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Sample records for dual pressure linear

  1. Design of dual pressure regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Kang Dae; Kim, Myoung Sub [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we designed sandwich type pressure regulator for air pressure control system. As a result of research, we obtained several important conclusions. First, we decided theory of poppet valve and relief valve which are used in sandwich type pressure regulator, and then designed prototype of pressure regulator. Second, we organized circuit diagram of dual pressure regulator of air pressure control system.

  2. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  3. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  4. Minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasbandy, S. [Department of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14778 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34194-288 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: abbasbandy@yahoo.com; Otadi, M.; Mosleh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14778 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Firuozkooh Branch, Firuozkooh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Fuzzy linear systems of equations, play a major role in several applications in various area such as engineering, physics and economics. In this paper, we investigate the existence of a minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear equation systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal solution existence are given. Also, some examples in engineering and economic are considered.

  5. A New Method for Solving General Dual Fuzzy Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available . According to fuzzy arithmetic, general dual fuzzy linear system (GDFLS cannot be replaced by a fuzzy linear system (FLS. In this paper, we use new notation of fuzzy numbers and convert a GDFLS to two linear systems in crisp case, then we discuss complexity of the proposed method. Conditions for the existence of a unique fuzzy solution to n × n GDFLS are derived

  6. Electromagnetic linear machines with dual Halbach array design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Zongxia

    2017-01-01

    This book extends the conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnet arrangement into 3D pattern for permanent magnet linear machines for the first time, and proposes a novel dual Halbach array. It can not only effectively increase the radial component of magnetic flux density and output force of tubular linear machines, but also significantly reduce the axial flux density, radial force and thus system vibrations and noises. The book is also the first to address the fundamentals and provide a summary of conventional arrays, as well as novel concepts for PM pole design in electric linear machines. It covers theoretical study, numerical simulation, design optimization and experimental works systematically. The design concept and analytical approaches can be implemented to other linear and rotary machines with similar structures. The book will be of interest to academics, researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in electronic engineering and mechanical engineering who wish to learn the core principles, met...

  7. Linear programming phase unwrapping for dual-wavelength digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Jiao, Jiannan; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Hongru; Tian, Ailing; Asundi, Anand

    2017-01-20

    A linear programming phase unwrapping method in dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed and verified experimentally. The proposed method uses the square of height difference as a convergence standard and theoretically gives the boundary condition in a searching process. A simulation was performed by unwrapping step structures at different levels of Gaussian noise. As a result, our method is capable of recovering the discontinuities accurately. It is robust and straightforward. In the experiment, a microelectromechanical systems sample and a cylindrical lens were measured separately. The testing results were in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable not only in digital holography but also in other dual-wavelength interferometric techniques.

  8. An {Mathematical expression} iteration bound primal-dual cone affine scaling algorithm for linear programmingiteration bound primal-dual cone affine scaling algorithm for linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Sturm; J. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we introduce a primal-dual affine scaling method. The method uses a search-direction obtained by minimizing the duality gap over a linearly transformed conic section. This direction neither coincides with known primal-dual affine scaling directions (Jansen et al., 1993; Mon

  9. A Primal-Dual Interior Point-Linear Programming Algorithm for MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2009-01-01

    Constrained optimal control problems for linear systems with linear constraints and an objective function consisting of linear and l1-norm terms can be expressed as linear programs. We develop an efficient primal-dual interior point algorithm for solution of such linear programs. The algorithm...

  10. Linearized primal-dual methods for linear inverse problems with total variation regularization and finite element discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenyi; Yuan, Xiaoming

    2016-11-01

    Linear inverse problems with total variation regularization can be reformulated as saddle-point problems; the primal and dual variables of such a saddle-point reformulation can be discretized in piecewise affine and constant finite element spaces, respectively. Thus, the well-developed primal-dual approach (a.k.a. the inexact Uzawa method) is conceptually applicable to such a regularized and discretized model. When the primal-dual approach is applied, the resulting subproblems may be highly nontrivial and it is necessary to discuss how to tackle them and thus make the primal-dual approach implementable. In this paper, we suggest linearizing the data-fidelity quadratic term of the hard subproblems so as to obtain easier ones. A linearized primal-dual method is thus proposed. Inspired by the fact that the linearized primal-dual method can be explained as an application of the proximal point algorithm, a relaxed version of the linearized primal-dual method, which can often accelerate the convergence numerically with the same order of computation, is also proposed. The global convergence and worst-case convergence rate measured by the iteration complexity are established for the new algorithms. Their efficiency is verified by some numerical results.

  11. -Orthomorphisms and -Linear Operators on the Order Dual of an -Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the -orthomorphisms and -linear operators on the order dual of an -algebra. In particular, when the -algebra has the factorization property (not necessarily unital, we prove that the orthomorphisms, -orthomorphisms, and -linear operators on the order dual are precisely the same class of operators.

  12. A dual neural network for convex quadratic programming subject to linear equality and inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunong; Wang, Jun

    2002-06-01

    A recurrent neural network called the dual neural network is proposed in this Letter for solving the strictly convex quadratic programming problems. Compared to other recurrent neural networks, the proposed dual network with fewer neurons can solve quadratic programming problems subject to equality, inequality, and bound constraints. The dual neural network is shown to be globally exponentially convergent to optimal solutions of quadratic programming problems. In addition, compared to neural networks containing high-order nonlinear terms, the dynamic equation of the proposed dual neural network is piecewise linear, and the network architecture is thus much simpler. The global convergence behavior of the dual neural network is demonstrated by an illustrative numerical example.

  13. Dual temperature dual pressure water-hydrogen chemical exchange for water detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko, E-mail: t-sugiyama@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Fro-cho 1, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Takada, Akito; Morita, Youhei [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Fro-cho 1, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kotoh, Kenji [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Moto-oka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Tegata-gakuen-machi 1-1, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Taguchi, Akira [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kawano, Takao; Tanaka, Masahiro; Akata, Naofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Experimental and analytical studies on hydrogen-tritium isotope separation by a dual temperature dual pressure catalytic exchange (DTDP-CE) with liquid phase chemical exchange columns were carried out in order to apply it to a part of the water detritiation system for DEMO fuel cycle. A prototype DTDP-CE apparatus was successfully operated and it was confirmed that tritium was separated by the apparatus as significantly distinguishable. A calculation code was developed based on the channeling stage model. The values of separation factors and the effects of some operating parameters were well predicted by the separative analyses with the code.

  14. Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.

  15. Dual Pressure versus Hybrid Recuperation in an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle – Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    steam in a HRSG (heat recovery steam generator). The bottoming steam cycle was modeled with two configurations: (1) a simple single pressure level and (2) a dual pressure level with both a reheat and a pre-heater. The SOFC stacks in the present SOFC-ST hybrid cycles were not pressurized. The dual...

  16. Survey of high pressure using dual cora sensors and the differentiator electric bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Yuan

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, the possible survey of a high-pressure field by using dual core fiber sensors and a differentiator electric bridge is described. Also, the interaction between high-pressure field and a dual core fiber nonlinear coupler is discussed, using the analyzed theory. We have obtained the formula of the theory and some correlative experimental results. We can measure high-pressure (2.2 * 106 V) by using dual core fiber sensors and a differentiator bridge.

  17. On linear $q$-ary completely regular codes with $\\rho=2$ and dual antipodal

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Joaquim; Zinoviev, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We characterize all linear $q$-ary completely regular codes with covering radius $\\rho=2$ when the dual codes are antipodal. These completely regular codes are extensions of linear completely regular codes with covering radius 1, which are all classified. For $\\rho=2$, we give a list of all such codes known to us. This also gives the characterization of two weight linear antipodal codes.

  18. Novel pressure sensor by diode-pumped birefringent Nd:YAG dual-frequency laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shulian; Guo, Hui

    2002-09-01

    The prototype of a novel sensor based on laser frequency splitting technology is presented in this paper and the results of a series of experiments are reported. A scheme of the novel pressure sensor by diode-pumped birefringent Nd:YAG dual-frequency laser is brought forward. As a result of the stress birefringence the laser's longitudinal mode is split to two with frequency difference. Both the theoretical analysis and the experiments indicate that there is a direct ratio relation between the frequency difference and the pressure imposed on the Nd:YAG crystal. Therefore when the external pressure is sensed by the Nd:YAG dual-frequency laser and the beat frequency is measured by the frequency counter, the pressure value can be obtained from the magnitude of the beat frequency. The laser can operate under single mode or complex modes with little error to the experiment results. Some research work under different pumping ways is finished and it indicates that the beat frequency has little relation with pumping ways. The experiment has a good linearity (R greater than 0.999) with satisfied precision, sensitivity (5.27 MHz/kPa) and stability, which provides a good academic and experimental foundation for further research.

  19. Dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xuan Dai; Yuan-Ting Zhang; Jing Liu; Xiao-Rong Ding; Ni Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and ambulatory measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for efficient diagnosis, management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, traditional cuff-based BP measurement methods provide only intermittent BP readings and can cause discomfort with the occlusive cuff. Although pulse transit time (PTT) method is promising for cuffless and continuous BP measurement, its pervasive use is restricted by its limited accuracy and requirement of placing sensors on multiple body sites. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement, which simultaneously records the pressure and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals of radial artery. The obtained signals can be used to generate a pressure-volume curve, from which the elasticity index (EI) and viscosity index (VI) can be extracted. Experiments were carried out among 7 healthy subjects with their PPG, ECG, arterial pressure wave and reference BP collected to examine the effectiveness of the proposed indexes. The results of this study demonstrate that a linear regression model combining EI and VI has significantly higher BP tracking correlation coefficient as compared to the PTT method. This suggests that the proposed system and method can potentially be used for convenient and continuous blood pressure estimation with higher accuracy.

  20. A dual framework for lower bounds of the quadratic assignment|problem based on linearization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karisch, Stefan E.; Cela, E.; Clausen, Jens;

    1999-01-01

    A dual framework allowing the comparison of various bounds for the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) based on linearization, e.g. the bounds of Adams and Johnson, Carraresi and Malucelli, and Hahn and Grant, is presented. We discuss the differences of these bounds and propose a new and more...

  1. High power dual-wavelength tunable fiber laser in linear and ring cavity configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ahmad; A. A. Latif; M. Z. Zulkifli; N. A. Awang; S. W. Harun

    2012-01-01

    We describe and compare the performances of two crucial configurations for a tunable dual-wavelength fiber laser,namely,the linear and ring configurations.The performances of these two cavities and the tunability in the dual-wavelength output varied from 0.8 to 11.9 nm are characterized.The ring cavity provides a better performance,achieving an average output power of 0.5 dBm,with a power fluctuation of only 1.1 dB and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 66 dB.Moreover,the ring cavity has minimal or no background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE).

  2. Linking the pressure dependency of elastic and electrical properties of porous rocks by a dual porosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tongcheng; Gurevich, Boris; Pervukhina, Marina; Clennell, Michael Ben; Zhang, Junfang

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the pressure dependency of elastic and electrical properties is important for a variety of geophysical applications. We present a technique to invert for the stiff and compliant porosity from velocity measurements made as a function of differential pressure on saturated sandstones. A dual porosity concept is used for dry rock compressibility and a squirt model is employed for the pressure and frequency dependent elastic properties of the rocks when saturated. The total porosity obtained from inversion shows satisfactory agreement with experimental results. The electrical cementation factor was determined using the inverted porosity in combination with measured electrical conductivity. It was found that cementation factor increased exponentially with increasing differential pressure during isostatic loading. Elastic compressibility, electrical cementation factor and electrical conductivity of the saturated rocks correlate linearly with compliant porosity, and electrical cementation factor and electrical conductivity exhibit linear correlations with elastic compressibility of the saturated rocks under loading. The results show that the dual porosity concept is sufficient to explain the pressure dependency of elastic, electrical and joint elastic-electrical properties of saturated porous sandstones.

  3. A Primal- Dual Infeasible- Interior- Point Algorithm for Multiple Objective Linear Programming Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui; FEI Pu-sheng; YUAN Yuan

    2005-01-01

    A primal-dual infeasible-interior-point algorithm for multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) problems was presented. In contrast to the current MOLP algorithm,moving through the interior of polytope but not confining the iterates within the feasible region in our proposed algorithm result in a solution approach that is quite different and less sensitive to problem size, so providing the potential to dramatically improve the practical computation effectiveness.

  4. FLUKA Monte Carlo for Basic Dosimetric Studies of Dual Energy Medical Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Haneefa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General purpose Monte Carlo code for simulation of particle transport is used to study the basic dosimetric parameters like percentage depth dose and dose profiles and compared with the experimental measurements from commercial dual energy medical linear accelerator. Varian Clinac iX medical linear accelerator with dual energy photon beams (6 and 15 MV is simulated using FLUKA. FLAIR is used to visualize and edit the geometry. Experimental measurements are taken for 100 cm source-to-surface (SSD in 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 PTW water phantom using 0.12 cc cylindrical ionization chamber. Percentage depth dose for standard square field sizes and dose profiles for various depths are studied in detail. The analysis was carried out using ROOT (a DATA analysis frame work developed at CERN system. Simulation result shows good agreement in percentage depth dose and beam profiles with the experimental measurements for Varian Clinac iX dual energy medical linear accelerator.

  5. Comparison of Linear and Non-linear Regression Analysis to Determine Pulmonary Pressure in Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarneciu, Camelia C; Sangeorzan, Livia; Rus, Horatiu; Scarneciu, Vlad D; Varciu, Mihai S; Andreescu, Oana; Scarneciu, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) at newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and at finding a simple model showing the complex functional relation between pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors causing it. The 53 hyperthyroid patients (H-group) were evaluated mainly by using an echocardiographical method and compared with 35 euthyroid (E-group) and 25 healthy people (C-group). In order to identify the factors causing pulmonary hypertension the statistical method of comparing the values of arithmetical means is used. The functional relation between the two random variables (PAPs and each of the factors determining it within our research study) can be expressed by linear or non-linear function. By applying the linear regression method described by a first-degree equation the line of regression (linear model) has been determined; by applying the non-linear regression method described by a second degree equation, a parabola-type curve of regression (non-linear or polynomial model) has been determined. We made the comparison and the validation of these two models by calculating the determination coefficient (criterion 1), the comparison of residuals (criterion 2), application of AIC criterion (criterion 3) and use of F-test (criterion 4). From the H-group, 47% have pulmonary hypertension completely reversible when obtaining euthyroidism. The factors causing pulmonary hypertension were identified: previously known- level of free thyroxin, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output; new factors identified in this study- pretreatment period, age, systolic blood pressure. According to the four criteria and to the clinical judgment, we consider that the polynomial model (graphically parabola- type) is better than the linear one. The better model showing the functional relation between the pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroidism and the factors identified in this study is given by a polynomial equation of second

  6. Linear servo-controlled pressure generator for forced oscillation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, P L; Werneck, M M; Giannella-Neto, A

    1998-01-01

    In respiratory input impedance measurements, the low-frequency range contains important clinical and physiological information. However, the patient's spontaneous ventilation can contaminate the data in this range, leading to unreliable results. Unbiased estimators are a good alternative to overcome this problem, provided that the generator is considered linear. This condition is not fulfilled by most existing generators as they are based on loudspeakers, which have strong nonlinearities. The present work aims to contribute to the solution of this problem, and describes a pressure generator that minimises the nonlinearities by an optical sensor placed in a position feedback loop. The static evaluation shows a high linearity for the optical system. The well known frequency response of pressure transducers is used in the dynamic evaluation of the instrument. The analysis of the generator shows that the use of position feedback improved the frequency response. The total harmonic distortion (THD) measurement shows that closed loop resulted in an effective decrease in the nonlinearities. The reduction of THD achieved by the servo-controlled generator can contribute to the practical implementation of the unbiased estimators, increasing the reliability of the impedance data, especially in the low-frequency range. This system is compared with conventional generators and with another servo-controlled system.

  7. When a pressure transmitter leaves the linearity: The Rosemount case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez, J. [Department of Nuclear Fission, CIEMAT, 22 Complutense Av., 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: juan.blazquez@ciemat.es

    2006-07-01

    When a Rosemount pressure transmitter experiences the inner silicone oil-loss syndrome, it loses its linear behaviour. In such a case, the response time is not unique; as a consequence, focusing the sensor surveillance to the response time, as required by the technical specifications of the nuclear plant, might have no sense. In which way is the sensor dynamic not linear? Answering this open question is the main objective of this work. A bilinear model can explain most of the features of the noise signal. A more elaborated model is built in order to explain the results of the deterministic experiments. The corresponding non-linear differential equation is solved exactly for the step response, and an approximate expression is found for the anomalous response time. When the driving term of the dynamic is not a step, the differential equation is solved approximately using the Picard iteration procedure. It gives some light on why the oscillations lose symmetry or why the amplitude probability of the noise signal shows skewness. (author)

  8. A Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Linear Programming Algorithm for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control of constrained linear systems with linear objective functions. The algorithm is based on a Riccati iteration procedure, which is adapted to the linear...... is significantly faster than several state-of-the-art IPMs based on sparse linear algebra, and 2) warm-start reduces the average number of iterations by 35-40%.......We develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control of constrained linear systems with linear objective functions. The algorithm is based on a Riccati iteration procedure, which is adapted to the linear...

  9. Warmstarting the homogeneous and self-dual interior point method for linear and conic quadratic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Andersen, Erling D.; Ye, Yinyu

    2013-01-01

    We present two strategies for warmstarting primal-dual interior point methods for the homogeneous self-dual model when applied to mixed linear and quadratic conic optimization problems. Common to both strategies is their use of only the final (optimal) iterate of the initial problem...... and their negligible computational cost. This is a major advantage when compared to previously suggested strategies that require a pool of iterates from the solution process of the initial problem. Consequently our strategies are better suited for users who use optimization algorithms as black-box routines which...... worst-case complexity. We present extensive computational results showing work reductions when warmstarting compared to coldstarting in the range 30–75% depending on the problem class and magnitude of the problem perturbation. The computational experiments thus substantiate that the warmstarting...

  10. Single- and dual-wavelength switchable linear polarized Yb(3+)-doped double-clad fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanxiu; Feng, Dejun

    2015-05-10

    A single- and dual-wavelength switchable linear polarized Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser is proposed, in which the resonance cavity was composed of a fiber Bragg grating fabricated in a polarization-maintaining fiber and a dichromatic mirror with high reflectivity. The polarization hole burning is enhanced through selective polarization feedback by the polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating. The switchover of single and dual wavelengths is realized by tuning the rotation angle of a cubic polarization beam splitter that is inserted between the dichromatic mirror and the collimator in the cavity. The laser features wavelengths of 1070.08 and 1070.39 nm, output power of 1.0 W, signal to noise ratio of 45 dB, and slope efficiency of 34%, as well as a very narrow linewidth of 0.022 nm. The polarization characteristics are analyzed by measuring the laser power transmitted through a Glan-Thomson polarizer during rotation.

  11. Pattern Synthesis of Dual-band Shared Aperture Interleaved Linear Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to improve the efficiency of an array aperture by interleaving two different arrays in the same aperture area. Two sub-arrays working at different frequencies are interleaved in the same linear aperture area. The available aperture area is efficiently used. The element positions of antenna array are optimized by using Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO to reduce the peak side lobe level (PSLL of the radiation pattern. To overcome the shortness of traditional methods which can only fulfill the design of shared aperture antenna array working at the same frequency, this method can achieve the design of dual-band antenna array with wide working frequency range. Simulation results show that the proposed method is feasible and efficient in the synthesis of dual-band shared aperture antenna array.

  12. Radiation pressure induced difference-sideband generation beyond linearized description

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Hao; Yang, X; Wu, Y

    2016-01-01

    We investigate radiation-pressure induced generation of the frequency components at the difference-sideband in an optomechanical system, which beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interactions between cavity fields and the mechanical oscillation. We analytically calculate amplitudes of these signals, and identify a simple square-root law for both the upper and lower difference-sideband generation which can describe the dependence of the intensities of these signals on the pump power. Further calculation shows that difference-sideband generation can be greatly enhanced via achieving the matching conditions. The effect of difference-sideband generation, which may have potential application for manipulation of light, is especially suited for on-chip optomechanical devices, where nonlinear optomechanical interaction in the weak coupling regime is within current experimental reach.

