35 to 42 d of regrowth were: neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 63.5 to 74.9% of DM; permanganate lignin 4.7 to 7.8% of NDF; CP 5.5 to 11.9% of DM; and soluble protein 15.1 to 44.1% of crude protein (CP). The ranges of rates of digestion expressed as percent per hour were neutral detergent solubles (7.5 to 27.4); NDF (3.8 to 8.4); and neutral detergent insoluble protein (2.9 to 9.5). Predictions of the amount of milk that could be produced based on the amount of metabolizable energy supplied by the diet decreased 35% when NDF increased from 60 to 80%, and increased 88% when the rate of digestion of NDF increased from 3 to 6%/h. The milk production that could be sustained based on metabolizable protein in the diet doubled as CP increased from 4 to 12%. In the second experiment, nitrogen fertilization reduced NDF 7.3% and increased CP 84% without changing protein solubility, resulting in increased rumen nitrogen and metabolizable protein balances. With all forages, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System predicted that availability of metabolizable protein would limit milk production. Predicted microbial growth was limited by ruminally available protein rather than by available carbohydrate.

  3. Economic analysis of alternative nutritional management of dual-purpose cow herds in central coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritional management for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3 ± 0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions.

  4. Effects of Fleckvieh on the Performance of Dual-Purpose Cattle Improved by Hybridization with Local Beef Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Lian Hongxia; Yan Ping; Liu Xian; Liu Yan; Wang Wenhui; Zhu Ruiguang; Li Ming; Yang Guoyu

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study the improved effect of local beef cattle with Fleckvieh cattle and provide theoretical basic data for local cattle industry in central plain agricultural area in China. [Method] With 500 local beef cattle as female parents and Fleckvieh cattle as male parents,hybridization improvement was conducted via artificial insemination. The growth performance,slaughter performance,milk performance and milk components of F1 and F2 hybrids were measured. [Result] The birth body weights of F2 were significantly higher than those of local beef cow,but there was no remarkable difference between F1 and local beef cow or F1 and F2. The growth rates of F1 and F2 at different stages were higher than those of local beef cattle. The slaughter performance,such as carcass weight( P < 0. 05),dressing percentage,net meat rate( P < 0. 05),marbling score of F1 and F2 were higher than those of local beef cow. Milk production performance,such as actual milk yield,305 d corrected milk yield and 4% standard milk yield of F2 were signally higher than those of F1 and local beef cattle( P< 0. 05),and F1 was markedly higher than local beef cattle( P < 0. 05). For milk composition,although milk fat percentage,milk protein rate,lactose rate and total solids( TS) of F1 and F2 were slightly lowered compared with local beef cattle at varying degrees,they were still at high levels compared with Holstein cows.[Conclusion]Fleckvieh cattle,as a male parent,can significantly improved growth performance,slaughter performance and milk performance of offsprings. It would also increases the economic efficiency of local beef cattle by higher quality and price,as well as changing production model from beef to dual purpose of beef and milk.

  5. Shortening the postpartum anoestrous interval in suckled crossbred dual purpose cows using progestagen intravaginal sponges plus eCG and PGF(2alpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J C; Palomares, R; González, R; Portillo, G; Montero-Urdaneta, M; Rubio-Guillén, J; Hernández-Fonseca, H J; Soto-Belloso, E

    2009-02-01

    One hundred and twenty-six suckled crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus), with body condition score >or=3 (1-5 point scale), were employed in the present study to evaluate the effectiveness of intravaginal progestin-releasing sponges (IVS) for shortening anoestrous interval. Fifty-four cows were assigned to control group. Seventy-two cows were treated with IVS impregnated with 250 mg of medroxy-acetate-progesterone (MAP) as follows: day 0, IVS plus 5 mg of 17beta-E and 50 mg of MAP i.m.; day 6, 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin and 25 mg prostaglandin F(2alpha) i.m.; day 8, IVS withdrawal and day 9, 1 mg 17beta-E i.m. Cows were also grouped according to postpartum days (dpp) at treatment: MAP 70 days (n = 47); control >70 days (n = 32). From IVS removal, cows were detected in oestrus and inseminated. Cows not detected in oestrus were timed artificial insemination 72 h after sponge removal. Treatment effect on oestrous rate (ER), conception rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR) and treatment to conception intervals (TCI) and calving to conception intervals (CCI) were evaluated. The ER, CR and PR were analysed using PROC LOGISTIC, while TCI and CCI with PROC GLM of SAS. The groups MAP 70 days showed higher (p 70 days (84.0% and 76.6% vs 31.8% and 31.3% respectively). The PR was higher (p 70 days vs control cattle.

  6. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  7. Producción de leche de vacas mestizas del Sistema Doble Propósito en el municipio de Arauca -Milk production of cows crossbred dual purpose system of municipalities of Arauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamanca, CA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa producción de leche y la duración de la lactancia son parámetros que permite conocer la cantidad de leche producida por la vaca y por finca.AbstractMilk production and lactation length are parameters to find out the amount of milk produced by cows and per farm.

  8. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  9. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

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    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  10. Dual purpose wheat production with different levels of nitrogen topdressing

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    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the practice of Crop-Livestock Integration is stimulated as a way of increasing the generation of foreign exchange for Brazil. Integrated systems improve land use efficiency as well as preserve, recover and increment or soil fertility. The aim of this research was to evaluate how different doses of nitrogen fertilization can affect production and quality of dual purpose wheat submitted to grazing. The experimental designed was randomized block with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 Kg N ha-1, like ammonium nitrate and four repetitions. The forage yield, the percentage crude protein (P=.0001 and acid detergent insoluble protein (P=.0054 had a linear increased because of the nitrogen addition doses. The crude protein percentage changed the estimate of all soluble carbohydrates (P=.0001 and non-fibrous carbohydrates (P=.0186, but did not influence the, nitrogen detergent fiber corrected with ash and proteins percentage contributing for content cell. The crops production (P=.0001 and the number of kernels per ear (P=.0001 showed significantly difference because of the nitrogen additions dose, increasing the number of fertile flowers. The nitrogen topdressing alters forage production, the chemical composition and the production of dual purpose wheat grains subjected to grazing.

  11. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

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    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  12. System-Level Logistics for Dual Purpose Canister Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, Elena A.

    2014-06-03

    The analysis presented in this report investigated how the direct disposal of dual purpose canisters (DPCs) may be affected by the use of standard transportation aging and disposal canisters (STADs), early or late start of the repository, and the repository emplacement thermal power limits. The impacts were evaluated with regard to the availability of the DPCs for emplacement, achievable repository acceptance rates, additional storage required at an interim storage facility (ISF) and additional emplacement time compared to the corresponding repackaging scenarios, and fuel age at emplacement. The result of this analysis demonstrated that the biggest difference in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario is for a repository start date of 2036 with a 6 kW thermal power limit. The differences are also seen in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario for the alternative with a 6 kW thermal limit and a 2048 start date, and for the alternatives with a 10 kW thermal limit and 2036 and 2048 start dates. The alternatives with disposal of UNF in both DPCs and STADs did not require additional storage, regardless of the repository acceptance rate, as compared to the reference repackaging case. In comparison to the reference repackaging case, alternatives with the 18 kW emplacement thermal limit required little to no additional emplacement time, regardless of the repository start time, the fuel loading scenario, or the repository acceptance rate. Alternatives with the 10 kW emplacement thermal limit and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenario required some additional emplacement time. The most significant decrease in additional emplacement time occurred in the alternative with the 6 kW thermal limit and the 2036 repository starting date. The average fuel age at emplacement ranges from 46 to 88 years. The maximum fuel age at

  13. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  14. Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Thouminot, C.; Bjelková, M.; Stramkale, V.; Amaducci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four

  15. A Community Facilities Center with Fallout Shelter as Dual Purpose Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A presentation is made of five award-winning designs for a fireproof community recreation facility, on a selected site in New York City, incorporating a fallout shelter as a dual-purpose space. Graphic illustrations are given of the award winning designs, each of which used one of the following solutions--(1) the fallout structure above grade with…

  16. DESIGN OF A COMPACT DUAL-PURPOSE STARTING CLUTCH IN THE DRIVE OF A PROTOTYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján PETRÓCI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the development of a dual-purpose clutch was based on racing experiences and application requirements, as well as the results from testing the new power unit in the existing prototype vehicle. In order to achieve the highest possible driving range of the prototype vehicle, it has been necessary to eliminate the maximum possible losses and drive in unnecessary components. The design aimed to achieve simple access, reliability and low weight.

  17. Dual-purpose RTOF diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor. Research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Hiismaeki, P.E.; Antson, O.K.; Tiitta, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    Some new features of an RTOF (Reverse Time of Flight) diffractometer facility, to be installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor, are considered. The suggested facility will be a dual-purpose instrument. It can be used for high-resolution crystallography using transmission diffraction technique and for strain measurements of technical components using a scattering geometry with a detector at 90 deg. (Copyright (c) Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT) 1992.)

  18. Dual-purpose RTOF diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayouf, R.M.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Hiisimaeki, P.E.; Antson, O.K.; Tiitta, A.T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Reactor Lab.

    1992-11-01

    Some new features of an RTOF diffractometer facility, to be installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor, are considered. The suggested facility will be a dual-purpose instrument. It can be used for high-resolution crystallography utilizing transmission diffraction technique and for strain measurements of technical components using a scattering geometry with a detector at 90 deg. (orig.). (30 refs., 1 fig.).

  19. Evaluation of a Dual-Purpose Chemical Applicator for Paddy Fields

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    Mohammed S. Abubakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the major problems of rice production is the shortage of labor resulting from migration from rural to urban areas, making it very difficult to meet peak demands for paddy production. In most developing countries of Southeast Asia, agricultural mechanization of paddy field operation is mostly carried out using conventional machines. For example in rice production powerintensive operations such as water pumping, land preparations, transplanting seedlings, harvestings and threshing are being mechanized but other operations like fertilizer and chemical (pesticides applications are not yet fully mechanized, rather they are performed manually with motorized backpack knapsack sprayers which have many disadvantages. The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new concept dual-purpose chemical applicator for paddy fields farmers in order to complement the labor shortage during the peak period. Approach: A dual-purpose chemical applicator for flooded paddy field was evaluated using the S341.4 Standard in respect to the distribution patterns/droplet sizes and uniformity of spreading/spraying for the chemical application to boost agricultural mechanization in rice production and also to overcome the safety concern of hazardous spray drift during chemical application by the paddy farmers. The dual purpose applicator was mounted on a high clearance prime mover. The machine performances for both granular and liquid chemical application were reported. Results: Results for urea granular chemical indicate that at low (40 kg ha−1 and high (120 kg ha−1 rates and 550 rpm disc speed distribution pattern skewed to the left whereas the distribution pattern shape at medium (80 kg ha−1 rates was good flattop. At high rate (120 kg ha−1 and 1000 rpm disc speed, mean distribution pattern became poor (M-shape and also at low and medium application rates the distribution pattern shapes lopsided

  20. The Analytical Review of the Condition of Heavy Class Military and Dual-Purpose Unmanned Ground Vehicle

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    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the evaluation of the actual condition of heavy (weight more than 700 kg military robotics and dual-purpose robotics in the world. The extensive review of the world market of heavy class military unmanned ground vehicle was made. All reviewed robots are used at present time or exist like prototypes. All robots were systematized by most important technical characteristics. In the closing of article the analysis of the reviewed heavy class dual purpose UGVs are presented. Based on the analysis the conclusion about actual condition of the heavy military robotics and dual-purpose robotics was made. Also the most promising ways and tendencies of development are representeds.

  1. Crossbreeding dual-purpose cattle for beef production in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Voigt, A; Noguera, E; Rodriguez, H L; Huerta-Leidenz, N O; Morón-Fuenmayor, O; Rincón-Urdaneta, E

    1997-11-01

    Six breed types groups of six steer calves each were used to observe differences in growth and carcass traits: F1 Brown Swiss (F1BS), F1 Holstein (F1HO), F2 Brahman (F2BR), F2 Criollo Rio Limon (F2CRL), purebred Criollo Rio Limon (CRL), and Perija Mosaic (PMO). After 404 days of grazing, the heaviest F1BS and F2BR steers were different from F1HO and CRL counterparts (p carcass maturity, quality or yield grade, boneless cut percentages, bone percentage or percent trimmable fat did not vary among breed types. All steers were within the A maturity level and graded Standard. Results indicate the importance of feeding dual-purpose steers to heavier weights to please industry preferences.

  2. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  3. Economic evaluation of dual purpose desalination plants by fuel type in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung-Su, Kim; Man-Ki, Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dae-jeon city (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In light of the recent rapid increase in the fossil fuel prices it is meaningful to evaluate the impact of these price changes in the economics of dual-purpose desalination projects producing electricity and fresh water simultaneously. The price of crude oil and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased by about 200% and 100% during the past three or four years. The uranium price has also increased by nearly 500% during the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is being developed as a small size PWR type and the LNG Combine Cycle coupled with MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) which are being acknowledged as promising energy sources for the future in Korea. The methods of analysis used in this paper are the lifetime leveled cost method for the power and water cost calculation and the power credit method for the total cost allocation. DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program) developed by IAEA was used to perform an economic comparison between the two dual-purpose desalination projects. From the results of the analysis it is found that the desalination by SMART-MED is much superior to that of LNG CC-MED under the current economic and technical situations. It is also shown that the relative superiority of SMART-MED to LNG CC-MED will be maintained even in case where an increase in the uranium price and the SMART construction cost would reach a maximum in the sensitivity analysis. In the case that the discount rate declines to 5% per year, the relative attractiveness of SMART-MED which is a capital intensive plant will be enhanced when compared to that for a 7% discount rate. In addition to this, it is thought that a nuclear energy source will be favored much more than now in the field of desalination if the regulations for the emission of greenhouse gases are to be strengthened. (authors)

  4. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  5. Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polchinski, Joseph; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    We propose a class of AdS/CFT dual pairs which have small internal dimensions on the gravity side. Starting from known Freund-Rubin AdS/CFT dual pairs, we use 7-branes to nearly cancel the curvature energy of the internal dimensions while maintaining their stabilization. This leads to a new corner of the landscape - a class of AdS solutions with a hierarchically large AdS radius - with a dual field theory given (implicitly) by the infrared limit of a concrete brane construction involving D3-branes, 7-branes, and curvature. We first construct a class of hierarchical AdS5/CFT4 dual pairs with a simple formula for the number of degrees of freedom which we interpret in the dual QFT. We then generalize these to AdS4/CFT3 duals, and suggest extensions of the method to obtain de Sitter solutions.

  6. Feed and fuel: the dual-purpose advantage of an industrial sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoline, Wendy A; Wilkie, Ann C

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable agricultural systems must support nutritional requirements, meet the energy demands of a growing population, preserve environmental resources and mitigate climate change. The sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a high-yielding crop that requires minimal fertilization and irrigation, and the CX-1 industrial cultivar offers superior potential for feed and fuel. CX-1 had the highest agronomic fresh vine yield (51.5 t ha(-1) ), averaged over two cropping seasons, compared with Hernandez (33.7) and Beauregard (21.8) varieties. CX-1 vines were more nutritional than the table varieties, specifically in regard to relative feed value (205), water-soluble carbohydrates (171 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)), total digestible nutrients (643 g kg(-1) DM), metabolizable energy (10.2 MJ kg(-1) DM) and organic matter digestibility. Their lower fiber and lignin concentrations contributed to their freshness and digestibility throughout maturity. Significantly higher iron concentrations make the CX-1 vines a valuable, low-fat iron supplement for animal feed. The CX-1 roots also showed the highest bioethanol potential (82.3 g ethanol kg(-1) fresh root) compared to Hernandez (64.5) and Beauregard (48.1). The CX-1 industrial sweetpotato is an ideal dual-purpose crop for tropical/subtropical climates that can be utilized as a non-grain-based feedstock for bioethanol production while contributing a valuable, high-yielding nutritional supplement for animal feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Genetic relationships between dagginess, breech bareness, and wool traits in New Zealand dual-purpose sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Blair, H T; Hickson, R E; Dodds, K G; Johnson, P L; McEwan, J C

    2013-10-01

    Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated for dagginess, breech, wool, and fiber traits from approximately 29,500 progeny born in 2009 and 2010 in New Zealand dual-purpose ram breeding sheep flocks. Dagginess is adherence of fecal matter to the wool, and this study investigates the genetic and phenotypic correlations between dagginess and breech and wool traits. Estimates for heritability were moderate (0.21 to 0.44) for the following traits: dag score at 3 and 8 mo (DAG3, DAG8), breech bareness, wool length, wool bulk (BULK), mean fiber diameter, mean fiber diameter SD, mean fiber diameter CV, curvature (CURV), weaning weight at 3 mo, and autumn BW. Heritability estimates for fleece weight at 12 mo and proportion of medullated fibers were high (0.49 and 0.53, respectively). Dag score at 3 mo and DAG8 had low genetic and phenotypic correlations with all traits. Breech bareness had positive genetic and phenotypic correlations with CURV and BULK and mostly negative genetic correlations with all other wool traits. In summary the quantity and attributes of wool were not primary causative factors in fecal accumulation, leaving fecal consistency and composition as the major factors.

  8. Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, P; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Karlberg, K

    2001-06-01

    The relationships between body condition score (BCS) and ketosis, and between BCS and reproductive performance in 732 moderate yielding, dual-purpose cows were studied. The cows were of the breed Norwegian Cattle. Farms with tie-stall barns and a history of high ketosis incidence were chosen for the study. Sixteen assessors visited the farms monthly and the same assessor assigned a BCS to each cow once a month. A BCS of 3.5 or higher at calving was associated with increased risk for ketosis. Cows that subsequently developed ketosis had higher BCS than healthy cows before the disease was diagnosed, and they lost more body condition than did the latter after ketosis had occurred. Summer calving cows and primiparous cows showed the lowest risk of ketosis. A history of ketosis before first service decreased the likelihood of conception to that service. Loss in body condition during the postpartum period was associated with decreased likelihood of conception to first service, prolonged calving to conception intervals and increased number of artificial inseminations per conception. Reproductive performance was not associated with BCS at calving. We concluded that BCS is a useful method of monitoring relations among nutritional management, reproduction, and ketosis in moderate yielding dual-purpose cows.

  9. Effects of Ensilaged Apple Pomace on Milk Yield and Quality of Simmental Hybrid Dual-Purpose Cattles%青贮苹果渣对西门塔尔牛产奶量及乳品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平

    2016-01-01

    选取年龄、体重相近和首次产犊且处于泌乳后期(200d)的西门塔尔牛60头,采用完全随机区组设计分为6组,对照组饲喂由青贮玉米、苜蓿草粉、小麦秸和精料组成的基础日粮,试验组日粮中分别以5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg的青贮苹果渣替代等量青贮玉米。结果表明,以青贮苹果渣替代青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量和乳品质均有一定程度的提高,替代50%时可显著提高牛的产奶量、乳脂率和乳蛋白含量(P0.05)。试验表明,青贮苹果渣替代一定比例的青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量、牛奶品质有改善作用。%Selected 60 simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows under the principle of similar age, body weight, body condition at ifrst time parturition, and at about 200 days in lactation period. The cows were divided into 6 experimental groups which have 10 cows each. The basal diet composed of corn silage, alfalfa meal, wheat straw and concentrates. The experimental groups were given diets with different percentage of ensilaged apple pomace instead of same weight of corn silage (5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg). The results showed that, the milk production and milk quality indices, such as milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage of the ensilaged apple pomace added groups improved at different degree. Moreover, the group with 50% ensilaged apple pomace added improved significantly(P0.05)markedly. Ensilaged apple pomace could improve milking performance and milk quality of simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows at certain degree which varies with the amount of ensilaged apple pomace.

  10. Estimation and comparison of benefits due to feeding hay and silage during the dry season on commercial dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras and Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, A.D.; Holmann, F.; Argel, P.; Ordoñez, J.C.; Chaves, J.

    2006-01-01

    Smallholders with dual-purpose cattle production systems in most Central America experience a shortage of forages during the dry season (4-8 month. As a result, substantially lower milk production and weight gain occurs. Dual-purpose operations seeking to maximize milk and beef production in the dry

  11. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  12. Activation analysis of dual-purpose metal cask after the end of design lifetime for decommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Man; Ku, Ji Young; Dho Ho Seog; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae Hun [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5·ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, {sup 60}Co had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as {sup 28}Al and {sup 24}Na had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that

  13. Structural dimensioning of dual purpose cask prototype; Dimensionamento estrutural de prototipo de casco de duplo proposito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Leite da; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Lopes, Claudio Cunha [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br; mouraor@cdtn.br; ccl@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    The structural dimensioning of a Type B(U) dual purpose cask prototype is part of the scope of work of the Brazilian institute CDTN in the IAEA regional project involving Latin American countries which operate research reactors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru). In order to meet the dimensional and operational characteristics of the reactor facilities in these countries, a maximum weight of 10.000 kgf and a maximum dimension of 1 m in at least one direction were set for the cask. With these design restrictions, the cask's payload is either 21 MTR or 78 TRIGA fuel elements. The cask's most important components are main body, primary and secondary lids, basket and impact limiters. The main body has a sandwich-like wall with internal and external layers made of AISI 304 stainless steel with lead in-between. The lead provides biological shielding. The primary lid is similarly layered, but in the axial direction. It is provided with a double system of metallic rings and has ports for pressurization, sampling and containment verification. The secondary lid has the main function of protecting the primary lid against mechanical impacts. The basket structure is basically a tube array reinforced by bottom plate, feet and spacers. Square tubes are used for MTR elements and circular tubes for TRIGA elements. Finally, the impact limiters are structures made of an external stainless steel thin covering and a filling made of the wood composite OSB - Oriented Strand Board. The prototype is provided with bottom and top impact limiters, which are attached to each other by means of four threaded rods. The limiters are not rigidly attached to the cask body. A half scale cask model was designed to be submitted to a testing program. As its volume scales down to 1:8, the model weight is 1,250 kgf. This paper presents the methodology for the preliminary structural dimensioning of the critical parameters of the cask prototype. Both normal conditions of operation and

  14. Advanced development in phytochemicals analysis of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ge, Li-Ya; Xiong, Wei; Leong, Fong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-08

    In 2011, we wrote a review for summarizing the phytochemical analysis (2006-2010) of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (Zhao et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 7453-7475). Since then, more than 750 articles related to their phytochemical analysis have been published. Therefore, an updated review for the advanced development (2011-2014) in this topic is necessary for well understanding the quality control and health beneficial phytochemicals in these materials, as well as their research trends.

  15. Assessment of the sustainability of dual-purpose farms by the IDEA method in the subtropical area of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Reyes, Isela Guadalupe; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sustainability of 10 dual-purpose cattle farms in a subtropical area of central Mexico. The IDEA method (Indicateurs de Durabilité des Exploitations Agricoles) was applied, which includes the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic scales (scores from 0 to 100 points per scale). A sample of 47 farms from a total of 91 registered in the local livestock growers association was analysed with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. From results, 10 farms were selected for the in-depth study herein reported, being the selection criterion continuous milk production throughout the year. Farms had a score of 88 and 86 points for the agroecological scale in the rainy and dry seasons. In the socio-territorial scale, scores were 73 points for both seasons, being the component of employment and services the strongest. Scores for the economic scale were 64 and 56 points for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, when no economic cost for family labour is charged, which decreases to 59 and 45 points when an opportunity cost for family labour is considered. Dual-purpose farms in the subtropical area of central Mexico have a medium sustainability, with the economic scale being the limiting factor, and an area of opportunity.

  16. Biophysical and economic water productivity of dual-purpose cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benjelloun, R; Karrou, M; Ates, S; Kuper, M

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes key factors influencing water productivity in cattle rearing, particularly in contexts characterized by water scarcity. This was done through year-round monitoring of on-farm practices within five smallholder farms located in the Saïss area (northern Morocco). The on-farm monitoring protocol consisted of characterizing: (i) volumes of water used for fodder production and distinguished by source (rainfall, surface irrigation and groundwater), (ii) virtual water contained in off-farm feed resources, (iii) total forage biomass production, (iv) dietary rations fed to lactating cows and their calves and (v) milk output and live weight gain. Findings reveal a mean water footprint of 1.62±0.81 and 8.44±1.09 m3/kg of milk and of live weight gain, respectively. Groundwater represented only 13.1% and 2.2% of the total water used to get milk and live weight gain, respectively, while rainfall represented 53.0% and 48.1% of the total water for milk and live weight gain, respectively. The remaining water volumes used came from surface irrigation water (7.4% for milk and 4.0% for live weight gain) and from virtual water (26.5% for milk and 44.7% for live weight gain). The results also revealed a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water used by the herd, not exceeding an average value of US $ 0.05, when considering both milk and live weight. Given the large variability in farm performances, which affect water productivity in cattle rearing throughout the production process, we highlight the potential for introducing a series of interventions that are aimed at saving water, while concurrently improving efficiency in milk production and live weight gain. These interventions should target the chain of production functions that are implemented throughout the process of water productivity in cattle rearing. Moreover, these interventions are of particular importance given our findings that livestock production depends largely upon rainfall, rather than

  17. A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P

    2012-07-01

    The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds.