  13. Dual mean field search for large scale linear and quadratic knapsack problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Juan; Velasco, Jonás; Berrones, Arturo

    2017-07-01

    An implementation of mean field annealing to deal with large scale linear and non linear binary optimization problems is given. Mean field annealing is based on the analogy between combinatorial optimization and interacting physical systems at thermal equilibrium. Specifically, a mean field approximation of the Boltzmann distribution given by a Lagrangian that encompass the objective function and the constraints is calculated. The original discrete task is in this way transformed into a continuous variational problem. In our version of mean field annealing, no temperature parameter is used, but a good starting point in the dual space is given by a ;thermodynamic limit; argument. The method is tested in linear and quadratic knapsack problems with sizes that are considerably larger than those used in previous studies of mean field annealing. Dual mean field annealing is capable to find high quality solutions in running times that are orders of magnitude shorter than state of the art algorithms. Moreover, as may be expected for a mean field theory, the solutions tend to be more accurate as the number of variables grow.

  14. Advanced lung ventilation system (ALVS) with linear respiratory mechanics assumption for waveform optimization of dual-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchia, F; Guerrisi, M; Canichella, A

    2007-03-01

    The present paper describes the functional features of an advanced lung ventilation system (ALVS) properly designed for the optimization of conventional dual-controlled ventilation (DCV), i.e. with pressure-controlled ventilation with ensured tidal or minute volume. Considering the particular clinical conditions of patients treated with controlled ventilation the analysis and synthesis of ALVS control have been performed assuming a linear respiratory mechanics. Moreover, new airways pressure waveforms with more physiological shape can be tested on simulators of respiratory system in order to evaluate their clinical application. This is obtained through the implementation of a compensation procedure making the desired airways pressure waveform independent on patient airways resistance and lung compliance variations along with a complete real-time monitoring of respiratory system parameters leading the ventilator setting. The experimental results obtained with a lung simulator agree with the theoretical ones and show that ALVS performance is useful for the research activity aiming at the improvement of both diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic outcome relative to mechanical ventilation treatments.

  15. Identification of Dual-Rate Sampled Hammerstein Systems with a Piecewise-Linear Nonlinearity Using the Key Variable Separation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification difficulties for a dual-rate Hammerstein system lie in two aspects. First, the identification model of the system contains the products of the parameters of the nonlinear block and the linear block, and a standard least squares method cannot be directly applied to the model; second, the traditional single-rate discrete-time Hammerstein model cannot be used as the identification model for the dual-rate sampled system. In order to solve these problems, by combining the polynomial transformation technique with the key variable separation technique, this paper converts the Hammerstein system into a dual-rate linear regression model about all parameters (linear-in-parameter model and proposes a recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the parameters of the dual-rate system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. A Multibeam Dual-Band Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antenna Array for Satellite Communication on the Move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and simulation of a 10 × 8 multibeam dual-band orthogonal linearly polarized antenna array operating at Ku-band are presented for transmit-receive applications. By using patches with different coupling methods as elements, both perpendicular polarization in 12.25–12.75 GHz band and horizontal polarization in 14.0–14.5 GHz band are realized in a shared antenna aperture. A microstrip Rotman lens is employed as the beamforming network with 7 input ports, which can generate a corresponding number of beams to cover −30°–30° with 5 dB beamwidth along one dimension. This type of multibeam orthogonal linearly polarized planar antenna is a good candidate for satellite communication (SatCom.

  17. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Berlet; Mathias Marchon

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, air...

  18. Semianalytical Solution of the Nonlinear Dual-Porosity Flow Model with the Quadratic Pressure Gradient Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dual-porosity flow model, specifically considering the quadratic pressure gradient term, wellbore storage coefficient, well skin factor, and interporosity flow of matrix to natural fractures, was established for well production in a naturally fractured formation and then solved using a semianalytical method, including Laplace transform and a transformation of the pressure function. Analytical solution of the model in Laplace space was converted to numerical solution in real space using Stehfest numerical inversion. Nonlinear flow process for well production in a naturally fractured formation with different external boundaries was simulated and analyzed using standard pressure curves. Influence of the quadratic pressure gradient coefficient on pressure curves was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in conditions of a group of fixed model parameters. The research results show that the semianalytical modelling method is applicable in simulating the nonlinear dual-porosity flow behavior.

  19. Orthogonally Linearly Polarized Dual Frequency Nd:YAG Lasers with Tunable Frequency Difference and Its Application in Precision Angle Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yi-Dong; ZHANG Shu-Lian

    2007-01-01

    The orthogonally linearly polarized dual frequency Nd:YAG lasers with two quarter wave plates in laser resonator are proposed. The intra-cavity variable birefringence, which is caused by relative rotation of these two wave plates in laser inner cavity, results in the frequency difference of the dual frequency laser also changeable. The theory model based on the Jones matrix is presented, as well as experimental results. The potential application of this phenomenon in precision roll-angle measurement is also discussed.

  20. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator.

  1. Dual pairs of gauged linear sigma models and derived equivalences of Calabi-Yau threefolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Andreas; Jockers, Hans

    2017-04-01

    In this work we study the phase structure of skew symplectic sigma models, which are a certain class of two-dimensional N =(2 , 2) non-Abelian gauged linear sigma models. At low energies some of them flow to non-linear sigma models with Calabi-Yau target spaces, which emerge from non-Abelian strong coupling dynamics. The observed phase structure results in a non-trivial duality proposal among skew symplectic sigma models and connects non-complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds-that are non-birational among another-in a common quantum Kähler moduli space. As a consequence we find non-trivial identifications of spectra of topological B-branes, which from a modern algebraic geometry perspective imply derived equivalences among Calabi-Yau varieties. To further support our proposals, we calculate the two sphere partition function of skew symplectic sigma models to determine geometric invariants, which confirm the anticipated Calabi-Yau threefold phases. We show that the two sphere partition functions of a pair of dual skew symplectic sigma models agree in a non-trivial fashion. To carry out these calculations, we develop a systematic approach to study higher-dimensional Mellin-Barnes type integrals. In particular, these techniques admit the evaluation of two sphere partition functions for gauged linear sigma models with higher rank gauge groups, but are applicable in other contexts as well.

  2. Status of Dual-readout R&D for a linear collider in T1015 Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Gatto, Corrado; Hahn, Eileen; Mazzacane, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The hadronic energy resolution required for an hadronic operating at lepton collider is at the limits or even exceeds that obtained with traditional techniques. Furthermore, it is a well established fact that the presence of an electromagnetic section in front of an hadron calorimeter, as occurs in the layouts of the majority of detectors operating at a collider, would deteriorate the hadronic energy resolution of the device. The novel $ADRIANO$ technology (\\textit{A Dual-readout Integrally Active Non-segmented Option}), currently under development at Fermilab, overcomes the above limitations by complementing an integrally active calorimeter with the dual-readout technique. Detailed Monte Carlo studies indicate that the energy resolution is in the $25\\%/\\sqrt{E}$ - $38\\%/\\sqrt{E}$ interval with a linear response of the detector up to an energy of 200 GeV. A baseline configuration is chosen with an estimated energy resolution of $\\sigma(E)/E\\approx30\\%/\\sqrt{E}$. Several prototypes have been built by \\textit{T...

  3. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M; Huguet, J M; Ritort, F

    2013-04-01

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  4. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ritort, F. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  5. Dosimetric aspects of the therapeutic photon beams from a dual-energy linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghazi, M.S.A.L.; Arjune, B.; Fiedler, J.A.; Sharma, P.D.

    1988-03-01

    Parameters of the photon beams (6 and 20 MV) from a dual-energy linear accelerator (Mevatron-KD, Siemens Medical Laboratories, CA) are presented. The depth dose characteristics of the photon beams are d/sub max/ of 1.8 and 3.8 cm and percentage depth dose of 68% and 80% at 10-cm depth and 100-cm source--surface distance for a field size of 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/ for 6 and 20 MV, respectively. The 6 and 20 MV beams were found to correspond to nominal accelerating potentials of 4.7 and 17 MV, respectively. The stability of output is within +- 1% and flatness and symmetry are within +- 3%. These figures compare favorably with the manufacturer's specifications.

  6. Performance improvement of rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors using dual-frequency drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yang; Richardson, Robert C; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    To improve the performances of a rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motor for specific applications, a dual-frequency drive has been proposed and investigated. Through careful design of the rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plate, its first longitudinal resonant frequency coincides with its second lateral bending resonant frequency and is one-third of its higher lateral bending resonant frequency. When a square-wave voltage is used to drive the motor, its first longitudinal and second bending and the higher bending vibration modes are excited. Experimental results show that the maximum thrust force and maximum velocity of the motor are over 170% of those obtained from the single-frequency sine-wave drive when the voltage performance of the motor becomes saturated.

  7. Wideband Dual-linear Polarized Stacked Patch Antenna with Asymmery Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Lizhong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The narrow working bandwidth of microstrip antennas limits their applications in in radar and communication systems. Staked patch antenna based on aperture coupling and asymmetry feeding technique was proposed in this paper. A cross-shape aperture imbedded in the ground plane with asymmetry feeding structure provided a relative wideband electromagnetic coupling and allowed a high isolation between two orthogonal ports.The asymmetry feeding structure was composed of two microtrip lines locating above and under the ground plane. U-shape microtrip line adjusted microstrip feeding line characteristic impendence with antenna input impendence in a broad band. Experimental results indicated that an impendence bandwidth of 35.3%, better than 4.5dBi antenna gain, better than 30dB isolation and good cross-polarization were available. Measured results proved that stacked patches using asymmetry feeding structure through aperture coupling to expand working frequency and realize dual-linear polarization was effective.

  8. New dual asymmetric CEC linear Fresnel concentrator for evacuated tubular receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavarro, Diogo; Chaves, Julio; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Linear Fresnel Reflector concentrators (LFR) are a potential solution for low-cost electricity production. Nevertheless in order to become more competitive with other CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) technologies, in particular with the Parabolic Trough concentrator, their overall solar to electricity efficiencies must increase. A possible path to achieve this goal is to increase the concentration factor, hence increasing the working temperatures for higher thermodynamic efficiency (more energy collection) and decrease the total number of rows of the solar field (less parasitic losses and corresponding cost reduction). This paper presents a dual asymmetric CEC-type (Compound Elliptical Concentrator) LFR (Linear Fresnel Concentrator) for evacuated tubular receivers. The concentrator is designed for a high concentration factor, presenting an asymmetric configuration enabling a very compact solution. The CEC-type secondary mirror is introduced to accommodate very high concentration values with a wide enough acceptance-angle (augmenting optical tolerances) for simple mechanical tracking solutions, achieving a higher CAP (Concentration Acceptance Product) in comparison with conventional LFR solutions. The paper presents an optical and thermal analysis of the concentrator using two different locations, Faro (Portugal) and Hurghada (Egypt).

  9. Mach-Zehnder modulator modulated radio-over-fiber transmission system using dual wavelength linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Hui, Ming; Shen, Dongya; Zhang, Xiupu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, dual wavelength linearization (DWL) technique is studied to suppress odd and even order nonlinearities simultaneously in a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmission system. A theoretical model is given to analyze the DWL employed for MZM. In a single-tone test, the suppressions of the second order harmonic distortion (HD2) and third order harmonic distortion (HD3) at the same time are experimentally verified at different bias voltages of the MZM. The measured spurious-free dynamic ranges (SFDRs) with respect to the HD2 and HD3 are improved simultaneously compared to using a single laser. The output P1 dB is also improved by the DWL technique. Moreover, a WiFi signal is transmitted in the RoF system to test the linearization for broadband signal. The result shows that more than 1 dB improvement of the error vector magnitude (EVM) is obtained by the DWL technique.

  10. Implementation of dual-energy technique for virtual monochromatic and linearly mixed CBCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao; Giles, William; Ren Lei; Bowsher, James; Yin Fangfang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To implement dual-energy imaging technique for virtual monochromatic (VM) and linearly mixed (LM) cone beam CTs (CBCTs) and to demonstrate their potential applications in metal artifact reduction and contrast enhancement in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: A bench-top CBCT system was used to acquire 80 kVp and 150 kVp projections, with an additional 0.8 mm tin filtration. To implement the VM technique, these projections were first decomposed into acrylic and aluminum basis material projections to synthesize VM projections, which were then used to reconstruct VM CBCTs. The effect of VM CBCT on the metal artifact reduction was evaluated with an in-house titanium-BB phantom. The optimal VM energy to maximize contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for iodine contrast and minimize beam hardening in VM CBCT was determined using a water phantom containing two iodine concentrations. The LM technique was implemented by linearly combining the low-energy (80 kVp) and high-energy (150 kVp) CBCTs. The dose partitioning between low-energy and high-energy CBCTs was varied (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% for low-energy) while keeping total dose approximately equal to single-energy CBCTs, measured using an ion chamber. Noise levels and CNRs for four tissue types were investigated for dual-energy LM CBCTs in comparison with single-energy CBCTs at 80, 100, 125, and 150 kVp. Results: The VM technique showed substantial reduction of metal artifacts at 100 keV with a 40% reduction in the background standard deviation compared to a 125 kVp single-energy scan of equal dose. The VM energy to maximize CNR for both iodine concentrations and minimize beam hardening in the metal-free object was 50 keV and 60 keV, respectively. The difference of average noise levels measured in the phantom background was 1.2% between dual-energy LM CBCTs and equivalent-dose single-energy CBCTs. CNR values in the LM CBCTs of any dose partitioning are better than those of 150 kVp single-energy CBCTs. The

  11. A Wide Linear Range Eddy Current Displacement Sensor Equipped with Dual-Coil Probe Applied in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Eddy Current Displacement Sensor (ECDS is widely used in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel (MSFW to measure the tiny clearance between the rotor and the magnetic bearings. The linear range of the ECDS is determined by the diameter of its probe coil. Wide clearances must be measured in some new MSFWs recently designed for the different space missions, but the coil diameter is limited by some restrictions. In this paper, a multi-channel ECDS equipped with dual-coil probes is proposed to extend the linear range to satisfy the demands of such MSFWs. In order to determine the best configuration of the dual-coil probe, the quality factors of the potential types of the dual-coil probes, the induced eddy current and the magnetic intensity on the surface of the measuring object are compared with those of the conventional single-coil probe. The linear range of the ECDS equipped with the selected dual-coil probe is extended from 1.1 mm to 2.4 mm under the restrictions without adding any cost for additional compensation circuits or expensive coil materials. The effectiveness of the linear range extension ability and the dynamic response of the designed ECDS are confirmed by the testing and the applications in the MSFW.

  12. A Design Of Feeding Network For A Dual-Linear Polarization, Stacked, Probe-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Components of multilayer feed network are presented for application in broad-band dual-linear polarized stacked C-band antenna. Measurement results of wide band matching circuits and different types of power divider networks constituting parts of BFN demonstrate wideband operation. Suitable...

  13. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties of bidisperse linear polymers: Mixing law and tube pressure effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ruymbeke, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hassager, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript, we extend the tube-based model that we developed for predicting the linear viscoelasticity of entangled polymers [van Ruymbeke et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 128, 7-22 (2005)] to the prediction of the extensional rheology of monodisperse and bidisperse linear polymers...

  14. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  15. EFFECT OF INJECTION PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF CNG DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.NAGESWARA RAO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG–air charge. The CNG was inducted into the combustion chamber via intake manifold. The engine, operating in dual-fuel mode, has been tested on a wide range of operating conditions spanning different values of engine load at constant speed at different injector opening pressures for the pilot fuel (diesel. For all the tested operating conditions, the effect of CNG and diesel fuel injection pressure, together with the amount of fuel injected during the pilot injection, were analyzed on the engine performance, in terms of brake thermal efficiency and emission levels. An experimental investigation was carried out to find out the effect of injection pressure on performance and emissions of a diesel engine operated with CNG inducted into the engine. Behavior of the dual fuel engine at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% substitution of CNG with respect to diesel was examined and compared them at different injection pressures

  16. A Warm-Started Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Method for Linear Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Skajaa, Anders; Frison, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    algorithm in MATLAB and its performance is analyzed based on a smart grid power management case study. Closed loop simulations show that 1) our algorithm is significantly faster than state-of-the-art IPMs based on sparse linear algebra routines, and 2) warm-starting reduces the number of iterations......In this paper, we present a warm-started homogenous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control (MPC) of linear systems. To exploit the structure in the optimization problems, our algorithm utilizes a Riccati iteration procedure...

  17. Power-ratio tunable dual-wavelength laser using linearly variable Fabry-Perot filter as output coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Wang, Zhongfa; Bu, Yikun; Chen, Lujian; Cai, Guoxiong; Huang, Wencai; Cai, Zhiping; Chen, Nan

    2016-02-01

    For a linearly variable Fabry-Perot filter, the peak transmission wavelengths change linearly with the transverse position shift of the substrate. Such a Fabry-Perot filter is designed and fabricated and used as an output coupler of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser experimentally in this paper to obtain a 1062 and 1083 nm dual-wavelength laser. The peak transmission wavelengths are gradually shifted from 1040.8 to 1070.8 nm. The peak transmission wavelength of the Fabry-Perot filter used as the output coupler for the dual-wavelength laser is 1068 nm and resides between 1062 and 1083 nm, which makes the transmissions of the desired dual wavelengths change in opposite slopes with the transverse shift of the filter. Consequently, powers of the two wavelengths change in opposite directions. A branch power, oppositely tunable 1062 and 1083 nm dual-wavelength laser is successfully demonstrated. Design principles of the linear variable Fabry-Perot filter used as an output coupler are discussed. Advantages of the method are summarized.

  18. 3-D Biped Robot Walking along Slope with Dual Length Linear Inverted Pendulum Method (DLLIPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new design method to obtain walking parameters for a three-dimensional (3D biped walking along a slope is proposed in this paper. Most research is focused on the walking directions when climbing up or down a slope only. This paper investigates a strategy to realize biped walking along a slope. In conventional methods, the centre of mass (CoM is moved up or down during walking in this situation. This is because the height of the pendulum is kept at the same length on the left and right legs. Thus, extra effort is required in order to bring the CoM up to higher ground. In the proposed method, a different height of pendulum is applied on the left and right legs, which is called a dual length linear inverted pendulum method (DLLIPM. When a different height of pendulum is applied, it is quite difficult to obtain symmetrical and smooth pendulum motions. Furthermore, synchronization between sagittal and lateral planes is not confirmed. Therefore, DLLIPM with a Newton Raphson algorithm is proposed to solve these problems. The walking pattern for both planes is designed systematically and synchronization between them is ensured. As a result, the maximum force fluctuation is reduced with the proposed method.

  19. Design of dual-curvature mirror for linear medium concentration photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Tamir; Ackler, Harold; Finot, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The impact of mirror shape on energy production in Skyline Solar's reflective trough medium concentration photovoltaic system is reviewed using a combination of commercial and proprietary modeling tools. For linear concentrators, an important parameter for efficiency optimization is the uniformity of the flux line on the photovoltaic cells. A significant source of nonuniformity is the discontinuity of reflected light due to the gap between mirrors along the length of the trough. Standard concentrating solar power trough mirrors have a typical length of 1.5 m with a gap between mirrors of 10 to 20 mm. To reduce nonuniformity of the flux line due to this mirror to mirror gap, Skyline Solar developed a dual curvature mirror that stretches the flux line along the trough axis. Extensive modeling and experiments have been conducted to analyze the impact of this design. The methodology of optimization is presented for the X14 Skyline system architecture, and benefits of up to 3% of energy can be realized at locations with latitude below 30 deg.

  20. A DUAL-RELAX PENALTY FUNCTION APPROACH FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR BILEVEL PROGRAMMING WITH LINEAR LOWER LEVEL PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Zhongping; Wang Guangrain; Lv Yibing

    2011-01-01

    The penalty function method, presented many years ago, is an important nu- merical method for the mathematical programming problems. In this article, we propose a dual-relax penalty function approach, which is significantly different from penalty func- tion approach existing for solving the bilevel programming, to solve the nonlinear bilevel programming with linear lower level problem. Our algorithm will redound to the error analysis for computing an approximate solution to the bilevel programming. The error estimate is obtained among the optimal objective function value of the dual-relax penalty problem and of the original bilevel programming problem. An example is illustrated to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  1. The effects of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Park, Jin-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dual-task gait training on foot pressure in elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly people in local communities performed dual-task gait training for 20 minutes three times per week for 8 weeks. Foot pressure was measured using an F-scan System (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA) before the intervention and in the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention. [Results] Foot pressure increased significantly between the 4th and 8th weeks of the intervention in the CFF (central forefoot); between before the intervention and the 4th week, between the 4th and 8th weeks, and between before the intervention and the 8th week in the MF (midfoot); and between before the intervention and the 4th and 8th weeks in the HL (heel). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that dual-task gait training may improve the gait ability of elderly persons residing in the community.

  2. Dual-Source Linear Energy Prediction (LINE-P) Model in the Context of WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faisal; Tamberg, Gert; Le Moullec, Yannick; Annus, Paul

    2017-07-20

    Energy harvesting technologies such as miniature power solar panels and micro wind turbines are increasingly used to help power wireless sensor network nodes. However, a major drawback of energy harvesting is its varying and intermittent characteristic, which can negatively affect the quality of service. This calls for careful design and operation of the nodes, possibly by means of, e.g., dynamic duty cycling and/or dynamic frequency and voltage scaling. In this context, various energy prediction models have been proposed in the literature; however, they are typically compute-intensive or only suitable for a single type of energy source. In this paper, we propose Linear Energy Prediction "LINE-P", a lightweight, yet relatively accurate model based on approximation and sampling theory; LINE-P is suitable for dual-source energy harvesting. Simulations and comparisons against existing similar models have been conducted with low and medium resolutions (i.e., 60 and 22 min intervals/24 h) for the solar energy source (low variations) and with high resolutions (15 min intervals/24 h) for the wind energy source. The results show that the accuracy of the solar-based and wind-based predictions is up to approximately 98% and 96%, respectively, while requiring a lower complexity and memory than the other models. For the cases where LINE-P's accuracy is lower than that of other approaches, it still has the advantage of lower computing requirements, making it more suitable for embedded implementation, e.g., in wireless sensor network coordinator nodes or gateways.

  3. A hierarchical linear modeling assessment of dual-addiction status and change in sexual compulsivity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association between dual-addiction status and sexual compulsivity over time in a sample of self-identified sexually compulsive males. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to address the study's research questions. Dually addicted sexually compulsive males exhibited lower rates of sexual compulsivity than their singularly addicted counterparts initially but displayed less precipitous declines in sexual compulsiveness over time. Implications for treatment providers are discussed.

  4. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2013-11-15

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation.

  5. A Riccati Based Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Method for Linear Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Edlund, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control of linear systems. The novelty of our algorithm is that it combines a homogeneous and self-dual model, and a specialized Riccati iteration procedure. We test...... the algorithm in a conceptual study of power systems management. Simulations show that in comparison to state of the art software implementation of IPMs, our method is significantly faster and scales in a favourable way....

  6. Non-linearity parameter / of binary liquid mixtures at elevated pressures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J D Pandey; J Chhabra; R Dey; V Sanguri; R Verma

    2000-09-01

    When sound waves of high amplitude propagate, several non-linear effects occur. Ultrasonic studies in liquid mixtures provide valuable information about structure and interaction in such systems. The present investigation comprises of theoretical evaluation of the acoustic non-linearity parameter / of four binary liquid mixtures using Tong and Dong equation at high pressures and = 303.15 K. Thermodynamic method has also been used to calculate the non-linearity parameter after making certain approximations.

  7. The effect of non-linear capacitances in the localization properties of aperiodic dual electric transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Edmundo; Garrido, Alejandro; Neira, Félix

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the localization properties of dual electric transmission lines with non-linear capacitances. The VC,n voltage across each capacitor is selected as a non-linear function of the electric charge qn, i.e., VC,n = qn(1/Cn -ɛn|qn|2) where Cn is the linear part of the capacitance and ɛn the amplitude of the non-linear term. We follow a binary distribution of values of ɛn, according to the Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. The localization behavior of this non-linear case indicates that the case m = 2 does not belong to the m ≥ 3, family because when m changes from m = 2 to m = 3, the number of extended states diminishes dramatically. This proves the topological difference of the m = 2 and m = 3 families. However, by increasing m values, localization behavior of the m-tupling family resembles that of the m = 2, case because the system begins to regain its extended states. The exact same result was obtained recently in the study of linear direct transmission lines with m-tupling distribution of inductances. Consequently, we state that the localization behavior of the m-tupling family as a function of the m value is independent of both the linear and the non-linear system under study, but independent of the kind of transmission line (dual or direct). This is curious behavior of the m-tupling family and thus deserves more scholarly attention.

  8. Development of a dual-pulse RF driver for an S-band (= 2856 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Ha, Jang Ho; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hui Su; Buaphad, Pikad

    2016-04-01

    The radiation equipment research division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed a Container Inspection System (CIS) using a Radio Frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for port security. The primary purpose of the CIS is to detect nuclear materials and explosives, as well country-specific prohibited substances, e.g., smuggled. The CIS consists of a 9/6 MeV dualenergy electron linear accelerator for distinguishing between organic and inorganic materials. The accelerator consists of an electron gun, an RF accelerating structure, an RF driver, a modulator, electromagnets, a cooling system, a X-ray generating target, X-ray collimator, a detector, and a container moving system. The RF driver is an important part of the configuration because it is the RF power source: it supplies the RF power to the accelerating structure. A unique aspect of the RF driver is that it generates dual RF power to generate dual energy (9/6 MeV). The advantage of this RF driver is that it can allow the pulse width to vary and can be used to obtain a wide range of energy output, and pulse repetition rates up to 300 Hz. For this reason, 140 W (5 MW - 9 MeV) and 37 W (3.4 MW - 6 MeV) power outputs are available independently. A high power test for 20 minutes demonstrate that stable dual output powers can be generated. Moreover, the dual power can be applied to the accelerator which has stable accelerator operation. In this paper, the design, fabrication and high power test of the RF driver for the RF electron linear accelerator (linac) are presented.

  9. Dual luminophor pressure-sensitive paint: III. Application to automotive model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouterman, Martin; Callis, James; Dalton, Larry; Khalil, Gamal; Mébarki, Youssef; Cooper, Kevin R.; Grenier, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Porphyrins play key roles in natural energy conversion systems, including photosynthesis and oxygen transport. Because of their chemical stability, unique optical properties and synthetic versatility, porphyrins are well suited as chemical sensors. One successful application is the use of platinum porphyrin (PtP) in pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). Oxygen in the film quenches luminescence, and oxygen pressure was initially monitored by measuring the ratio of I(wind-off)/I(wind-on). But this ratio is compromised if there is model motion and if the paint layer is inhomogeneous. Furthermore it requires careful monitoring and placement of light sources. Moreover, this method is seriously affected by temperature. The errors caused by model motion and temperature sensitivity are eliminated or greatly reduced using dual luminophor paint. This paper illustrates a successful application of a dual luminophor PSP in auto model testing. The PSP is made from an oxygen sensitive luminophor, Pt tetra(pentafluorophenyl)-porpholactone, which provides Isen, and Mg tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine, which provides temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) as the pressure-independent reference. The ratio PSP/TSP in the FIB polymer produced ideal PSP measurements with a very low-temperature dependence of -0.1% °C-1.

  10. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  11. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Berlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema.

  12. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlet, Thomas; Marchon, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema.

  13. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Yifang; Li, Anlin; Zhou, Zhou; Sun, Daoheng; Wang, Lingyun

    2016-01-26

    A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE) simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale) in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  14. Testing the dual-route model of perceived gaze direction: Linear combination of eye and head cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Mareschal, Isabelle; Clifford, Colin W G

    2016-06-01

    We have recently proposed a dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction (Otsuka, Mareschal, Calder, & Clifford, 2014; Otsuka, Mareschal, & Clifford, 2015), which computes perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation. By parametrically manipulating eye orientation and head orientation, we tested the adequacy of a linear model to account for the effect of horizontal head orientation on perceived direction of gaze. Here, participants adjusted an on-screen pointer toward the perceived gaze direction in two image conditions: Normal condition and Wollaston condition. Images in the Normal condition included a change in the visible part of the eye along with the change in head orientation, while images in the Wollaston condition were manipulated to have identical eye regions across head orientations. Multiple regression analysis with explanatory variables of eye orientation and head orientation revealed that linear models account for most of the variance both in the Normal condition and in the Wollaston condition. Further, we found no evidence that the model with a nonlinear term explains significantly more variance. Thus, the current study supports the dual-route model that computes the perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation.

  15. Modelling of the dual frequency capacitive sheath in the intermediate pressure range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, P C [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Robiche, J [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91 128 Cedex (France); Turner, M M [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2004-05-21

    The nonlinearity of the plasma sheath in dual frequency capacitively coupled reactors is investigated for frequencies well above the ion plasma frequency. This work focuses on the behaviour of the voltage and the sheath width with respect to the driving current source and the collisionality regime. For typical plasma processing applications, the gas pressure ranges from a few milliTorrs to hundreds of milliTorrs, and the ion dynamics span different collisional regimes. To describe these different ion dynamics, we have used a collisionless model and a variable mobility model. The sheath widths and the voltages obtained from these two models have then been compared.

  16. AN OPTIMAL METHOD FOR ADJUSTING THE CENTERING PARAMETER IN THE WIDE-NEIGHBORHOOD PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT ALGORITHM FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-bao Ai

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a dynamic optimal method for adjusting the centering pa-rameter in the wide-neighborhood primal-dual interior-point algorithms for linear pro-gramming, while the centering parameter is generally a constant in the classical wide-neighborhood primal-dual interior-point algorithms. The computational results show thatthe new method is more efficient.

  17. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method.

  18. Fuzzy optimization of primal-dual pair using piecewise linear membership functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper improves the model of Bector and Chandra [Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 125 (2002 317-325] on duality in fuzzy linear programming by using non-linear membership functions. Numerical problem discussed by these authors has also been worked out through our non-linear model to demonstrate improved optimality of the results.

  19. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  20. Effects of reverse waves on the hydrodynamic pressure acting on a dual porous horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweon Hyuck-Min

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The seaward reverse wave, occurring on the submerged dual porous horizontal plate, can contribute to the reduction of the transmitted wave as it reflects the propagating wave. However, the collision between the propa¬gating and seaward reverse waves increases the water level and acts as a weight on the horizontal plate. This study investigated the characteristics of the wave pressure created by the seaward reverse wave through the analysis of expe¬rimental data. The analysis confirmed the following results: 1 the time series of the wave pressure showed reverse phase phenomena due to the collision, and the wave pressures acted simultaneously on both upper and lower surfaces of the horizontal plate; 2 the horizontal plate became repeatedly compressed and tensile before and after the occur¬rence of the seaward reverse wave; and 3 the seaward reverse wave created the total wave pressure to the maximum towards the direction of gravity, primarily on the upper plate. It was also confirmed that the wave distributions showed a similar trend to the wave steepness. Such outcome of the analysis will provide basic information to the structural analysis of the horizontal plate as a wave dissipater of the steel-type breakwater (STB.

  1. Compact Dual-Band Linearly Polarized Patch Antenna using Metamaterials for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Rajaraman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel miniaturized dual-band patch antenna based on the metamaterial concept. Complementary split ring resonators, which are excellent structures for miniaturization; along with spiral resonators are used in the proposed design for obtaining a compact dual-band patch antenna. The original patch which is designed to resonate at 2.86 GHz is found to resonate at 1.92 GHz & 2.44 GHz when loaded with three pairs of square complementary ring resonators. Further its ground is also loaded with a spiral resonator yielding a relatively compact antenna structure. The present design has been tuned to the above two bands which finds application in PCS and WLAN applications. The percentage of miniaturization obtained is 51.4 % & 17.6 % respectively. The proposed antenna achieves an efficiency of 80% & 37% in the two bands of resonance.

  2. Linear modeling of single-shot dual-energy x-ray imaging using a sandwich detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Yun, S.; Youn, H.; Jeon, H.; Kim, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    For single-shot dual-energy (DE) imaging, a sandwich detector typically consists of a thin front detector and a thick rear detector. Therefore, the spatial-resolution characteristics of the two detectors are different, and as a result, weighted subtraction of the corresponding two images gives rise to edge-enhancement characteristics in the resulting DE images. This is a unique characteristic of single-shot DE imaging compared to the conventional dual-shot DE imaging which uses the same detector to acquire low- and high-energy images. Using a linear-systems theory, in this paper, we show that the modulation-transfer function (MTF) of a sandwich detector is a weighted average of contributions from each MTF characteristic of two detector layers forming the sandwich detector. The MTF results obtained using the developed model are validated with those measured directly from single-shot DE images for an edge-knife phantom. Weighting larger than at least 0.5 in DE reconstruction gives an enhancement in DE MTF at mid and high spatial frequencies compared to the MTFs obtained from each detector layer. The behavior of the linear model as a function of weighting factor used for DE reconstruction is discussed in comparisons with numerical simulations.

  3. Electron heating and particle fluxes in dual frequency atmospheric-pressure helium capacitive discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingxin; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Chen; Rong, Mingzhe; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, a 1D fluid model has been used to study the electron heating and particle transport in dual frequency atmospheric-pressure helium capacitive discharge with a high-frequency (HF) voltage of 10 MHz and a low-frequency (LF) voltage of 1 MHz. The electric field is decoupled to three components: the HF, the LF and the direct current (DC) ones, and they have much different effects on the plasmas. The eletrons in plasma bulk are mainly heated by the HF electric field, while in plasma sheath they are heated and cooled by the LF and DC electric fields, respectively. With a fixed total input power, the increase of LF power leads to great enhancement of the electrode fluxes of electrons and ions, especially for the energetic electrons of T e  >  2 eV, because more power is dissipated in the vicinity of electrodes and the inelastic collision is more pronounced. Therefore, the particle transport on the treated sample can be greatly enhanced without additional gas heating in dual frequency plasmas, which meets the application requirements more compared to the single frequency plasmas.

  4. Towards a non-linear theory for fluid pressure and osmosis in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droghei, Riccardo; Salusti, Ettore

    2015-04-01

    In exploiting deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, often injections of fluid and/or solute are used. To control and avoid troubles as fluid and gas unexpected diffusions, a reservoir characterization can be obtained also from observations of space and time evolution of micro-earthquake clouds resulting from such injections. This is important since several among the processes caused by fluid injections can modify the deep matrix. Information about the evolution of such micro-seismicity clouds therefore plays a realistic role in the reservoir analyses. To reach a better insight about such processes, and obtain a better system control, we here analyze the initial stress necessary to originate strong non linear transients of combined fluid pressure and solute density (osmosis) in a porous matrix. All this can indeed perturb in a mild (i.e. a linear diffusion) or dramatic non linear way the rock structure, till inducing rock deformations, micro-earthquakes or fractures. I more detail we here assume first a linear Hooke law relating strain, stress, solute density and fluid pressure, and analyze their effect in the porous rock dynamics. Then we analyze its generalization, i.e. the further non linear effect of a stronger external pressure, also in presence of a trend of pressure or solute in the whole region. We moreover characterize the zones where a sudden arrival of such a front can cause micro-earthquakes or fractures. All this allows to reach a novel, more realistic insight about the control of rock evolution in presence of strong pressure fronts. We thus obtain a more efficient reservoir control to avoid large geological perturbations. It is of interest that our results are very similar to those found by Shapiro et al.(2013) with a different approach.

  5. Thermodynamic modelling and optimization of a dual pressure reheat combined power cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Srinivas

    2010-10-01

    Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plays a key role on performance of combined cycle (CC). In this work, attention was focused on a dual pressure reheat (DPRH) HRSG to maximize the heat recovery and hence performance of CC. Deaerator, an essential open feed water heater in steam bottoming cycle was located to enhance the efficiency and remove the dissolved gasses in feedwater. Each of the heating section in HRSG is solved from the local flue gas condition with an aim of getting minimum possible temperature difference. For high performance, better conditions for compressor, HRSG sections, steam reheater and deaerator are developed. The CC system is optimized at a gas turbine inlet temperature of 1400°C due to the present available technology of modern gas turbine blade cooling systems. The exergetic losses in CC system are compared with each other. The present DPRH HRSG model has been compared and validated with the plant and published data.

  6. A two-dimensional mathematical model of non-linear dual-sorption of percutaneous drug absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain drugs, for example scopolamine and timolol, show non-linear kinetic behavior during permeation process. This non-linear kinetic behavior is due to two mechanisms; the first mechanism being a simple dissolution producing mobile and freely diffusible molecules and the second being an adsorption process producing non-mobile molecules that do not participate in the diffusion process. When such a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, C, the donor concentration. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter value, C, when the region of the contact of the skin with drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. To confirm that dual-sorption process gives an explanation to non-linear kinetic behavior, the characteristic features that are used in one-dimensional models are (1 prolongation of half-life if the plot of flux versus time are straight lines soon after the vehicle removal, (2 the decrease in half-life with increase in donor concentration. This paper introduces another feature as a characteristic to confirm that dual-sorption model gives an explanation to the non-linear kinetic behavior of the drug. This new feature is "the prolongation of half-life is not a necessary feature if the plots of drug flux versus time is a non-linear curve, soon after the vehicle removal". Methods From biological point of view, a drug absorption model is said to be nonlinear if the sorption isotherm is non-linear. When a model is non-linear the relationship between lag-time and donor concentration is non-linear and the lag time decreases with increase in donor concentration. A two-dimensional dual-sorption model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which shows non-linear kinetic behavior in the permeation process. This model may be used when the diffusion of the drug in

  7. Output regulation for linear singular systems using dual-observer based compensators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Joachim

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the output regulation problem is solved for singular systems by using dual observer-based compensators. This has the advantage that output regulation can be achieved under weak conditions. Namely, different from previous approaches, an implementable compensator can be directly determined in form of a classical state space model without a transformation into Weierstrass-Kronecker canonical form. Furthermore, the impulse controllability and observability of the singular system is not required and the output to be controlled needs not be measurable. The results of the article are demonstrated by means of a simple mechanical system.

  8. An approach to determine pressure profile generated by compression bandage using quasi-linear viscoelastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bipin; Das, Apurba; Alagirusamy, R

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the stress relaxation behavior of the compression bandage could be very useful in determining the behavior of the interface pressure exerted by the bandage on a limb during the course of the compression treatment. There has been no comprehensive study in the literature to investigate the pressure profile (interface pressure with time) generated by a compression bandage when applied at different levels of strain. The present study attempts to describe the pressure profile, with the use of a quasi-linear viscoelastic model, generated by a compression bandage during compression therapy. The quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory proposed by Fung (Fung, 1972, "Stress Strain History Relations of Soft Tissues in Simple Elongation," Biomechanics: Its Foundations and Objectives, Y. C. Fung, N. Perrone, and M. Anliker, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 181-207). was used to model the nonlinear time- and history-dependent relaxation behavior of the bandage using the ramp strain approach. The regression analysis was done to find the correlation between the pressure profile and the relaxation behavior of the bandage. The parameters of the QLV model, describing the relaxation behavior of the bandage, were used to determine the pressure profile generated by the bandage at different levels of strain. The relaxation behaviors of the bandage at different levels of strain were well described by the QLV model parameters. A high correlation coefficient (nearly 0.98) shows a good correlation of the pressure profile with the stress relaxation behavior of the bandage.The prediction of the pressure profile using the QLV model parameters were in agreement with the experimental data. The pressure profile generated by a compression bandage could be predicted using the QLV model describing the nonlinear relaxation behavior of the bandage. This new application of the QLV theory helps in evaluating the bandage performance during compression therapy as scientific wound

  9. The Development of a Dual-Warhead Impact System for Dynamic Linearity Measurement of a High-g Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunbo; Yang, Zhicai; Ma, Zongmin; Cao, Huiliang; Kou, Zhiwei; Zhi, Dan; Chen, Yanxiang; Feng, Hengzhen; Liu, Jun

    2016-06-08

    Despite its extreme significance, dynamic linearity measurement for high-g accelerometers has not been discussed experimentally in previous research. In this study, we developed a novel method using a dual-warhead Hopkinson bar to measure the dynamic linearity of a high-g acceleration sensor with a laser interference impact experiment. First, we theoretically determined that dynamic linearity is a performance indicator that can be used to assess the quality merits of high-g accelerometers and is the basis of the frequency response. We also found that the dynamic linearity of the dual-warhead Hopkinson bar without an accelerometer is 2.5% experimentally. Further, we verify that dynamic linearity of the accelerometer is 3.88% after calibrating the Hopkinson bar with the accelerometer. The results confirm the reliability and feasibility of measuring dynamic linearity for high-g accelerometers using this method.