  18. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  19. Dual purpose system that treats anaerobic effluents from pig waste and produce Neochloris oleoabundans as lipid rich biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Castillo, Omar S; Mendoza, Anilú; Tapia, Karla; González-Portela, Ricardo E; Hernández-Landa, Víctor J

    2015-05-25

    Dual purpose systems that treat wastewater and produce lipid rich microalgae biomass have been indicated as an option with great potential for production of biodiesel at a competitive cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a dual purpose system for the treatment of the anaerobic effluents from pig waste utilizing Neochloris oleoabundans and to evaluate its growth, lipid content and lipid profile of the harvested biomass and the removal of nutrients from the media. Cultures of N. oleoabundans were established in 4 L flat plate photobioreactors using diluted effluents from two different types of anaerobic filters, one packed with ceramic material (D1) and another one packed with volcanic gravel (D2). Maximum biomass concentration in D1 was 0.63 g L(-1) which was significantly higher than the one found in D2 (0.55 g L(-1)). Cultures were very efficient at nutrient removal: 98% for NNH4(+) and 98% for PO4(3-). Regarding total lipid content, diluted eflluents from D2 promoted a biomass containing 27.4% (dry weight) and D1 a biomass containing 22.4% (dry weight). Maximum lipid productivity was also higher in D2 compared to D1 (6.27±0.62 mg L(-1) d(-1) vs. 5.12±0.12 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Concerning the FAMEs profile in diluted effluents, the most abundant one was C18:1, followed by C18:2 and C16:0. The profile in D2 contained less C18:3 (linolenic acid) than the one in D1 (4.37% vs. 5.55%). In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that cultures of N. oleoabundans treating anaerobic effluents from pig waste are very efficient at nutrient removal and a biomass rich in lipids can be recovered. The maximum total lipid content and the most convenient FAMEs profile were obtained using effluents from a digester packed with volcanic gravel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-Purpose Low Voltage Dual Output DC-DC Converter For 100V Power Bus Telecom Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana, D.; Mollard, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    The decreasing supply voltages of digital electronic and high speed ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) require flexible and high current secondary power distribution system. In the frame of the Inmarsat I-XL program, a 12 kW geomobile SatCom satellite, with 100 V regulated power bus, a multi purpose dual output converter was developed for the payload processor as a building block. After a short introduction on the main performance requirements, the baseline architecture is presented. The main drivers of the architecture are reliability, adjustability, radiation tolerant and single event free, volume and mass. The combination of all these constraints highlights the need of significant breakthrough in various domains. Many research results related to packaging and power electronic topics are brought up. These results directly drive the adopted solution presented in the next step followed by a description of the integration of the defined building block in the Inmarsat I-XL payload IP (Integrated Processor). Finally, the main electrical performances such as output ripple and spikes, load step transient and stability are summarized.

  1. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  2. Dual-purpose laser irradiation and perfusion testing system for in-vitro experiments using cultured trabecular meshwork endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Brian K.; Roberts, Cynthia J.; Weber, Paul A.

    1998-06-01

    The means by which Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) is a matter of debate. Mechanical and biological laser-tissue interaction theories have been proposed. To investigate the effect laser irradiation has upon the aqueous outflow facility of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, a suitable in-vitro model is required. Therefore the purpose of this study was to design, construct, and validate a laser irradiation and perfusion testing apparatus. The system was designed to utilize cultured TM cells seeded onto filter supports. Outflow facility will be quantified by calculating the hydraulic conductivity of the monolayer. An appropriate filter support was located, and its perfusion characteristics determined using water. Afterwards, the steady state perfusion flow rate of the filter was ascertained to be 0.096 plus or minus 0.008 ml/min when culture medium is used. Following these tests a single, baseline perfusion experiment was conducted using a TM cell monolayer. Analysis of the data produced a baseline hydraulic conductivity of 0.673 plus or minus 0.076 (mu) l/min/mm Hg/cm2, well within the range found in previous reports. A dual purpose, in vitro-cellular perfusion and laser irradiation testing apparatus has been developed, tested and validates using known baseline cellular perfusion and laser irradiation testing apparatus has been developed, tested, and validated using known baseline cellular perfusion values. Future experiments will be conducted to verify these initial findings, and further experiments will be conducted using Argon laser irradiation. The response of the TM cell monolayer will then be compared to the baseline figures.

  3. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  4. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: nksbang@kaeri.re.kr; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  5. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of digital dermatitis in the Netherlands and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; Hardenberg, C; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to reevaluate the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD) and associated risk factors in The Netherlands. Between May 2002 and December 2003, information about the presence or absence of DD lesions and other claw disorders on the hind claws of dairy cows in The Netherlands was collected by 20 hoof trimmers during trimming of all dairy cows in 383 herds. A questionnaire was used to acquire information regarding management and housing. Additional information, such as parity, breed, and stage of lactation of the cows, was provided by the Dutch Herd Book Organization. Digital dermatitis was present in 21.2% (SE = 0.3) of the study population (n = 22,454 cows). The herd prevalence varied from 0% (9.1% of the herds) to 83.0%. Most common was herd prevalence between 5 and 10%. The Holstein-Friesian breed was at higher risk for DD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7] than was the Meuse Rhine IJssel breed (dual purpose breed). The risk for DD decreased with increasing parity. Cows at the peak of their lactation (30 to 60 d in milk) and in the third parity had higher odds for DD in comparison with cows that were later than 60 DIM. The presence of other claw disorders, such as interdigital dermatitis/heel horn erosion (IDHE), interdigital hyperplasia (HYP), and interdigital phlegmon, appeared to be predisposing for DD. Based on estimation of the population-attributable fraction, it was concluded that if IDHE, HYP, and interdigital phlegmon were not present among the study population, respectively, 32.2, 9.0, and 1.1% of the DD cases could have been prevented. The risk for DD slightly decreased when cows affected by IDHE had access to pasture. Because of the interrelation between infectious claw disorders, an effective intervention strategy against DD should focus on an integrated approach to the control of all infectious claw diseases. Cows trimmed >12 mo before the study (during regular trimming of the entire herd) were at lower risk for DD

  6. Chinese and International Situation, Progresses and Perspectives of Breeding Strategies in Dual Purpose Cattle%国内外兼用牛现状及育种理论研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋萌; 秦春华; 王雅春; 史远刚; 张胜利; 张沅

    2013-01-01

    Dual purpose cattle is famous by its elite performance in both milk and meat production.This study first reviewed the genetic resources of dual purpose cattle in China and major dual purpose cattle breeds internationally,then summarized the development of breeding system and breeding strategies applied in dual purpose cattle breeding,to provide reference for drawing up breeding scheme for dual purpose cattle in China.%兼用牛亦称乳肉兼用牛,是兼具较高产奶性能和优秀产肉性能的牛品种.本文就国内外兼用牛的发展现状、育种体系和育种规划方法的研究进展做简要综述,为制定我国兼用牛育种规划提供参考.

  7. Dual-Purpose Bioreactors to Monitor Noninvasive Physical and Biochemical Markers of Kidney and Liver Scaffold Recellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzarski, Joseph S; Bijonowski, Brent M; Wang, Bo; Ward, Heather H; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Miller, William M; Wertheim, Jason A

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of perfusion-based bioreactors for organ engineering and a detailed evaluation of physical and biochemical parameters that measure dynamic changes within maturing cell-laden scaffolds are critical components of ex vivo tissue development that remain understudied topics in the tissue and organ engineering literature. Intricately designed bioreactors that house developing tissue are critical to properly recapitulate the in vivo environment, deliver nutrients within perfused media, and monitor physiological parameters of tissue development. Herein, we provide an in-depth description and analysis of two dual-purpose perfusion bioreactors that improve upon current bioreactor designs and enable comparative analyses of ex vivo scaffold recellularization strategies and cell growth performance during long-term maintenance culture of engineered kidney or liver tissues. Both bioreactors are effective at maximizing cell seeding of small-animal organ scaffolds and maintaining cell survival in extended culture. We further demonstrate noninvasive monitoring capabilities for tracking dynamic changes within scaffolds as the native cellular component is removed during decellularization and model human cells are introduced into the scaffold during recellularization and proliferate in maintenance culture. We found that hydrodynamic pressure drop (ΔP) across the retained scaffold vasculature is a noninvasive measurement of scaffold integrity. We further show that ΔP, and thus resistance to fluid flow through the scaffold, decreases with cell loss during decellularization and correspondingly increases to near normal values for whole organs following recellularization of the kidney or liver scaffolds. Perfused media may be further sampled in real time to measure soluble biomarkers (e.g., resazurin, albumin, or kidney injury molecule-1) that indicate degree of cellular metabolic activity, synthetic function, or engraftment into the scaffold. Cell growth within bioreactors is

  8. Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, M; Kamali, J

    2017-01-01

    Dual-purpose casks can be utilized for dry interim storage and transportation of the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Criticality safety analysis was carried out using the MCNP code for the cask containing 12, 18, or 19 SFAs. The basket materials of borated stainless steel and Boral (Al-B4C) were investigated, and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 双重功能图像水印算法%An image watermarking algorithm with dual purpose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶天语

    2011-01-01

    An image watermarking algorithm with dual-purpose is proposed,which can achieve both content authentication and copyright protection. Firstly, the original image was divided into non-overlapping blocks,and each block was conducted with singular value decomposition (SVD). A robust zero-watermarking .sequence was produced by judging the numerical relationship between each block's biggest singular value and the average of biggest singular values from all blocks. Afterwards,the original image was divided into non-overlapping blocks,and each block was transformed with discrete cosine transformation (DCT). Several high frequency coefficients were adjusted to establish linear numerical relationship between two different DCT coefficients from the same block,and the modified image was received after inverse discrete cosine transformation (IDCT). Content authentication was accomplished by judging whether there was a linear numerical relationship between two relevant DCT coefficients from each block of the tampered image based on DCT's reversibility. Copyright was identified by the similarity between the original robust zero-watermarking sequence and the robust zero-watermarking sequence extracted from the attacked image. The experimental results show that the algorithm has good invisibility,and can achieve both content authentication and copyright protection.%提出一种能同时实现内容认证和版权保护双重功能的图像水印算法.首先,对原始图像进行分块奇异值分解(SVD),计算所有子块最大奇异值的均值,通过比较各子块的最大奇异值与所有子块最大奇异值的均值间的数值关系产生鲁棒零水印序列.然后,对原始图像进行分块离散余弦变换(DCT).调整图像子块DCT高频系数的数值大小,建立同一子块两个不同DCT系数间数值的线性关系,通过逆DCT(IDCT)得到系数调整后的图像.内容认证时,利用DCT的可逆性,通过判断遭篡改图像每个子块两个相应DCT

  10. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... 1Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznań University of ... Jersey cows, very similar levels were recorded for four culling reasons: "sterility and reproductive ... specialization of large farms have been observed.

  11. Design of an L-Band Dual Feedhorn for the Purposes of Microwave Search for ExtraTerrensial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gimersky

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Logic behind the design of a dual feedhorn for the 26-meter Cassegrainian antennaof the Agassiz Station-Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory is presented in the paper. Theoretically predicted arid measured results in the "waterhole" band (1.4-1.7 GHz are presented. The antenna has been utilized in the Harvard Wide-Bandwidth HighResolution Microwave Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI Program, with the Observatory as a SETI-dedicated facility.

  12. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production For The Purpose of Rnewable Fuel Generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in A Pilot Scale CSTR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabraeil Taghinazhad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure (CM and corn straw residue (CSR were experimentally investigated using a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR under semi- continuously feeding circumstance at mesophilic (35°C±2 temperature. The pilot-scale digester with 180 L in volume was employed under experimental protocol to examine the effect of the change in organic loading rate on efficiency of biogas production and to report on its steady-state performance. An average organic loading rates of 2 and 3 kg VS. (m-3.d-1 and a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 25 days was examined with respect to two different CM to CSR mixing ratios of 100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The results showed both organic loading rates at co-digestion of CM+ CSR gave better methane yields than single digestion of cow manure. The biogas production efficiency was obtained 0.242, 0.204, 0.311 0.296, 259.5 and 235 m3.(kg VS input-1 for 2 and 3 kg VS.(m-3.d-1 at CM to CSR mixing ratios of100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The reactor showed stable performance with VS reduction between 55-74% during different runs. With increment of loading rate, the VS degradation and biogas yield decreased. Modified Gompertz and logistic plot equation was employed to model the methane production at different organic loading rates and substrate concentrations. The equations gave a good approximation of the maximum methane production (rm and the methane yield potential (P with correlation coefficient (R2 over 0.99. Keywords: Biogas; cow manure; corn straw; Kinetic; semi-continuously Article History: Received Oct 25th 2016; Received in revised form Dec 19th 2016; Accepted 2nd January 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Taghinazhad. J., Abdi, R. and Adl, M. (2017. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production for the purpose of renewable fuel generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in a Pilot Scale CSTR System. Int Journal of Renewable

  13. Quantitation of selected terpenoids and mercaptans in the dual-purpose hop varieties Amarillo, Citra, Hallertau Blanc, Mosaic, and Sorachi Ace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibaka, Marie-Lucie Kankolongo; Gros, Jacques; Nizet, Sabrina; Collin, Sonia

    2015-03-25

    Free terpenoids and both free and bound polyfunctional thiols were investigated in five selected dual-purpose hop cultivars. Surprisingly, the dual-purpose Sorachi Ace variety was found to contain higher amounts of farnesene (2101 mg/kg) than aromatic hops such as Saaz but only traces of 3-methylbutylisobutyrate, a compound that usually distinguishes all bitter varieties. All five cultivars investigated here showed an exceptional citrus-like potential explained by either monoterpenic alcohols or polyfunctional thiols. Among the monoterpenic alcohols, β-citronellol at concentrations above 7 mg/kg distinguished Amarillo, Citra, Hallertau Blanc, Mosaic, and Sorachi Ace from Nelson Sauvin and Tomahawk, two previously investigated dual-purpose hops, while linalool (312 mg/kg) and geraniol (211 mg/kg) remained good discriminating compounds for Nelson Sauvin and Tomahawk, respectively. Regarding polyfunctional thiols, higher amounts of 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (27 μg/kg) characterized the Citra variety. Free 4-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-2-one proved discriminant for Sorachi Ace, while the bound form is predominant in Nelson Sauvin. On the other hand, an S-conjugate of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was found in Sorachi Ace at levels not far from those previously reported for Cascade, although the free form was undetected here. Both free and bound grapefruit-like 3-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol (never evidenced before the present work) emerged as discriminating compounds for the Hallertau Blanc variety. The apotryptophanase assay also allowed us to evidence for the first time an S-conjugate of 2-sulfanylethan-1-ol.

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Arenas, Antonio José; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Borge, Carmen; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 to February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. Presence of antibodies against BRSV was analyzed using a commercial indirect ELISA test. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with BRSV at herd level. The individual seroprevalence against BRSV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 80.48% [1,905/2,367; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 78.9-82.1]. The herd prevalence was 91.3% (316/346; 95% CI = 88.3-94.3), and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 25% and 100% (mean, 90.47%). The logistic regression model showed that the existence of bordering cattle farms, the dual-purpose farms, and the altitude of the farm (more than 2,338 m above sea level) were risk factors associated with BRSV infection. This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies.

  15. Design of Bunk Bed with Dual-purpose Ladder%学生双层床两用梯的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西珠; 耿振香

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the bunk bed in a current student’s dormitory, a dual-purpose ladder of the bunk bed for students is designed to diversity the function of the ladder. This dual-propose ladder is more than a common one, it can be used as a table after being folded up by sliding and flipping. The ladder’s function can be improved as well as a guarantee of security. The designed ladder not only change the understanding of a bunk bed ladder, but also highlight its perfect innovation features.%通过对目前宿舍学生双层床梯子功能的分析,设计出一种新型的学生双层床两用梯。本文不仅介绍了梯子通过滑动和翻转,使两用梯在完成正常梯子功能后,又可折叠当作书桌使用功能;在保证安全性的同时,完成了结构性设计。本设计具有创新特性,让双层床的梯子功能实现了多样化。

  16. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  17. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  18. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  19. Generating thermal energy and electric power by yourself. Heating system modernization with a mini dual-purpose power plant; Waerme und Strom selbst erzeugen. Heizungsmodernisierung mit Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, H. [Powerplus Technologies GmbH, Gera (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Mini dual-purpose power plants offer many advantages to the customer by means of reduced primary energy consumoption, reduced CO{sub 2} emission and considerable savings of energy costs. The following contribution describes the balance in the one-family house of the Gross family and what heating systems master craftsman Keijo Sprogoetook into consideration when he executed this modernization task. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were co

  1. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  2. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahaman cows to repeated transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and metabolic responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows into temperament groups of Calm, Intermediate, or Temperamental. Brahman cows (n = 48) were subjected to 2 hours of transport (TRA...

  3. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  4. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  5. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  6. Índices de seleção para um rebanho Caracu de duplo propósito Selection indices for a dual purpose breed Caracu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

    2005-06-01

    objective (H considered a dual purpose breed producing milk and weaning calves. The biological traits affecting income and expenses considered in H were: total milk yield, age at first calving, number of days open, weaning weight, and productive lifetime. Two economic selection indices were calculated. The selection criteria included in Index 1 were first lactation milk yield, number of days open from first to second calving, scrotal circumference adjusted to age and weight at 15 months and weaning weight (WW. Index 2 included the same traits but WW was switched by average daily gain from birth to weaning. The statistical analyses to estimate the (covariances and genetic and phenotypic parameters were performed by derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method, using an animal model (uni and bi-trait. Records on animal performances, pedigrees and prices were provided by the breeder. The production costs and revenues of this herd were calculated from 1994 to 2000. The profit equation was set to an annual base using annual averages for number of animals per category, biological traits and prices. The economic value of each trait was obtained as the partial derivative of the profit function with respect to that trait (evaluated at the average for all other traits. Both indexes would improve selection response to H, but the economic selection index 1, including WW, would be a little more efficient for total selection response to H.

  7. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  8. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,the electrical resistance of the cervical mucus in cows in different physiologicalstages (pregnant, no pregnant was measured. The ovulation detector DRAMINSKIwas used. This equipment allows to obtained a quickly and precise rapport on thephysiological stage of the cow. It can be detected the cow with atypical ovulation,irregular ovulation. This method improve the insemination efficiency, allowsdetecting early gestation period or the moment of ovulation. All these have a positiveinfluence on the development strategy of the farm and improve the economicperformances.

  9. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  11. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  12. The body weight of the dairy cow. 1. Introductory study into the body weight changes in dairy cows as a management aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltz, E.; Devir, S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities to use the dairy cows' body weight (BW) and its changes for diagnostic and management purposes were studied. BW data of dairy cows were obtained during the day from visiting computer-controlled feeding stations. These data were analyzed on a daily and weekly basis in relation to ot

  13. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  14. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  15. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  16. Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P. H., E-mail: paulcharles111@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Cranmer-Sargison, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7L 3P6, Canada and College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5 (Canada); Thwaites, D. I. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia and Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Pedrazzini, G. [Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Aland, T.; Kenny, J. [Epworth Radiation Oncology, 89 Bridge Road, Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria 3121 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Two diodes which do not require correction factors for small field relative output measurements are designed and validated using experimental methodology. This was achieved by adding an air layer above the active volume of the diode detectors, which canceled out the increase in response of the diodes in small fields relative to standard field sizes. Methods: Due to the increased density of silicon and other components within a diode, additional electrons are created. In very small fields, a very small air gap acts as an effective filter of electrons with a high angle of incidence. The aim was to design a diode that balanced these perturbations to give a response similar to a water-only geometry. Three thicknesses of air were placed at the proximal end of a PTW 60017 electron diode (PTWe) using an adjustable “air cap”. A set of output ratios (OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}}) for square field sizes of side length down to 5 mm was measured using each air thickness and compared to OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}} measured using an IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD). k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was transferred from the SFD to the PTWe diode and plotted as a function of air gap thickness for each field size. This enabled the optimal air gap thickness to be obtained by observing which thickness of air was required such that k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was equal to 1.00 at all field sizes. A similar procedure was used to find the optimal air thickness required to make a modified Sun Nuclear EDGE detector (EDGEe) which is “correction-free” in small field relative dosimetry. In addition, the feasibility of experimentally transferring k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r

  17. Cool Cow Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  18. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  19. Power and heat generation from wood wastes. At a dual-purpose power plant with a rotary tubular kiln; Aus Holzreststoffen Strom und Waerme gewinnen. Im Heizkraftwerk mit Drehrohrofenfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, E.M.; Letz, G. [Heinz H. Lorenz KG, Geretsried (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Wood and related fuels tend to vary considerably as to calorific value, moisture content and particle size and burn with different efficiency. Therefore, new combustion-technical solution concepts are required that meet growing demands on combustion quality and automatic control response in the case of different fuel properties. The company Heinz H. Lorenz at Geretsried are pioneering a wood-fired dual-purpose power plant supplying energy and disposing of wood wastes. The project is sponsored by the Federal Environment Agency and the Bavarian ministry of economy (orig.) [Deutsch] Holz und artverwandte Brennstoffe schwanken in der Praxis oft erheblich in ihrem Heizwert, Feuchtegehalt, Stueckgroesse und verbrennen daher auch unterschiedlich gut. Gefragt sich deshalb neue Loesungen in der Feuerungstechnik angesichts steigender Anforderungen an Verbrennungsqualitaet und Regelverhalten bei unterschiedlichen Brennstoffeigenschaften. Neue Wege bei der Erstellung einer holzbefeuerten Heizkraftwerksanlage zur innerbetrieblichen Energieversorgung und Restholzentsorgung hat die Fa. Heinz H. Lorenz KG in Geretsried beschritten. Unterstuetzt wurde sie dabei durch das Umweltbundesamt und das bayerische Wirtschaftsministerium. (orig.)