  10. The Development of a Dual-Warhead Impact System for Dynamic Linearity Measurement of a High-g Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its extreme significance, dynamic linearity measurement for high-g accelerometers has not been discussed experimentally in previous research. In this study, we developed a novel method using a dual-warhead Hopkinson bar to measure the dynamic linearity of a high-g acceleration sensor with a laser interference impact experiment. First, we theoretically determined that dynamic linearity is a performance indicator that can be used to assess the quality merits of high-g accelerometers and is the basis of the frequency response. We also found that the dynamic linearity of the dual-warhead Hopkinson bar without an accelerometer is 2.5% experimentally. Further, we verify that dynamic linearity of the accelerometer is 3.88% after calibrating the Hopkinson bar with the accelerometer. The results confirm the reliability and feasibility of measuring dynamic linearity for high-g accelerometers using this method.

  11. A novel plate type linear piezoelectric actuator using dual-frequency drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Zhiyuan; Jian, Yue; Li, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a novel rectangular structure linear piezoelectric actuator that utilizes two lower order decoupled vibration modes is developed and investigated. A noticeable trait of the linear piezoelectric actuator is that it can realize bi-directional motion by changing the vibration mode of the stator with different exciting frequencies. Modal and harmonic analysis of the stator are performed by the finite element method to determine the actuator structure and dimensions and stablished that the driving tip trajectories are diagonal lines. The direction of the actuator is controlled by the orientation of the diagonal motion generated at the driving tip. When the diagonal motion is inclined right as the driving tip approaches the linear guide, it will move the linear guide right. Correspondingly, the linear guide will move to the left, if the diagonal motion inclines left. In addition, a prototype linear piezoelectric actuator is fabricated and experimented. The results of the experiments indicate that the actuator has good mechanical output characteristics. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 504 mm s-1 and maximum mechanical load of 6.5 kg.

  12. Review of Singular Cooling Inlet and Linear Pressure Drop for ITER Coils Cable in Conduit Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicollet, S.; Bessette, D.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Lacroix, B.; Lebailly, C. A.; Serries, J. P.

    2006-04-01

    New tests and measurements performed (Othello Facility, EFDA Task) on TF mock up cooling inlet and different central spirals (characteristics: hydraulic outer diameter and perforation ratio) are presented, as well as the new model of singular and linear friction factor. The ITER Coils CICC hydraulic length pressure drop is determined in operating conditions (m=8 g/s, P=0.6 MPa and T=5 K): the important result is an increase in linear pressure drop for the TF (290 Pa/m) and CS (430 Pa/m), in comparison with prototype model coils TFMC (100 Pa/m) and CSMC (180 Pa/m). The main reason is the reduction of the central spiral diameter and associated increase of friction factor and bundle to total mass flow ratio α (from 1/3 up to 2/3 typically). The ratio of singular cooling inlet to CICC linear pressure drop is estimated: TF mock up ratio (3 m) is lower than previous CS mock up tested (12 m), due to design changes. The cryogenic power necessary to compensate the CICC pressure drop is calculated for the 4 primary loop circuits: typically 2.3 kW at 5 K for TF winding system represents 40% of the whole average TF winding magnet heat loads during operation.

  13. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  14. Continuous-wave four-wave mixing with linear growth based on electromagnetically dual induced transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Li(李家华); Wenxing Yang(杨文星); Jucun Peng(彭菊村)

    2004-01-01

    Using Schrodinger-Maxwell formalism, we propose and analyze a continuous-wave four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme for the generation of coherent light in a six-level atomic system based on electromagnetically dual induced transparency. We derive the corresponding explicit analytical expressions for the generated mixing field. We find that the scheme greatly enhances FWM production efficiency and is also capable of inhibiting and delaying the onset of the detrimental three-photon destructive interference by choosing the proper decay rate in the second electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) process.In addition, such an optical process also provides possibilities for producing short-wave-length coherent radiation at low pump intensities.

  15. Linear Growth of Continuous-Wave Four-Wave Mixing with Dual Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Yi; LI Jia-Hua

    2005-01-01

    Using Schrodinger-Maxwell formalism, we propose and analyze an optical four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme for the generation of coherent light in a coherent six-level atomic medium based on dual electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that the significantly enhanced conversion efficiency enabled by ultraslow propagation of pump waves has no direct relationship with the single-photon detuning, which is different from the FWM with a single EIT. The most important feature is that our scheme is also capable of inhibiting and delaying the onset of the detrimental three-photon destructive interference that looks like a recent scheme [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 243902] andmay be used for generating short-wave-length coherent radiation.

  16. Three-dimensional N=4 linear quivers and non-Abelian T-duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Yolanda [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, Oviedo, 33007 (Spain); Macpherson, Niall T. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Milano, I-20126 (Italy); Montero, Jesús [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, Oviedo, 33007 (Spain); Núñez, Carlos [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-22

    In this paper we construct a new Type IIB background with an AdS{sub 4} factor that preserves N=4 Supersymmetry. This solution is obtained using a non-Abelian T-duality transformation on the Type IIA reduction of the AdS{sub 4}×S{sup 7} background. We interpret our configuration as a patch of a more general background with localised sources, dual to the renormalisation fixed point of a T{sub ρ}{sup ρ̂}(SU(N)) quiver field theory. This relates explicitly the AdS{sub 4} geometry to a D3-D5-NS5 brane intersection, illuminating what seems to be a more general phenomenon, relating AdS{sub p+1} backgrounds generated by non-Abelian T-duality to Dp-D(p+2)-NS5 branes intersections.

  17. Efficient Dual Domain Decoding of Linear Block Codes Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Azouaoui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A computationally efficient algorithm for decoding block codes is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA. The proposed algorithm uses the dual code in contrast to the existing genetic decoders in the literature that use the code itself. Hence, this new approach reduces the complexity of decoding the codes of high rates. We simulated our algorithm in various transmission channels. The performance of this algorithm is investigated and compared with competitor decoding algorithms including Maini and Shakeel ones. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives large gains over the Chase-2 decoding algorithm and reach the performance of the OSD-3 for some quadratic residue (QR codes. Further, we define a new crossover operator that exploits the domain specific information and compare it with uniform and two point crossover. The complexity of this algorithm is also discussed and compared to other algorithms.

  18. Three-dimensional N=4 Linear Quivers and non-Abelian T-duals

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Yolanda; Montero, Jesus; Nunez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we construct a new Type IIB background with an $AdS_4$ factor that preserves ${\\cal N}=4$ Supersymmetry. This solution is obtained using a non-Abelian T-duality transformation on the Type IIA reduction of the $AdS_4\\times S^7$ background. We interpret our configuration as a patch of a more general background with localised sources, dual to the renormalisation fixed point of a $T_{\\rho}^{\\hat{\\rho}} (SU(N))$ quiver field theory. This relates explicitly the $AdS_4$ geometry to a D3-D5-NS5 brane intersection, illuminating what seems to be a more general phenomenon, relating $AdS_{p+1}$ backgrounds generated by non-Abelian T-duality to Dp-D(p+2)-NS5 branes intersections.

  19. Three-dimensional {N}=4 linear quivers and non-Abelian T-duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Yolanda; Macpherson, Niall T.; Montero, Jesús; Núñez, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we construct a new Type IIB background with an AdS 4 factor that preserves {N}=4 Supersymmetry. This solution is obtained using a non-Abelian T-duality transformation on the Type IIA reduction of the AdS 4 × S 7 background. We interpret our configuration as a patch of a more general background with localised sources, dual to the renormalisation fixed point of a {T}_{ρ}^{widehat{ρ}}(SU(N)) quiver field theory. This relates explicitly the AdS 4 geometry to a D3-D5-NS5 brane intersection, illuminating what seems to be a more general phenomenon, relating AdS p+1 backgrounds generated by non-Abelian T-duality to Dp- D( p + 2)-NS5 branes intersections.

  20. On the chaotic behavior of the primal-dual affine-scaling algorithm for linear optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, H; Fokkink, R; Gu, G; Roos, C

    2014-12-01

    We study a one-parameter family of quadratic maps, which serves as a template for interior point methods. It is known that such methods can exhibit chaotic behavior, but this has been verified only for particular linear optimization problems. Our results indicate that this chaotic behavior is generic.

  1. Using dual-band asymmetric transmission effect of 2D metamaterial to manipulate linear polarization state of electromagnetic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Yong Pan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a two-dimensional (2D bilayered metamaterial that exhibits dual-band asymmetric transmission (AT effect for linear polarization. The measured cross-polarization transmissions are 0.88 at 5.68 GHz and 0.92 at 10.7 GHz in one direction, while the corresponding cross-polarization transmissions are suppressed down to 0.17 and 0.18 in the opposite direction, and the AT parameters Δx/Δy reach 0.73/−0.73 and 0.80/−0.80 respectively. The simulated surface current distributions reveal that the underlying physics originates from the induced magnetic coupling. The simulated resonant electric/magnetic field distributions show that the proposed structure follows the principle of metamaterials’ subwavelength.

  2. Linear Analysis for Performance of Dual Mass Flywheel with Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorbers System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have offered an investigation of DMF-CPVAs setup for isolating torsional vibration from engine. The simplified mathematical model of DMF-CPVAs setup is built based on the linear theory, the performance of the setup is analyzed, and the result shows that using CPVAs on the DMF leads to an advantage of isolation vibration, instead of just damping vibrations at a specific frequency, could dampen vibrations over a range of frequencies.

  3. A high linearity dual-band mixer for IMT-A and UWB systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xusheng; Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Jiang; Tang Xin; Huang Fengyi

    2014-01-01

    The design and analysis ofa reconfigurable dual-band down-conversion mixer for IMT-advanced (3.4-3.6 GHz) and UWB (4.2-4.8 GHz) applications are presented.Based on a folded double-balanced Gilbert cell,which is well known for its low voltage,simplicity and well balanced performance,the mixer adopts a capacitive cross-coupling technique for input matching and performance improvement.Switched capacitors and resistors are added to shift the working bands.Fabricated in a TSMC 0.13 μm process,the test results show flat conversion gains from 9.6 to 10.3 dB on the IMT-A band and from 9.7 to 10.4 dB on the UWB band,with a noise figure of about 15 dB on both bands.The input third-order intercept points (IIP3) are about 7.3 dBm on both of the frequency bands.The whole chip consumes 11 mW under 1.2 V supply and the total area of the layout is 0.76 × 0.65 mm2.

  4. Non-linear lattice response of Sm oxypnictides to hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarokapis, E.; Calamiotou, M.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrostatic pressure Raman measurements at room temperature have been carried out on the SmFeAsO (Sm1111) series of oxypnictides with various substitutions (F for O and Co for Fe) and transition temperature in order to investigate lattice modifications and their connection to doping and superconductivity. Synchrotron XRD data on some of these compounds indicated that at low doping the lattice constants vary smoothly with pressure, but with further increasing of the carrier concentration there is a deviation from the normal equation of state and these effects are related with modifications in the superconducting FeAs4 tetrahedra. The hydrostatic pressure Raman measurements indicate that the A1g mode of the rare earth atom for the superconducting compounds deviates from the linear pressure dependence at the same pressures where the XRD results show pressure-induced lattice anomalies. A similar anomaly is found for the As phonon of the same symmetry. As in cuprates, the effect is diminished in the non-superconducting compounds and it is not related with the F substitution being present in the Sm(Fe1-xCox)AsO as well. The calculated Grüneisen parameters indicate a more anharmonic phonon for the Fe atom compared with the Sm and As atoms.

  5. Métodos tipo dual simplex para problemas de otimização linear canalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Silveira Sousa

    2005-01-01

    A otimização linear tem sido objeto de intenso estudo desde a publicação do método simplex de Dantzig em 1947, sendo revigorada a partir de 1984 com a publicação de um método de pontos interiores por Karmarkar, o qual demonstrou ser computacionalmente eficiente e com propriedade de convergência polinomial no estudo do pior caso. Embora muitas variantes do método simplex não tenham complexidade polinomial, elas apresentam um comportamento polinomial em termos do número de restrições do problem...

  6. Pressure retarded osmosis dual-layer hollow fiber membranes developed by co-casting method and ammonium persulfate (APS) treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Fengjiang

    2014-11-01

    Delamination and low water permeability are two issues limiting the applications of dual-layer hollow fiber membranes in the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In this work, we first developed a universal co-casting method that is able to co-cast highly viscous dope solutions to form homogeneous dual-layer flat sheet membranes. By employing this method prior to the tedious dual-layer hollow fiber spinning process, both time and material consumptions are significantly saved. The addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is found to eliminate delamination at the sacrifice of water flux. A new post-treatment method that involves flowing ammonium persulfate (APS) solution and DI water counter-currently is potentially to remove the PVP molecules entrapped in the substrate while keeps the integrity of the interface. As the APS concentration increases, the water flux in the PRO process is increased while the salt leakage is slightly decreased. With the optimized APS concentration of 5wt%, the post-treated membrane shows a maximum power density of 5.10W/m2 at a hydraulic pressure of 15.0bar when 1M NaCl and 10mM NaCl were used as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the best phase inversion dual-layer hollow fiber membrane with an outer selective layer for osmotic power generation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Linear Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Verification of a Pressure Regulator for CNG Injection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hübner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of motor vehicles powered by internal combustion engines keeps growing despite shrinking oil reserves. As a result, compressed natural gas (CNG is gaining currency as an emerging combustion engine fuel. To this day, CNG systems – e.g., in passenger cars – are not fully integrated into the development process as conducted by vehicle or engine manufacturers. Instead, they are usually "adapted in" at a downstream stage by small, specialized companies. The present paper initially outlines the state of the art in advanced gas injection technologies. Especially the development towards sequential injection systems is described. A pressure regulator for CNG driven combustion engines is examined in detail, given its role as a highly sensitive and critical system component. Based on a precise theoretical analysis, a linear model of this pressure regulator is derived and subjected to dynamic simulation. The analytical approach is accompanied by an experimental investigation of the device. On a test rig developed at the Trier University of Applied Sciences, the static and dynamic features of the pressure regulator can be measured with the requisite precision. The comparison of measured and simulated data yields a validation of the dynamic simulation model. With the approaches developed it is now possible for the first time to model, simulate and optimize single- or multi-stage pressure regulators for CNG driven engines with less effort and higher accuracy.

  8. Tailoring electron energy distribution functions through energy confinement in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-08

    A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.

  9. Dual specific phosphatase 12 ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhu, Guo-Fu; Peng, Wen-Hui; Zhu, Meng-Yun; Yu, Xue-Jing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Da-Chun; Xu, Ya-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor of heart failure. However, we still lack effective methods to reverse cardiac hypertrophy. DUSP12 is a member of the dual specific phosphatase (DUSP) family, which is characterized by its DUSP activity to dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on one substrate. Some DUSPs have been identified as being involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of DUSP12 during pathological cardiac hypertrophy is still unclear. In the present study, we observed a significant decrease in DUSP12 expression in hypertrophic hearts and cardiomyocytes. Using a genetic loss-of-function murine model, we demonstrated that DUSP12 deficiency apparently aggravated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as impaired cardiac function, whereas cardiac-specific overexpression of DUPS12 was capable of reversing this hypertrophic and fibrotic phenotype and improving contractile function. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JNK1/2 activity but neither ERK1/2 nor p38 activity was increased in the DUSP12 deficient group and decreased in the DUSP12 overexpression group both in vitro and in vivo under hypertrophic stress conditions. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 activity (SP600125) is capable of reversing the hypertrophic phenotype in DUSP12 knockout (KO) mice. DUSP12 protects against pathological cardiac hypertrophy and related pathologies. This regulatory role of DUSP12 is primarily through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition. DUSP12 could be a promising therapeutic target of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. DUSP12 is down-regulated in hypertrophic hearts. An absence of DUSP12 aggravated cardiac hypertrophy, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific DUSP12 overexpression can alleviate this hypertrophic phenotype with improved cardiac function. Further study demonstrated that DUSP12 inhibited JNK activity to attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophy. © 2016 The

  10. Measurement of Inhomogeneities in MIMS Thermocouples Using a Linear-Gradient Furnace and Dual Heat-Pipe Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.; White, D. R.; Edgar, H.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a linear-gradient furnace and a thermocouple homogeneity scanner that, together, measure changes in the Seebeck coefficient as a function of time and temperature. The furnace first exposes the test thermocouple to all temperatures in the range spanned by the furnace gradient. The homogeneity scanner then measures the Seebeck coefficient along the length of the thermocouple. By correlating the position on the thermocouple with the temperature in the furnace, changes in the Seebeck coefficient can be correlated with the temperature to which that part of the thermocouple was exposed. Repeat exposures for different durations allow the rapid accumulation of data describing drift versus temperature and time. The known profile of the furnace combined with the high resolution of the dual heat-pipe scanner enable the detection of Seebeck coefficient changes of less than 0.02 % over sub-millimeter distances. The high resolution of the scanner also minimizes the underestimation of short-range changes in the Seebeck coefficient. With the addition of other treatment processes, such as annealing, quenching, and cold work, the system can assess the full variety of reversible and irreversible effects in thermocouples. Preliminary experiments on base-metal thermocouples confirm much of the known long-term behavior. However, the system has also exposed the rapid onset of some of these effects at low temperatures, the large amount and variability of cold work in new thermocouples, and large variations between different thermocouples of the same type.

  11. A linear, separable two-parameter model for dual energy CT imaging of proton stopping power computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong, E-mail: radon.han@gmail.com; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and robustness of a simple, linear, separable, two-parameter model (basis vector model, BVM) in mapping proton stopping powers via dual energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging. Methods: The BVM assumes that photon cross sections (attenuation coefficients) of unknown materials are linear combinations of the corresponding radiological quantities of dissimilar basis substances (i.e., polystyrene, CaCl{sub 2} aqueous solution, and water). The authors have extended this approach to the estimation of electron density and mean excitation energy, which are required parameters for computing proton stopping powers via the Bethe–Bloch equation. The authors compared the stopping power estimation accuracy of the BVM with that of a nonlinear, nonseparable photon cross section Torikoshi parametric fit model (VCU tPFM) as implemented by the authors and by Yang et al. [“Theoretical variance analysis of single- and dual-energy computed tomography methods for calculating proton stopping power ratios of biological tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1343–1362 (2010)]. Using an idealized monoenergetic DECT imaging model, proton ranges estimated by the BVM, VCU tPFM, and Yang tPFM were compared to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) published reference values. The robustness of the stopping power prediction accuracy of tissue composition variations was assessed for both of the BVM and VCU tPFM. The sensitivity of accuracy to CT image uncertainty was also evaluated. Results: Based on the authors’ idealized, error-free DECT imaging model, the root-mean-square error of BVM proton stopping power estimation for 175 MeV protons relative to ICRU reference values for 34 ICRU standard tissues is 0.20%, compared to 0.23% and 0.68% for the Yang and VCU tPFM models, respectively. The range estimation errors were less than 1 mm for the BVM and Yang tPFM models, respectively. The BVM estimation accuracy is not dependent on

  12. AV interval optimization using pressure volume loops in dual chamber pacemaker patients with maintained systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Frank; Hanke, Thorsten; Fitschen, Joern; Heringlake, Matthias; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Wiegand, Uwe K H

    2012-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) interval optimization is often deemed too time-consuming in dual-chamber pacemaker patients with maintained LV function. Thus the majority of patients are left at their default AV interval. To quantify the magnitude of hemodynamic improvement following AV interval optimization in chronically paced dual chamber pacemaker patients. A pressure volume catheter was placed in the left ventricle of 19 patients with chronic dual chamber pacing and an ejection fraction >45 % undergoing elective coronary angiography. AV interval was varied in 10 ms steps from 80 to 300 ms, and pressure volume loops were recorded during breath hold. The average optimal AV interval was 152 ± 39 ms compared to 155 ± 8 ms for the average default AV interval (range 100-240 ms). The average improvement in stroke work following AV interval optimization was 935 ± 760 mmHg/ml (range 0-2,908; p AV interval changes the average stroke work by 207 ± 162 mmHg/ml. AV interval optimization also leads to improved systolic dyssynchrony indices (17.7 ± 7.0 vs. 19.4 ± 7.1 %; p = 0.01). The overall hemodynamic effect of AV interval optimization in patients with maintained LV function is in the same range as for patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy for several parameters. The positive effect of AV interval optimization also applies to patients who have been chronically paced for years.

  13. Non-linear conductivity of NbS{sub 3} in pressure induced metal state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizhur, Eugene; Kostyleva, Irina; Voronovskii, Anatoly [Institute for High Pressure Physics of RAS, Kaluzhskoe sh. 14, 142190 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Zaitzev-Zotov, Sergey [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the RAS, Mokhovaya ul. 11, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Temperature and voltage dependencies of conduction of a quasi-one-dimensional conductor NbS{sub 3} after its transition into a metallic state has been studied at pressures higher than 6 GPa. The differential resistance R = dV /dI measured at small biases (the electric field E below 2 V/cm) demonstrate a considerable growth upon cooling below 20 K accompanied by appearance of the non-linear conduction. Both the growth and nonlinear conduction disappear at E > 3 V/cm or when the temperature exceeds 40 K. A narrow dip visible only at much smaller fields E < 20 mV/cm is superimposed over that nonlinear background when cooling below 3.7 K. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.J. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei2001@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, M. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs.

  15. A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Yuan, Xuebing; Liu, Sheng

    2016-02-20

    To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination.

  16. Towards radiation pressure acceleration of protons using linearly polarized ultrashort petawatt laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, I Jong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Yu, Tae Jun; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Nam, Kee Hwan; Nickles, Peter V; Jeong, Tae Moon; Lee, Jongmin

    2013-01-01

    Particle acceleration using ultraintense, ultrashort laser pulses is one of the most attractive topics in relativistic laser-plasma research. We report proton/ion acceleration in the intensity range of 5x1019 W/cm2 to 3.3x1020 W/cm2 by irradiating linearly polarized, 30-fs, 1-PW laser pulses on 10- to 100-nm-thick polymer targets. The proton energy scaling with respect to the intensity and target thickness was examined. The experiments demonstrated, for the first time with linearly polarized light, a transition from the target normal sheath acceleration to radiation pressure acceleration and showed a maximum proton energy of 45 MeV when a 10-nm-thick target was irradiated by a laser intensity of 3.3x1020 W/cm2. The experimental results were further supported by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Based on the deduced proton energy scaling, proton beams having an energy of ~ 200 MeV should be feasible at a laser intensity of 1.5x1021 W/cm2.

  17. Dynamically Evolving Models for Dynamic Catchments: Application of the Locally Linear Dual EnKF to a Catchment with Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, S. D.; Marshall, L. A.; Sharma, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Catchments are dynamic, constantly undergoing change be it naturally or due to anthropogenic influences. Changes in land surface conditions such as disturbance due to bushfire or erosion, urbanisation, deforestation or afforestation will affect a catchment's hydrologic regime. Models calibrated to pre-change conditions will lead to biased streamflow predictions, unless the change is explicitly accounted for in the model. A modelling methodology that is capable of adjusting its form (for instance, through time varying parameters) as catchments undergo change is therefore needed. We developed a framework for automatically and objectively detecting time variations in model parameters using Data Assimilation. The so called Locally Linear Dual EnKF was previously tested against a range of synthetic case studies and shown to reproduce known temporal variations from assimilating streamflow observations only. In this study, we apply the Locally Linear Dual EnKF to the Wights and Salmon paired catchments in Western Australia. Both were initially forested and monitored for a 3 year period, after which Wights was fully cleared whilst Salmon remained unchanged. The lumped conceptual hydrologic model (PDM) was calibrated over the stationary period and the optimal parameterisation used to initialise the Locally Linear Dual EnKF. Resultant parameter trajectories for the Salmon catchment were relatively stationary, whilst parameters for the Wights catchment were automatically adjusted to produce greater flood peaks, sooner after rainfall, consistent with observations. A significant improvement in both streamflow prediction and catchment soil moisture was obtained with the Locally Linear Dual EnKF, compared to the time invariant parameter case. This application has demonstrated the usefulness of this framework for improving predictions in rapidly changing catchments.

  18. Full Dynamic-Range Pressure Sensor Matrix Based on Optical and Electrical Dual-Mode Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiandi; Que, Miaoling; Chen, Mengxiao; Han, Xun; Li, Xiaoyi; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-06

    Pressure sensor matrix (PSM) with full dynamic range can accurately detect and spatially map pressure profile. A 100 × 100 large-scale PSM gives both electrical and optical signals by itself without applying an external power. The device represents a major step toward digital imaging and visible display of pressure distribution covers a large dynamic range.

  19. Retrospective, nonrandomized controlled study on autoadjusting, dual-pressure positive airway pressure therapy for a consecutive series of complex insomnia disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; McIver, Natalia D; Ulibarri, Victor A; Nadorff, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence shows that positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) in chronic insomnia patients (proposed “complex insomnia” disorder) leads to substantial decreases in insomnia severity. Although continuous PAP (CPAP) is the pressure mode most widely researched, intolerance to fixed pressurized air is rarely investigated or described in comorbidity patients. This retrospective study examined dual pressure, autoadjusting PAP modes in chronic, complex insomnia disorder patients. Patients and methods Chronic insomnia disorder patients (mean [SD] insomnia severity index [ISI] =19.11 [3.34]) objectively diagnosed with OSA or UARS and using either autobilevel PAP device or adaptive servoventilation (ASV) device after failing CPAP therapy (frequently due to intolerance to pressurized air, poor outcomes, or emergence of CSA) were divided into PAP users (≥20 h/wk) and partial users (insomnia patients, PAP users (n=246) averaged 6.10 (1.78) nightly hours and 42.71 (12.48) weekly hours and partial users (n=56) averaged 1.67 (0.76) nightly hours and 11.70 (5.31) weekly hours. For mean (SD) decreases in total ISI scores, a significant (group × time) interaction was observed (F[1,300]=13.566; Pinsomnia symptoms (r=−0.256, PInsomnia severity significantly decreased in patients using autoadjusting PAP devices, but the study design restricts interpretation to an association. Future research must elucidate the interaction between insomnia and OSA/UARS as well as the adverse influence of pressure intolerance on PAP adaptation in complex insomnia patients. Randomized controlled studies must determine whether advanced PAP modes provide benefits over standard CPAP modes in these comorbidity patients. PMID:28331381

  20. Construction of linear empirical core models for pressurized water reactor in-core fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T. (The Ohio State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Program, 206 West 18th Ave., Columbus, OH (US))

    1988-06-01

    An empirical core model construction procedure for pressurized water reactor (PWR) in-core fuel management problems is presented that (a) incorporates the effect of composition changes in all the control zones in the core of a given fuel assembly, (b) is valid at all times during the cycle for a given range of control variables, (c) allows determining the optimal beginning of cycle (BOC) kappainfinity distribution as a single linear programming problem,and (d) provides flexibility in the choice of the material zones to describe core composition. Although the modeling procedure assumes zero BOC burnup, the predicted optimal kappainfinity profiles are also applicable to reload cores. In model construction, assembly power fractions and burnup increments during the cycle are regarded as the state (i.e., dependent) variables. Zone enrichments are the control (i.e., independent) variables. The model construction procedure is validated and implemented for the initial core of a PWR to determine the optimal BOC kappainfinity profiles for two three-zone scatter loading schemes. The predicted BOC kappainfinity profiles agree with the results of other investigators obtained by different modeling techniques.

  1. Design of Optimal Output Regulators for Dual-Rate Linear Discrete-Time Systems Based on the Lifting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujian Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A design strategy of optimal output regulators for dual-rate discrete-time systems, whose output sampling period is an integer multiple of the input updating period, is proposed. At first, by using the discrete lifting technique, the dual-rate discrete-time system is converted to a single-rate augmented system in form and the lifted state-space model is constructed. Correspondingly, the performance index of the original system is modified to the performance index of the single-rate augmented system. And the original problem is transformed into an output regulation problem for the augmented system. Then, according to the optimal regulator theory, an optimal output regulator for the dual-rate discrete-time system is derived. In the meantime, the existence conditions of the optimal output regulator are discussed. Finally, a numerical example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Pavement damaging effects from dual tyre configurations of heavy vehicles with tyre inflation pressure differentials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, M

    2015-08-16

    Full Text Available inflation pressure data in addition to tyre loading resulted in a rough empirical estimate of tyre inflation pressure directly from SIM contact stress measurements. In an ideal world, an instrument such as the SIM could be invaluable in not only capturing...

  3. Pavement damaging effects from dual tyre configurations of heavy vehicles with tyre inflation pressure differentials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available inflation pressure data in addition to tyre loading resulted in a rough empirical estimate of tyre inflation pressure directly from SIM contact stress measurements. In an ideal world, an instrument such as the SIM could be invaluable in not only capturing...

  4. CYLINDER PRESSURE VARIATIONS OF THE FUMIGATED HYDROGEN-DIESEL DUAL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthum Wongchai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylinder pressure is one of the main parameters of diesel engine combustion affecting several changes in exhaust gas emission composition and amount as well as engine useful power, specifically when alternative fuels are used. One among other alternative fuels for diesel engine is hydrogen that can be used as fumigated reagent with air prior to intake to engine in order to substitute the main fossil diesel. In this study, experimental investigation was accomplished using a single cylinder diesel engine for agriculture running on different ratios of hydrogen-to-diesel. Cylinder pressure traces corresponding to the crank angle positions were indicated and analyzed for maximum cylinder pressure and their coefficient of variation. The regression analysis is used to find the correlations between hydrogen percentage and the maximum cylinder pressure as well as its coefficient of variation. When higher hydrogen percentages were added, the combustion shifted toward later crank angles with the maximum cylinder pressure decreased and eminent effects at higher load and speed. The plots of hydrogen percentage against the coefficient of variation of the maximum cylinder pressure (COVPmax show the increase in variation of maximum cylinder pressure when the hydrogen percentage increased for all conditions tested. Gaseous hydrogen fumigated prior to intake to the engine reduced maximum cylinder pressure from the combustion while increasing the values of COVPmax. The maximum pressure-hydrogen percentage correlations and the COVPmax-hydrogen percentage correlations show better curve fittings by second order (n = 2 correlation compared to the first order (n = 1 correlation for all the test conditions.

  5. Analytical solution for spatially axisymmetric problem of thick-walled cylinder subjected to different linearly varying pressures along the axis and uniform pressures at two ends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To our best knowledge,in the open literature,there is no analytical solution of thick-walled cylinder subjected to uniform pressures at two ends and different inner-and outer-surface pressures that are constant circumferentially but vary linearly at different rates along the axis.We now present such a solution.After repeated trials,we have finally succeeded in finding a necessary new displacement function.Based on A.E.H.Love method,the stress,displacement and volume strain formulas are derived by using the new displacement function.The present results include the Lamé’s formulas as special cases.Furthermore,the results obtained here can be applied to not only the thick-walled cylinders subjected to uniform pressures on the inner and outer surface of the thick-walled cylinder,respectively,but also the cylinders subjected to uniform pressures at two ends and dif- ferent inner-and outer-surface pressures that are constant circumferentially but vary linearly at different rates along the axis,respectively.Finally we give a numerical example to compare our exact method with the approximate method.

  6. Dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank with linear-phase individual filters: an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lili; Liu, Han

    2013-12-01

    Dual-tree transforms have recently received much attention for the properties of shift-invariance and directional-selectivity. However, their designs generally encounter fractional-delay constraints, and become more complicated for providing linear-phase (LP) individual filters and flexible directional-selectivity, two important properties in image processing. In this paper, we propose an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform-the dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank (DTCMFB). In the proposed DTCMFB, its primal and dual filter banks are derived by cosine-modulating one LP prototype filter, and thus its design involves no fractional-delay constraints. Meanwhile, the derived modulation technique guarantees each individual filter to be LP and the LP condition is satisfied without any constraint on the prototype filter. By separable operations, the DTCMFB is extended to two-dimensions. The resulting 2D DTCMFB can provide much more flexible directional-selectivity. Finally, several simulations are given to verify the proposed DTCMFB, and the experiments on nonlinear approximation and image denoising are presented to demonstrate its potential in image processing.

  7. Unsteady Correlation between pressure and Temperature Field on Impinging Plate for Dual Underexpanded Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minoru YAGA; Hiroyuki HIGA; MATSUDA; lzuru SENAHA

    2009-01-01

    eady behavior of the jets. After the confirmation of the cor-relation, a simple way to find the severe fluctuating region can be provided according to the two dimensional un-steady temperature images without a lot of unsteady pressure measurements.

  8. Parental Time Pressures and Depression among Married Dual-Earner Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether there is an association between depression and parental time pressure among employed parents. Using a sample of 248 full-time employed parents and using the stress process framework, I also examine the extent to which gender, socioeconomic status, social support, and job conditions account for variation in the…

  9. Linear rheology of cross-linked polypropylene oxide as a pressure sensitive adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Bach, A.; Hassager, Ole

    2009-01-01

    are carefully considered. Two main mechanisms must be considered when studying adhesives, that is the debonding and bonding mechanisms. Linear rheology is used to study the debonding mechanisms to gain better understanding of the peeling process of the PSAs. A variety of PSAs are prepared by mixing a linear...

  10. Non-invasive ambient pressure estimation using non-linear ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup

    Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the blood pressure locally in the body have been made. This dissertation focuses on the approaches which utilize highly compressible ultrasound contrast agents as ambient pressure sensors. The literature within the topic has been reviewed...

  11. Three-dimensional visualization of shear wave propagation generated by dual acoustic radiation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yuta; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    An elastic property of biological soft tissue is an important indicator of the tissue status. Therefore, quantitative and noninvasive methods for elasticity evaluation have been proposed. Our group previously proposed a method using acoustic radiation pressure irradiated from two directions for elastic property evaluation, in which by measuring the propagation velocity of the shear wave generated by the acoustic radiation pressure inside the object, the elastic properties of the object were successfully evaluated. In the present study, we visualized the propagation of the shear wave in a three-dimensional space by the synchronization of signals received at various probe positions. The proposed method succeeded in visualizing the shear wave propagation clearly in the three-dimensional space of 35 × 41 × 4 mm3. These results show the high potential of the proposed method to estimate the elastic properties of the object in the three-dimensional space.

  12. Glycyrrhizic Acid Reduces Heart Rate and Blood Pressure by a Dual Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kailash; Zaw, Aung Moe; Sekar, Revathi; Palak, Ahuja; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Chow, Billy K C

    2016-09-27

    Beta adrenergic receptors are crucial for their role in rhythmic contraction of heart along with their role in the pathological conditions such as tachycardia and high risk of heart failure. Studies report that the levels of beta-1 adrenergic receptor tend to decrease by 50%, whereas, the levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor remains constant during the risk of heart failure. Beta blockers-the antagonistic molecules for beta-adrenergic receptors, function by slowing the heart rate, which thereby allows the left ventricle to fill completely during tachycardia incidents and hence helps in blood pumping capacity of heart and reducing the risk of heart failure. In the present study, we investigate the potential of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a possible principal drug molecule for cardiac arrhythmias owing to its ability to induce reduction in the heart rate and blood pressure. We use in vitro and in silico approach to study GA's effect on beta adrenergic receptor along with an in vivo study to examine its effect on heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, we explore GA's proficiency in eliciting an increase in the plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide, which by dilating the blood vessel consequently, can be a crucial aid during the occurrence of a potential heart attack. Therefore, we propose GA as a potential principal drug molecule via its potential in modulating heart rate and blood pressure.

  13. Analysis of noncoplanar pressurized laminations in X2 steel pipes by non-linear finite element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla (Mexico). Dept. de Posgrado; Gonzalez, Jorge L.; Hallen, Jose M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking is of great interest in the mechanical integrity assessment of sour gas pipelines. Multiple stepwise cracks with internal pressure called laminations are often observed in pipelines and their interaction and coalescence may significantly affect the residual strength of the pipes. In this work, the interacting fields of non coplanar pressurized laminations in the wall of a pipe under pressure are analyzed by non-lineal finite element, considering an isotropic hardening law and the real tensile properties of the X52 steel. The results are presented as the evolution of the stress fields in the interlaminar region as a function of the pressure inside the laminations. It is found that for two approaching stepwise laminations the critical pressure follows a hyperbolic type law, thus the effect of the lamination length is principal for greater lengths and for shorter lengths the effect is minimum. The critical pressure is defined as pressure inside the lamination that causes plastification of the interlaminar region. (author)

  14. Prediction of the dynamic oscillation threshold in a clarinet model with a linearly increasing blowing pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Vergez, Christophe; Gazengel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Reed instruments are modeled as self-sustained oscillators driven by the pressure inside the mouth of the musician. A set of nonlinear equations connects the control parameters (mouth pressure, lip force) to the system output, hereby considered as the mouthpiece pressure. Clarinets can then be studied as dynamical systems, their steady behavior being dictated uniquely by the values of the control parameters. Considering the resonator as a lossless straight cylinder is a dramatic yet common simplification that allows for simulations using nonlinear iterative maps. In this paper, we investigate analytically the effect of a time-varying blowing pressure on the behavior of this simplified clarinet model. When the control parameter varies, results from the so-called dynamic bifurcation theory are required to properly analyze the system. This study highlights the phenomenon of bifurcation delay and defines a new quantity, the dynamic oscillation threshold. A theoretical estimation of the dynamic oscillation thresho...

  15. Pressure-dependent of linear and nonlinear optical properties of (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical QD

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine

    2014-07-01

    Third-order nonlinear intra-conduction band optical properties of (In,Ga)N-GaN spherical quantum dot are investigated. Linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption coefficients (ACs) of 1p-1d and 1d-1f transitions are computed using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) method. Hydrostatic pressure effect is examined within the single band effective-mass and the one parabolic band approximations under finite potential barrier. The results show that the hydrostatic pressure has a great impact on the optical properties of QDs. A blue shift of the resonant peak is observed while the maximum of the amplitude of optical absorption coefficients decreases nonlinearly under hydrostatic pressure effect. Two competing parameters are suggested to explain our results. Compared with the finding results, a good agreement is shown.