  20. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  1. Evaluación de vacas de doble propósito de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en sistemas de pastoreo arborizado: II. Bíparas Evaluation of double purpose Holstein x Zebu cows in grazing systems with trees: II. Biparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de vacas bíparas de doble propósito de los cruzamientos Holstein x Cebú, se utilizaron 75 vacas en un diseño totalmente aleatorizado, 25 por grupo de los genotipos Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Cebú, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ C y Siboney mestizo (5/8 H x 3/8 C, las cuales integraron un rebaño común con acceso al mismo manejo y alimentación, en una vaquería de producción de la granja Supervaca de la Empresa Pecuaria Genética de Matanzas. La carga fue de 1,6 UGM/ha y rotaron en 28 cuartones. Mensualmente se midió la disponibilidad de pastos y la oferta diaria de los forrajes y los suplementos. Se apreció la condición corporal al inicio y al final de cada estación, la producción de leche por vaca se midió quincenalmente, y se determinó la duración y producción por lactancia y los indicadores de reproducción. La mejor condición corporal (3,97 favoreció al Siboney mestizo (PIn order to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of biparous double-purpose Holstein x Zebu cows, 75 cows were used in a completely randomized design, 25 per group, from genotypes Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Zebu, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z and crossbred Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, which integrated a common herd with access to the same management and feeding, in a production dairy unit of the Supervaca farm, Genetic Livestock Production Firm of Matanzas. The stocking rate was 1,6 animals/ha and they rotated in 28 paddocks. Pasture availability and daily offer of forages and supplements were monthly measured. The body condition was estimated at the beginning and end of each season, milk production per cow was fortnightly measured, and the duration and production per lactation and the reproduction indicators were determined. The best body condition (3,97 favored crossbred Siboney (P<0,01; while no significant differences were found in the duration and production of milk per lactation. Likewise

  2. Interactive Effect of GA3, N and P Ameliorate Growth, Seed and Fibre Yield by Enhancing Photosynthetic Capacity and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity of Linseed:A Dual Purpose Crop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad N Khan; Firoz Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important dual-purpose, industrial crop. Its seeds are used for the extraction of oil and stem for fibres. However, the production of linseed is not going parallel with the increasing demand of its products. The present work was carried out with an aim to find out whether exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without graded levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) could improve the performance of three linseed genotypes Parvati, Shekhar and Shubhra together with minimizing the costly fertilizer input and losses. Four combinations of N and P, viz., 0 mg N+0 mg P kg-1 soil (N0P0), N13.4P4.46, N26.8P8.94 and N40.2P13.4 were constituted. Half dose of each combination was applied basally at the time of sowing and remaining half dose was given at 40 d after sowing (DAS) as foliar spray along with 10-6 mol L-1 GA3. Prior to sowing, the seeds of each linseed genotype were grouped in to two, one group of seeds was soaked in 0 mol L-1 GA3 (control) and the other group was soaked in 10-6 M GA3 solution, each for 8 hours. Treatments were comprised of (i) 0 mol L-1 GA3+N0P0 (T0, control), (ii) 10-6 mol L-1 GA3+N13.4P4.46 (T1), (iii) 10-6 mol L-1 GA3+N26.8P8.94 (T2) and (iv) 10-6 mol L-1 GA3+N40.2P13.4 (T3). The crop performance was assessed in terms of growth, physiological and biochemical parameters at 60 and 75 DAS and yield attributes at harvest (175 DAS). The results showed a parallel increase in most of the parameters with increasing levels of N and P. However, application of 10-6 mol L-1 GA3 in association with N26.8P8.94 proved best, it enhanced seed yield, oil yield and fibre yield by 83.3, 97.3 and 78.7%, respectively accompanied with increase in net photosynthetic rate, carbonic anhydrase activity and dry matter accumulation. Among the genotypes tested, Shubhra performed best, while Parvati the least for most of the parameters studied. Thus, combined application of 10-6 mol L-1 GA3 plus N26.8P8.94 proved best

  3. 风光互补型发电和提水两用机组的研究%Research on wind and solar powers mutually complemented generating-pumping dual purpose unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦君; 尹钢吉; 滕云; 司振江; 陶延怀

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the problems from high energy consumption and large pollution emission over the relevant national standards during pumping water with the conventional energies generally existed in China, a new generation of wind and solar powers mutually complemented generating-pumping dual purpose unit is developed with the key techniques, I. E. High-efficiency centrifugal pump, solar cell array, Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine(VAWT) and "S" type low wind speed windmill, etc. , so as to largely save fuels and electric power resources and lower the production costs concerned. With the optimal structure, this kind of unit has realized the diversification of both the function and the application, and then got the target of energy saving and consumption reducing along with the enhancement of production efficiency.%针对我国目前普遍存在的利用常规能源来提水时能耗大和污染排放超过国家标准等问题,创制出新一代风光互补型发电和提水两用机组,采用高效离心潜水电泵、太阳能电池组和达里厄型立轴式风力机、S型低风速启动风车等这些关键技术来节约大量燃料、电能资源,降低生产成本.这种机组以最优的结构匹配,实现了功能和用途的多样化,达到了节能降耗及提高生产效率之目的.

  4. Breeding of a New Dual-Purpose Hot Pepper Variety — Jiahe 1%干鲜两用型辣椒新品种嘉禾1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凤琴; 鲍岩峰; 李玉珍; 于晓祥; 秦艳玲

    2011-01-01

    嘉禾1号是以国外品种经多代分离纯化选育出的自交系7310102为母本,自制杂交种经多代分离纯化选育出的自交系818481为父本杂交而成的干鲜两用型辣椒一代杂种。其植株生长势强,商品性好,抗逆性强,比当地主推品种增产36.8%。果实圆筒型,顶部钝尖,青熟果深绿而有光泽,红熟果油亮紫红色,果长13~15cm,果肩宽2.2~2.5cm,鲜椒皮厚3mm,干椒皮厚0.4mm。%Jiahe 1 is a hot pepper F1 hybrid of Inbred Line 7310102 from a foreign variety ×Inbred Line 818481 from a local hylrid variety, and a dual-purpose variety for fresh and dry fruit production. It is of strong growth vigour, high resistance, and the yield potential 36.8% higher than local main varieties. It grows glossy cylinder-shaped fruit with blunt tip from dark-green to purple-red, 13~15cm in length,2.2~2.5 cm in diameter, 3 mm in fresh fruit wall thichness and 0.4 mm in dry fruit wall thickness, with good marketability.

  5. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  6. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk composition and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bobbo, T; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2017-01-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) have been widely investigated in the past using milk collected from different cattle breeds and herds. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have assessed MCP in individual milk samples from several multi-breed herds characterized by either high or low milk productivity, thereby allowing the effects of herd and cow breed to be evaluated independently. Multi-breed herds (n=41) were classified into 2 categories based on milk productivity (high vs. low), defined according to the average milk net energy yielded daily by lactating cows. Milk samples were taken from 1,508 cows of 6 different breeds: 3 specialized dairy (Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose (Simmental, Rendena, Alpine Grey) breeds, and analyzed in duplicate (3,016 tests) using 2 lactodynamographs to obtain 240 curd firming (CF) measurements over 60min (1 every 15 s) for each duplicate. The 5 traditional single-point MCP (RCT, k20, a30, a45, and a60) were yielded directly by the instrument from the available CF measures. All 240 CF measures of each replicate were also used to estimate 4 individual equation parameters: RCT estimated according to curd firm change over time modeling (RCTeq), asymptotic potential curd firmness (CFP), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF), and syneresis instant rate constant (kSR) and 2 derived traits: maximum curd firmness achieved within 45min (CFmax) and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax) by curvilinear regression using a nonlinear procedure. Results showed that the effect of herd-date on traditional and modeled MCP was modest, ranging from 6.1% of total variance for k20 to 10.7% for RCT, whereas individual animal variance was the highest, ranging from 32.0% for tmax to 82.5% for RCTeq. The repeatability of MCP was high (>80%) for all traits except those associated with the last part of the lactodynamographic curve (i.e., a60, kSR, kCF, and tmax: 57 to 71%). Reproducibility, taking into account the effect

  7. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how the ...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  8. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    concentrations of alcohols like propanol and alcohol related esters will increase. If the rumen capacity for alcohol metabolism inadequate this will lead to high portal uptakes of alcohols and as a mammalian hepati alcohol dehydrogenase in general is saturated at relative low alcohol concentrations high portal...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  9. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  10. 某型通用机枪大杠杆曲线参数优化研究%Parameter Optimization of Big-lever Curve of a Dual-purpose Machine Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞林; 张本军; 李永建; 郝刚

    2012-01-01

    为解决某型通用机枪首发装填困难的故障,利用线位移传感器进行了首发装填试验,得到了影响首发装填的重要因素,即拨弹滑板在向外和向里2个阶段所受阻力传递到装填拉柄运动方向上的最大值;在大杠杆的两段曲线上各取5个点,利用三次样条曲线对这两条曲线进行拟合,求出了2个最大值与插值点之间的函数关系;分别以这2个最大值为目标函数,以各插值点的Y向坐标为待优化参数,利用遗传算法对大杠杆曲线进行了优化,使得2个目标函数分别减少了47.24%和39.3%,达到了优化的目的.为该枪的改进工作提供指导,所使用的方法为同类型武器的设计和改进提供参考.%To solve the problem in first-round loading of a dual-purpose machine gun, the loading test was carried out by using a linear displacement sensor, and the importance factors which affect the first-round loading were revealed, i. e. two maximum values of resistances transferred from feed slide to the loading handle. Five points were taken in two segments of big-lever curve respectively, and the relationship between two maximum values and interpolation points were found out by using cubic spline curve fitting. Taken these two values as objective functions and the Y coordinates of interpolation points as the optimized parameters, the big-lever curves were optimized by using genetic algorithm, and the objective functions were reduced by 47. 24% and 39. 3% . The method can provide reference for the design and improvement of the similar weapons.

  11. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  12. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Felber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 from ruminants contributes one third to global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analysers the instrumentation at many flux sites have been amended for these gases. However the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatial and temporal uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d−1 managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to two orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head−1 d−1 (best guess of this study correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows to determine CH4 emissions of grazing cows if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  13. Efecto del régimen de defoliación sobre la producción de grano en trigo doble propósito Effect of the defoliation regime on grain production in dual purpose wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peralta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de cultivos de trigo con doble propósito contribuiría a realizar un uso más eficiente de los recursos ambientales. En Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina se estableció un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 sembrado en fecha temprana (17 de marzo de 2006 para comparar la producción de forraje obtenida con tres regímenes de defoliación: T1 (tres defoliaciones, T2 (dos defoliaciones y TG (sin defoliaciones. En esos tres tratamientos y en otro no defoliado sembrado en fecha normal para la producción de grano (7 de junio, TN se cuantificó la biomasa aérea (g MS m², el rendimiento de grano (kg ha-1 y sus componentes. La producción de forraje de T1 fue similar que la de T2 (497 y 392 g m-2, respectivamente. Las defoliaciones posteriores al estado de dos nudos (estado Zadoks 32 afectaron negativamente la radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada por el cultivo, disminuyendo tanto el número de granos m-2 como el peso por grano; en consecuencia, la producción de grano cayó 60% respecto de TG y 71% respecto de TN. Se estableció una relación cuantitativa entre la disminución del rendimiento en grano y el momento del último corte (i.e., días entre la última defoliación y antesis. El trigo presenta la ventaja de poseer un destino alternativo a su uso forrajero, que no la presentan otros verdeos de invierno. Puede destinarse sólo para uso forrajero, sólo para producir grano, o se lo puede utilizar buscando un balance entre la producción de forraje y grano.The utilization of dual purpose wheat crops may contribute to perform a more efficient use of environmental resources. In Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 was seeded at an early date (March 17, 2006 and the forage production was compared with three defoliation frequencies: T1 (three defoliations; T2 (two defoliations and TG (without defoliations. The aerial biomass, grain yield (kg ha-1 and its

  14. Evaluación de vacas de doble propósito de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en sistemas de pastoreo arborizado: I. Primíparas Evaluation of double-purpose Holstein x Zebu cows in grazing systems with trees: I. Primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de diferentes genotipos raciales de doble propósito de los cruzamientos Holstein x Cebú se seleccionaron 75 novillas gestantes, 25 por grupo de los genotipos Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 C, Mambí (¾ H x ¼ C y Siboney mestizo (5/8 H x 3/8 C, en un diseño totalmente aleatorizado, las cuales conformaron un grupo común con acceso al mismo manejo y alimentación. Las novillas se incorporaron a la reproducción cuando alcanzaron 300 kg de peso vivo y una edad promedio de 28,6 meses; estas fueron manejadas en una vaquería arborizada, con una carga de 1,6 UGM/ha, y rotaron en 28 cuartones. Mensualmente se midió la disponibilidad de pastos y la oferta diaria de los forrajes y los suplementos. Se controló la condición corporal y se midió el perímetro toráxico; la producción de leche por vaca se comprobó quincenalmente, y se determinó la duración y producción por lactancia y los indicadores reproductivos. El genotipo Mambí fue superior (PWith the objective of evaluating the productive and reproductive performance of different double purpose breed genotypes from the Holstein x Zebu crossings, 75 pregnant heifers were selected, 25 per group from genotypes Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, Mambí (¾ H x ¼ Z and crossbred Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, in a completely randomized design, which made up a common group with access to the same management and feeding. The heifers were incorporated to reproduction after reaching 300 kg live weight and an average age of 28,6 months; they were managed in a dairy unit with trees, with a stocking rate of 1,6 animals/ha, and rotated in 28 paddocks. Pasture availability and daily offer of forages and supplements were measured monthly. Body condition was controlled and the thoracic perimeter was measured; milk production per cow was fortnightly checked, and the lactation duration and production and reproductive indicators were determined. The Mamb

  15. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, substantial improvements can be obtained by developing models that are specific to a given site....

  16. Infection dynamics of digital dermatitis in first-lactation Holstein cows in an infected herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, N.; Boye, Mette; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) refers to painful lesions primarily affecting the skin in the interdigital region of dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of DD in 39 cows, observed at approximately 3-d intervals, for the first 6mo of lactation. Specifically, the study aimed...... at evaluating different levels of DD susceptibility in cows, identifying the bacterial colonization of the interdigital skin, and exploring the relationship between clinical DD diagnosis and laboratory findings. Three different susceptibility categories were identified for DD: 1=consistently healthy cow; 2...

  17. Winter environmental effects on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Alves Fagundes

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the association of environment and feed intake and also to measure the variation on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows, as a function of temperature decrease, during the winter in humid subtropical climate. The experiment was developed in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during July and August, 1986. There were used 12 Holstein cows with ration based on corn silage fed for "ad libitum" consumption, distributed in two sets: stabled cows and cows maintened in padlots. The experimental design was completely randomized. The daily dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows (0.095 ± 0.006 kg/kg0.75, was significantly different (P< 0.01 from the stabled ones (0.077 ± 0.005 kg/kg0.75. There was significant correlation (P < 0.05 among dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows and environmental temperature, air humidity, wind velocity and precipitation, with coefficients varying from -0.58 to 0.51 while the feed intake of stabled cows was only correlated significantly (P < 0.05 with the environmental temperature at 7 a.m. with coefficient of -0.27. These results show that feed intake of Holstein cows kept in padlots was higher than in stabled cows, due to lower environmental temperatures, as high as 0.36 kgDM/cow for each unit of air temperature decrease and for each unit of increase of relative humidity and wind velocity at 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., simultaneously.

  18. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  19. Niveles de infestación parasitaria y condición corporal en bovinos doble propósito infestados en condiciones naturales (Degree of infestation and body condition in dual purpose naturally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    2006-04-01

    work was carried out in a dual purpose farm oriented to milk production, located in San Antonio, Municipality of Pedraza in Barinas State. 65 cattle were coprologically examined by mean of McMaster technique with a oversaturated solution of NaCl as flotation liquid. The body condition of the animals was evaluated by mean the method of the scale with scores from 1 to 5 and 2,5 as inflection point. The packed cell volume was evaluated by mean of the microhaematocrit microcentrifugation method. The conjuntive color of each animal was evaluated as well. The highest e.p.g. count were observed in animals with a body condition ≤ 2,5. This animals can be considered as wormy animals, a small fraction of the herd showed a good body condition (≥ 3 and high e.p.g. count. This animals can be considered as resilient. Both group of animals are strong grass contaminants. The haematocrit values were similar between no wormy animals and resilient and higher than wormy animals. No association was found between haematocrit and conjuntive color. No anthelmintic resistance was diagnosed against the drugs used in the farm (Doramectine, Ivermectine and Albendazole.

  20. Costeño-201: nueva variedad de sorgo de temporal de doble propósito para Sinaloa Costeño-201: a new variety of rianfed sorghum of dual purpose in Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Hernández Espinal

    2011-10-01

    to commercial hybrids from private companies, which are grown in the region under the same conditions. Costeño-201 has better bromatological quality than commercial hybrids regarding to forage, with 9.5% protein and 64% digestibility, on average it exceeds in 2.7% and 5% respectively to commercial hybrids. It is tolerant to diseases that occur in the region, such as: ergot (Claviceps african, anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola, panicle blight (Fusarium moniliforme and charcoal stalk rot (Macrophomina phaseolina. Forage of sorghum Costeño-201, is recommended as a dual-purpose material in fodder conservation practices such as hay and silage.

  1. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  2. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  3. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  4. Dry period length of dairy cows :

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative ene

  5. Dry period length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative

  6. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form.

  7. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-07-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (676 +/- 57 kg of body weight; 121 +/- 17 d-in-milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of 4 sources of carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation, and microbial N flow to the duodenum. Four cows in one of the Latin squares were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae. Diets contained (DM basis) 50% forage in combinations of alfalfa hay and barley silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate portion of the diets contained barley, corn, wheat, or oats grain as the primary source of carbohydrate. Intake of DM ranged from 24.0 to 26.2 kg/d, and it tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet; consequently, milk yield tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet. Cows fed the barley- or wheat-based diets had a lower milk fat content compared with those fed the corn-based diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were largely unaffected by the source of dietary carbohydrate, with similar ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations for the first 6 h after the morning feeding. Dietary treatment did not affect total tract apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber; however, total tract apparent digestibility of starch in cows fed the oats-based diet was higher compared with those fed the corn-and wheat-based diets. Nitrogen that was used for productive purposes (i.e., N secreted in milk + N apparently retained by the cow) tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with cows fed the barley-, corn-, or oats-based diets. Urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion was similar in cows fed the barley-, corn-, and wheat-based diets; however, purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed the barley-based diet compared with those fed the oats-based diet. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was

  8. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose of...

  9. Dual diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dual diagnosis denotes intertwining of intellectual disabilities with mental disorders. With the help of systematic examination of literature, intellectual disabilities are determined (they are characterized by subaverage intellectual activity and difficulties in adaptive skills), along side mental disorders. Their influence is seen in changes of thinking, perception, emotionality, behaviour and cognition. Mental disorders often occur with people with intellectual disabilities (data differs f...

  10. Effect of prostaglandin on estrus response and conception rate in lactating ongole cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Ramana

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried to study the estrus response and conception rate in lactating Ongole cows consequence to double injection of prostaglandin. Material and Methods: Estrus synchronization was performed by double injection of PGF2α (Lutalyse, 5ml/cow in purposively selected 22 lactating Ongole cows. The 1st injection was administered on 60 days post partum (day 0 followed by 2nd injection on 72 days postpartum (day 12 and then insemination was carried out at observed estrus. Results: The ovarian response by ultrasound scanning revealed a dominant follicle of 10.00 ± 0.78 mm 3-4 days after the PGF2α administration. Out of 22 cows treated with double injections of prostaglandins 18 cows exhibited estrus within 68.66 ± 10.24 hrs. The duration of estrus and mean estrous cycle length recorded as 14.20±2.56 hrs and 21.50±0.21 days, respectively. The estrous cycle was observed in 79.45 % cows. The remaining cows showed 11-17 (5.48%, 26-36 (9.59% and 37- 60 (5.48 % days of estrous cycle length. The conception rate of observed to be 67.00 ± 0.26 %. The mean calving to service period found to be 81.18±1.62 days in lactating multiparous Ongole cows. Conclusion: It may be concluded that double injection of Prostaglandin has reduced the calving to service period which would even truly reduce calving interval in lactating Ongole cows. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 413-415

  11. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan

    2009-01-01

    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  12. Avaliação de esquemas de seleção alternativos para bovinos Zebus de dupla aptidão Evaluation of alternative breeding programs for dual purpose Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo

    2000-10-01

    herd tier of the population. Genetic gains and returns were high in all schemes. Dairy schemes were superior, mainly due to responses in lowering mature cow weight and increasing milk yield. Reproductive traits were more important in the beef schemes. Returns increased with higher usage of proven sires, although not proportionally. The contribution of beef traits to genetic profit was higher than that of dairy traits only when the economic value of slaughter weight exceeded 14 times the economic value of milk yield. The exclusion of progeny testing in the beef cows tier had little effect on the genetic or economic results.

  13. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  14. Coping strategies in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.In Chapter 1, current concepts of adaptation and stress a

  15. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current concept

  16. Use of inline measures of l-lactate dehydrogenase for classification of posttreatment mammary Staphylococcus aureus infection status in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Østergaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    An automated method for determining whether dairy cows with subclinical mammary infections recover after antibiotic treatment would be a useful tool in dairy production. For that purpose, online . l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements was modeled using a dynamic linear model; the variance...... of the treatment, this test data set consisted of 25 cows that still had a subclinical infection and 23 cows that were recovered. Model sensitivity was 36.0% and specificity was 82.6%. To a large extent, . l-lactate dehydrogenase reflected the cow's immune response to the presence of pathogens in the udder...

  17. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...... fixed point. Remarkably this value is identical to the maximum bound predicted in the nonpertubative regime via the all-orders conjectured beta function for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories.......We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  18. Learning from the Past: Dual Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Nicole; Justice, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study involved identifying, categorizing, and comparing critical incidents related to qualifying dual credit high school students' decisions to enroll or not to enroll in dual credit coursework in either a traditional or early college high school. The purpose of the study was (a) to identify the reasons qualifying students decide to enroll in…

  19. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  20. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  1. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  2. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  3. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    cleanliness was explored but no effect was found. In the second study, potential herd and cow level risk factors for poor hind leg cleanliness were evaluated. Data were obtained from a cross sectional study in 42 commercial dairy herds conducted by senior scientist Peter T. Thomsen. Here, no access to pasture......-sociated with a change in the risk hind leg cleanliness with the data available in the pre-sent study. However, a positive effect of the automatic hoof was found by demonstrating that washed feet were affected by DD lesions in fewer weeks in comparison to unwashed feet. Also, the last study demonstrated that the cows......’ risk of DD occurrence and it prospects of cure might depend on lactation stage and age. Furthermore, the study brings forward evidence that challenge the assumptions of DD as a disease with generally slow healing lesions and rare occurrence of spontaneous healing. Further research is needed to find out...

  4. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo;

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim...... of scoring, age at first calving, lactation stage, and parity in addition to additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. The heritability of the loser cow score was 0.08 and for the underlying traits the heritability ranged from 0.05 to 0.12. The genetic correlations between various pairs...

  5. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... cleanliness. More knowledge on these aspects will increase our understanding of the disease epidemiology and is essential to improve the success of controlling DD at the herd level. Therefore, the objectives of the present PhD thesis were 1) To investigate the relationship between cow leg cleanliness and DD......; 2) To identify potential risk factors for poor cow leg cleanliness; and 3) To gain more knowledge about potential means of controlling DD. Data was obtained from three studies conducted in commercial Danish dairy herds and the results are presented in four scientific papers. In the first study, cow...

  6. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... and therefore has a major impact on economics and cow welfare. Moist and unhygienic conditions in the cows’ surroundings are considered as important risk factors for DD partly because this can disturb the skin barrier and make the animals more susceptible to infection and partly because the environment might...... act as an infection reservoir. Measures of cow leg cleanliness can be used as a proxy of the hygienic conditions on the floors. Nonetheless, only few studies have used direct measures of cleanliness in association with the risk of DD. Also, little is known about what factors can influence the cow leg...

  7. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination......-lactations with the purpose of evaluating the use of progesterone for detection of oestrus....

  8. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment.

  9. Structure and Application Methods of Large Dual-purpose (Light & Heavy) Compaction Device%轻重两用型大型击实仪的仪器结构和使用方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤苏南

    2012-01-01

    普通标准击实仪不适用于含大粒径粗粒土,野外施工有时没有动力电源。为了满足工程需要,研制了一种轻重两用型大型击实仪,仪器主要由底板、击实筒、穿心击实锤、穿心抓体、落锤高度控制装置和其它辅助装置组成。击实仪的击实筒装置旋转,提锤和落锤装置不旋转,提锤并自动控制落锤部件采用自动脱钩自由落锤,提锤动力采用柴油发动机勘察钻机卷扬。实际使用结果表明,能满足大型击实试验的需要,有一定的工程应用价值。%For common standared compaction device is not suitable for large-size coarse-grained soil,and once there is no power during field construction,in order to satisfy the needs of construction,a large dual-purpose(light heavy) compaction device is developed and produced,which is composed of baseboard,compaction cylinder,cross-core compaction hammer,cross-core catch body,control device of drop-hammer height and other accessory devices.The compaction cylinder is able to rotate,but the lift hammer and drop hammer are not.Automatic decoupling and free drop hammer are used for the parts lifting the hammer and controlling the drop hammer freely.The lift hammer could be winded by surveying rig with diesel motor.The actual application results show that this compaction device can satisfy the needs of large compaction tests and has a certain engineering application value.

  10. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  11. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  12. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangar, Yogesh Chandrakant; Singh, Bishwambhar; Dohare, Amit Kumar; Verma, Med Ram

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.

  14. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  15. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    throughout the periparturient period. However, the immediate post partum increment in liver release of glucose is not followed by an equivalent increment in propionate uptake, because of the lower rate of increment in feed intake compared with the rate of increment in requirements for milk synthesis......-organ transfer of nitrogen from catabolised AA. AAs seem to be prioritised for anabolic purposes, indicating the relevance of investigating effects of supplying additional protein to post partum dairy cows. Combining data from quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques on L-lactate metabolism point...

  16. Balanced anaesthetic approach in a late-term gravid cow undergoing metacarpal fracture repair

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was ...

  17. Balanced Anaesthetic Approach in a Late-Term Gravid Cow Undergoing Metacarpal Fracture Repair

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was ...