  16. Non-invasive quantification of peripheral arterial volume distensibility and its non-linear relationship with arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2009-05-29

    Arterial wall function is associated with different physiological and clinical factors. Changes in arterial pressure cause major changes in the arterial wall. This study presents a simple non-invasive method to quantify arterial volume distensibility changes with different arterial pressures. The electrocardiogram, finger and ear photoplethysmogram were recorded from 15 subjects with the right arm at five different positions (90 degrees , 45 degrees , 0 degrees , -45 degrees and -90 degrees referred to the horizontal level). Arm pulse propagation time was determined by subtracting ear pulse transit time from finger pulse transit time, and was used to obtain arterial volume distensibility. The mean arterial blood pressure with the arm at the horizontal level was acquired, and changes with position were calculated using the hydrostatic principle that blood pressure in the arm is linearly related to its vertical distance from the horizontal level. The mean arm pulse propagation times for the five different positions were 88, 72, 57, 54 and 52ms, with the corresponding mean arterial volume distensibility of 0.234%, 0.158%, 0.099%, 0.088% and 0.083% per mmHg. For all consecutive changes in arm position, arm pulse propagation time and arterial volume distensibility, were significantly different (all probability Ppressure decreased significantly between each consecutive arm position from 90 degrees to -45 degrees (all Ppressure changes from 101 to 58mmHg. In conclusion, the inverse and non-linear relationship between arterial volume distensibility and arterial pressure has been quantified using a simple arm positioning procedure, with the greatest effect at low pressures. This work is an important step in developing a simple non-invasive technique for assessing peripheral arterial volume distensibility.

  17. Novel type of linear mitochondrial genomes with dual flip-flop inversion system in apicomplexan parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial (mt) genomes vary considerably in size, structure and gene content. The mt genomes of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes important human pathogens such as the malaria parasite Plasmodium, also show marked diversity of structure. Plasmodium has a concatenated linear mt genome of the smallest size (6-kb); Babesia and Theileria have a linear monomeric mt genome (6.5-kb to 8.2-kb) with terminal inverted repeats; Eimeria, which is distantly related to Plasmodium and Babesia/Theileria, possesses a mt genome (6.2-kb) with a concatemeric form similar to that of Plasmodium; Cryptosporidium, the earliest branching lineage within the phylum Apicomplexa, has no mt genome. We are interested in the evolutionary origin of linear mt genomes of Babesia/Theileria, and have investigated mt genome structures in members of archaeopiroplasmid, a lineage branched off earlier from Babesia/Theileria. Results The complete mt genomes of archaeopiroplasmid parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini, were sequenced. The mt genomes of B. microti (11.1-kb) and B. rodhaini (6.9-kb) possess two pairs of unique inverted repeats, IR-A and IR-B. Flip-flop inversions between two IR-As and between two IR-Bs appear to generate four distinct genome structures that are present at an equi-molar ratio. An individual parasite contained multiple mt genome structures, with 20 copies and 2 – 3 copies per haploid nuclear genome in B. microti and B. rodhaini, respectively. Conclusion We found a novel linear monomeric mt genome structure of B. microti and B. rhodhaini equipped with dual flip-flop inversion system, by which four distinct genome structures are readily generated. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of two pairs of distinct IR sequences within a monomeric linear mt genome. The present finding provides insight into further understanding of evolution of mt genome structure. PMID:23151128

  18. Novel type of linear mitochondrial genomes with dual flip-flop inversion system in apicomplexan parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikosaka Kenji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial (mt genomes vary considerably in size, structure and gene content. The mt genomes of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes important human pathogens such as the malaria parasite Plasmodium, also show marked diversity of structure. Plasmodium has a concatenated linear mt genome of the smallest size (6-kb; Babesia and Theileria have a linear monomeric mt genome (6.5-kb to 8.2-kb with terminal inverted repeats; Eimeria, which is distantly related to Plasmodium and Babesia/Theileria, possesses a mt genome (6.2-kb with a concatemeric form similar to that of Plasmodium; Cryptosporidium, the earliest branching lineage within the phylum Apicomplexa, has no mt genome. We are interested in the evolutionary origin of linear mt genomes of Babesia/Theileria, and have investigated mt genome structures in members of archaeopiroplasmid, a lineage branched off earlier from Babesia/Theileria. Results The complete mt genomes of archaeopiroplasmid parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini, were sequenced. The mt genomes of B. microti (11.1-kb and B. rodhaini (6.9-kb possess two pairs of unique inverted repeats, IR-A and IR-B. Flip-flop inversions between two IR-As and between two IR-Bs appear to generate four distinct genome structures that are present at an equi-molar ratio. An individual parasite contained multiple mt genome structures, with 20 copies and 2 – 3 copies per haploid nuclear genome in B. microti and B. rodhaini, respectively. Conclusion We found a novel linear monomeric mt genome structure of B. microti and B. rhodhaini equipped with dual flip-flop inversion system, by which four distinct genome structures are readily generated. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of two pairs of distinct IR sequences within a monomeric linear mt genome. The present finding provides insight into further understanding of evolution of mt genome structure.

  19. Non-linear aspects of Görtler instability in boundary layers with pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenski, J. K.; de Souza, L. F.; Floryan, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The laminar flow over a concave surface may undergo transition to a turbulent state driven by secondary instabilities initiated by the longitudinal vortices known as Görtler vortices. These vortices distort the boundary layer structure by modifying the streamwise velocity component in both spanwise and wall-normal directions. Numerical simulations have been conducted to identify the role of the external pressure gradients in the development and saturation of the vortices. The results show that flows with adverse pressure gradients reach saturation upstream from the saturation location for neutral and favorable pressure gradients. In the transition region, the mean spanwise shear stress is about three times larger than in the flow without the vortices.

  20. Dual effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on skin wound healing of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Min; Shi, Xing-Min; Cai, Jing-Fen; Chen, Si-Le; Li, Ping; Yao, Cong-Wei; Chang, Zheng-Shi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cold plasma has become an attractive tool for promoting wound healing and treating skin diseases. This article presents an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) generated in argon gas through dielectric barrier discharge, which was applied to superficial skin wounds in BALB/c mice. The mice (n = 50) were assigned randomly into five groups (named A, B, C, D, E) with 10 animals in each group. Natural wound healing was compared with stimulated wound healing treated daily with APPJ for different time spans (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 seconds) on 14 consecutive days. APPJ emission spectra, morphological changes in animal wounds, and tissue histological parameters were analyzed. Statistical results revealed that wound size changed over the duration of the experimental period and there was a significant interaction between experimental day and group. Differences between group C and other groups at day 7 were statistically significant (p plasma could inactivate bacteria around the wound, activate fibroblast proliferation in wound tissue, and eventually promote wound healing. Whereas, over doses of plasma suppressed wound healing due to causing cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Both positive and negative effects may be related to the existence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in APPJ.

  1. On the Role of Osmosis for Non-Linear Shock Waves f Pressure and Solute in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanivesky, Roman; Salusti, Ettore; Caserta, Arrigo

    2013-04-01

    A novel non-Osanger model focusing on non-linear mechanic and chemo-poroelastic coupling of fluids and solute in porous rocks is developed based on the modern wave theory. Analyzing in 1-D a system of two adjacent rocks with different conditions we obtain two coupled non-linear equations for fluid pressure and solute (salt or pollutants) concentration, evolving under the action of strong stress from one "source" rock towards the other rock. Their solutions allow to identify quick non-linear solitary (Burgers) waves of coupled fluid pressure and solute density, that are different from diffusive or perturbative solutions found in other analyses. The strong transient waves for low permeability porous media, such as clay and shale, are analyzed in detail. For medium and high-permeability porous media (sandstones) this model is also tentatively applied. Indeed in recent works of Alexander (1990) and Hart(2009) is supported the presence of small osmotic phenomena in other rocks where osmosis was previously ignored. An attempt to apply our model to soils in Calabria (Italy), such as clastic marine and fluvial deposits as well as discontinuous remnants of Miocene and Pliocene carbonate and terrigeneous deposits, is also discussed.

  2. Dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a lateral pressure-tuned Hi-Bi fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingyun Xiong(熊凌云); Guiyun Kai(开桂云); Lei Sun(孙磊); Xinhuan Feng(冯新焕); Chunxian Xiao(肖纯贤); Yange Liu(刘艳格); Shuzhong Yuan(袁树忠); Xiaoyi Dong(董孝义)

    2004-01-01

    Tunable dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with stable oscillation at room temperature is proposed and demonstrated. This laser utilizes a Bragg grating fabricated in a high birefringence fiber as the wavelength-selective component, and then achieves the stable dual wavelength oscillation by introducing the polarization hole burning effect. Furthermore, by applying lateral strain upon the fiber Bragg grating (FBG), the space of the laser dual wavelengths can be tuned continuously.

  3. Aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients for C9-C14 linear alkylbenzenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherblom, P.M.; Gschwend, P.M.; Eganhouse, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and estimates of aqueous solubilities, 1-octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), and vapor pressures were made for 29 linear alkylbenzenes having alkyl chain lengths of 9-14 carbons. The ranges of values observed were vapor pressures from 0.002 to 0.418 Pa, log Kow, from 6.83 to 9.95, and aqueous solubilities from 4 to 38 nmol??L-1. Measured values exhibited a relationship to both the alkyl chain length and the position of phenyl substitution on the alkyl chain. Measurement of the aqueous concentrations resulting from equilibration of a mixture of alkylbenzenes yielded higher than expected values, indicating cosolute or other interactive effects caused enhanced aqueous concentrations of these compounds. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  4. Orientating layers with adjustable pretilt angles for liquid crystals deposited by a linear atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Shih-Jie; Kou, Chwung-Shan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Jennchang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chein-Dhau; Lin, Wei-Cheng [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30140, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-15

    A method for controlling the pretilt angles of liquid crystals (LC) was developed. Hexamethyldisiloxane polymer films were first deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass plates using a linear atmospheric pressure plasma source. The films were subsequently treated with the rubbing method for LC alignment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the film composition, which could be varied to control the surface energy by adjusting the monomer feed rate and input power. The results of LC alignment experiments showed that the pretilt angle continuously increased from 0 Degree-Sign to 90 Degree-Sign with decreasing film surface energy.

  5. Magnetism and variable temperature and pressure crystal structures of a linear oligonuclear cobalt bis-semiquinonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Jacob; Møller, Louise H; Borup, Mette A; Tricoire, Maxime; Walsh, James P S; Diehl, Marcel; Rentschler, Eva

    2016-08-09

    The crystal structure of the first oligomeric cobalt dioxolene complex, Co3(3,5-DBSQ)2((t)BuCOO)4(NEt3)2, 1, where DBSQ is 3,5-di-tert-butyl-semiquinonate, has been studied at various temperatures between 20 and 200 K. Despite cobalt-dioxolene complexes being generally known for their extensive ability to exhibit valence tautomerism (VT), we show here that the molecular geometry of compound 1 is essentially unchanged over the full temperature range, indicating the complete absence of electron transfer between ligand and metal. Magnetic susceptibility measurements clearly support the lack of VT between 8 and 300 K. The crystal structure is also determined at elevated pressures in the range from 0 to 2.5 GPa. The response of the crystal structure is surprisingly dependent on the dynamics of pressurisation: following rapid pressurization to 2 GPa, a structural phase transition occurs; yet, this is absent when the pressure is increased incrementally to 2.6 GPa. In the new high pressure phase, Z' is 2 and one of the two molecules displays changes in the coordination of one bridging carboxylate from μ2:κO:κO' to μ2:κ(2)O,O':κO', while the other molecule remains unchanged. Despite the significant changes to the molecular connectivity, analysis of the crystal structures shows that the phase transition leaves the spin and oxidation states of the molecules unaltered. Intermolecular interactions in the high pressure crystal structures have been analysed using Hirshfeld surfaces but they cannot explain the origin of the phase transition. The lack of VT in this first oligomeric Co-dioxolene complex is speculated to be due to the coordination geometry of the terminal Co-atoms, which are trigonal bipyramidally coordinated, different from the more common octahedral coordination. The energy that is gained by a hs-to-ls change in Oh is equal to Δ, while in the case of the trigonal bipyramidal (C3v), the energy gain is equal to the splitting between d(z(2)) and degenerate d

  6. Development of a scientific torsional system experiment containing controlled single or dual-clearance non-linearities: Examination of step-responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Michael D.; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-02-01

    The chief goal of this paper is to propose a new laboratory experiment that exhibits the step-response of a torsional system containing one or two controlled clearances. This work is motivated by the disadvantages of prior large-scale experiments which utilize production vehicle drivelines and their components with significant real-life complexities. The conceptual and physical design features, which include sizing, modal properties, excitation, and instrumentation, are discussed with the goal of creating a controlled experiment. Like prior literature, a step-down torque excitation is selected and all analyses are performed on the acceleration signals to observe vibro-impact in the time domain. Typical measurements (for both the single and dual-clearance configurations) exhibit rich non-linear behavior, including the double-sided impact regime and a time-varying oscillatory period. Additionally, new measurements are compared to predictions from simple reduced order non-linear models to verify the feasibility of the proposed experiment. Finally, the utility of this experiment is demonstrated by comparing its measurements to a prior large-scale experiment that accommodates a production vehicle clutch damper with multiple stages. The hardening and softening effects in both experiments are discussed in the context of double and single-sided impacts as well as the oscillatory periods that vary with time.

  7. A model for quantitative correction of coronary calcium scores on multidetector, dual source, and electron beam computed tomography for influences of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution : A cardiac phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, M. J. W.; Groen, J. M.; Nicolai, L. J.; Dijkstra, H.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative me

  8. Radiation pressure and the linear momentum of light in dispersive dielectric media

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    We derive an exact expression for the radiation pressure of a quasi- monochromatic plane wave incident from the free space onto the flat surface of a semi-infinite dielectric medium. In order to account for the total optical momentum (incident plus reflected) that is transferred to the dielectric, the mechanical momentum acquired by the medium must be added to the rate of flow of the electromagnetic momentum (the so-called Abraham momentum) inside the dielectric. We confirm that the electromagnetic momentum travels with the group velocity of light inside the medium. The photon drag effect, in which the photons captured in a semiconductor appear to have the Minkowski momentum, is explained by analyzing a model system consisting of a thin absorptive layer embedded in a transparent dielectric.

  9. Radiation pressure of light pulses and conservation of linear momentum in dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalora, Michael; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Nadia; Bloemer, Mark J; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Haus, Joseph W

    2006-05-01

    We derive an expression for the Minkowski momentum under conditions of dispersive susceptibility and permeability, and compare it to the Abraham momentum in order to test the principle of conservation of linear momentum when matter is present. We investigate cases when an incident pulse interacts with a variety of structures, including thick substrates, resonant, free-standing, micron-sized multilayer stacks, and negative index materials. In general, we find that for media only a few wavelengths thick the Minkowski and Abraham momentum densities yield similar results. For more extended media, including substrates and Bragg mirrors embedded inside thick dielectric substrates, our calculations show dramatic differences between the Minkowski and Abraham momenta. Without exception, in all cases investigated the instantaneous Lorentz force exerted on the medium is consistent only with the rate of change of the Abraham momentum. As a practical example, we use our model to predict that electromagnetic momentum and energy buildup inside a multilayer stack can lead to widely tunable accelerations that may easily reach and exceed 10(10) m/s(2) for a mass of 10(-5) g. Our results suggest that the physics of the photonic band edge and other similar finite structures may be used as a testing ground for basic electromagnetic phenomena such as momentum transfer to macroscopic media.

  10. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marieke; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Fall, Caroline H D; van Eijsden, Manon; Osmond, Clive; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2016-01-01

    Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0-1 month; 1-3 months; 3-6 months; 6-12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; Pgrowth. Compared to breastfeeding 1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P6 months, introduction of complementary feeding pressure (e.g. 4-6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be associated with lower adult blood pressure.

  11. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  12. Pore pressure propagation in a permeable thin-layer coal seam based on a dual porosity model: A case of risk prediction of water inrush in coalmines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B.; Gao, F.; Yang, J. W.; Zhou, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Thin-layer coal seams, a type of filling coal rock body, are considered aquifer systems made up of dual porosity medium with immediate floor. A numerical simulation for the pore pressure propagation along a thin-layer coal seam was carried out for the case of the Zhaogezhuang coalmine in China. By valuing the permeability (Kf ) of the thin-layer coal seam, pore pressure variation with time was simulated and compared to the analytical solutions of a dual porosity model (DPM). The main conclusions were drawn as follow: (1) Seepage in the thin-layer coal seam was predominant in the whole process, and the distance of seepage was lengthened and the pore pressure decreased with increased Kf , (2) A series of simulated hydraulic graphs demonstrated that the pore pressure characteristics of peak-occurring and time-lag effects agreed with the analytical solutions of DPM; (3) By adjusting the parameters of DPM, two results of analytical solutions and numerical solutions fit well, particularly in the thin-layer coal seam, (4) The power law relationship between the peak-values and lag time of pore pressure were derived statistically under consideration of the Kf parameter in the range of 10-8 to 10-10 m2/pa-s orders, and it was reasonable that the Kf of the thin-layer coal seam was in the range of 10-8 m2/pa-s orders. The results were significantly helpful in decision-making for mining water prevention and prediction in practice.

  13. Linear biocompatible glyco-polyamidoamines as dual action mode virus infection inhibitors with potential as broad-spectrum microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Nicolò; Ferruti, Paolo; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Manfredi, Amedea; Berzi, Angela; Clerici, Mario; Cagno, Valeria; Lembo, David; Palmioli, Alessandro; Sattin, Sara

    2016-09-01

    The initial steps of viral infections are mediated by interactions between viral proteins and cellular receptors. Blocking the latter with high-affinity ligands may inhibit infection. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed by immature dendritic cells and macrophages, mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by recognizing mannose clusters on the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Mannosylated glycodendrimers act as HIV entry inhibitors thanks to their ability to block this receptor. Previously, an amphoteric, but prevailingly cationic polyamidoamine named AGMA1 proved effective as infection inhibitor for several heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV-16 and herpes simplex virus HSV-2. An amphoteric, but prevailingly anionic PAA named ISA23 proved inactive. It was speculated that the substitution of mannosylated units for a limited percentage of AGMA1 repeating units, while imparting anti-HIV activity, would preserve the fundamentals of its HPV-16 and HSV-2 infection inhibitory activity. In this work, four biocompatible linear PAAs carrying different amounts of mannosyl-triazolyl pendants, Man-ISA7, Man-ISA14, Man-AGMA6.5 and Man-AGMA14.5, were prepared by reaction of 2-(azidoethyl)-α-D-mannopyranoside and differently propargyl-substituted AGMA1 and ISA23. All mannosylated PAAs inhibited HIV infection. Both Man-AGMA6.5 and Man-AGMA14.5 maintained the HPV-16 and HSV-2 activity of the parent polymer, proving broad-spectrum, dual action mode virus infection inhibitors.

  14. FEM Analyses for T-H-M-M Coupling Processes in Dual-Porosity Rock Mass under Stress Corrosion and Pressure Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The models of stress corrosion and pressure solution established by Yasuhara et al. were introduced into the 2D FEM code of thermo-hydro-mechanical-migratory coupling analysis for dual-porosity medium developed by the authors. Aiming at a hypothetical model for geological disposal of nuclear waste in an unsaturated rock mass from which there is a nuclide leak, two computation conditions were designed. Then the corresponding two-dimensional numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-migratory processes were carried out, and the states of temperatures, rates and magnitudes of aperture closure, pore and fracture pressures, flow velocities, nuclide concentrations and stresses in the rock mass were investigated. The results show: the aperture closure rates caused by stress corrosion are almost six orders higher than those caused by pressure solution, and the two kinds of closure rates climb up and then decline, furthermore tend towards stability; when the effects of stress corrosion and pressure solution are considered, the negative fracture pressures in near field rise very highly; the fracture aperture and porosity are decreases in the case 1, so the relative permeability coefficients reduce, therefore the nuclide concentrations in pore and fracture in this case are higher than those in case 2.

  15. Simultaneous detection of polar and nonpolar compounds by ambient mass spectrometry with a dual electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Huang, Min-Zong; Shiea, Jentaie

    2015-02-03

    A dual ionization source combining electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed to simultaneously ionize both polar and nonpolar compounds. The source was constructed by inserting a fused silica capillary into a stainless steel column enclosed in a glass tube. A high dc voltage was applied to a methanol solution flowing in the fused silica capillary to generate an ESI plume at the capillary tip. A high ac voltage was applied to a ring electrode attached to the glass tube to generate plasma from the nitrogen gas flowing between the glass tube and the stainless steel column. The concentric arrangement of the ESI plume and the APCI plasma in the source ensured that analytes entering the ionization region interacted with both ESI and APCI primary ion species generated in the source. Because the high voltages required for ESI and APCI were independently applied and controlled, the dual ion source could be operated in ESI-only, APCI-only, or ESI+APCI modes. Analytes were introduced into the ESI and/or APCI plumes by irradiating sample surfaces with a continuous-wavelength laser or a pulsed laser beam. Analyte ions could also be produced by directing the dual ESI+APCI source toward sample surfaces for desorption and ionization. The ionization mechanisms involved in the dual ion source include Penning ionization, ion molecule reactions, and fused-droplet electrospray ionization. Standards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, angiotensin I, lidocaine, ferrocene, diesel, and rosemary oils were used for testing. Protonated analyte ions were detected in ESI-only mode, radical cations were detected in APCI-only mode, and both types of ions were detected in ESI+APCI mode.

  16. Development of Bundle Position-Wise Linear Model for Predicting the Pressure Tube Diametral Creep in CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Yong [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Diametral creep of the pressure tube (PT) is one of the principal aging mechanisms governing the heat transfer and hydraulic degradation of a heat transport system. PT diametral creep leads to diametral expansion that affects the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the coolant channels and the critical heat flux. Therefore, it is essential to predict the PT diametral creep in CANDU reactors, which is caused mainly by fast neutron irradiation, reactor coolant temperature and so forth. The currently used PT diametral creep prediction model considers the complex interactions between the effects of temperature and fast neutron flux on the deformation of PT zirconium alloys. The model assumes that long-term steady-state deformation consists of separable, additive components from thermal creep, irradiation creep and irradiation growth. This is a mechanistic model based on measured data. However, this model has high prediction uncertainty. Recently, a statistical error modeling method was developed using plant inspection data from the Bruce B CANDU reactor. The aim of this study was to develop a bundle position-wise linear model (BPLM) to predict PT diametral creep employing previously measured PT diameters and HTS operating conditions. There are twelve bundles in a fuel channel and for each bundle, a linear model was developed by using the dependent variables, such as the fast neutron fluxes and the bundle temperatures. The training data set was selected using the subtractive clustering method. The data of 39 channels that consist of 80 percent of a total of 49 measured channels from Units 2, 3 and 4 were used to develop the BPLM models. The remaining 10 channels' data were used to test the developed BPLM models. The BPLM was optimized by the maximum likelihood estimation method. The developed BPLM to predict PT diametral creep was verified using the operating data gathered from the Units 2,3 and 4 in Korea. Two error components for the BPLM, which are the

  17. Numerical studies of independent control of electron density and gas temperature via nonlinear coupling in dual-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Nie, Q. Y.; Wang, Z. B.; Gao, X. T.; Kong, F. R.; Sun, Y. F.; Jiang, B. H.

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) provide a promising technology of generating non-equilibrium cold plasmas in atmospheric pressure gases. For both application-focused and fundamental studies, it is important to explore the strategy and the mechanism for enabling effective independent tuning of key plasma parameters in a DBD system. In this paper, we report numerical studies of effects of dual-frequency excitation on atmospheric DBDs, and modulation as well as separate tuning mechanism, with emphasis on dual-frequency coupling to the key plasma parameters and discharge evolution. With an appropriately applied low frequency to the original high frequency, the numerical calculation demonstrates that a strong nonlinear coupling between two frequencies governs the process of ionization and energy deposition into plasma, and thus raises the electron density significantly (e.g., three times in this case) in comparisons with a single frequency driven DBD system. Nevertheless, the gas temperature, which is mainly determined by the high frequency discharge, barely changes. This method then enables a possible approach of controlling both averaged electron density and gas temperature independently.

  18. Origin of the non-linear pressure effects in perovskite manganites: Buckling of Mn-O-Mn bonds and Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO{sub 6} octahedra induced by pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z., E-mail: njuchenzq@gmail.co [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Tyson, T.A.; Ahn, K.H. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hu, J. [X17C of NSLS, Cars, University of Chicago, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    High-pressure resistivity and X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted on La{sub 0.85}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} at {approx}6 and {approx}7 GPa, respectively. At low pressures the metal-insulator transition temperature (T{sub MI}) increases linearly up to a critical pressure, P{sup *} {approx}3.4 GPa, followed by reduction in T{sub MI} at higher pressure. Analysis of the bond distances and bond angles reveals that a bandwidth increase drives the increase in T{sub MI} below P{sup *}. The reduction in T{sub MI} at higher pressures is found to result from Jahn-Teller distortions of the MnO{sub 6} octahedra. The role of anharmonic interatomic potentials is discussed.

  19. Origin of the non-linear pressure effects in perovskite manganties: Buckling of Mn-O-Mn bonds and Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO6 octahedra induced by pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Zhong, Z.; Tyson, T.A.; Ahn, K.H., Hu, J.

    2010-04-20

    High-pressure resistivity and X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted on La{sub 0.85}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} at 6 and 7 GPa, respectively. At low pressures the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI) increases linearly up to a critical pressure, P* {approx} 3.4 GPa, followed by reduction in T{sub MI} at higher pressure. Analysis of the bond distances and bond angles reveals that a bandwidth increase drives the increase in T{sub MI} below P*. The reduction in T{sub MI} at higher pressures is found to result from Jahn-Teller distortions of the MnO{sub 6} octahedra. The role of anharmonic interatomic potentials is discussed.

  20. The radio-on-fiber-wavelength-division-multiplexed-passive-optical network (WDM-RoF-PON) for wireless and wire layout with linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and carrier reusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Chang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously. With the CSRZ-DPSK modulation, the wireless access in ONU can save RF source and the frequency of radio carrier can be controlled by OLT. The dual-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON with polarization multiplexing. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can save omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  1. Magnetocaloric effect in a dual-phase coupled LaFe11Si2 crystal prepared by a modified high-pressure zone-melting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shutong; Fang, Yue; Zhai, Qijie; Luo, Zhiping; Zheng, Hongxing

    2016-10-01

    A modified high-pressure optical zone-melting technique was adopted to grow a rare-earth-based LaFe11Si2 crystal in the present work. Dual-phase coupled microstructure was obtained where aligned α(Fe) phase distributed in the La(Fe,Si)13 matrix. Magnetic measurements showed that the produced crystal underwent a second-order magnetic transition in the vicinity of 250 K. Under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe, the refrigeration capacity (RC) of the produced crystal reached up to 162 J/kg. It was confirmed that zone-melting crystal growth technique is an effective approach to strikingly enhance the magnetocaloric effect of La-Fe-Si refrigeration materials.

  2. Deposition of organosilicone thin film from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with 50 kHz/33 MHz dual-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaojiao, LI; Qianghua, YUAN; Xiaowei, CHANG; Yong, WANG; Guiqin, YIN; Chenzhong, DONG

    2017-04-01

    The deposition of organosilicone thin films from hexamethyldisiloxane(HMDSO) by using a dual-frequency (50 kHz/33 MHz) atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma jet with an admixture of a small volume of HMDSO and Ar was investigated. The topography was measured by using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical bond and composition of these films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the as-deposited film was constituted by silicon, carbon, and oxygen elements, and FTIR suggested the films are organosilicon with the organic component (–CH x ) and hydroxyl functional group(–OH) connected to the Si–O–Si backbone. Thin-film hardness was recorded by an MH–5–VM Digital Micro-Hardness Tester. Radio frequency power had a strong impact on film hardness and the hardness increased with increasing power.

  3. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Laasch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitat Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions. - Highlights: • First dual-pulse and ambient gas deep VUV LIBS plasma emission study • Optimization of inter-pulse delay time for vacuum and ambient gas environments • A sharp intensity peak implies optimal inter-pulse delay of 100 ns for all conditions. • A broad peak appears in the microsecond delay range, but only in ambient gases. • Pressure dependence implies a different enhancement process.

  4. Determination of an adequate perfusion pressure for continuous dual vessel hypothermic machine perfusion of the rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Nils A.; der van Plaats, Arjan; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; van Goor, Harry; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Ploeg, Rutger J.

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) provides better protection against ischemic damage of the kidney compared to cold-storage. The required perfusion pressures needed for optimal HMP of the liver are, however, unknown. Rat livers were preserved in University of Wisconsin organ preservation solution

  5. PRESSURE-VOLUME ANALYSIS OF THE LUNG WITH AN EXPONENTIAL AND LINEAR-EXPONENTIAL MODEL IN ASTHMA AND COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOGAARD, JM; OVERBEEK, SE; VERBRAAK, AFM; VONS, C; FOLGERING, HTM; VANDERMARK, TW; ROOS, CM; STERK, PJ

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of abnormalities in lung elasticity in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still unclear, This might be due to uncertainties concerning the method of analysis of quasistatic deflation long pressure-volume curves. Pressure-volume curves were obtained

  6. Linear and nonlinear intra-conduction band optical absorption in (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical QD under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine

    2014-11-01

    Linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients of intra-conduction band 1s-1p transition with hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN spherical quantum dot are reported. Hydrostatic pressure effect is investigated within the framework of single band effective-mass approximation using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) method. The results show that the pressure has a great influence on optical absorption coefficients of QDs. A blue-shift of the resonant peak is observed while the maximum of the amplitude of optical absorption coefficients decreases under hydrostatic pressure effect. A good agreement is shown compared with results of the finding.

  7. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in modulation-doped quantum wells: Effects of the magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, M.; Karimi, M.J., E-mail: karimi@sutech.ac.ir; Keshavarz, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the linear, the third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a modulation-doped GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As quantum well are investigated numerically. In the effective-mass approximation, the electronic structure of modulation-doped quantum well is calculated by solving the Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The effects of structure parameters, the applied magnetic field and the hydrostatic pressure on the optical properties of the modulation-doped quantum well are studied. Results show that the resonant peaks shift toward the higher (lower) energies with the increase in the magnetic field (pressure). The magnitude of the resonant peaks of the optical properties decreases with the increasing magnetic field or pressure.

  8. Dual Pressure from Antiretroviral Therapy and Cell-Mediated Immune Response on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Annika C.; Deeks, Steven G.; Barbour, Jason D.; Heiken, Brandon D.; Younger, Sophie R.; Hoh, Rebecca; Lane, Meghan; Sällberg, Matti; Ortiz, Gabriel M.; Demarest, James F.; Liegler, Teri; Grant, Robert M.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte pressure can lead to the development of viral escape mutants, with consequent loss of immune control. Antiretroviral drugs also exert selection pressures on HIV, leading to the emergence of drug resistance mutations and increased levels of viral replication. We have determined a minimal epitope of HIV protease, amino acids 76 to 84, towards which a CD8+ T-lymphocyte response is directed. This epitope, which is HLA-A2 restricted, includes two amino acids that commonly mutate (V82A and I84V) in the face of protease inhibitor therapy. Among 29 HIV-infected patients who were treated with protease inhibitors and who had developed resistance to these drugs, we show that the wild-type PR82V76-84 epitope is commonly recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in HLA-A2-positive patients and that the CTL directed to this epitope are of high avidity. In contrast, the mutant PR82A76-84 epitope is generally not recognized by wild-type-specific CTL, or when recognized it is of low to moderate avidity, suggesting that the protease inhibitor-selected V82A mutation acts both as a CTL and protease inhibitor escape mutant. Paradoxically, the absence of a mutation at position 82 was associated with the presence of a high-avidity CD8+ T-cell response to the wild-type virus sequence. Our results indicate that both HIV type 1-specific CD8+ T cells and antiretroviral drugs provide complex pressures on the same amino acid sequence of the HIV protease gene and, thus, can influence viral sequence evolution. PMID:12767994

  9. High-pressure crystal structure of the non-linear optical compound BiB(3)O(6) from two-dimensional powder diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, R E; Hinrichsen, B; Lennie, A; Jansen, M

    2009-02-01

    Our recently proposed method for automatic detection, calibration and evaluation of Debye-Scherrer ellipses using pattern-recognition techniques and advanced signal filtering was applied to the two-dimensional powder diffraction data of the non-ferroelectric, non-centrosymmetric non-linear optical (NLO) compound alpha-BiB(3)O(6) as a function of pressure. At ambient conditions, alpha-BiB(3)O(6) crystallizes in the space group C2 (phase I). In the pressure range between P = 6.09 and 6.86 GPa, it exhibits a first-order phase transition into a structure with the space group C1 (P1) [phase II at P = 8.34 GPa: a = 7.4781 (6), b = 3.9340 (4), c = 6.2321 (6) A, alpha = 93.73 (1), beta = 102.93 (1), gamma = 90.76 (1) degrees , and V = 178.24 (3) A(3)]. Non-linear compression behaviour over the entire pressure range is observed, which can be described by two Vinet relations in the ranges from P = 0.0 to 6.09 GPa, and from P = 6.86 to 11.6 GPa. The extrapolated bulk moduli of the high-pressure phases were determined to be K(0) = 38 (1) GPa for phase I, and K(0) = 114 (10) GPa for phase II. The crystal structures of both phases were refined against X-ray powder diffraction data measured at several pressures between 0.0 and 11.6 GPa. The structural phase transition of alpha-BiB(3)O(6) is mainly characterized by a reorientation of the [BO(3)](3-) triangles, the [BO(4)](5-) tetrahedra and the lone electron pair which is localized at Bi(3+), in order to optimize crystal packing.

  10. The dual of a generalized minimax location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops the dual formulation of a generalized minimax facility location problem which has distance and linear constraints......This paper develops the dual formulation of a generalized minimax facility location problem which has distance and linear constraints...

  11. The dual of a generalized minimax location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops the dual formulation of a generalized minimax facility location problem which has distance and linear constraints......This paper develops the dual formulation of a generalized minimax facility location problem which has distance and linear constraints...

  12. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A

    2012-09-28

    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum.

  13. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  14. Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation Comparison of Small-Scale Single and Dual Pressure Organic Rankine Cycles Integrated with Low-Grade Heat Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Fontalvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat sources such as solar thermal, geothermal, exhaust gases and industrial waste heat are suitable alternatives for power generation which can be exploited by means of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. This paper combines thermodynamic optimization and economic analysis to assess the performance of single and dual pressure ORC operating with different organic fluids and targeting small-scale applications. Maximum power output is lower than 45 KW while the temperature of the heat source varies in the range 100–200 °C. The studied working fluids, namely R1234yf, R1234ze(E and R1234ze(Z, are selected based on environmental, safety and thermal performance criteria. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE and Specific Investment Cost (SIC for two operation conditions are presented: maximum power output and maximum thermal efficiency. Results showed that R1234ze(Z achieves the highest net power output (up to 44 kW when net power output is optimized. Regenerative ORC achieves the highest performance when thermal efficiency is optimized (up to 18%. Simple ORC is the most cost-effective among the studied cycle configurations, requiring a selling price of energy of 0.3 USD/kWh to obtain a payback period of 8 years. According to SIC results, the working fluid R1234ze(Z exhibits great potential for simple ORC when compared to conventional R245fa.

  15. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Hayden, P.; Laasch, R.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions.

  16. 宏/微双重驱动的新型直线电机研究%Study on a New Type of Linear Motor with Macro-Micro Dual Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁民

    2015-01-01

    大行程、高精度,同时易于小型化的移动机构是先进制造业等领域要解决的关键问题之一,综述了现有宏/微双重驱动机构和直线超声电机的研究进展和存在问题,提出了一种宏微双重驱动新型直线压电电机,使其既能与超声电机一样,直接驱动、响应快、不受磁场干扰实现宏驱动;又能与微驱动一样,精密定位,实现微驱动,并把宏微运动结合起来,在一个电机上同时实现宏微驱动,通过有限元分析软件,计算复合振子的振动模态和静态变形,分析了宏微驱动原理,给出了宏微驱动新型直线电机驱动电源的设计方案。%Large stroke,high accuracy,easy miniaturization and moving mechanism is one of the key problems to be solved in advanced manufacturing field, this paper reviews the research progress of existing macro/micro dual drive mechanism and linear ultrasonic motor and the existing problems,puts forward a kind of macro micro dual drive new linear piezoelectric motor,the macro and micro movement combine to make it the same as both the ultrasonic motor, direct-drive, fast response, from magnetic interference to achieve macro-driven;but with the same micro drive,precision positioning,to achieve micro drive,on a motor while achieving macro and micro drive, and through the finite element analysis software, calculate the vibration mode and the static deformation of composite vibrator, analyzes the macro and micro driving principle, presents the design of macro micro drive model of linear motor driving power, as the macro/micro dual drive foundation.

  17. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood.

  18. Predicting equilibrium vapour pressure isotope effects by using artificial neural networks or multi-linear regression - A quantitative structure property relationship approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinet, Julien; Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gerald; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    We aim at predicting the effect of structure and isotopic substitutions on the equilibrium vapour pressure isotope effect of various organic compounds (alcohols, acids, alkanes, alkenes and aromatics) at intermediate temperatures. We attempt to explore quantitative structure property relationships by using artificial neural networks (ANN); the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and compare the performances of it with multi-linear regression (MLR). These approaches are based on the relationship between the molecular structure (organic chain, polar functions, type of functions, type of isotope involved) of the organic compounds, and their equilibrium vapour pressure. A data set of 130 equilibrium vapour pressure isotope effects was used: 112 were used in the training set and the remaining 18 were used for the test/validation dataset. Two sets of descriptors were tested, a set with all the descriptors: number of(12)C, (13)C, (16)O, (18)O, (1)H, (2)H, OH functions, OD functions, CO functions, Connolly Solvent Accessible Surface Area (CSA) and temperature and a reduced set of descriptors. The dependent variable (the output) is the natural logarithm of the ratios of vapour pressures (ln R), expressed as light/heavy as in classical literature. Since the database is rather small, the leave-one-out procedure was used to validate both models. Considering higher determination coefficients and lower error values, it is concluded that the multi-layer perceptron provided better results compared to multi-linear regression. The stepwise regression procedure is a useful tool to reduce the number of descriptors. To our knowledge, a Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) approach for isotopic studies is novel.

  19. Reconstruction of Full-Field Wall Pressure Fluctuations on a Flat Plate in the Wake of a Step Cylinder: Applications of Linear Stochastic Estimation (LSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Chen, Yujia; Wang, Shaofei; Liu, Yingzheng; Wang, Weizhe

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to reconstruct the full flow field based on time-resolved measurements at discrete locations using linear stochastic estimation (LSE). The objective of this study is to develop and apply this technique to wall pressure fluctuation measurements in low speed flows. Time-resolved wall pressure fluctuations on a flat plate in the wake of a step cylinder at low speed (V PSP). The microphone arrays are arranged properly to capture the dominant features in the flow field at 10 kHz. The PSP is excited using a continuous UV-LED, and the luminescent signal is recorded by a high-speed camera at 2 kHz. The microphone data at discrete locations are used to reconstruct the full-field wall pressure fluctuations based on LSE. The PSP results serve as basis for improvement of the LSE scheme and also for validation of the reconstructed pressure field. Other data processing techniques including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) are also used for analyzing the unsteady flow features. This LSE technique has great potential in real-time flow diagnostics and control.

  20. A linear-field plasma jet for generating a brush-shaped laminar plume at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Li, Jiyuan; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2016-06-01

    A linear-field plasma jet composed of line-to-plate electrodes is used to generate a large-scale brush-shaped plasma plume with flowing argon used as working gas. Through electrical measurement and fast photography, it is found that the plasma plume bridges the two electrodes for the discharge in the positive voltage half-cycle, which behaves like fast moving plasma bullets directed from the anode to the cathode. Compared with the positive discharge, the negative discharge only develops inside the nozzle and propagates much slower. Results also indicate that the gas temperature of the plume is close to room temperature, which is promising for biomedical application.