  18. Effect of micro-alga supplementation on goat and cow milk fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Póti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae cultivation has been developed over the last decades because it is capable of producing valuable metabolites, such as n-3 fatty acids for nutraceutical purposes. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the micro-alga as fat supplement on fatty acid profile of goat and cow milk, with particular reference to n-3 fatty acids and rumenic acid. Twenty dairy goats and 16 dairy cows were randomly allocated to two isonitrogenous treatment groups to investigate the effect of micro-alga supplementation on the composition and fatty acid profile of milk. The 1st goat group was fed with alfalfa hay and concentrate; the 2nd goat group received the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 10 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The control group cows were fed with alfalfa hay, corn silage and concentrate, while the experimental animals were fed with the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 7.4 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The experimental periods lasted for 17 d. The micro-alga supplements considerably increased rumenic acid concentration in milk (1.20% ví. 1.54%, P < 0.001 for goats; 0.75% vs. 0.85%, P < 0.05 for cows. The n-3 fatty acids were higher in milk (1.02 vs. 1.35; P < 0.001 for goats; 0.47 vs. 0.56; P < 0.05 for cows and in addition the n-6/n-3 ratio was also more favorable in the micro-alga supplemented groups (3.53 vs. 2.88; P < 0.01 for goats; 4.18 vs. 3.36; P < 0.05 for cows. It is concluded that the diet with micro-alga supplementation significantly increased the concentration of beneficial fatty acids in both goat and cow milk.

  19. Biogas Production from Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Artanti Putri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from livestock waste manure in particular is one of the alternative utilization of organic wastes that can be implemented in Indonesia since there is a huge potential of bio-energy in Indonesia. This study utilizes cow manure as the raw material for making biogas and it is coupled with a cow rumen fluid and water. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of manure, rumen, and water composition in biogas production. The research was conducted in anaerobic for 60 days. The composition of manure, water, and the rumen were vary following the variable and ratio; variable A (manure and water; variable B (manure and rumen. The results indicate that the variable A (manure and water with a 1:3 ratio, and the variable B (manure and rumen with a 1:2 ratio produced the highest volume of biogas compared to other ratios. The highest biogas production occurred on average at day 23.

  20. COW DUNG- A BOON FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSHMITA SHRIVASTAVA*, ALKA MISHRA ARTI PAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is an agricultural country having variety of plants and animals. Among the animals, cattle like cow has a prominent place in our country. It is considered as go-mata and worshipped by every hindu of India. The five products of cow called “Panchgavya” is a precious gift of this holy animal to our society, which consist of milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Among these, cow dung also called cow pad, is a component having crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose and minerals. It is an efficient organic manure used to increase plant yield in fields. Cow dung slurry is also used by people of our country for plastering the floors and walls of their houses. Considering this custom of our society, a study had been done to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal properties of cow dung extract in distil water, ethanol and n- hexane against Candida, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus and found it highly effective against these microbes. The study revealed that cow dung extract possess antimicrobial properties, which can be used to fight against certain pathogenic diseases and other ailments.

  1. Safety of a new, ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula in children with cow milk allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate infant formula, Profylac, could be administered safely to children with cow milk protein allergy/intolerance. Profylac has a stated molecular weight of ... which is controlled by a combination of ELISA-techniques and immunochemical methods. The study comprised 66 children with cow milk protein allergy/intolerance diagnosed by controlled elimination/challenge procedures. The children were aged 1 month-14.5 years, median 1 11/12 years and 15 were below 1...... year. Thirty-five of these children had proven IgE-mediated reactions (cow milk protein allergy). Sixty-one of the children had at least two different symptoms and 31 had concomitant allergies to other foods and/or inhalants. All 66 children underwent and tolerated open, controlled challenges...

  2. Effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid, vitamin B12, or both, on lactational performance and energy status of multiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D; Laforest, J-P; Girard, C L

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of this experiment was to gain understanding on changes in energy partitioning when folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements, alone or combined, were given by weekly intramuscular injections from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 7 wk postpartum. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to previous 305-d lactation yield to either 0 or 320 mg of folic acid and 0 or 10 mg of vitamin B12 in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Plasma concentration of folates was increased by folic acid supplement, and this increase was greater with the combined supplement. Vitamin B12 supplement increased plasma concentration of vitamin B12. Even though postpartum energy balance was similar among treatments, postpartum body condition score was higher for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Milk yield of cows receiving folic acid supplement reached a plateau earlier than for cows that did not. Fat and protein, as well as total solid concentrations and yields, were unaffected by treatments. Postpartum plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher and postpartum plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was lower for cows that received weekly folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Plasma concentration of methylmalonic acid was low and unaffected by treatments, suggesting that vitamin B12 supply was not limiting, even for unsupplemented cows. Postpartum plasma concentrations of Cys, His, Phe, and Tyr were increased, whereas plasma concentration of Gly was decreased, by folic acid supplement. In the present study, supplementary folic acid altered energy partitioning in early lactation as suggested by similar milk total solid yield and postpartum energy balance, lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and body condition score losses, and higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not.

  3. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  4. Balanced Anaesthetic Approach in a Late-Term Gravid Cow Undergoing Metacarpal Fracture Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martin Jurado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was started. During anaesthesia, slight hypercapnia and hypoxaemia developed. Total time of xylazine and ketamine infusion was 3.5 hours. Total anaesthesia time was 4.5 hours. For recovery of anaesthesia, isoflurane was discontinued, and in sternal recumbency, the trachea was extubated when the cow swallowed. Paralysis of the left radial nerve occurred, and the cow was supported to stand up after 2 hours. The radial nerve paralysis resolved within three days. A healthy calf was born at term. This is the first paper that describes the successful use of adjunctive xylazine and ketamine infusion to isoflurane anaesthesia in a late-term gravid cow undergoing fracture repair during 4.5 hours.

  5. Dual antiplatelet treatment in patients candidates for abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.

  6. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  7. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  8. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  9. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  11. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  12. Cows aboveground, protons down below

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On display at Fort l'Écluse from 19 June to 18 September, the works of Augenblick combine photography, sound and video to create a striking instant parallel between the "real world" and the world of particle physics.   The cows are grazing quietly, blissfully unaware of the mini-Big Bang occurring silently 100 metres beneath them. Curious to compare these two worlds - the visible and the invisible, day-to-day life and particle physics - Laurent Mulot, a multi-disciplinary artist whose work delves into some of the planet's more unusual places, has come up with a unique artistic concept. Called Augenblick (German for "instant"), to emphasise that the images relate to the same point in time, his project uses photography, video and sound to superimpose scenes from everyday life and scenes from science. "The idea came to me in June 2008," says Laurent Mulot, "when Jean-Paul Martin, a research scientist at the Institute of Nuclear...

  13. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  14. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  15. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  16. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  17. Induction of neurotoxicity by organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and modulating role of cow urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shelly; Chadha, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for controlling a wide variety of pests and for domestic purposes. Among these chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the most extensively used pesticide throughout the world, including India. The present study was undertaken to examine the neurotoxicity induced by CPF and modulatory effect of cow urine as a natural antioxidant alternative to reduce the neurotoxic effects of CPF. For this purpose LD50 was determined and one fourth of LD50 was selected (38 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)) for treatment of rats. The antioxidant level of cow urine was determined by ABTS assay. Exposure to pesticides resulted in significant reduction in the acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity (P ≤ 0.01). However, groups pretreated with cow urine had improved levels of AChE activity as compared to CPF treated groups. Thus, the present findings clearly show that oral CPF has the propensity to cause significant neurotoxicity in rat brains while cow urine treatment alleviates CPF induced toxicity to a greater extent. In addition, AChE can be used as a potential biomarker of toxicity associated with pesticide exposure.

  18. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from 1

  19. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  20. Generation mean analysis of dual purpose traits in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadiji

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Key words: Gene effects, fodder, Vigna unguiculata, generation mean analysis. .... distribution pattern of fodder yield in the various crosses, the field ...... Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and Japan International Research Center.

  1. Dual-Purpose Bone Grafts Improve Healing and Reduce Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    and PUR+BMP (High) (n = 14) groups. Two-thirds of the animals were used to assess bone formation, and the remainder was used to assess bacterial ...stabilized segmental defect in the rat femur. J Orthopaedic Res. 2005;23:816–823. 14. Anglen JO. Comparison of soap and antibiotic solutions for irrigation of

  2. development of a dual purpose refrigeration system for domestic use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and Air conditioning Engineers. BSR: Board of Standards ... whose elements were encased in a singular unit as is the case in modern ... production, operation and maintenance. 2. ..... conditioning) and food storage (refrigeration). Table 4: ...

  3. The Milking Performance of dual-purpose Crossbred Yaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Jialin; W.Mingqiang; L.Zhonglin; J.M.Chesworth

    2005-01-01

    Wild yak males were crossed with domesticated female yaks to produce a breeding herd of crossbred animals. The milk production of the progeny of this herd was measured in the present study. Yaks were milked once daily after prior suckling of the calf. yaks were allowed to graze for 15 h/day on high-altitude(3200 to 3500 m) pastures. No supplementary food was given. Average daily milk yield of 1.77(s. e. 0. 16)kg and milk yield over 120 days,212.2(s. e. 20.2)kg were significantly higher(P<0.01)than the corresponding figures for uninlproved domestic yaks(1.53(s. e. 0. 10)kg and 164. 6(s. e. 10.5)kg respectively). The fat content of milk from crossbred yaks, 52(s. e. 2. 9)g/kg, was not significantly dlfferent from that of unimproved animals, 53.5(s. e. 4. 1), g/kg.

  4. Dual-Purpose Millikan Experiment with Polystyrene Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. N.; Christensen, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    This procedure, using polystyrene spheres of specified diameter, renders the Millikan oil drop experiment more accurate than the conventional procedure of the polystyrene spheres, eliminates size estimation error, and removes the guesswork involved in assigning proper index integers to the observed charges. (MLH)

  5. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2014-01-01

    indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...... days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days...... associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing...

  6. Inclusion of cow records in genomic evaluations and impact on bias due to preferential treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassonneville Romain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, genomic evaluations are an essential feature of dairy cattle breeding. Initially, genomic evaluation targeted young bulls but recently, a rapidly increasing number of females (both heifers and cows are being genotyped. A rising issue is whether and how own performance of genotyped cows should be included in genomic evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of including yield deviations, i.e. own performance of cows, in genomic evaluations. Methods Two different genomic evaluations were performed: one including only reliable daughter yield deviations of proven bulls based on their non-genotyped daughters, and one including both daughter yield deviations for males and own yield deviations for genotyped females. Milk yield, the trait most prone to preferential treatment, and somatic cell count, for which such a bias is very unlikely, were studied. Data consisted of two groups of animals from the three main dairy breeds in France: 11 884 elite females genotyped by breeding companies and 7032 cows genotyped for a research project (and considered as randomly selected from the commercial population. Results For several measures that could be related to preferential treatment bias, the elite group presented a different pattern of estimated breeding values for milk yield compared to the other combinations of trait and group: for instance, for milk yield, the average difference between estimated breeding values with or without own yield deviations was significantly different from 0 for this group. Correlations between estimated breeding values with or without yield deviations were lower for elite females than for randomly selected cows for milk yield but were very similar for somatic cell count. Conclusions This study demonstrated that including own milk performance of elite females leads to biased (over-estimated genomic evaluations. Thus, milk production records of elite cows require specific treatment in

  7. The effect of the intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin on ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Amelia M; Hatler, Thomas B; Silvia, William J

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramammary inflammation during the periovulatory period affects the occurrence of ovulation in lactating dairy cows. Ten lactating, cyclic, Holstein dairy cows received 2 injections of prostaglandin F2alpha at eleven-day intervals, to synchronize luteolysis. The day of the second injection was designated as day 0. Ovulation was anticipated to occur 3-5 days later (on days 3-5). Beginning at the morning milking on day 1, cows received intramammary infusions of either Escherichia coli endotoxin (10 microg; n=5) or infusion vehicle (pyrogen free Hank's balanced salt solution; n=5) into 2 quarters immediately after milking. The same quarters were infused after each milking through day 4. Venous blood samples were collected daily from day -1 through 13 for determination of progesterone to monitor luteolysis and formation of a new corpus luteum. Blood samples were also collected at 4-h intervals (days -1 to 2), then at 2-h intervals (days 2 to 5) to measure concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Ovaries were examined ultrasonographically on days -1 through 5 and on day 12 to monitor follicular growth and formation of the corpus luteum. Collectively, these observations were used to determine if and when ovulation occurred. Intramammary infusion of E. coli endotoxin induced an immediate increase in the concentration of somatic cells in milk from treated quarters. However, this treatment had no effect on the occurrence or timing of ovulation. Based on ultrasonography and concentrations of progesterone, four of five cows in each treatment group appeared to have ovulated. Preovulatory surges of LH were detected within the intensive bleeding periods for three cows in each treatment group. The magnitude of the LH surge was reduced in cows receiving endotoxin.

  8. Discerning the cows from the pasture when determining annual NEE and carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Christof; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    The CO2 exchange of ecosystems and the resulting annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and total carbon budget (soil carbon sequestration) is commonly investigated using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. For the carbon budget of managed ecosystems also the import and export of organic carbon has to be taken into account. Grazed pasture systems represent a special challenge because their respiration can considerably contribute to the measured CO2 flux, but this contribution depends on the spatial distribution of the cows relative to the footprint and thus is variable in time. This has implications for the gap filling of CO2 flux time series necessary to determine annual NEE. In few existing studies two procedures have been suggested to determine the NEE of grazed pasture: (a) discarding all cases with cows in the footprint and gap-filling the remaining dataset; (b) treating the cow respiration as part of total ecosystem respiration and gap fill the entire flux dataset including cow contributions. Both approaches rely on idealized assumptions and have limitations. In our study we evaluated and compared the two approaches (for the first time to our knowledge) for a grazed pasture in Switzerland. For this purpose, the grazing cows were equipped with GPS sensors to monitor their position relative to the flux footprint. We found that the resulting annual NEE strongly depends on the flux data selection (e.g. u* filtering) and the applied gap filling procedure. Using an optimized procedure, the annual NEE with approach (b) was several times larger than the result of approach (a), but the difference agreed fairly well with independent estimates of cow respiration. Necessary assumptions and requirements of the two approaches for the determination of the pasture carbon budget will be discussed.

  9. Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language, cognitive and ... The parents of first group were instructed to eliminate cow milk (CM) from the diet of their ... Autistic patients underwent a Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) test.

  10. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  11. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  12. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, de, Rudi

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows, that need the farmer's attention, because of a possible case of oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables, wh...

  13. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  14. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  15. Modeling milk urea of Walloon dairy cows in management perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Laloux, L; Gillon, A; Miglior, F; Soyeurt, H; Hammami, H; Bertozzi, C; Gengler, N

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an adapted random regression test-day model for milk urea (MU) and to study the possibility of using predictions and solutions given by the model for management purposes. Data included 607,416 MU test-day records of first-lactation cows from 632 dairy herds in the Walloon Region of Belgium. Several advanced features were used. First, to detect the herd influence, the classical herd x test-day effect was split into 3 new effects: a fixed herd x year effect, a fixed herd x month-period effect, and a random herd test-day effect. A fixed time period regression was added in the model to take into account the yearly oscillations of MU on a population scale. Moreover, first autoregressive processes were introduced and allowed us to consider the link between successive test-day records. The variance component estimation indicated that large variance was associated with the random herd x test-day effect (48% of the total variance), suggesting the strong influence of herd management on the MU level. The heritability estimate was 0.13. By comparing observed and predicted MU levels at both the individual and herd levels, target ranges for MU concentrations were defined to take into account features of each cow and each herd. At the cow level, an MU record was considered as deviant if it was 400 mg/L (target range used in the field) and if the prediction error was >50 mg/L (indicating a significant deviation from the expected level). Approximately 7.5% of the MU records collected between June 2007 and May 2008 were beyond these thresholds. This combination allowed for the detection of potentially suspicious cows. At the herd level, the expected MU level was considered as the sum of the solutions for specific herd effects. A herd was considered as deviant from its target range when the prediction error was greater than the standard deviation of MU averaged by herd test day. Results showed that 6.7% of the herd test-day MU levels between June

  16. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  17. Clinical practice. Diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven diagnosi

  18. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realize...

  19. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various conditions,

  20. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions.

  1. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  2. Evaluation of plasma and milk haptoglobin concentrations in the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultiken Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma and milk haptoglobin (Hp concentrations could be an alternative method for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of subclinical mastitis (SM in dairy cows. In the study, 14 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM in more than one udder quarter and 5 healthy control cows were used. Cows in the non-treated group (GNT; n=6 did not receive any treatment while cows in the treated group (GT; n=8 were treated with intramammary cefquinom sulphate on the second week. Healthy cows were evaulated as Control group (GC. Plasma Hp concentrations did not differ within groups and between groups (p>0.05. When compared milk Hp concentrations within groups, there was a slight increase in GT on the third week (p<0.05 and the concentrations in GNT and GC did not reveal any difference (p>0.05. A relationship between CMT scores, SCC values, plasma Hp and milk Hp concentrations was not established. It was concluded that plasma Hp and milk Hp are not useful parameters to diagnose and monitor the treatment efficacy of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

  3. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  4. Individual animal variability in ruminal bacterial communities and ruminal acidosis in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability among individual cows for their susceptibility to ruminal acidosis (RA) pre- and postpartum, and determine whether this variability was related to differences in their ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC). Variability in susceptibilit...

  5. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  6. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  7. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... FM broadcast station may devote more than 15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor...

  8. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; Rashid, M H; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  9. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  10. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  11. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  12. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from Clinical Healthy Cows and Mastitic Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-xin; ZHAO Xing-xu; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    The current research presents the protein changes in plasma from healthy dairy cows and clinical mastitic cows using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After staining with silver nitrate and Coomassie Blue, differential expression proteins were detected by PDQuest 7.4 software, and then subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a Surveyor HPLC System, differential spots of protein were identified. Three protein spots that originated from preparation gels were identified to be two proteins. Overall, haptoglobin precursor was up-regulated in cows infected with clinical mastitis and could be a mastitis-associated diagnostic marker, whereas SCGB 2A1 (secretoglobin, family 2A, member 1) was down-regulated protein. Plasma protein expression patterns were changed when cows were infected with mammary gland inflammation; it suggests that analysis of differential expression protein might be useful to clarify the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology, and find new diagnostic markers of mastitis and potential protein targets for treatment.

  14. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  15. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  16. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  17. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Friggens, Nicolas; Andersen, Jens; Larsen,Torben; Aaes, Ole; Dewhurst, Richard

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews important aspects of dry cow feeding with emphasis placed on the preparation of the cow for the subsequent lactation. A number of feeding strategies, which have been proposed in recent years, are examined, alongside considerations of the effects of dry period length, levels of body reserves at calving and parity. A number of studies have reported the effect of varying the length of the dry period (in the range 0 to 70 days) on subsequent production a...

  18. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  19. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Thomsen, Peter; Burow, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing...... dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic...... cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing...

  20. Hepatitis in growth promotor treated cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adult female beef cattle found positive for stanozolol in the urine were investigated for liver pathology. In all the animals toxic hepatitis was found, including cholestasis, periportal fibrosis and inflammation, focal necrosis and blood filled lacunae. As no clinical data of the cows were availabl

  1. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, comi...

  2. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-02-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment.

  3. Assessment of skin damages in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Skin damages were assessed at 48 conventional and organic farms with mainly cubicle houses. Scores from 1 – 9 were given depending on type and size of the damaged skin at 9 locations of the cow: outer hock, inner hock, knee and body all left and right hand side and the neck. Only the highest score p

  4. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  5. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  6. Visual appearance and CMT score of foremilk of individual quarters in relation to cell count of cows milked automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin; Skjøth, Flemming

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the interaction between visual appearance and California mastitis test (CMT) score of the foremilk in relation to the cell count of the milk; to evaluate the consequences of sorting milk according to these criteria; and to explore whether visual appearance and CMT score of foremilk depended on the time interval between milkings. Measuring somatic cell count (SCC) in composite milk only and discarding milk above certain thresholds will not ensure that milk from all cows with visually abnormal foremilk is withheld from delivery. Low thresholds of SCC will reduce the frequency of cows with abnormal milk but increase the discarding of milk from cows with visually normal foremilk. CMT score of foremilk differentiated better between cows with high and low SCC in composite milk than visual inspection of foremilk. CMT scores of foremilk decreased with increasing interval between milkings within cow, whereas the visual appearance was independent of the interval. We propose that visual appearance of the foremilk should be kept as a criterion for sorting milk at time of milking. For test purposes, the use of visual appearance of foremilk for differentiation between normal and abnormal milk has to be done on multiple milkings. Additionally, CMT scoring of foremilk improves correct classification of normal and abnormal quarters and especially when including data from the previous milking.

  7. The Dual Career Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  8. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  9. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions are...

  10. Self-Dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Self-dual gravity is a diffeomorphism invariant theory in four dimensions that describes two propagating polarisations of the graviton and has a negative mass dimension coupling constant. Nevertheless, this theory is not only renormalisable but quantum finite, as we explain. We also collect various facts about self-dual gravity that are scattered across the literature.

  11. Optical dual self functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 王宁

    1997-01-01

    A recipe to construct the exact dual self-Fourier-Fresnel-transform functions is shown, where the Dirac comb function and transformable even periodic function are used. The mathematical proof and examples are given Then this kind of self-transform function is extended to the feasible optical dual self-transform functions.

  12. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  13. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitri Astuti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is generated from biological process of organic material by bacterial engaged. Biogas can be derived from manure, municipal waste, agricultural waste and other biomass resources. In addition to the use of cow manure as raw material for biogas production, it can also be derived from biomass containing cellulose which one is water hyacinth as an organic material that contains quite large cellulose. The abundance of water hyacinth found in Rawapening causing several negative impacts. The purpose of this study is to observe  temperature and pH on the biogas production generated from water hyacinth of Rawapening and cow manure. Biogas production process begins by chopping the leaves and stems of water hyacinth, and then mixed with cow manure and water. The results of substrate variation of water hyacinth, cow manure and water reaches optimally at 40:80:480 respectively, which produce the highest point of  biogas amounted 176.33 ml on the day 20 in 1L sized digester, the temperature of the biogas production is at 32°C.  At the initial fermentation, digester temperature of 30°C has increased over the course of the fermentation process, a peak at day 20 and then decreased to 27°C at the end of fermentation. There is a decrease in pH starting from initial fermentation at pH 6-7 and then the pH began to decline until the end of fermentation as amount of pH 5.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25Citation:  Nurfitri Astuti, N., Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, T.R., and  Budiyono. 2013. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25

  14. Research on Dual Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Fucai Qian; Peilin Fu

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress by the authors in developing two solution frameworks for dual control. The first solution framework considers a class of dual control problems where there exists a parameter uncertainty in the observation equation of the LQG problem. An analytical active dual control law is derived by a variance minimization approach. The issue of how to determine an optimal degree of active learning is then addressed, thus achieving an optimality for this class of dual control problems. The second solution framework considers a general class of discrete-time LQG problems with unknown parameters in both state and observation equations. The best possible (partial) closed-loop feedback control law is derived by exploring the future nominal posterior probabilities, thus taking into account the effect of future learning when constructing the optimal nominal dual control.

  15. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  16. Fresh cow mastitis monitoring on day 3 postpartum and its relationship to subsequent milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K L; Correa, M T; Allen, A; Rodriguez, R R

    2010-12-01

    The purpose was to determine the association of milk California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell concentration (SCC), and milk differential cell count results on day 3 postcalving with subsequent lactation production and health events. On d 3 postcalving, the CMT was performed and quarter milk samples were collected from 130 dairy cows. Quarter SCC and milk differential cell counts were determined. Microbiology on duplicate quarter milk samples was used to determine the presence of intramammary infection by major or minor pathogens. Production measures obtained using Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing were 150-d standardized and summit milks. Milk culture results on a cow basis included 82 (63.1%) samples with no growth, 31 (23.9%) with major pathogens, and 17 (13.1%) with minor pathogens. Milk culture results comparing cows with no growth to those with any growth (major or minor pathogens) were not associated with statistically significant differences in milk production. Milk culture results comparing cows with major pathogens to those with no growth and minor pathogens combined were associated with statistically significant differences in 150 d milk. Milk production did not differ for cows with CMT results above and below a cut-off of trace, and for SCC results above and below cut-offs of 200,000, 300,000, and 400,000/mL, respectively. Statistically significant differences in milk production were found for cows above and below cut-offs for percentage neutrophils in milk and for absolute neutrophil counts. Associations were found for milk production and number of quarters (0, 1, 2, or 3 and 4 combined) above respective cut-offs for SCC, percentage neutrophils in milk, and absolute numbers of neutrophils in milk, but not for CMT. Milk production differed for cows experiencing any health event versus those with no health event. The most commonly recorded health event was clinical mastitis. Statistically significant associations were detected between health

  17. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  18. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg) compared with LIT (11.3 ± 0.19 kg) BW cows. Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was

  19. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  20. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  1. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Real-time Ultrasound Measurements for Hanwoo Cows at Different Ages and Pregnancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of ultrasound measurements for longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, backfat thickness (BFT, and marbling score (MS in Hanwoo cows (N = 3,062 at the ages between 18 and 42 months. Data were collected from 100 Hanwoo breeding farms in Gyeongbuk province, Korea, in 2007 and 2008. The cows were classified into four different age groups, i.e. 18 to 22 months (the first pregnancy period, 23 to 27 (the first parturition, 28 to 32 (the second pregnancy, and 33 to 42 (the second parturition, respectively. For each age group, a multi-trait animal model was used to estimate variance components and heritabilities of the three traits. The averages of LMA, BFT, and MS measurements across the cows of all age groups were 50.1 cm2, 4.62 mm, and 3.04, respectively and heritability estimates were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.08 for the respective traits. However, when the data were analyzed in different age groups, heritability estimates of LMA and BFT were 0.24 and 0.47, respectively, for the cows of 18 to 22 months of age, and 0.21 for MS in the 28 to 32 months old cows. When the cows of all age groups were used, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.43 (0.35, −0.06 (0.34 and 0.21 (0.32 between LMA and BFT, LMA and MS, and BFT and MS, respectively. However, in the cow age group between 28 and 32 (18 and 22 months, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.05 (0.29, −0.15 (0.24 and 0.38 (0.24, for the respective pairs of traits. These results suggest that genetic, environmental, and phenotypic variations differ depending on cow age, such that care must be taken when ultrasound measurements are applied to selection of cows for meat quality.

  2. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power; Le dimensionnement optimum des installations de production mixte d'eau sessalee et d'electricite faisant intervenir l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-07-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [French] Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  4. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  5. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  6. Understanding veterinarians' prescribing decisions on antibiotic dry cow therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, H M; Golding, S E; Mouncey, J; Nanjiani, I; Cook, A J C

    2017-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, blanket antibiotic dry cow therapy (BDCT) is commonly prescribed. An alternate strategy is selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) whereby a teat sealant is given instead of an antibiotic to cows with a low probability of infection. Switching from BDCT to SDCT can significantly reduce antibiotic use. The aims of this study were to explore how veterinarians (vets) rationalized their prescribing decisions for mammary treatments at drying off, and the barriers and motivators they perceived to implementing SDCT. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited vets from 6 practices in England, United Kingdom. The data were analyzed qualitatively using an inductive thematic analysis. The majority of participants stated a personal preference for SDCT because it constitutes more responsible antibiotic use. On the majority of farms, the prescribing decision was taken by a senior veterinarian and BDCT was prescribed. Less experienced vets expressed a desire to be more involved in the decision-making process. The first theme, prioritizing responsible antimicrobial prescribing, encapsulated the difficulties vets expressed engaging with farmers, conflicts of interest, and vets' determination to take action. The second theme, the effect of a vet's experience on their ability to influence farmers, focused on the specific challenges faced by less experienced vets and the importance of vets being both trusted by farmers and being knowledgeable. The third theme, vets' perceptions about the risk and complexity of implementing SDCT, revealed markedly different levels of concern and fears about adverse outcomes with teat sealants versus antibiotics. The results also showed differences in perceptions about how difficult SDCT is to implement in practice. The last theme, vets' suggestions for facilitating the introduction of SDCT, was wide ranging and provided useful insight from a veterinary perspective into ways to facilitate SDCT. Initiatives that

  7. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate in cows estimated by a prediction formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Isao; Miyano, Anna; Sato, Tsubasa; Iwama, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijyo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    To testify the relevance of Jacobsson's equation for estimating bovine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we prepared an integrated formula based on its equation using clinically healthy dairy (n=99) and beef (n=63) cows, and cows with reduced renal function (n=15). The isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol was utilized as a test tracer. The GFR values estimated from the integrated formula were well consistent with those from the standard multisample method in each cow strain, and the Holstein equation prepared by a single blood sample in Holstein dairy cows. The basal reference GFR value in healthy dairy cows was significantly higher than that in healthy beef cows, presumably due to a breed difference or physiological state difference. It is concluded that the validity for the application of Jacobsson's equation to estimate bovine GFR is proven and it can be used in bovine practices.

  9. Dual Credit Enrollment and GPA by Ethnicity and Gender at Texas 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in dual credit course enrollment. Specifically examined were whether differences were present in the first semester GPA and at the end of the first two semesters for students who enrolled in dual credit courses while in high school from…

  10. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles.......A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  11. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles.......A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  12. Effect of flooring system on locomotion comfort in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Telezhenko, Evgenij

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study influence of different flooring systems on several aspects of locomotion of dairy cows. To assess the gait on different floors, trackway analysis was used. Cows walking on a hard, slippery surface had shorter strides, wider posture and asymmetric steps. A hard, slippery surface resulted in stride shortening, wider posture and asymmetric gait. Using soft rubber mats made gait patterns more similar to those on a natural yielding surface such as sand. When cows...

  13. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  14. Simultaneous detection of cow and buffalo species in milk from China, India, and Pakistan using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottenet, G; Blancpain, C; Golay, P-A

    2011-08-01

    Asian countries are major producers of cow and buffalo milk. For quality and authenticity purposes, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to specifically and simultaneously detect DNA from these 2 bovine species. Targeting the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA, common PCR primers amplified a 105-bp fragment, and 2 fluorescent probes specific to either cow or buffalo were designed for their identification. Specificity was successfully tested on 6 other species, including sheep and goat, and sensitivity reached 1% of cow DNA in buffalo DNA and vice versa. As an evaluation, the method was tested using 119 freeze-dried Asian milk samples from regional industrial milk facilities. Although these samples did not cover the entire Asian zone, the multiplex assay indicated that approximately 20% of the samples (mainly from India) showed high levels of cross-contamination of cow milk by buffalo milk, and vice versa. Fast, sensitive, and straightforward, this method is fit-for-purpose for the authenticity control of Asian milk. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels

  16. Walkable dual emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Hai-Bing; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Walkable dual emissions, in which the emission bands of the walker reversibly cross or leave those of the stationary ones depending on temperature and concentration, have been demonstrated in cyclic...

  17. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of CMP-based formula. The majority has two or more symptoms from two or more organ systems. Approximately 50 to 60% have cutaneous symptoms, 50 to 60% have gastrointestinal symptoms, and approximately 20 to 30% respiratory......OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine...... to select the relevant data for this review. RESULTS: The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP), ie, CMPA, has to be confirmed by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. The incidence of CMPA in infancy seems to be approximately 2 to 3% in developed countries...

  18. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video......). The cows subjected to biopsies showed an overall decreased lying time during the entire observation period (36.3 ± 1.5 vs. 46.1 ± 2.2% of time) but not directly related to the period after the biopsies. Dairy cows show classic signs of illness behavior in the hours after intramammary challenge with E. coli...

  19. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  20. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  1. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  2. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  3. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined.

  4. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC cheese production was observed in the 2 UH status groups with the highest milk SCC (i.e., contagious IMI and culture-negative samples with high SCC), revealing a discrepancy

  5. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  6. The effect of dry period length on productive, reproductive and health parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Skrzypek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the analysis of effects of dry period length on milk performance, fertility and health of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The analysis was carried out on data from 426 cows, managed on a free-stall farm. All animals were dried off under the protection of antibiotics that were applied into mammary gland after the last milking. Cows with the shortest dry period (≤ 42 days produced least milk with the highest protein content and the highest somatic cell count, they also had most favourable reproduction parameters The middle-length dry period (43–70 days was associated with the highest milk production, and the longest period (> 70 days was associated with the lowest somatic cell count and the least favourable reproduction parameters. Results of this study show that there is no optimal universal length of dry period, and therefore in practical dairy farming it should be matched if possible to particular groups or even individual animals.

  7. Optimization of methane production by combining organic waste and cow manure as feedstock in anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresia, Martha; Priadi, Cindy Rianti

    2017-03-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) process from organic waste is often unstable due to the high concentration of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs). The purpose of this research was to determine/evaluate the production of methane using biochemical methane potential (BMP) test with two substrate combinations, consisted of organic waste and cow manure as buffer. BMP test conducted for 35 days at a temperature of ± 35°C by measuring the volume and concentration of biogas every week and testing the sample characteristics before and after the test. The result of the sample variation showed there was no significantly difference of methane volume in the 5th week except the variation of organic waste/cow manure: 12/1 to 3/1, but the sample with a ratio of 3/1 yielded the highest methane potential of 0,58 ± 0.015 (n = 3) LCH4/gr Volatile Solid. The addition of cow manure stabilized the condition of all variations during BMP test with VFAs/alkalinity <0.3 although Carbon/Nitogen ratio of each variation is <20.

  8. Low protein silage associated with rumen impaction in suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-23

    Rumen impaction associated with low protein diets in a suckler cowCampylobacteriosis in suckler cowsPlant toxicity in ewesListerial encephalitis in ewes ITALIC! Chorioptes bovis-associated infertility in ramsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  9. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics, alter

  10. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...

  11. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  12. Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C.G.; Huppertz, T.

    2012-01-01

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences i

  13. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a

  14. Focal sampling of cow lying behaviour for automated welfare assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattachini, G.; Riva, E.; Bisaglia, C.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Provolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    the objective of the current study was to determine the number of focal animals required to represent the daily lying behaviour of a herd of lactating dairy cows. the study was carried out at 3 commercial dairy farms. the lying time (h/d) and number of lying bouts (n/d) of 15 ± 3 focal dairy cows,

  15. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw m

  16. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  17. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under ... At the same ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the ..... selected factors on the milk yield, somatic cells content and chemical.

  18. Dairy cow performance on silage from semi-natural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Struik, P.C.; Valk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of including forage from semi-natural grassland in the diet of dairy cows were studied in a feeding trial with cows in mid-lactation. Diets were compared in which part of the silage from intensively managed grassland was replaced with 0% (100IM), 20% (20SPP), 40% (40SPP) or 60% (60SPP)

  19. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure... one portable drive unit available on board the vessel for every three COW machines that use portable... members does not have to meet paragraph (e) of this section if the following areas of each cargo tank...

  20. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  1. Cows and cow-slaughter in India : religious, political and social aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Batra (Swaraj)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIndia is a land of sacred cows. They are abundant in the fields, are present with gods in every temple, figure prominently in Parliament and Assemblies, are the deciding factor in elections, and are the subject of judgement in the highest court of India. The sacredness has attained such

  2. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C. G M; Den Uijl, I. E M; Van Schaik, G.; Olde Riekerink, R. G M; Keurentjes, J. M.; Lam, T. J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This st

  3. Use of endometrial cytology and metabolic profiles for selection of embryo donor cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ismael Fernandez-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of endometrial cytology and metabolic profiles for selection of donor cows in embryo transfer programmes. For this purpose, 69 clinically healthy Holstein cows were enrolled in the study. At the start of the superovulation procedure (Day 0, blood and endometrial samples were obtained to determine metabolic and uterine status, respectively. The cows were then subjected to porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH superovulation treatment, and embryos were recovered after 7 days. The mean number of embryos obtained per flush was 9.89±8.21 (4.63±5.34 viable embryos, 0.82±2.01 degenerated embryos and 4.57±6.44 unfertilized ova. The following statistically significant variables were entered in a regression model: beta-hydroxybutyrate, serum cholesterol, body condition, number of calvings and percentage of neutrophils. In almost all cases, the model explained some percentage of the variance: total number of embryos, 4.8% (p<0.05; number of degenerate embryos, 4.2% (p=0.051; and number of unfertilized ova, 14.2% (p<0.01. Statistical models for the percentage of viable embryos and unfertilized ova accounted for 24.0% and 29.4% of the variance, respectively, and both were statistically significant (p<0.01. The model for the percentage of degenerated embryos was statistically significant (p<0.05 and explained 4.4% of the variance. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that positive energy balance and healthy uterus can improve ovarian response and the proportion of viable embryos in cows. Efficient tools for monitoring the metabolic and uterine status should therefore be used in bovine embryo transfer programmes.

  4. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  5. Small intestinal mucosa IgE plasma cells and specific anti-cow milk IgE in children with cow milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrander, J J; Dellevoet, J J; Arends, J W; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R

    1993-05-01

    In a prospective study we looked for the presence of both IgE plasma cells in small bowel mucosa and specific serum IgE antibodies to cow milk in children suspected of cow milk protein intolerance. Thirty-one children with complaints possibly due to cow milk intolerance were submitted to two consecutive cow milk elimination/challenge tests. The diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance was confirmed in 16 of our 31 patients on the basis of two positive elimination/challenge tests. IgE plasma cells were found in nine of 16 patients with proven cow milk protein intolerance and in only one of the 15 patients without cow milk protein intolerance (p < .01). The RAST for cow milk was positive in six of 16 infants with cow milk protein intolerance and in two of the 15 other infants. Serum IgE level was of no value for the diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance. Neither of these diagnostic procedures was sensitive enough to be used as a screening test for cow milk protein intolerance. Furthermore, the relationship between specific IgE antibodies for cow milk and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells was poor: five of nine infants with cow milk protein intolerance and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells had negative RASTs for cow milk.

  6. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed

  7. The natural history of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Jacobsen, H P; Halken, S

    1995-01-01

    In prospective studies th incidence of cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) in infancy in western industrialized countries has been estimated to be about 2-3% based on strict diagnostic criteria. A significant association between early neonatal exposure to cow's milk formula...... feeding and subsequent development of CMPA/CMPI has been documented. The small amounts of 'foreign' protein in human milk may rather induce tolerance than allergic sensitization. The findings of specific IgE to individual cow's milk proteins in cord blood of the majority of infants who later develop CMPA...... with an early increased IgE response to cow's milk protein have an increased risk of persisting CMPA, development of persistent adverse reactions to other foods and development of allergy against environmental inhalant allergens. Cow's milk protein/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), meaning reproducible adverse reactions...

  8. Reduction of Slaughter Value of Paratuberculosis-Infected Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    ) recordings from 36,455 cows from herds participating in the Danish MAP control program. Carcass weight and meat quality data were obtained from all cows and the effect of stage of MAP infection was assessed by analysis of variance. MAP infection stage was based on repeated milk antibody ELISA in both...... negative cows only had reduced slaughter results if they were ELISA-positive in the last two tests. Losses at slaughter caused by MAP were much more severe than has previously been estimated, and these losses could be predicted by repeated milk-ELISA tests with or without confirmation with fecal culture.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Two datasets were analyzed: 1) recordings from 1,031 cows in herds in a pilot-study to control MAP infections; and 2...

  9. Casein micelles: size distribution in milks from individual cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Huppertz, Thom

    2012-05-09

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive lactations periods. Modal radii varied from 55 to 70 nm, whereas hydrodynamic radii at a scattering angle of 73° (Q² = 350 μm⁻²) varied from 77 to 115 nm and polydispersity varied from 0.27 to 0.41, in a log-normal distribution. Casein micelle size in the milks of individual cows was not correlated with age, milk production, or lactation stage of the cows or fat or protein content of the milk.

  10. Effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and feed intake level on the biotransformation and carry-over of deoxynivalenol in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Egmond, H P van; Schothorst, R C; Jekel, A A; Lebzien, P; Schollenberger, M; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Flachowsky, G

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.09 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg dry matter) at different feed intake levels on the biotransformation and carry-over of DON in dairy cows. For this purpose, 14 ruminal

  11. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  12. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows in north and south regions of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Swapan Chandra; Parvin, Mst Sonia; Rahman, A K M Anisur; Islam, Md Taohidul

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the potential risk factors for subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactating dairy cows in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out on randomly selected 212 smallholder dairy farms of Sadar upazilas of Rangpur, Mymensingh, and Satkhira districts of Bangladesh during January to October 2011. The direct interview using a structured questionnaire and physical examination of the cows were done to collect data on 15 variables. Milk samples collected from study cows were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT). The diagnosis of SCM was based on the results of CMT and physical examination of udder and milk. The bivariable followed by multivariable analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Of the total cows examined, 20.2 % had subclinical mastitis. In bivariable analysis, eight risk factors were identified. However, in the final model of multivariable analysis, four potential risk factors were identified. These were history of previous clinical mastitis (odds ratio (OR) 10.51, pmastitis, which need to be considered in the control of the disease. However, particular emphasis should be given on grass feeding and BCS because these traits can be modified or improved to allow prevention of SCM.

  14. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after......That methane emission from dairy cows is affected by concentrate to forage ratio is well known, whereas the effect of the quality of grass-clover silage is not well described. Besides this the purpose of the present study also was to test our new facilities for measuring methane emission from dairy...... cows and the working routines. Twenty-four Holstein cows were allocated to eight different treatments and blocked according to parity. Treatments were in a 2x4 design, 2 concentrate to forage ratios and four different grass-clover silages. The grass-clover silages (A, B, C, D) were produced during...

  15. Cow dung extract: a medium for the growth of pseudomonads enhancing their efficiency as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Aragno, Michel; Sharma, A K

    2010-09-01

    Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like King's B and used for inoculation on seeds/soil drench with talcum or charcoal as carrier material. Cow dung is being used for different purposes from the ancient time and has a significant role in crop growth because of the content in humic compounds and fertilizing bioelements available in it. Here, cow dung extract was tested as a growth medium for strains LHRE62 and HHRE81, in comparison with growth in King's B medium. The log phase was delayed by 2 h as compared to growth in King's B medium. The bacterial growth yield, lower in plain cow dung extract as compared to King's B medium, was improved upon addition of different carbon substrates. Growth of rice var. Pant Dhan 4 in pot cultures was increased using liquid formulation of cow dung extract and bacteria as foliar spray, compared to their respective controls. Biocontrol efficacy of the bioagents was assessed by challenging rice crop with Rhizoctonia solani, a sheath blight pathogen. The growth promotion and biocontrol efficiencies were more pronounced in the case of mixed inocula of strains LHRE62 and HHRE81.

  16. The effects of calving to first service interval on reproductive performance in normal cows and cows with postpartal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R

    1983-11-01

    The relationships between the calving to first service interval and several measures of reproductive performance were evaluated in 1738 lactation records from cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Lactation records were divided into three mutually exclusive health categories based on the cows' postpartal disease histories.Relationships between the calving to first service interval and the first service conception rate, number of services per conception and open interval were similar for all three health categories. The first service conception rate was lower and the average number of services per conception higher in cows first bred before 60 days when compared to cows first bred after 60 days. The relationship between the calving to first service interval and the open interval indicated that for each day that breeding was delayed the open interval was extended by 0.86 days.It appeared that overall conception rates may be lower for cows first bred very early or very late, but differences in the overall conception rate were only significant for cows experiencing a reproductive tract infection. Unless very expensive semen is being used, it is suggested that disease free cows be bred at the first heat occurring after 40 days postpartum, and that cows experiencing postpartal disease be bred at the first heat occurring after 60 days postpartum.

  17. Interlaboratory evaluation of a cow's milk allergy mouse model to assess the allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, B.C.A.M. van; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Jeurink, P.V.; Garssen, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes two phases of a multi-phase project aiming to validate a mouse model for cow's milk allergy to assess the potential allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas (claim support EC-directive 2006/141/E). The transferability and the discriminatory power of this mode

  18. Sensor data on cow activity, rumination, and ear temperature improve prediction of the start of calving in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Kamphuis, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Steeneveld, W.

    2017-01-01

    Management during calving is important for the health and survival of dairy cows and their calves. Although the expected calving date is known, this information is imprecise and farmers still have to check a cow regularly to identify when it starts calving. A sensor system that predicts the momen

  19. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  20. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying-balance...

  1. A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behaviour, health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, C.J.C.; Beerda, B.; Knierim, U.; Waiblinger, S.; Lidfors, L.; Krohn, C.C.; Canali, E.; Valk, H.; Veissier, I.; Hopster, H.

    2013-01-01

    Housing dairy cows offers the possibility to control many aspects of their lives, including accurate rationing, which is especially important for high yielding cows, and rapid health care. In addition, some parasitic diseases are largely controlled by removing cows from pasture. However, housing cow

  2. The purpose of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-10-06

    A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms.

  3. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  4. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  5. Commuting Dual Toeplitz Operators on the Polydisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Feng LU; Shu Xia SHANG

    2007-01-01

    On the polydisk, the commutativity of dual Toeplitz operators is studied. We obtain characterizations of commuting dual Toeplitz operators, essentially commuting dual Toeplitz operators and essentially semi-commuting dual Toeplitz operators.

  6. Evaluation of the California mastitis test to detect an intramammary infection with a major pathogen in early lactation dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dingwell, Randy T.; Leslie, Ken E.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Leo L Timms

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the California mastitis test (CMT) to detect an intramammary infection caused by a major mastitis pathogen in early lactation cows. The gold standard used for comparison was bacteriological culture of single milk samples. The sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (80.6%) of a positive CMT were highest on the 4th day of lactation.

  7. "How to" incorporate dual-energy imaging into a high volume abdominal imaging practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric P; Le, Ott; Liu, Xinming; Layman, Rick R; Cody, Dianna D; Bhosale, Priya R

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy CT imaging has many potential uses in abdominal imaging. It also has unique requirements for protocol creation depending on the dual-energy scanning technique that is being utilized. It also generates several new types of images which can increase the complexity of image creation and image interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review, for rapid switching and dual-source dual-energy platforms, methods for creating dual-energy protocols, different approaches for efficiently creating dual-energy images, and an approach to navigating and using dual-energy images at the reading station all using the example of a pancreatic multiphasic protocol. It will also review the three most commonly used types of dual-energy images: "workhorse" 120kVp surrogate images (including blended polychromatic and 70 keV monochromatic), high contrast images (e.g., low energy monochromatic and iodine material decomposition images), and virtual unenhanced images. Recent developments, such as the ability to create automatically on the scanner the most common dual-energy images types, namely new "Mono+" images for the DSDECT (dual-source dual-energy CT) platform will also be addressed. Finally, an approach to image interpretation using automated "hanging protocols" will also be covered. Successful dual-energy implementation in a high volume practice requires careful attention to each of these steps of scanning, image creation, and image interpretation.

  8. Dual diagnosis among physicians: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Lusilla, Pilar; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Nasillo, Viviana; Díaz, Albert; Valero, Sergi; Padrós, Jaume; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence of mental disorders and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) among doctors is a cause of serious concern due to its negative personal, professional, and social consequences. This work provides an overview of the prevalence of dual diagnosis among physicians, suggests a clinical etiological model to explain the development of dual diagnosis in doctors, and recommends some treatment strategies specifically for doctors. The most common presentation of dual diagnosis among doctors is the combination of alcohol use disorders and affective disorders. There are also high rates of self-medication with benzodiazepines, legal opiates, and amphetamines compared to the general population, and cannabis use disorders are increasing, mainly in young doctors. The prevalence of nicotine dependence varies from one country to another depending on the nature of public health policies. Emergency medicine physicians, psychiatrists, and anaesthesiologists are at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder compared with other doctors, perhaps because of their knowledge of and access to certain legal drugs. Two main pathways may lead doctors toward dual diagnosis: (a) the use of substances (often alcohol or self-prescribed drugs) as an unhealthy strategy to cope with their emotional or mental distress and (b) the use of substances for recreational or other purposes. In both cases, doctors tend to delay seeking help once a problem has been established, often for many years. Denial, minimization, and rationalization are common defense mechanisms, maybe because of the social stigma associated with mental or substance use disorders, the risk of losing employment/medical license, and a professional culture of perfectionism and denial of emotional needs or failures. Personal vulnerability interacts with these factors to increase the risk of a dual diagnosis developing in some individuals. When doctors with substance use disorders accept treatment in programs

  9. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...... in a merger situation? What is actually happening when two enterprises originate an SPV? And what distinguishes an SPV from a joint venture, or is it the same thing?...

  10. Isolation and identification of yeasts in milk samples from cows' mammary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Jaki; Darko Majnarić; Jadranka Jurmanović; Željka Bažulić

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate fungi from the milk of cow udder quarters with clinical mastitis. The samples were delivered in Veterinary laboratory in Križevci during a routine mastitis diagnostics. Milk samples were cultured on Columbia agar (Merck, KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany) with 5 % ovine blood, Sabouraud 4 % maltose agar (Merck, KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany) and Rice extract agar (Merck, KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany). The final diagnosis was established regarding to the results of the A...

  11. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  12. RELATIONS BETWEEN SELECTED INDICATORS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF DAIRY COWS WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor the relations between selected indicators of technological properties of milk and blood biochemical parameters of dairy cows with metabolic disorders. Thirty-two cows were chosen, which were divided into 3 groups: first group - cows with metabolic problems of acidosis, second group - cows with metabolic problems of alkalosis, third group - healthy cows. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected. Urea, total lipids, total proteins, glucose and calcium was...

  13. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels.

  14. Follow up study of cow's milk protein intolerant infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrander, J J; Oudsen, S; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R H

    1992-10-01

    Over a period of 4 years, 88 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI) were followed prospectively in order to evaluate the persistence of CMPI and its relationship between either serum IgE levels or RAST results for cow's milk. After exclusion of lactose intolerance, two positive cow's milk elimination challenge tests were considered diagnostic for CMPI. At the age of 1, 2, 3 and 4 years respectively, 85%, 78%, 49% and 33% of the children still were cow's milk intolerant. Initial serum values of IgE greater than or equal to 10 kU/l indicated a late development of tolerance to cow's milk proteins. At the age of 4 years, 90% of infants with initial IgE levels less than 10 kU/l had become tolerant to cow's milk while this was the case for only 47% of infants with initial IgE levels greater than or equal to 10 kU/l. Initial RAST results for cow's milk bore no obvious relationship to outcome.

  15. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2006-08-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  16. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. [Children who are allergic to cow's milk. Nutritional treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Dones, M José; Cruz Martín, Rosa M; Moreno González, Cristina; Oya Luis, Isabel; Martin Rodríguez, María

    2008-09-01

    An allergy or intolerance to cow's milk protein (APLV-IPLV) is the most frequent food allergy among early childhood in our environment, related to genetic and environmental factors. This allergy tends to appear during the first few months of life, after the introduction of cow's milk protein in a child's diet and it manifests itself with symptoms which depend on foreign matter being introduced (immunological or otherwise). A diagnosis is made by means of the patient's case history and is completed by laboratory tests. Treatment consists of excluding cow's milk protein from the child's diet. Formulas derived from cow's milk are substituted by a hydrolyzed formula or one based on soybean. The prognosis is good: patients respond to this diet which does not include cow's milk protein and the majority of patients succeed in forming tolerance for cow's milk protein. A nurse's role is fundamental in educating parents and later on the child in order to achieve following a diet which completely eliminates cow's milk protein (PLV).

  18. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  19. Efficiency of calf production of cows from two genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of weight, age and production efficiency of cows from genetic groups based on the calf weight at calving and at weaning. For a period of five years, data of 120 cows (60 Angus-Nellore (AN and 60 Simmental-Nellore (SN at four to nine-years of age were evaluated. All cows were maintained on Brachiaria decumbens pastures, with two forage availability levels (high and low, distributed in a randomized-block design. The cows were placed together with Canchim bulls to generate the crossbred calves. A supplement, consisting of 200 g/kg crude protein and 820 g/kg of total digestible nutrients, was provided to the calves in creep feeding until 210 days-old (weaning. Supplement had a significant effect on the weight of the cow at calving and weaning. The average weights of the Angus-Nellore cows were 529.19 and 514.23 kg at calving and on the weaning day, respectively. These values were higher for Simmental-Nellore cows, which presented 569.60 and 542.59 kg, respectively. The male-calf weight at weaning was 254.69 kg, which was higher than the females (237.70 kg. Genetic group had no effect on weaning weight. The average weight for Canchim × Angus-Nellore calves was 243.41 kg and for Canchim × Simmental-Nellore it was 248.98 kg. Cow age affected weaning weight, promoting a linear increase of 0.804 kg in the weaning weight each year. Younger and smaller cows (Angus-Nellore are more efficient for calf production.

  20. Presence of adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, ghrelins and salusins peptides in the milk, cheese whey and plasma of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2013-05-01

    Biological fluids (milk and serum/plasma) and cheese whey milk-derived fluid contain numerous molecules, especially amino acids and proteins. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out whether cheese whey (n:6), cow milk (n:6) and its blood (n=6) have adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, ghrelins and salusin peptides. Adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12 concentrations were measured by ELISA, whereas ghrelin and salusin concentrations were measured by EIA methods. It was found that adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, des-acylated ghrelin and salusins in cheese whey were higher than in the corresponding milk peptides and plasma of dairy cows, with the exception of salusin alpha and acylated ghrelin in milk being the same than that of the corresponding cheese whey concentration and plasma of dairy cows. A correlation was also found between milk peptides and cheese whey, as also with plasma of dairy cows. The data suggest that peptides in cow milk might be an important and nutritious food for (neonatal) calves and human diet due to their biological and physiological properties.

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow are able to infect tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Luo, Fu-Guang; Huang, Yan; Liang, Wan-Wen; Huang, Ting; Lei, Ai-Ying; Gan, Xi; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-10-22

    Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001 and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions.

  2. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  3. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  4. General purpose MDE tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available MDE paradigm promises to release developers from writing code. The basis of this paradigm consists in working at such a level of abstraction that will make it easyer for analysts to detail the project to be undertaken. Using the model described by analysts, software tools will do the rest of the task, generating software that will comply with customer's defined requirements. The purpose of this study is to compare general purpose tools available right now that enable to put in practice the principles of this paradigm and aimed at generating a wide variety of applications composed by interactive multimedia and artificial intelligence components.

  5. Philosophical aspects of dual use technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovit, Svitlana V; Williams, Erin D

    2010-03-01

    The term dual use technologies refers to research and technology with the potential both to yield valuable scientific knowledge and to be used for nefarious purposes with serious consequences for public health or the environment. There are two main approaches to assessing dual use technologies: pragmatic and metaphysical. A pragmatic approach relies on ethical principles and norms to generate specific guidance and policy for dual use technologies. A metaphysical approach exhorts us to the deeper study of human nature, our intentions, goals, values ideals and social relations when considering dual use technology. Use of science and technology (S and T) is determined by two components of human nature: human intentions and choices. We have drawn a distinction between specific measures, goals and intentions with respect to technologies in order to show that moral judgment about technologies must precede their use. Understanding of our intentionality and values, and our moral ideals, as a measurable, tangible part of the real world is important for the prevention of any possible harm from S and T. In the context of dual use technologies, we stress the importance of three main understandings of human nature: vulnerability, responsibility and narrative identity. These can become a strong ontological "antidote" to technology's poisoning of modern man. Each new technology can be measured and compared with man's values, traditions and societal norms. This can be done bearing in mind the concept that human nature is not dualistic, but pluralistic. A system of ethical principles that includes the principles of good intentions, the correspondence of goals and means, the balancing of risks and benefits, simplicity, and contextuality, will help ensure that technologies are more humanistic and friendly to human beings.

  6. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. [corrected]. Outcomes evaluated for all farms included time from SCK until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L [corrected] or until BHBA test ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Individual milk weights for the first 30 d of lactation were evaluated for the 3 farms monitoring daily milk. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate time to event outcomes; repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess milk weights. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. [corrected]. Of these, 372 were assigned to the treatment group and 369 to the control group. Based on hazard ratios, PG-treated cows were 1.50 times more likely (95% confidence interval=1.26 to 1.79) to resolve their SCK and 0.54 times less likely (95% confidence interval=0.34 to 0.86) to develop clinical ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in

  7. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on displaced abomasum, removal from herd, and reproduction in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Measured outcomes were development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 d in milk (DIM), conception to first service, and time to conception within 150 DIM. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Cows with SCK were randomized to treatment group (oral PG) or untreated control group (no PG); treatment cows were orally drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. Mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of PG on DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service; a semiparametric proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the days-to-conception outcome. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least 1 β-hydroxybutyrate test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Of these, 372 were assigned to the PG treatment group and 369 to the control group. Thirty-nine cows (5.3%) developed a DA after testing positive for SCK and 30 cows (4.0%) died or were sold within the first 30 DIM. Based on risk ratios, control cows were 1.6 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3 to 2.0] to develop a DA and 2.1 times more likely (95% CI=1.2 to 3.6) to die or be sold than cows treated with PG. In addition, PG-treated cows were 1.3 times more likely (risk ratio 95% CI=1.1 to 1.5) to conceive at first insemination than control cows in 3 of the herds. No difference was observed in days to conception within 150 DIM between treatment groups (hazard ratio for PG cows=1.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 1.4), with a median time to

  8. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  9. Histopathology of dairy cows' hooves with signs of naturally acquired laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa M.F. Mendes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate histological changes in dairy cows' hooves with or without injuries from naturally acquired laminitis. Cull cows with no clinical signs of hoof abnormalities (G1, n=9 and those with macroscopic lesions associated with laminitis without (G2, n=23 or with lameness (G3, n=7 were used in the study. After slaughter, samples of dermo-epidermal junctions of sole, axial and dorsal regions of the hoof were obtained and histologically processed using HE and PAS staining. Congestion, hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of sole, axial and dorsal regions were blindly and semiquantitatively evaluated by the same researcher. Inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated in the dermal laminae of axial and dorsal regions. The morphology of epidermal cells and the presence of irregularities in three regions of the basement membrane (BM length were examined using PAS staining. Scores of lesions in different regions of the hoof in the same group and in different groups for each region of the hoof were compared using non-parametric analyses. Inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of all regions of the hoof was detected in all groups with no significant statistical difference. Cows with no clinical signs of hoof abnormalities secondary to laminitis (G1 have inflammation scores and epidermal cell changes similar to those of groups with laminitis injuries, suggesting the existence of a prodromal phase for this disease in bovines. BM had irregularities with a variable intensity along its length, however, with no difference among groups. The pattern of BM irregularities found has not been reported so far and does not resemble the BM collapse described in horses and cattle with induced acute laminitis. Is it concluded that even in the absence of macroscopic hoof signs associated to laminitis, dairy cows have histological injuries compatible with inflammation of the dermo-epidermal junction as in affected animals

  10. Dual station visualization measuring method of LRCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Cao, Guohuaa; Lv, Qiongyinga; Zhang, Xina

    2016-10-01

    Based on the physical meaning of the laser radar scattering cross section (LRCS), When the target is the standard target or the extension target, the LRCS analytical expressions and numerical expression are deduced. Based on the LRCS expression, Proposed a dual station visualization comparison measurement method, the purpose is to use a known radar cross section of the standard target, by the power detector, and CCD images obtained gray value, calculated the target's radar cross section. In the paper, we designed the optical emission system and the optical receiving system, then detected target backscatter light power, Sampled the target image, Using MATLAB calculate the power density ratio of test objectives and reference target., compared the measured data with the empirical data, verify the feasibility of the dual station visualization comparison measurement method.

  11. Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor air temperature on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and air temperature. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied daily at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, temperature seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the daily indoor air temperature ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the daily activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor air temperature ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. Daily CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while daily NH 3 emissions increased

  12. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  13. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  14. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  15. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  16. Meaningful and Purposeful Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a graphic, designed by Clementi and Terrill, the authors of "Keys to Planning for Learning" (2013), visually representing the components that contribute to meaningful and purposeful practice in learning a world language, practice that leads to greater proficiency. The entire graphic is centered around the letter…

  17. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds.

  18. DUAL TRAINING IN RUSSIA: FROM THE CONCEPT TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Listvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to judge and justify the conditions of system elements application of dual training at implementation of programs of professional education for increase of efficiency of functioning and quality of preparation of qualified personnel by institutions of the secondary professional education (SPE. Methods. The methods used in work involve the comparative analysis of practice of application of dual training in system of professional education of Germany and regions of Russia for the purpose of identification of the existing problems and definition of optimum organizational and legal and didactic conditions. Results. The essence of system of dual training, its strong and weaknesses reveals. Necessary and indispensable conditions of application of dual training in modern regional systems of professional education are proved. Scientific novelty. According to the author, modern publications on problems and ways of development of professional education in Russia contain enough antinomy of standard and legal and organizational and administrative character. In particular, operating by the concept «dual education», an identification of the practice-focused and dual training introduction «the list 50 of the most demanded in labor market, the new and perspective professions that demand secondary professional education» as opposed to the existing list of professions and the constitutional guarantee of public and free secondary professional education. Standard and legal, and didactic conditions of application of elements of dual training in regional systems of professional education are proved theoretically. Practical significance. Implementation of the research outcomes can be useful to pedagogical staff of institutions of secondary professional education, representatives of employers and Chambers of Commerce and Industry to the organization and use of system of dual training in training of skilled workers (serving

  19. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  20. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to un- derstand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\\sigma}/E $\\approx$ 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.

  1. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  2. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  3. Dual Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  4. Dual-comb MIXSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S. M.; Zaugg, C. A.; Klenner, A.; Mangold, M.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2015-03-01

    We present a single semiconductor disk laser simultaneously emitting two different gigahertz modelocked pulse trains. A birefringent crystal inside a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface-emitting laser (MIXSEL) separates the cavity beam into two spatially separated beams with perpendicular polarizations on the MIXSEL chip. This MIXSEL then generates two orthogonally polarized collinear modelocked pulse trains from one simple straight cavity. Superimposing the beams on a photo detector creates a microwave beat signal, representing a strikingly simple setup to down-convert the terahertz optical frequencies into the electronically accessible microwave regime. This makes the dual-comb MIXSEL scheme an ultra-compact and cost-efficient candidate for dual-comb spectroscopy applications.

  5. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  6. Interinstitutional Collaboration Practices between Virginia Community Colleges and High Schools Involved in Dual Enrollment Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradona, Sally Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build on the previous work of articulation practices of Virginia's public school divisions and community colleges participating in dual enrollment partnerships, and to understand the role of the community college in initiating, developing, and implementing dual enrollment programs. The primary focus involved…

  7. Accelerating Pathways to College: The (In)Equitable Effects of Community College Dual Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of high school students taking college courses (e.g., dual credit) is increasing and state and local policies are expanding, yet little is known about the effect of dual credit policies on key educational outcomes, including the effects for low-income students and students of color. The purpose of this study was to…

  8. Validation of a New Skinfold Prediction Equation Based on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Cowan, Celsi; Thyfault, John; LaFontaine, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Skinfold prediction equations recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine underestimate body fat percentage. The purpose of this research was to validate an alternative equation for men created from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Two hundred ninety-seven males, aged 18-65, completed a skinfold assessment and dual energy x-ray…

  9. Diagnosed Prevalence and Health Care Expenditures of Mental Health Disorders among Dual Eligible Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Terry Y.; Parashuram, Shriram; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Wysocki, Andrea; Shippee, Nathan D.; Homyak, Patricia; Kane, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about mental health disorders (MHDs) and their associated health care expenditures for the dual eligible elders across long-term care (LTC) settings. We estimated the 12-month diagnosed prevalence of MHDs among dual eligible older adults in LTC and non-LTC settings and calculated the average incremental effect of MHDs on…

  10. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; P. Genova; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.(INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia, Italy)

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to understand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in n...

  11. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  12. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( Angus cows and lower ( Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to 28.6 ± 9.4 kg for cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive ability of Romosinuano in temperate fescue regions may be favorable with respect to relative cow and calf weight but may be a consequence of

  13. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  14. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  15. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... sorghum, cotton, vegetables among others), livestock (cattle, goats, swine, and ...... HM (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals ... fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds.

  16. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conditions of highland, mid altitude and lowland AEZ using Friesian Jersey and ... Cows were inseminated using pure Holstein from NAIC (Kaliti) and WWS .... condition and clinical and sub clinical mastitis are among the factors that could ...

  17. Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs...... as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milk samples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations...... quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis....

  18. PRODUCTION OF BIOG S FROM COW DUNG, WEEDS ND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-26

    May 26, 2017 ... the anaerobic fermentation of weeds and domestic waste; to determine the ratios of cow ... production; to determine the burning characteristic of the gas produced and to determine ... as newspapers, filter, paper, banana skins,.

  19. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ... Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in West and ... food production (Kamara and Sanginga, 2001). Of.

  20. Value of Milk from Human, Cow and Goat.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral content and apparent biological value (ABV) of milk from Human (Tl), White 1 ulani (Btinaji) cow (T2) ... was to investigate the biological value ... in 5% hydrochloric acid was added to .... Selenium conteur and distribution of human,.

  1. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...... before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore...

  2. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk.

  3. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  4. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niskanen Rauni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated. Methods To detect antibodies two commercially available kits were used. Moreover, 107 specimens, including vaginal swabs, organ tissues and milk were analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results Two (0.4% cows were seropositive in the Pourquier Cp. abortus ELISA. The seroprevalence with the Chekit ELISA was 28% with no difference between cases and controls. Five specimens were positive in real-time PCR and further analysed by nested PCR. Cp. pecorum was confirmed by partial omp1 DNA sequencing of the nested PCR product of vaginal swabs from control cows. Conclusion The results suggest that Cp. abortus infection is absent or rare in Swedish cows whereas Cp. pecorum is probably more spread. They also suggest that Chlamydophila spp. are not related to reproduction disorders in Swedish cattle.

  5. Comparison of Bone Resorption Markers During Hypocalcemia in Dairy Cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liesegang, A; Sassi, M.-L; Risteli, J; Eicher, R; Wanner, M; Riond, J.-L

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, or the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen could be used as markers to provide evidence of bone resorption during hypocalcemia of dairy cows...

  6. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  7. Metastatic mammary carcinoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Marchezan Piva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mammary gland neoplasms in cattle are rarely observed in the field veterinary diagnostics routine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report a metastatic mammary carcinoma in a fourteen-year-old Holstein cow in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animal was diagnosed by the field veterinarian with clinical mastitis that was unresponsive to treatment, and was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At the necropsy, multiple yellow, firm, and sometimes friable nodules, ranging from 0.1 to 20cm were observed in all mammary glands, lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, liver, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes, heart, and lungs. The final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma was established through the association of clinical, necropsy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Differential diagnoses included diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic fungal or bacterial mastitis.

  8. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...... going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward......Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...

  9. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  10. The purpose of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Cristancho Altuzarra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital to ask what to teach in philosophy and how, but to address this question, we must first determine with what purpose to do it, but above all, to know what isthe purpose of philosophy. Perhaps by determining the essential basis it would be clearer to answer the question of teaching and learning, even more, all this will help to clarify the mission of the philosophy and the philosopher today. To resolve this ponder is a philosophical reflection on traditional academic practices. Then, from some authors, it is made a dissertation on what is philosophy, to deduce in which aspects of the current academic practices is present or distant the philosophy. Finally we propose some perspectives to extend the philosophy and teaching of philosophy.

  11. Vitalism, purpose and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke

    2007-02-01

    Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.

  12. Nutritional status of high yielding crossbred cow around parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methods: Nutritional status of cows around the peri-parturient period was investigated for six months in dairy farm. Seven to eight months' pregnant cows were selected for this study. Blood samples from 24 randomly selected cows were collected at stage-1, -2 and -3. The serum was stored at -20C until analyzing glucose, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, triglycerides (Tg, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and phosphorus (P. Results: An increasing trend of glucose level was evidenced (P=0.07 during stage-1. Instead, higher levels of TP were found during stage-3 as compared to the stage-1 and -2. The Alb levels differed significantly (P<0.01 among different stages. A significantly increased (P<0.01 cholesterol, Tg, and HDL were found after parturition (stage-2 and -3 than before parturition (stage-1. LDL was significantly (P=0.02 increased during stage-2 and -3. A significantly higher level of Ca (P<0.01, Mg (P<0.01 and P (P=0.03 were present during stage-1. Glucose, TP, cholesterol and Tg were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cows two months after parturition, while Alb was found to be the highest (P<0.01 in cows immediately after parturition. An increasing trend of LDL (P=0.07 and HDL (P=0.07 were found in the cows two months after parturition. However, Ca levels were significantly (P=0.04 higher in cows two months after parturition. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is alteration of biochemical levels among the study population at three different stages, and these data may be helpful in using the necessary nutrients to the the high yielding cows around their parturition. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 68-74

  13. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...

  14. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  15. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  16. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Calzone Luigi; Baldi Francesco; Bendandi Barbara; Caffarelli Carlo; Marani Miris; Pasquinelli Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups...

  17. Welfare assessment for dairy cows in loose stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, welfare assessment using the methodology of the Welfare quality ® assessment protocol for cattle (2009 was performed for dairy cows maintained in the loose system of rearing on three dairy farms. This methodology includes quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluation of certain welfare parameters, criteria and principles of welfare, as well as assessment of the overall welfare of dairy cows. The results showed that the overall level of dairy cow welfare was acceptable on two farms, and was good on one. On two farms, the state of the cows’ social behavior expression was unacceptable. Furthermore, on all three farms, the expression of other types of cow behavior was not acceptable. At one farm, it was determined that the result for the absence of prolonged thirst was unacceptable. Based on these results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of cow welfare on these farms. The applied methodology provides a multidimensional insight into the quality of cow welfare in the loose system.

  18. Dual Management of Real-Time and Interactive Jobs in Smartphones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LEE, Eunji; KIM, Youngsun; BAHN, Hyokyung

    2014-01-01

    .... To this end, high performance NVRAM is adopted as storage of real-time applications, and a dual purpose CPU scheduler, in which one core is exclusively used for real-time applications, is proposed...

  19. Student Attitudes toward Biliteracy in a Dual Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerena, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess students' attitudes toward several aspects of biliteracy within the context of a dual immersion program. Attitudes toward perceived competencies in reading in two languages, along with the social and personal values of literacy in each language (English and Spanish), and the personal and social value of…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool…

  1. Duals for classical inventory models via generalized geometric programming

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton H. Scott; Thomas R. Jefferson; Soheila Jorjani

    2004-01-01

    Inventory problems generally have a structure that can be exploited for computational purposes. Here, we look at the duals of two seemingly unrelated inventory models that suggest an interesting duality between discrete time optimal control and optimization over an ordered sequence of variables. Concepts from conjugate duality and generalized geometric programming are used to establish the duality.

  2. Dual Sensory Loss and Its Impact on Everyday Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Su, Ya-ping

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation of dual and single sensory impairments, within the context of cognitive function, by using the framework of everyday competence in terms of the probability of difficulty with specific personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively). Design and Methods: The Longitudinal…

  3. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  4. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  5. Possibilities for preventing fatty liver in cows during peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine possibilities for preventing fatty liver in cows during the peripartal period using the preparation HEPARENOL which includes methionine, lysine and choline in its composition. Investigations were performed on cattle of the Holstein breed whose average production during their last lactation was 8120 liters. The cows included in the experiment were divided into three groups of 10 cows each. Cows of the first group were administered the preparation HEPARENOL perorally 5-7 days before partus in daily doses of 50 ml per animal, and then daily during the first seven days after parturition in daily doses of 100 ml per animal. The second group of cows were administered the preparation in the same way as the first group, but they also received vitamin C injected deep i.m. in doses of 1000 mg per animal per day. The third group of cows were not exposed to any treatment and served as the control group. The body condition of the cows was marked according to the system Elanco Animal Health Bulletin Al 8478. Blood samples were taken by puncture of the jugular vein before the beginning of treatment, and on the third and 12th days after partus. The glucose concentration was determined in the blood samples. On the 12th day after partus, liver tissue samples were taken by biopsy for pathohistological examinations. Since the cows were fed in the same way and were in the same phase of the production-reproduction cycle, the average score of the body condition before treatment was approximately the same. However, on the 3rd day after partus, cows of the second experimental group showed average values that were significantly lower in comparison with the other two groups of cows. It is very interesting that a significantly lower value of glycemia (x=1.93±0.34 mmol/l was established in the same group of cows at this time. In cows of the first experimental and the control group, glycemia was approximately the same

  6. Alexander Duals of Multipermutohedron Ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajay Kumar; Chanchal Kumar

    2014-02-01

    An Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal has many combinatorial properties. The standard monomials of an Artinian quotient of such a dual correspond bijectively to some -parking functions, and many interesting properties of these Artinian quotients are obtained by Postnikov and Shapiro (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 356 (2004) 3109–3142). Using the multigraded Hilbert series of an Artinian quotient of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals, we obtained a simple proof of Steck determinant formula for enumeration of -parking functions. A combinatorial formula for all the multigraded Betti numbers of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals are also obtained.

  7. Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     the Planet safety and security. In this frame, the concept of dual use - the set of technologies and applications that can be exploied for both civil and military purposes - becomes a key-topic. In addition, the aerospace is a strategic building block in the deployment of a network centric environment......Events which occurred over the past years have shown how the threat related to both intentional and natural disasters could bring the civil and the miliary worlds closer in the conception and deployment of countermeasures, as well as in the identification of effective strategies for enhancing...

  8. Immunodiagnostic identification of dairy cows infected with Prototheca zopfii at various clinical stages and discrimination between infected and uninfected cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, U; Scholz, H; Hensel, A

    2001-02-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in cattle that is caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. So far, no suitable serological test for the identification of infected animals is available for routine diagnosis. In this study an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of infected cows and for discriminating among infected cows at various clinical stages was developed. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and IgA and IgG1 in whey were used as antibody isotypes. The ELISA was evaluated using serum and whey from animals at different clinical stages of infection. A total of 12 cows with acute clinical manifestation of protothecal mastitis, 22 cows with clinical signs of chronic mastitis, 40 Prototheca zopfii-negative cows, and 18 cows with chronic clinical signs and earlier cultures positive for P. zopfii but with presently negative culturing results were investigated. A sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 94% were calculated for the ELISA based on IgA levels. Intra-assay and interassay variations were calculated to be 6.08 and 6.32%, respectively. Based on these data, this ELISA was found to be suitable for discrimination between infected and uninfected animals and might therefore be useful for screening affected herds.

  9. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Nuffel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its detrimental effect on cow welfare, health and production, lameness in dairy cows has received quite a lot of attention in the last few decades—not only in terms of prevention and treatment of lameness but also in terms of detection, as early treatment might decrease the number of severely lame cows in the herds as well as decrease the direct and indirect costs associated with lameness cases. Generally, lame cows are detected by the herdsman, hoof trimmer or veterinarian based on abnormal locomotion, abnormal behavior or the presence of hoof lesions during routine trimming. In the scientific literature, several guidelines are proposed to detect lame cows based on visual interpretation of the locomotion of individual cows (i.e., locomotion scoring systems. Researchers and the industry have focused on automating such observations to support the farmer in finding the lame cows in their herds, but until now, such automated systems have rarely been used in commercial herds. This review starts with the description of normal locomotion of cows in order to define ‘abnormal’ locomotion caused by lameness. Cow locomotion (gait and posture and behavioral features that change when a cow becomes lame are described and linked to the existing visual scoring systems. In addition, the lack of information of normal cow gait and a clear description of ‘abnormal’ gait are discussed. Finally, the different set-ups used during locomotion scoring and their influence on the resulting locomotion scores are evaluated.

  10. Dual massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, Kevin, E-mail: Kevin.Morand@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-08-29

    The linearized massive gravity in three dimensions, over any maximally symmetric background, is known to be presented in a self-dual form as a first order equation which encodes not only the massive Klein-Gordon type field equation but also the supplementary transverse-traceless conditions. We generalize this construction to higher dimensions. The appropriate dual description in d dimensions, additionally to a (non-symmetric) tensor field h{sub {mu}{nu}}, involves an extra rank-(d-1) field equivalently represented by the torsion rank-3 tensor. The symmetry condition for h{sub {mu}{nu}} arises on-shell as a consequence of the field equations. The action principle of the dual theory is formulated. The focus has been made on four dimensions. Solving one of the fields in terms of the other and putting back in the action one obtains two other equivalent formulations of the theory in which the action is quadratic in derivatives. In one of these representations the theory is formulated entirely in terms of a rank-2 non-symmetric tensor h{sub {mu}{nu}}. This quadratic theory is not identical to the Fierz-Pauli theory and contains the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of h{sub {mu}{nu}}. Nevertheless, the only singularity in the propagator is the same as in the Fierz-Pauli theory so that only the massive spin-2 particle is propagating. In the other representation, the theory is formulated in terms of the torsion rank-3 tensor only. We analyze the conditions which follow from the field equations and show that they restrict to 5 degrees of freedom thus producing an alternative description to the massive spin-2 particle. A generalization to higher dimensions is suggested.

  11. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    countries acknowledged as forerunners in gender equality, which also have ‘fairly strong’ parliamentary standing committees. The results show that both committees on gender equality can be regarded as ‘feminist’ in character and both interact with relevant civil society organisations. Their impact......Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...

  12. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  13. Prevalence of Victimization in Patients With Dual Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Marleen Maria; Dekker, Jacobus Johannes Maria; Goudriaan, Anna Emma

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of victimization in patients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) and compare them to the general population. In this cross-sectional survey study conducted in the Netherlands, 9 different types of victimization (e.g., physical assault) were assessed with the Safety Monitor in patients with dual diagnosis (n = 243) and a sample of the general population (n = 10,865). Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with a weighted sample of the general population. Compared to the general population, patients with dual diagnosis were more likely to have been a victim of violence (60% vs. 11%), property crime (58% vs. 30%), and vandalism (21% vs. 14%) in the year preceding the assessment. Threats, sexual assault, physical assault, robbery, bicycle theft, other theft, and vandalism were more prevalent in patients with dual diagnosis compared to the general population. Car theft was more prevalent in the general population. The risk of burglary did not differ significantly between groups. Patients with dual diagnosis are highly prone to victimization. In patients with severe mental illness, victimization is associated with psychopathology, substance use, homelessness, and engagement in criminal activity. Future research is necessary to explore underlying mechanisms in patients with dual diagnosis and develop interventions to reduce their vulnerability for victimization.

  14. Thoracic applications of dual-source CT technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroto, Kahimano; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Flohr, Thomas; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Pansini, Vittorio; Tacelli, Nunzia; Schmidt, Bernhard; Gorgos, Andrei; Remy, Jacques

    2008-12-01

    Among the various imaging modalities available, CT has remained over time the core imaging technique for the evaluation of respiratory disorders. The recent advent of dual-source CT offers innovative approaches to investigate thoracic diseases, based on the use of one or two tubes as well as single or dual energy to scan the entire thorax. Two major options can be used in clinical practice with promising results. Dual source, single-energy scanning allows scanning of the entire thorax with ultra-high temporal resolution which opens the field of integrated cardiothoracic imaging without ECG gating as well as optimized evaluation of pediatric and adult patients with limited ability to cooperate. Dual-source, dual-energy acquisitions represent another very innovative means of investigating respiratory disorders, adding tissue characterization and functional analysis to morphological evaluation. The purpose of this review article is to provide results on preliminary experiences with the above-mentioned scanning conditions with dual-source CT and to envisage potential forthcoming applications in the field of thoracic imaging.

  15. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  16. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  18. Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163146.html Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk ... nutrition for babies, a new study suggests that most cow's milk formulas don't increase the risk ...

  19. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    compared with multiparous cows. Multiparous cows ruminated more while lying than primiparous cows. High milk yield cows spent a shorter time lying and they fell asleep (lay with neck relaxed) sooner. The degree of daily milk yield was associated with modifications in behavior and cows with high milk......Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...... of lactation kept in tie-stalls. The time spent lying, eating, ruminating, lying inactive without ruminating, and lying with the neck muscles relaxed, as well as the milk yield of primiparous and multiparous cows were recorded for 2d. The effects of milk yield and parity on behavior were analyzed with mixed...

  20. EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata JANKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60% regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

  1. Conception rate in Holstein dairy cows having both normal sized follicles and cystic follicles at estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaneko

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: These results support artificially inseminated of cows that show clear signs of estrus even if they have both cystic follicles and normal sized follicles, and especially when the cows have only one cystic follicle.

  2. Robust dual-response optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanikoglu, Ihsan; den Hertog, Dick; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a robust optimization reformulation of the dual-response problem developed in response surface methodology. The dual-response approach fits separate models for the mean and the variance and analyzes these two models in a mathematical optimization setting. We use metamodels esti

  3. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  4. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  5. Dual Card,Double Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As Christmas Day and New Year Day draw near, why not treat yourself with a smart digital gizmo. Then, the Samsung Dual-card Cellphone is what you are longing for. Samsung B5712C, the first dual-card model released by Samsung,

  6. Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.

  7. Benefits of Dual Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstrum, Kiara

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper examines how dual language education (DLE) programs are valuable. The literature shows that children do much more than just thrive in a dual language environment. According to research, children who are bilingual are cognitively, academically, intellectually, socially and verbally more advantaged than their monolingual…

  8. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  9. Investigation on leukocyte profile of periparturient cows with or without postpartum reproductive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Islam

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The neutrophil% and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio was higher in the cows with PRD during periparturient period. Thus, the increased neutrophil percentage and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio observed at day15 postpartum is an indication of PRD in cows. The significant rise in TLC on the day of calving than prepartum and post partum days only in normal cows is physiological. It is also clear that cows suffering from ROP most likely to suffer from other post partum reproductive diseases.

  10. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Profiles in Ovulatory and Anovulatory Primiparous Dairy Cows During the First Follicular Wave Postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood sa...

  12. Association between prepartum feeding behaviour and periparturient health disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luchterhand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behaviour, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group four weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score > 3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-hour periods 2 to 4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf, primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf and multiparous (lactation > 2. Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behaviour monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behaviour or that of specific cohorts.

  13. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts.

  14. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens.

  15. Exploiting Dual-Output Programmable Blocks to Balance Secure Dual-Rail Logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sauvage

    2010-01-01

    for such purposes. However, assessing the security level which can be achieved with them is an important issue, as it is directly related to the suitability to use commercial FPGA instead of proprietary custom FPGA for this kind of protection. In this article, we experimentally gave evidence that differential placement and routing of an FPGA implementation can be done with a granularity fine enough to improve the security gain. However, so far, this gain turned out to be lower for FPGAs than for ASICs. The solutions demonstrated in this article exploit the dual-output of modern FPGAs to achieve a better balance of dual-rail interconnections. However, we expect that an in-depth analysis of routing resources power consumption could still help reduce the interconnect differential leakage.

  16. Composited dual summability methods of the new kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Aysun; Başar, Feyzi

    2012-08-01

    Following Section 4.8 of Başsar [Summability Theory and Its Applications, Bentham Science Publishers, e-books, Monographs, İstanbul-2012, ISBN: 978-1-60805-252-3], we define the duality relation of the new kind between a pair of infinite matrices. Our focus is the dual summability methods derived by the Euler means of order r. By means of a strongly regular triangle matrix C = (cnk), we obtain the composited matrices. The main purpose of this study is to give some inclusion theorems concerning the composited and original dual summability methods defined by the Euler means of order r.

  17. Applying Research to Enhance Capacity: A Unifying Purpose for an Integrated Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Elizabeth King

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century the social work profession has had a dual purpose: to promote individual well-being and social justice, but the micro-macro divide is fragmenting the profession. This article suggests that the profession's aim might best be realized by adopting a unifying purpose, a just sense of well-being. Research on complex adaptive…

  18. Stray voltage zapping cows, pigs in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-18

    A power-supply malfunction is giving farm animals in Quebec a shock every time they eat or drink from metal troughs, making them nervous, lowering production, and stunting growth. In 2 years of negotiation with Hydro-Quebec, the utility has refused to correct the problem known as stray voltage. The shocks measure about 10 volts. It has been estimated the average Quebec dairy farmer with 40 cows is losing $15,000 to $20,000/y in reduced milk production. About 4,000 of the 23,000 Quebec pig and dairy farms are bothered by stray voltage. Hydro-Quebec has been asked to install filters that would reduce the problem; however, Hydro-Quebec attributes the stray voltage to the farmers' own equipment. A study conducted by the provincial Agriculture Department that measured stray voltage on 700 farms showed that 70% of the problem was Hydro-Quebec equipment. Farmers are prepared to solve the remaining 30% themselves.

  19. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  20. Simulation of MAD Cow Disease Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.; Gołdasz, J.

    Computer simulation of dynamic of BSE disease is presented. Both vertical (to baby) and horizontal (to neighbor) mechanisms of the disease spread are considered. The game takes place on a two-dimensional square lattice Nx×Ny = 1000×1000 with initial population randomly distributed on the net. The disease may be introduced either with the initial population or by a spontaneous development of BSE in an item, at a small frequency. Main results show a critical probability of the BSE transmission above which the disease is present in the population. This value is vulnerable to possible spatial clustering of the population and it also depends on the mechanism responsible for the disease onset, evolution and propagation. A threshold birth rate below which the population is extinct is seen. Above this threshold the population is disease free at equilibrium until another birth rate value is reached when the disease is present in population. For typical model parameters used for the simulation, which may correspond to the mad cow disease, we are close to the BSE-free case.

  1. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  2. General purpose operator interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, S. I.

    1979-07-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington is developing a general-purpose operator interface for controlling set-point driven processes. The interface concept is being developed around graphics display devices with touch-sensitive screens for direct interaction with the displays. Additional devices such as trackballs and keyboards are incorporated for the operator's convenience, but are not necessary for operation. The hardware and software are modular; only those capabilities needed for a particular application need to be used. The software is written in FORTRAN IV with minimal use of operating system calls to increase portability. Several ASCII files generated by the user define displays and correlate the display variables with the process parameters. It is also necessary for the user to build an interface routine which translates the internal graphics commands into device-specific commands. The interface is suited for both continuous flow processes and unit operations. An especially useful feature for controlling unit operations is the ability to generate and execute complex command sequences from ASCII files. This feature relieves operators of many repetitive tasks. 2 figures.

  3. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  4. Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirankalgikar, Nikhil M; De, Subrata

    2014-07-01

    Ghee is a widely consumed dairy product in India and that prepared from cow milk is mentioned in ayurvedic texts as an ingredient of many formulations/additive as well. Detection of cow ghee adulteration with vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Indicated values for commonly used parameters to differentiate pure and adulterated ghee materials are many a times overlapping. Among reported techniques, ultraviolet fluorescence and paper chromatography technique are not that much sensitive while other methods require sophisticated instrumental facilities (such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) and costly analytical processes. The present paper deals with a promising spectroscopic method to determine the tallow adulteration in cow ghee. Ghee and tallow (taken in chloroform) as such and mixed in different proportions were scanned by spectrophotometer and their second order spectra were analyzed. The value of the ratio of the absorbance of peaks at about 238 nm and 297 nm steadily decreases with the increasing proportion of tallow. This decrease shows consistent linearity suggesting its applicability for quantitative estimation of tallow in cow ghee. The developed derivative spectroscopic method is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee.

  5. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  6. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  7. Behaviour of dairy cows subjected to an aversive veterinary procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Hötzel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On small dairy farms that lack appropriate handling facilities, cows can be restrained and subjected to veterinary inspection or treatment in their milking environment, which in turn might influence the behaviour of the animals, disrupting routine management. A group of seven dairy cows kept on an intensive rotational pasture system and machine milked twice a day by two familiar handlers were exposed to a thorough clinical examination for three consecutive days. Behavioural data before and after the procedure were analyzed by ANOVA. The behaviour of all the cows during the procedure indicated strong aversiveness. Treatment did not influence the flight distance (metres kept from the veterinarian or from a person unknown by the cows, assessed before and after the procedure (veterinarian: before = 1.2 ± 0.1; after 0.8 ± 0.2; unknown: 1.0 ± 0.2 after 1.2 ± 0.2; p=0.3, nor did it affect the number of agonistic interactions within the group observed before (7.1 ± 2 and after (11.5 ± 3 the procedure (p=0.3, or reactivity score (p=0.2. These results do not support the conclusion that the repeated application of unavoidable aversive veterinary procedures in the milking environment will influence the behaviour of cows during milking or their reactivity to humans.

  8. Spatial patterns of recorded mastitis incidence and somatic cell counts in Swedish dairy cows: implications for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Wolff

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis (CM is the most common veterinary treated disease in Swedish dairy cattle. To investigate if the distribution of veterinary registered cases of CM in Sweden follows that of the spatial distribution of cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs, the spatial distribution of CM odds was estimated from available records and compared with udder health measures based on measurements of SCC derived from official milk recording. The study revealed areas with significantly lower odds for CM but with a high proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggesting an under-reporting of CM. We also found areas of significantly higher odds for CM despite a low proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggestive of over-treatment of mastitis. The results should enable targeted studies of reasons for discrepancies, e.g. farmers’ and veterinarians’ attitudes to mastitis treatment and disease recording in areas with a deficit or excess of registered CM cases. High quality disease records for dairy cattle are of interest not only for the dairy management but also for disease surveillance, monitoring of use of antibiotics and food safety purposes.

  9. Description of the growth curve for Angus pasture-fed cows under extensive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, V; Ravagnolo, O

    2015-09-01

    Growth curves are useful for describing the sigmoid shape of an animal's weight pattern over time. The purpose of the present study was to describe, for the first time, a complete growth curve for pasture-fed Angus cows in Uruguay and to analyze the major fixed effects that affect the estimation of mature cow weight (CW). A total of 22,743 records from 5,284 cows belonging to 73 herds were used in the statistical analysis. Five nonlinear models (Brody, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, logistic, and Richards) and a 3-knot cubic spline function were fitted to model weight change across age. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, and 18 mo and as an adult (at 2.3-3.6, 3.6-4.6, 4.6 to 5.6, 5.6 to 6.6, and 6.6 to 8.1 yr). After preliminary analyses, the fixed effects included in the model to estimate CW were BCS, herd, year and month of measurement, and age of dam. The herd and BCS were the major significant sources of variation. The Richards model had the lowest values for Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and -2 log likelihood, with the asymptotic weight being 542 kg. The spline function was the model that fitted the data most closely to the observed weights followed by the Richards function. The Richards model gave better predictions of weights from birth to maturity than the other 4 nonlinear models, because these functions were shown to over- or underestimate weights at different ages in this beef cattle data set. The predicted curve showed that cows reach mature CW after 5 yr of age, which is the age commonly assumed as adult weight in beef cattle. Results form this analysis allowed the estimation of CW and rate of maturing and to take knowledge of the shape of growth curve for Angus females in Uruguay under extensive conditions, helping breeders to take selection decisions. In this way, breeders can optimize the management and efficiency for each production system.

  10. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a

  11. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a

  12. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow...

  13. The adaptive immune response to cow's milk proteins in allergy and tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, B.

    2007-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and related products are an important source of protein in the diet. Unfortunately, cow's milk proteins (CMPs) can also be allergenic. IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) occurs in 1.5% of infants, as well as in 0.3% of older children and adults. Insight into the immune response to

  14. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  15. Cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking in loose housing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this study of cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking, the emphasis was on implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) in cubicle houses in a way that suits cows and farmer. The starting points of the research were that the cows would visit the AMS voluntarily and that th

  16. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows i...

  17. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  18. Relationship between teat morphological traits and subclinical mastitis in Frieswal dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj Sukhbir; Bansal, B K; Gupta, D K

    2017-07-27

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between selected morphological traits of teat and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in Frieswal crossbred dairy cows. A total of 1040 quarters from 261 lactating cows were evaluated for teat shape (bottle/fleshy/collapsed/conical/normal/pencil and short), teat-end shape (dished/flat/funnel/pocketed/pointed and rounded), teat orientation (aligned/misaligned) and teat position (front and rear; left-sided and right-sided). Each udder quarter was screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) for the purpose of defining quarter health status. Data were analysed using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression procedure. An overall prevalence of SCM (CMT positive) at quarter level was 30.6%. Most of the teats had normal or cylindrical shapes (48%), dished teat-ends (40.7%), and aligned (central or squared) in orientation (65%). At bivariable level, significant association of SCM with teat shape, teat position, teat orientation, parity, and stage of lactation was observed (P mastitis in this breed.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Dual Career Environments for Elite Athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas

    that Swiss, Danish, and Polish stakeholders expressed divergent values and attitudes about how dual career should be organized. These values, which are based on different basic assumptions about dual career, were found to be linked to the ideologies of the respective welfare regimes. Consequently, divergent......Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was (a) to provide an overview of the provided dual career opportunities for elite athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland; (b) to deepen our understanding of how the cultural context influences the development of dual career programs and trajectories...... of dual career athletes. Methods: In each country, four semi-structured interviews with key informants involved in dual career were used to discuss benefits, obstacles, and best practices of the national dual career settings and programs. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed...

  20. Dual-horizon Peridynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Huilong; Cai, Yongchang; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new Peridynamic approach that naturally includes varying horizon sizes and completely solves the "ghost force" issue. Therefore, the concept of dual-horizon is introduced to consider the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation is proved to fulfill both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum. Neither the "partial stress tensor" nor the "`slice" technique are needed to ameliorate the ghost force issue in \\cite{Silling2014}. The consistency of reaction forces is naturally fulfilled by a unified simple formulation. The method can be easily implemented to any existing peridynamics code with minimal changes. A simple adaptive refinement procedure is proposed minimizing the computational cost. The method is applied here to the three Peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based Peridynamics. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthof-Winkler experi...

  1. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... risk and utility that economists traditionally assume, allowance for rank-dependent decision weights, and consideration of income thresholds. We examine the issues involved in full maximum likelihood estimation of the model using observed choice data. We propose a general method for integrating...... the multiple criteria, using the logic of mixture models, which we believe is attractive from a decision-theoretic and statistical perspective. The model is applied to observed choices from a major natural experiment involving intrinsically dynamic choices over highly skewed outcomes. The evidence points...

  2. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  3. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert J; Powell, Anne M; Paape, Max J; Kerr, David E; Bannerman, Douglas D; Pursel, Vernon G; Wells, Kevin D; Talbot, Neil; Hawk, Harold W

    2005-04-01

    Mastitis, the most consequential disease in dairy cattle, costs the US dairy industry billions of dollars annually. To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced. In vitro assays demonstrated the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Intramammary infusions of S. aureus were administered to three transgenic and ten nontransgenic cows. Increases in milk somatic cells, elevated body temperatures and induced acute phase proteins, each indicative of infection, were observed in all of the nontransgenic cows but in none of the transgenic animals. Protection against S. aureus mastitis appears to be achievable with as little as 3 micrograms/ml [corrected] of lysostaphin in milk. Our results indicate that genetic engineering can provide a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improve the well-being of livestock.

  4. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  5. A Mathematical Model for the Dynamics and Synchronization of Cows

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jie; Porter, Mason A; Dawkins, Marian S

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model for daily activities of a cow (eating, lying down, and standing) in terms of a piecewise affine dynamical system. We analyze the properties of this bovine dynamical system representing the single animal and develop an exact integrative form as a discrete-time mapping. We then couple multiple cow "oscillators" together to study synchrony and cooperation in cattle herds. We comment on the relevant biology and discuss extensions of our model. With this abstract approach, we not only investigate equations with interesting dynamics but also develop interesting biological predictions. In particular, our model illustrates that it is possible for cows to synchronize \\emph{less} when the coupling is increased.

  6. Properties of fermented beverages from modified cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic property of mare milk is its low fat and protein content and high lactose content. Whey proteins account for approximately 40% total protein content, while casein content is below 50%. For this reason mare milk is defined as albumin milk in contrast to casein-type cow milk. The aim of the study was to modify cow milk composition to imitate that of mare milk using the microfiltration process. Fermented drinks were produced from modified cow milk with the use of two different starter cultures. Produced drinks were subjected to organoleptic examination, as well as physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. Analyses were performed after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of cold storage. It was found that active acidity, density, colour and dynamic viscosity changed during storage. Counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts decreased. Drinks differed in terms of their taste, as well as aroma and consistency.

  7. Salinomycin and virginiamycin for lactating cows supplemented on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Scatolin de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals on pasture generally show higher feed efficiency as a result of the use of antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of the antimicrobials salinomycin and/or virginiamycin on production and the ruminal parameters of supplemented dairy cows grazing on Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Twelve Holstein/Zebu multiparous cows were used, distributed in three Latin squares, one for the evaluation of ruminal parameters, and the others for production parameters. Cows on pasture were fed 50 % of their estimated intake with corn silage and concentrate supplements containing salinomycin, virginiamycin or a combination of additives, in doses of 120 and 150 mg kg−1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production and composition, energy and nitrogen balance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior. However, salinomycin and virginiamycin each reduced pasture and total dry matter intake by about 14 % and 10 %, with a consequent improvement in feed efficiency.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  9. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  10. Spin Testing of Superalloy Disks With Dual Grain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferman, Tab M.

    2006-01-01

    This 24-month program was a joint effort between Allison Advanced Development Company (AADC), General Electric Aircraft (GEAE), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). AADC led the disk and spin hardware design and analysis utilizing existing Rolls-Royce turbine disk forging tooling. Testing focused on spin testing four disks: two supplied by GEAE and two by AADC. The two AADC disks were made of Alloy 10, and each was subjected to a different heat treat process: one producing dual microstructure with coarse grain size at the rim and fine grain size at the bore and the other produced single fine grain structure throughout. The purpose of the spin tests was to provide data for evaluation of the impact of dual grain structure on disk overspeed integrity (yielding) and rotor burst criteria. The program culminated with analysis and correlation of the data to current rotor overspeed criteria and advanced criteria required for dual structure disks.

  11. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  12. Estimación de polimorfismos del gen de leptina de sementales en el sistema doble proposito bovino, en villaflores, Chiapas, México - Estimation of leptin gene polymorphisms in sire into the dual purpose bovine system, in villaflores, Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruíz Sesma, Benigno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa estimación del polimorfismos del gen leptina incorporado a losprogramas de selección asistidas por marcadores puede hacer máseficientes los sistemas de producción animal. La mutación del genleptina TT esta asociado con la eficiencia alimenticia y calidad de lacarne en bovinos. El estudio se realizó en el municipio de Villaflores,Chiapas, México. El objetivo del estudio fue estimar las frecuenciasgenotípicas y alélicas del gen leptina en el exon 2. El polimorfismo fueobtenido mediante un análisis molecular con la técnica ARMS-PCR. Seestudiaron 47 sementales en servicio activo en los sistemas deproducción bovina de doble propósito. Los resultados mostraron que el74.5 % de los sementales fueron Suizo Americano, 6.4 % Holstein y el12.8 % cruzas raciales. Con respecto al polimorfismo del gen leptina el19 % de sementales presentaron el genotipo TT, 32 % CC y 49 % TC.Los sementales de las diferentes razas o cruzas presentaron mayorfrecuencia de CT que de TT y CC ( χ2, P>0.05. Se concluye que la bajafrecuencia genotípica TT es debido probablemente a que los productoresen este sistema seleccionan sus reproductores basados en su tipo racial,sin considerar caracteres de producción de leche o calidad de la carneque se asocian con la mutación del gen leptina.SummaryLeptin gene polymorphisms incorporated in markers assisted selectionprograms could to make more efficient the animal production systems.The leptin gene mutation TT is associating to feed efficient and meatquality in cattle. The study was carried out in the municipality ofVillaflores, Chiapas. The objective was determinate genotypic and allelicfrequencies of the leptin gene in the exon 2. The polymorphism wasobserved by ARMS-PCR. 47 sires in active service into the dual purposebovine production system were included in this study. 74.5 % of sireswere Brown Swiss, 6.4% Holstein, and 12.8 % crosses of differentbreeds. The results indicated for sires, 19 % genotype TT, 32

  13. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  14. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

  15. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  16. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  17. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  18. Ultrasonographic Examination of the Rumen in Healthy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.

  19. Farmers' attitude toward the introduction of selective dry cow therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; Tijs, S H W; den Uijl, I E M; Santman-Berends, I M G A; Velthuis, A G J; Lam, T J G M

    2016-10-01

    The attitude of Dutch dairy farmers toward selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) is unknown, although a favorable mindset toward application of SDCT seems crucial for successful implementation. Given the fact that blanket dry cow treatment has been strongly promoted until recently, the implementation of SDCT was expected to be quite a challenge. This study aimed to provide insight into the level of implementation of SDCT in 2013 in the Netherlands, the methods used by farmers for selection of cows for dry cow treatment (DCT), the relation between SDCT and udder health and antimicrobial usage (AMU) in 2013, and the mindset of farmers toward SDCT. In 2014, a questionnaire was conducted in a group of 177 herds included in a large-scale udder health study in 2013 and for which all clinical mastitis cases during this year were recorded. In addition, data on somatic cell count (SCC) parameters and AMU was available for these herds. The questionnaire included questions with regard to DCT with a special emphasis on farmers' attitude and mindset with regard to applying DCT in 2013. The data that were obtained from the questionnaire were combined with the data on clinical mastitis, SCC, and AMU. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the data and to study the association between DCT, udder health, and AMU. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models with a logit link function were applied to evaluate potential associations between DCT and farmers' mindset. Selective DCT was taken up progressively by the farmers in our study, with 75% of them implementing SDCT in 2013. The main criterion used to select cows for DCT was the SCC history during the complete previous lactation. The herds were divided into 3 groups based on the percentage of cows dried off with antibiotics in 2013 as indicated by the farmers during interviews. The first group applied BDCT, and the herds for which SDCT was applied were split in 2 equally sized groups based on the median percentage

  20. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Cow Dung Based Biodynamic Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Radha, T. K.; RAO, D. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and ‘Cow pat pit’ (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (109 ml−1) and yeasts (104 ml−1). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (104 ml−1) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysi...

  1. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R W; Athanasiou, V N

    1978-06-01

    Plasma concentration stability of glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, growth hormone, insulin were determined in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of these metabolites and hormones were measured during a 36- to 48-hour period in 3 normal, mature dairy cows in the 2nd month of lactation. Samples were taken at 30-minute intervals; also, intensive sampling (every 10 minutes) was done at varying times in relation to feeding and milking. Of the 5 components measured, glucose concentration was the most stable, easiest to assay, and most reliable for use as a diagnostic aid in assessing metabolic carbohydrate disturbances in dairy cattle.

  2. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but the magnitude of the increase was greater for LBC cows. The LBC cows consumed more pine

  3. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  4. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  5. One-hour blood xylose in the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyngkaran, N; Abidin, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The 1-hour xylose absorption test was evaluated as method for the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy in a prospective study of 48 infants with diarrhoea clinically suspected to be due to intolerance of cows' milk. The infants were maintained on a lactose and cows milk protein-free diet for 6-8 weeks and then were challenged with cows' milk protein. Jejunal biopsies and the 1-hour xylose absorption test were performed immediately before and 20-24 hours after cows' milk provo...

  6. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  7. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound the...

  8. Effect of mature body weight and stocking rate on cow and calf performance, cow herd efficiency, and economics in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Gadberry, M S; Haque, M; Biermacher, J

    2016-04-01

    Eight 4-ha mixed warm-season grass pastures in southwestern Arkansas (33°40'4″ N, 93°35'24″ W, and elevation 107 m) were stocked with either large mature size (571 kg [SD 55.2] BW) or small mature size (463 kg [SD 58.2] BW) spring-calving cows at 4 stocking rates (SR; 1, 1.5, 2, or 2.5 cow-calf pairs/ha) over 4 yr to test the effects of SR and mature body size on cow and calf performance and system economics. Each pasture received 112 kg/ha N as ammonium nitrate in May and was broadcast seeded to annual ryegrass ( Lam.) in mid October each fall along with 112 kg/ha N as ammonium nitrate. Data were analyzed by regression to determine the effects of cow size and SR on calf performance, cow BW change, calf gain, weaning weight per hectare, hay feeding requirements, and net returns. As SR increased, cow BW and BCS at weaning decreased ( Calf BW at weaning in October increased ( calf BW at weaning per 100 kg cow BW decreased ( Calf BW weaned per hectare was not affected ( = 0.75) by cow BW but linearly increased ( feeding days and cost of hay per cow increased ( ≤ 0.05) and kilograms of hay offered per cow tended ( = 0.09) to linearly increase with increasing SR, yet cow BW had no effects ( > 0.22). Although there were no effects ( ≥ 0.38) of cow BW on carrying cost or net returns, increasing SR decreased ( feeding of conserved forages but did not affect pregnancy rates and led to increases in total calf BW weaned per hectare and net returns.

  9. Pooled Analysis of the Cow's Milk-related-Symptom-Score (CoMiSS™) as a Predictor for Cow's Milk Related Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhout, Philippe; Järvi, Anette; Garreau, Anne-Sophie; Mukherjee, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The diagnosis of cow's milk (CM) allergy is a challenge. The Cow's Milk-related-Symptom-Score (CoMiSS™) was developed to offer primary health care providers a reliable diagnostic tool for CM related symptoms. The predictive prospective value of the CoMiSS™ was evaluated in three clinical trials. Methods Pooled analyses of the three studies were conducted based on regressing the results of the month-1 challenge test on the month-1 CoMiSS™, adjusting for baseline CoMiSS™ using a logistic regression model. In addition a logistic regression model was also fitted to the month-1 challenge test result with the change in CoMiSS™ from baseline as a predictor. Results Results suggest that infants having a low CoMiSS™ (median, 5) after 1 month dietary treatment free from intact CM protein have a significant risk of having a positive challenge test (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.93; p=0.002). Pooled data suggest that the change in CoMiSS™ from baseline to month-1 can predict CM related symptoms as a confirmed diagnosis according to the challenge test at month-1. However, in order to validate such a tool, infants without CM related symptoms would also need to be enrolled in a validation trial. A concern is that it may not be ethical to expose healthy infants to a therapeutic formula and a challenge test. Conclusion Pooled data analysis emphasizes that the CoMiSS™ has the potential to be of interest in infants suspected to have CM-related-symptoms. A prospective validation trial is needed.

  10. Professionals’ perception on the management of patients with dual disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Szerman, Néstor; Terán, Antonio; Pino, Carlos; Vázquez, José María; Velasco, Elena; García-Dorado, Marta; Casas, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need to evaluate the professionals’ perception about the consequences of the lack of therapeutic adherence in the evolution of patients with co-occurring disorders. Methods An online survey, released on the Socidrogalcohol [Spanish Scientific Society for Research on Alcohol, Alcoholism and other Drug Addictions] and Sociedad Española de Patología Dual [the Spanish Society of Dual Pathology] web pages, was answered by 250 professionals who work in different types of Spanish health centers where dual diagnosis patients are assisted. Results Most professionals perceived the existence of noncompliance among dual diagnosis patients. Almost all of these professionals (99%) perceived that noncompliance leads to a worsening of the progression of the patient’s disorder, in both the exacerbation of mental disorders and the consumption of addictive substances. Most of the professionals (69.2%) considered therapeutic alliance as the main aspect to take into account to improve the prognosis in this population. The primary purpose of treatment must be the improvement of psychotic-phase positive symptoms, followed by the control of behavior disorders, reduction of craving, improvement of social and personal performances, and reduction of psychotic-phase negative symptoms. Conclusion Most professionals perceived low adherence among dual diagnosis patients. This lack of adherence is associated with a worsening of their disease evolution, which is reflected in exacerbations of the psychopathology and relapse in substance use. Therefore, we propose to identify strategies to improve adherence. PMID:27698553

  11. Dairy cow cleanliness and milk quality on organic and conventional farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kathryn A; Innocent, Giles T; Mihm, Monika; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Grove-White, Dai

    2007-08-01

    A subjective cow cleanliness scoring system was validated and used to assess the cleanliness score of dairy cows at different times in the year. A longitudinal study followed a number of farms from summer to winter, and a larger, cross-sectional study assessed a greater number of farms during the housed winter period. The scoring system was demonstrated to be both a repeatable and practical technique to use on-farm and showed that cows become dirtier in the transition from summer grazing to winter housing. Although farming system (organic or conventional) had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, when housed in the winter, organic cows were significantly more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow cleanliness scores and milk quality, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) tending to have a lower (cleaner) median cow cleanliness score; with this relationship strongest for the organic herds. There was no significant link between cleanliness score and Bactoscan (BS) count or clinical mastitis incidence. No major mastitis pathogens were cultured from bulk tank milk samples from the quartile of herds with the cleanest cows in contrast to the quartile of herds with the dirtiest cows, where significant mastitis pathogens were cultured. Based on this study, all farms, especially organic systems, should attempt to keep cows clean as part of subclinical mastitis control.

  12. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  13. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  14. Agreement between different sleep states and behaviour indicators in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternman, Emma; Pastell, Matti; Agenäs, Sigrid;

    2014-01-01

    , so this study examined whether these behavioural estimates also apply for adult cows.Behaviour observations and electrophysiological readings were recorded for a total of 13 cows during one recording session per cow lasting on average 4. h 22. min. Recording started when the cow was fully awake...... that the behavioural estimates for assessing total sleep time in calves could not be applied to adult cows as they markedly overestimated NREM and REM sleep time. Behavioural estimates for NREM and REM sleep time were on average 124 ± 17 and 14 ± 4. min per cow, respectively, while the electrophysiological estimate......Conclusive data regarding behavioural indicators of different sleep states in adult dairy cows are lacking, i.e. agreement between behavioural indicators of sleep and corresponding electrophysiological measures. Behavioural estimates for quantifying total sleep time in calves have been developed...

  15. The Cancer Cow: A study of the risks associated with milk from rbGH treated cows

    OpenAIRE

    Malawa, Zea

    2002-01-01

    In 1993 the FDA approved the commercial sale of milk from rbGH treated cows. Despite this approval, there are a number of public health concerns that have arisen about the safety of this milk. Specifically, there is concern that this milk may increase the risk and rate of cancer. Milk from rbGH treated cows has elevated levels of IGF-1. Furthermore, some amount of IGF-1 from the milk is orally active in humans. IGF-1 has a strong association with a number of cancers including breast, prostate...

  16. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  17. Lp-dual Quermassintegral sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we first introduce a concept of L_p-dual Quermassintegral sum function of convex bodies and establish the polar projection Minkowski inequality and the polar projection Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for L_p-dual Quermassintegral sums.Moreover,by using Lutwak’s width-integral of index i,we establish the L_p-Brunn-Minkowski inequality for the polar mixed projec- tion bodies.As applications,we prove some interrelated results.

  18. Dual pairs in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Balmaz, François

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a rigorous study of the dual pair structure of the ideal fluid and the dual pair structure for the $n$-dimensional Camassa-Holm (EPDiff) equation, including the proofs of the necessary transitivity results. In the case of the ideal fluid, we show that a careful definition of the momentum maps leads naturally to central extensions of diffeomorphism groups such as the group of quantomorphisms and the Ismagilov central extension.

  19. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ragavi; G. Geetha

    2013-01-01

    The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS) attack.

  20. The Role of Improper Use of Artificial Insemination on Infertility and Abortion in Cows in Basrah Province, Iraq: Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, H. A-L. [حيدر عبد اللطيف موسى; Aziz, M A; Bakr, S. S. [سندس صديق بكر; Jamaladdin, N. M. [نظام محمد جمال الدين

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to demonstrate the infectious causes and their mode of transmission in cases of infertility and abortion in cows. There were 434 artificially inseminated cows, of which 155 (35.7%) did not conceive after several trials. Seventy cows were naturally inseminated, of which 30 (42.8%) did not conceive. Delayed oestrus after normal delivery was found in 398 (99%) of 402 cows. Many microorganisms, known to be causative agents of infertility and abortion in cows, wer...

  1. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, S.; G. Banos; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O’Neill, B.; O’Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  2. Fast dual tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  3. Fast dual tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA - Campus Universitario da Federacao, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects bad data which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model. In this paper, the author derives basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  4. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  5. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  6. Effects of flunixin meglumine and transportation on establishment of pregnancy in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M L; Ansotegui, R P; Burns, P D; MacNeil, M D; Geary, T W

    2007-06-01

    Objectives of these studies were to determine the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) administration on early embryonic mortality and circulating PG and cortisol concentrations in transported and non-transported cows. Cows (n = 483) from 3 locations were used to evaluate the effects of transportation and FM approximately 14 d after AI on the establishment of pregnancy and serum concentrations of progesterone, PGF metabolite (PGFM), and cortisol. Treatments were transport (n = 129), transport + FM (n = 128), no transport (n = 130), and no transport + FM (n = 96). Multiparous cows (n = 224) were used at 2 locations, and nulliparous cows (n = 259) were used at 1 location. The no transport + FM treatment was used at only 2 locations. Flunixin meglumine (approximately 1.1 mg/kg of BW; i.m.) was administered before the cows were separated into transportation groups. Transportation included 4 to 6 h of transportation, without calves, via semitractor trailer. Nontransported cows remained penned, with their calves in adjacent pens, during the same period as the transported cows. Blood samples were collected from all cows before and after treatment and, at 2 locations, approximately 3 h after the onset of treatment. Location affected AI pregnancy rate (P < 0.01). Treatment effects, although not significant (P = 0.16), were of a magnitude to be considered practically important. Cows that received transportation + FM tended (P = 0.07) to have greater AI pregnancy rates (74%) than those that did not receive FM (66%), irrespective of transportation. Cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for transported cows than for nontransported cows. Cows receiving FM had greater (P < 0.05) AI pregnancy rates than non-FM cows (71 vs. 61%, respectively). Cows receiving transportation had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than nontransported cows (45.4 vs. 54.6 pg/mL, respectively), and cows receiving FM had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than non-FM cows (39.4 vs. 60

  7. From killing cows to culturing meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how in Britain, France and Italy the idea of the living animal is being detached from the action of eating meat. It is an ongoing historical process, which has recently been fuelled by the new issue of cultured meat.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Starting from Goody’s developmentalist stages (Production, Distribution, Preparation and Consumption), first this work analyses historically how these stages have undergone the process of the d...

  8. Developmental Purposes of Commercial Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed are 45 table, target, manipulative, active, and creative games with such developmental purposes as associative learning, tactile discrimination, and visual motor integration. Information includes the name of the item, distributor, price, description, and developmental purpose. (JYC)

  9. Assessing lameness in cows kept in tie-stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K A; Dippel, S; Huber, J; March, S; Winckler, C; Whay, H R

    2009-04-01

    Identifying lame cows and quantifying the prevalence of lameness are important elements of cattle welfare assessment that are generally achieved by methods involving observations of each animal walking. There is no published method for assessing lameness in cows confined in tie-stalls. The objective of this study (carried out within the European Commission's Welfare Quality(R) project) was to develop a suitable method and validate it for lameness detection against a published locomotion score. A series of indicators of lameness visible in tied cows was formalized into a stall assessment protocol. This was validated against a traditional locomotion score and tested for repeatability between 2 observers. A total of 98 cows on 4 farms were assessed. Overall interobserver agreement was 91%. Sensitivity compared with locomotion scoring was 0.54 to 0.77, dependent on observer and threshold definition. Assessment in the stall underestimated the herd prevalence of lameness revealed by locomotion scoring by 11 to 37% (mean 27%). The discrepancy between herd lameness prevalence assessed in the stall and by locomotion scoring was not affected significantly by farm or observer. The cases of lameness that were not detected in the stall tended to be the least severe. The proposed method for lameness detection in tie-stalls could be used for herd-level assessment of lameness and detection of individual lame animals by farmers and their advisors, but it is important to remember that it is less sensitive than locomotion scoring.

  10. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait.

  11. Grass tetany in a herd of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odette, O

    2005-08-01

    Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  12. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md;

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly t...

  13. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  14. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    indigenous and crossbred cows during the period under study in the area. Key words: Serum ... nutritional inadequacies, and diseases (Agyemang et al., 1991). In order to improve ... Increased productivity of animals especially the dairy cattle have been ... season, gestation and sampling method (Hewett, 1974), and season ...

  15. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  16. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it investiga

  17. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stripping suction; (9) Before the tank vessel begins each ballast voyage, each cargo tank and each cargo... piping of the COW system is drained of crude oil; (11) When the cargo tanks are not being water washed... ballasting the cargo tanks is drained of all crude oil; and (2) Before ballasting or deballasting cargo...

  18. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... resulting from normal ovarian follicular dynamics is crucial to ... 18.5°C and average annual rainfall was 757 mm (DZARC Agro- meteorology, 2015). Seventeen cows (9 ..... support of this study by the United States Department of ... Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. 327 p.

  19. Immune response to Babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T D; Figueroa, M J V; Ramos, A J A; Rojas, M C; Cantó, A G J; Falcón, N A; Alvarez, M J A

    2004-10-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector Boophilus microplus. In this study, we investigate B. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, T cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.

  20. Cow status monitoring (health and oestrus) using detection sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatje, K.; Mol, de R.M.; Rossing, W.

    1997-01-01

    In-line sensors were used to measure quarter milk conductivity and milk temperature in the milking claw for monitoring mastitis in dairy cows. In a preliminary experiment, sensor data were used to develop algorithms and threshold values for the detection of mastitis. In a later experiment, these thr

  1. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  2. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  3. Cow status monitoring (health and oestrus) using detection sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatje, K.; Mol, de R.M.; Rossing, W.

    1997-01-01

    In-line sensors were used to measure quarter milk conductivity and milk temperature in the milking claw for monitoring mastitis in dairy cows. In a preliminary experiment, sensor data were used to develop algorithms and threshold values for the detection of mastitis. In a later experiment, these

  4. Application of fuzzy logic in automated cow status monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M; Woldt, W E

    2001-02-01

    Sensors that measure yield, temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and animal activity can be used for automated cow status monitoring. The occurrence of false-positive alerts, generated by a detection model, creates problems in practice. We used fuzzy logic to classify mastitis and estrus alerts; our objective was to reduce the number of false-positive alerts and not to change the level of detected cases of mastitis and estrus. Inputs for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection model and additional information, such as the reproductive status. The output was a classification, true or false, of each alert. Only alerts that were classified true should be presented to the herd manager. Additional information was used to check whether deviating sensor measurements were caused by mastitis or estrus, or by other influences. A fuzzy logic model for the classification of mastitis alerts was tested on a data set from cows milked in an automatic milking system. All clinical cases without measurement errors were classified correctly. The number of false-positive alerts over time from a subset of 25 cows was reduced from 1266 to 64 by applying the fuzzy logic model. A fuzzy logic model for the classification of estrus alerts was tested on two data sets. The number of detected cases decreased slightly after classification, and the number of false-positive alerts decreased considerably. Classification by a fuzzy logic model proved to be very useful in increasing the applicability of automated cow status monitoring.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Erdman, Richard A; Swanson, Kara M; Molenaar, Adrian J; Maqbool, Nauman J; Wheeler, Thomas T; Arias, Juan A; Quinn-Walsh, Erin C; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2010-03-01

    It is well established that milk production of the dairy cow is a function of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) number and activity and that these factors can be influenced by diverse environmental influences and management practises (nutrition, milk frequency, photoperiod, udder health, hormonal and local effectors). Thus, understanding how the mammary gland is able to respond to these environmental cues provides a huge potential to enhance milk production of the dairy cow. In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent availability of the bovine genome sequence. In addition, the potential of epigenetic regulation (non-sequence inheritable chemical changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which affect gene expression) to manipulate mammary function is emerging. We propose that a substantial proportion of unexplained phenotypic variation in the dairy cow is due to epigenetic regulation. Heritability of epigenetic marks also highlights the potential to modify lactation performance of offspring. Understanding the response of the MEC (cell signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms) to external stimuli will be an important prerequisite to devising new technologies for maximising their activity and, hence, milk production in the dairy cow.

  6. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  7. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown t

  8. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  9. COW (ESHU) RITUAL IN THE FUNERAL RITE: THE SIGIFICANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow in funeral rite is bound up with the belief of the people which point to their .... would be handed over to Ada – (the first female daughter) of the. Ewu Ngwo Ogodo .... legacy the deceased has left behind, demonstrate that they are.

  10. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  11. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Doel van deze studie is om een inschatting te maken van de methaanproductie door melkkoeien vanaf 1990 tot nu. Tevens zijn de effecten van voer onderzochtThe aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen f

  12. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  13. Mastitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Sol, J.; Koene, M.G.J.; Schaaf, A.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in the Netherlands.

  14. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  15. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  16. Toxic bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in twin cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegsegger; Corti; Sihto; Johler

    2014-11-01

    In this report, we describe two cases of bovine toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus and we provide DNA microarray based characterization data of the strain causing the disease. Both cows had recently calved and suffered from anorexia, pyrexia, and an elevated heart rate. In both animals, at least one mammary gland was swollen, hardened, sensitive to touch, and produced brownish or bloody secretions. The clinical state of the animals deteriorated quickly and both cows had to be euthanized within 48 hours after presentation. The S. aureus strain, which was isolated from the mastitis milk of both cows, was assigned to spa type t267, agr type I, capsule type 5 and CC97, a clonal complex recently identified as the evolutionary origin of two emerging clones of human epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The strain did not harbour any genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents and we did not detect any genes coding for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, or exfoliative toxins. Taking into consideration that twin cows were affected by this rare disease, we suggest that host factors may play a crucial role in toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus.

  17. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter; Kristensen, Lise

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  18. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-05

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm.

  19. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co-W thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admon, U.; Dariel, M.P.; Grunbaum, E.; Lodder, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thin films of Co-W, 300-500 Å thick, were electrodeposited at various compositions under a wide range of plating conditions. The saturation magnetization, coercivity, and squareness ratio of the films were derived from the parallel (in-plane) and perpendicular hysteresis loops, measured by using a v

  20. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic facto