  1. ABS线性增压可控温度区间的研究%A Research on the Controllable Temperature Range for Linear Pressure Rise in ABS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 刘胜凯; 张晋; 李腾; 孔祥东

    2015-01-01

    针对防抱制动系统( ABS)低温环境下线性增压失效问题,通过阀芯的受力分析,推导了阀口开度自稳定条件;利用电磁场和流场的数值模拟,分析了环境温度对增压阀电磁力和流体作用力的影响;结果表明,要满足阀口开度自稳定条件,确保线性增压,ABS的可控温度区间为-17~120℃;利用HCU性能试验台对ABS的实测验证了仿真结果。%Aiming at the problem of the failure in maintaining linear pressure-rise in ABS under low tem-perature, a self-stabilization condition for the opening of booster valve is derived through the force analysis of valve core. Numerical simulations on both electromagnetic field and flow field are conducted to analyze the effects of ambi-ent temperature on the electromagnetic and hydraulic forces. The results show that for meeting the self-stabilization condition of valve opening and hence assuring linear pressure-rise in ABS, the controlled temperature range should be -17℃ ~120℃, which is verified by a ABS test on HCU performance tester.

  2. Phenomenon of dual- and single-retention behaviors of solutes and its validation by computational simulation in linear programmed temperature gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liejun; Duan, Xiaojuan; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhang, Guangxiang; Li, Qing X

    2016-07-01

    The current theory of programmed temperature gas chromatography considers that solutes are focused by the stationary phase at the column head completely and does not explicitly recognize the different effects of initial temperature (To ) and heating rate (rT ) on the retention time or temperature of a homologue series. In the present study, n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, 1-alkyl alcohols, alkyl benzenes, and fatty acid methyl esters standards were used as model chemicals and were separated on two nonpolar columns, one moderately polar column and one polar column. Effects of To and rT on the retention of nonstationary phase focusing solutes can be explicitly described with isothermal and cubic equation models, respectively. When the solutes were in the stationary phase focusing status, the single-retention behavior of solutes was observed. It is simple, dependent upon rT only and can be well described by the cubic equation model that was visualized through four sequential slope analyses. These observed dual- and single-retention behaviors of solutes were validated by various experimental data, physical properties, and computational simulation.

  3. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ragavi; G. Geetha

    2013-01-01

    The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS) attack.

  4. The influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering of the Rocca Pitigliana landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Bogaard, Thom; Bakker, Mark; Berti, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    The fast pore water pressure response to rain events is an important triggering factor for slope instability. The fast pressure response may be caused by preferential flow that bypasses the soil matrix. Currently, most of the hydro-mechanical models simulate pore water pressure using a single-permeability model, which cannot quantify the effects of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering. Previous studies showed that a model based on the linear-diffusion equation can simulate the fast pressure propagation in near-saturated landslides such as the Rocca Pitigliana landslide. In such a model, the diffusion coefficient depends on the degree of saturation, which makes it difficult to use the model for predictions. In this study, the influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and slope stability is investigated with a 1D dual-permeability model coupled with an infinite-slope stability approach. The dual-permeability model uses two modified Darcy-Richards equations to simultaneously simulate the matrix flow and preferential flow in hillslopes. The simulated pressure head is used in an infinite-slope stability analysis to identify the influence of preferential flow on the fast pressure response and landslide triggering. The dual-permeability model simulates the height and arrival of the pressure peak reasonably well. Performance of the dual-permeability model is as good as or better than the linear-diffusion model even though the dual-permeability model is calibrated for two single pulse rain events only, while the linear-diffusion model is calibrated for each rain event separately. In conclusion, the 1D dual-permeability model is a promising tool for landslides under similar conditions.

  5. Three-dimensional linear instability in pressure-driven two-layer channel flow of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K. C.; Matar, O. K.

    2010-11-01

    The three-dimensional linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel flow are considered, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. We focus on the parameter ranges for which Squire's theorem for the two-layer Newtonian problem does not exist. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations in each layer are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. Our results demonstrate the presence of three-dimensional instabilities for situations where the square root of the viscosity ratio is larger than the thickness ratio of the two layers; these "interfacial" mode instabilities are also present when density stratification is destabilizing. These results may be of particular interest to researchers studying the transient growth and nonlinear stability of two-fluid non-Newtonian flows. We also show that the "shear" modes, which are present at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, are most unstable to two-dimensional disturbances.

  6. Measurement of back-scattered radiation from micro multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber from a dual energy linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements designed to find the collimator backscatter into the beam monitor chamber from Micro Multileaf collimator of 6 MV photon beams of the Siemens Primus linear accelerator were made with the help of dose rate feedback control. The photons and electrons backscattered from the upper and lower secondary collimator jaws give rise to a significant increase in the ion charge measured by monitor chamber. This increase varies between the different accelerators. The output measurements were carried out in air at the isocenter. The effect of collimator backscatter was investigated by measuring the pulse width, number of beam pulses per monitor unit, monitor unit rate and dose for different mMLC openings. These measurements were made with and without dose rate feedback control, i.e., with constant electron beam current in the accelerator. Monitor unit rate (MU/min was almost constant for all field sizes. The maximum variation between the open and the closed feedback control circuits was 2.5%. There was no difference in pulse width and negligible difference in pulse frequency. Maximum value of backscattered radiation from the micro Multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber was found to be 0.5%.

  7. Dresher’s Typ e Inequalities for Dual Quermassintegral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Bo; WANG Wei-dong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we establish two Dresher’s type inequalities for dual quermassinte-gral with Lp-radial Minkowski linear combination and Lp-harmonic Blaschke linear combi-nation, respectively. Our results in special cases yield some new dual Lp-Brunn-Minkowski inequalities for dual quermassintegral.

  8. From Dual-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Smart Tactile Sensor: A Multiplexing Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zou, Jingdian; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Meng; Cao, Xia; Wang, Ning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-04-25

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) can be applied for the next generation of artificial intelligent products, where skin-like tactile sensing advances the ability of robotics to feel and interpret environment. In this paper, a flexible and thin tactile sensor was developed on the basis of dual-mode TENGs. The effective transduction of touch and pressure stimulus into independent and interpretable electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of location and pressure with a plane resolution of 2 mm, a high-pressure-sensing sensitivity up to 28 mV·N(-1), and a linear pressure detection ranging from 40 to 140 N. Interestingly, this self-powered dual-mode sensor can even interpret contact and hardness of objects by analyzing the shape of the current peak, which makes this low-cost TENG-based sensor promising for applications in touch screens, electronic skins, healthcare, and environmental survey.

  9. Dual-tube continuous negative pressure drainage in radical mastectomy%双管持续中心负压引流在乳腺癌根治术中的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张刚; 伍万权

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of dual-tube continuous negative pressure drainage on patients receiving radical mastectomy. Methods:Forty-three patients with breast cancer underwent radical mastectomy, and the dual-tube continuous negative pressure drainage was applied. Subcutaneous fluid collection and skin flap necrosis were observed after the operation. Results: Primary healing was reached in 35 cases; subcutaneous fluid collection was detected in 5 cases, 3 of which were in the axilla and 2 in the parasternal;skin flap necrosis occurred in 3 cases,which was mainly in the middle edge of the incision;2 cases suffered from both fluid collection and skin flap necrosis. Conclusions:After radical mastectomy, dual-tube continuous negative pressure drainage can reduce the subcutaneous fluid collection and skin flap necrosis.%目的:观察双管持续中心负压引流在乳腺癌根治术中的应用效果.方法:对43例乳腺癌患者行乳腺癌根治术并双管持续中心负压引流,观察术后皮下积液及皮瓣坏死的情况.结果:术后35例切口一期愈合;并发皮下积液5例,其中位于腋窝处3例,胸骨旁2例;皮瓣坏死3例,主要集中在切口中段边缘,其中皮下积液合并皮瓣坏死2例.结论:乳腺癌根治术后应用双管持续中心负压引流,可减少皮下积液和皮瓣坏死的发生.

  10. HIGH-PRESSURE RAMAN STUDY OF NON-LINEAR OPTICAL CRYSTALS%非线性光学晶体的高压拉曼散射研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申泽骧

    2000-01-01

    报道了高压下非线性光学晶体KNbO3(KN),KIO3(KI)和KTiOAsO4(KTA)的Raman散射研究结果,压力引起的Raman光谱非常丰富,在所有的样品中都观察到了压致相变.另外,在KN晶体中发现了非常强的压致振动耦合现象及高压非晶相.对于KTA,建立了Raman光谱变化与其倍频效率随压力提高之间的可能联系.在22GPa以上,KI晶体的基本组成集团可能由IO3变为IO6.%In this presentation,we report on the high-pressure Raman spectroscopic studies of some non-linear optical crystals,e.g.KNbO3(KN),KIO3(KI) and KTiOAsO4(KTA),which are important for both their practical applications and theoretical values.The effect of pressure on KN is extremely large and there exist a rich variety of pressure-induced changes.Mode softening is found for some of the characteristic Raman bands.Intensity transfer and frequency repelling have been observed in the 200cm-1 region as a result of strong coupling between two B1(TO)modes,whose frequencies have been brought closer under pressure.There are three new crystalline and an amorphous phases,and two of the phase transitions are of displacive type.Three first-order pressure-induced phase transitions are inferred for KTA.The first takes place at 3.2GPa,indicated by drastic spectral changes related to TiO6 octahedra.The second occurs at 7.5GPa involving both TiO6 and AsO4 groups.Several modes belonging to TiO6 also soften between 0~7.5GPa.The third phase transition occurs near 10GPa and the high-pressure phase should be of higher symmetry.Drastic spectral changes and phase transitions are observed for KI up to 32GPa.The first transition occurs at 5.0GPa characterised by major spectral changes of the ν1,ν2,and ν4 modes.The other transitions are found at 8.7,15 and 22GPa.The phase that is stable between 15~22GPa has a higher symmetry than the phases in the lower pressures.The IO3 pyramidal ions may have lost their identity and changed to IO6 octahedra above 22GPa.

  11. 基于二元线性回归的发动机比功率选择研究%Engine specific power selection research based on dual linear regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆良

    2012-01-01

    Statistic data was collected regarding to 154 types of sedans of the five best seller automobile series in the domestic market in 2010. Their complete vehicle kerb weight, maximum speed and engine power data were gathered and relevant relations were discussed. Least square method was adopted, dual linear regression analysis was performed and engine specific power math-ematic model was constructed. Significance test and accuracy test were carried out to the model. The result showed that the derived model is effective and can provide evidence for engine specific power selection.%通过对2010年国内最畅销的五大车系共154种轿车的整备质量、最高车速及发动机功率进行统计,讨论了三者之间的关系.应用最小二乘法进行二元线性回归分析,构建了发动机比功率的数学模型.对该模型进行了显著性检验和精度检验,结果表明模型有效,可为发动机比功率的选择提供依据.

  12. Dual Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  13. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; P. Genova; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.(INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia, Italy)

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to understand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in n...

  14. Linear stability of a surfactant-laden annular film in a time-periodic pressure-driven flow through a capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsien-Hung; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B

    2005-05-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of surfactant on the linear stability of an annular film in a capillary undergoing a time-periodic pressure gradient force. The annular film is thin compared to the radius of the tube. An asymptotic analysis yields a coupled set of equations with time-periodic coefficients for the perturbed fluid-fluid interface and the interfacial surfactant concentration. Wei and Rumschitzki (submitted for publication) previously showed that the interaction between a surfactant and a steady base flow could induce a more severe instability than a stationary base state. The present work demonstrates that time-periodic base flows can modify the features of the steady-flow-based instability, depending on surface tension, surfactant activity, and oscillatory frequency. For an oscillatory base flow (with zero mean), the growth rate decreases monotonically as the frequency increases. In the low-frequency limit, the growth rate approaches a maximum corresponding to the growth rate of a steady base flow having the same amplitude. In the high-frequency limit, the growth rate reaches a minimum corresponding to the growth rate in the limit of a stationary base state. The underlying mechanisms are explained in detail, and extension to other time-periodic forms is further exploited.

  15. 基于双重预测模型的非线性时间序列预测%Non-linear Prediction of Time Series Based on Dual-forecasting Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方勇; 刘庆山

    2011-01-01

    在支持向量机( SVM)预测问题中,为了减小错误参数选取对预测结果的影响,提出了1种基于双重预测模型的非线性时间序列预测算法.该算法在充分考虑支持向量机参数对推广能力影响的基础上,分别利用自回归预测模型(AR)、自回归滑动平均模型( ARMA)、线性回归和决策树模型对SVM参数进行预测,将预测参数运用到SVM预测模型中.最后,利用该算法对中国火灾发生起数进行了预测,实验表明,该方法在预测准确率上明显优于基于遗传算法选参和粒子群算法选参的SVM预测方法.%A new nonlinear time series prediction algorithm based on dual-forecasting model is proposed for support vector machine (SVM) to minimize the influence of error parameters. Fully utilizing the effect of the SVM parameter on generalization ability, we use Autoregressive (AR), Autoregressive Moving Average ( ARM A), linear regression, and decision tree model to predict SVM parameter, followed by applying the predicted parameter to the SVM model. At last, fire occurred in China is forecasted by the algorithm, and numerical simulation demonstrates that the proposed method surpasses the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based SVM in terms of prediction accuracy.

  16. 正则化双阶线性稀疏编码在人脸识别中的应用%APPLYING DUAL-STAGE LINEAR REGULARISED SPARSE CODING IN FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利正; 黄煜栋; 陈平生

    2014-01-01

    Anomaly will occur in traditional sparse coding method when large-scale data is encountered due to high computational complexity, and this leads to the feature extraction not working well.In light of this problem, we propose the dual-stage linear regularised sparse coding ( DLRSC) method, it learns the structure features of noise and abnormal pixel by means of generalised multi-feature subspace framework, and calculates the only approximate solution by using the theory of L1 ball.Moreover, the filtering skill is adopted to avoid the complex computation of the large-scale data, thereby reduces the time and space complexity.Finally, the experiments on two universal database, the ORL and the Yale, verify the effectiveness of the mentioned DLRSC method, experimental results show that compared with other state-of-the-art sparse coding methods, the proposed method achieves better recognition results.%传统的稀疏编码方法在遇到大规模数据时,因计算复杂度高而出现异常。针对这种异常导致不能很好地进行特征提取的问题,提出正则化双阶线性稀疏编码DLRSC( Double Linear Regularization Sparse Coding)方法。借助于广义多特征子空间框架来学习噪声和异常像素的结构特征,通过使用L1球理论,计算出唯一的近似解,并且利用滤波技巧避免了大规模数据的复杂计算,从而降低了时间及空间复杂度。最后,在ORL及Yale两大通用人脸数据库上的实验验证了所提的DLRSC方法的有效性,实验结果表明,相比其他几种最先进的稀疏编码方法,所提方法取得了更好的识别效果。

  17. Primal-Dual Interior-Point Algorithms with Dynamic Step-Size Based on Kernel Functions for Linear Programming%用于线性优化的基于核函数的动态步长原-对偶内点算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱忠根; 白延琴

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, primal-dual interior-point algorithm with dynamic step size is implemented for linear programming (LP) problems. The algorithms are based on a few kernel functions, including both self-regular functions and non-self-regular ones. The dynamic step size is compared with fixed step size for the algorithms in inner iteration of Newton step. Numerical tests show that the algorithms with dynamic step size are more efficient than those with fixed step size.

  18. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-02-15

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  19. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  20. Investigation of RC Structural Behaviour of Wall-Equivalent Dual System through Non-Linear Analyses. - Undersøkelse av den konstruksjonsmessige oppførselen til veggekvivalent dobbeltsystem i armert betong ved hjelp av ikke-lineære analyser

    OpenAIRE

    Semere, Samson Amanuel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the non-linear response of a wall-equivalent dual-system structure. The procedure of the analyses follows the guidelines incorporated in the current Norwegian seismic design code NS-EN 1998-1. The investigated structure is detailed for medium ductility in accordance to NS-EN 1998-1. A representative finite element model of the structure (2D) is created with SeismoStruct and OpenSees software packages with emphasis on capturing the non-linear behavior ...

  1. Cutting Under Pressure Technology for the Tubing String with Dual Packer in Gas Well%带压切割气井双封分压管柱工艺技术∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 杨红斌; 徐迎新

    2015-01-01

    复杂多个大直径工具管柱、腐蚀管柱和带喷砂器的管柱带压起钻工艺尚无有效方法,为此,研发了带压切割气井双封分压管柱工艺技术。该工艺技术采用专门的带压切割装置,利用切割刀具在装置内逐段切割,带压起出切割掉的油管,下带压密封捞矛打捞切割掉的油管鱼头,逐级起出复杂管柱。现场试验结果表明,气井带压切割工艺可以实现ø73�0 mm N80油管双封分压管柱的带压切割;对于腐蚀穿孔和双封分压以上复杂管柱可以采取装置内分段切割、密封打捞及分级起出的技术方案。%There is still no effective method of tripping out complex multiple large diameter tool string, corro⁃sion string and string with sandblast under pressure, to address the issue, a technology of cutting dual packer iso⁃lation string in gas well has been developed�A special device capable of cutting string under pressure is used to cut the string by cutter�After tripping out the cut tubing string section, run fishing spear for snubbing operation to fish the tubing string in well, thus, tripping out the complex string piece by piece�Field tests show that the cutting un⁃der pressure technology for gas well is fully capable of cutting the ø73�0 mm N80 tubing string with dual packer un⁃der pressure�For corrosion perforation and the complex string upper dual packer, cutting into piece, fishing with sealing and tripping out piece by piece could be a solution.

  2. DESIGN OF A DUAL KEYBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ragavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a computer keyboard with dual function is proposed. This computer keyboard called Dual Keyboard can function both as a normal keyboard and as a pressure sensitive keyboard. The proposed device has a switch that decides the function. The keyboard makes use of sensors placed beneath the keys to measure the pressure applied on the key by the user. This device has many applications. In this study, it is applied to mitigate Denial of Service (DoS attack.

  3. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to un- derstand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\\sigma}/E $\\approx$ 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.

  4. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ) simultaneously. The two linear polarizations have separate ports. The presented design is characterized by dual-band operation, reasonably good front-to-back ratios, average gains of 5.2 dBi and 6.2 dBi over the 2.4 and 5.2 GHz bands respectively, stable end...

  5. Ignition delay of dual fuel engine operating with methanol ignited by pilot diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo ZOU; Lijun WANG; Shenghua LIU; Yu LI

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on the ignition delay of a dual fuel engine operating with methanol ignited by pilot diesel was conducted on a TY1100 direct-injection diesel engine equipped with an electronic controlled methanol low-pressure injection system. The experimental results show that the polytropic index of compression process of the dual fuel engine decreases linearly while the ignition delay increases with the increase in methanol mass fraction. Compared with the conventional diesel engine, the igni-tion delay increment of the dual fuel engine is about 1.5° at a methanol mass fraction of 62%, an engine speed of 1600 r/min, and full engine load. With the elevation of the intake charge temperature from 20℃ to 40℃ and then to 60℃, the ignition delay of the dual fuel engine decreases and is more obvious at high temperature. Moreover, with the increase in engine speed, the ignition delay of the dual fuel engine by time scale (ms) decreases clearly under all engine operating conditions. However, the ignition delay of the dual fuel engine increases remark-ably by advancing the delivery timing of pilot diesel, espe-cially at light engine loads.

  6. Dual diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dual diagnosis denotes intertwining of intellectual disabilities with mental disorders. With the help of systematic examination of literature, intellectual disabilities are determined (they are characterized by subaverage intellectual activity and difficulties in adaptive skills), along side mental disorders. Their influence is seen in changes of thinking, perception, emotionality, behaviour and cognition. Mental disorders often occur with people with intellectual disabilities (data differs f...

  7. Effect of taurocholic acid on fetoplacental arterial pressures in a dual perfusion placental cotyledon model: a novel approach to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Brad M; Zelig, Craig M; Paonessa, Damian J; Hoeldtke, Nathan J; Napolitano, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    To determine if continuous infusion of taurocholic acid into the fetoplacental and intervillous circulation of a placental cotyledon affects the fetal arterial pressure response after injection of the thromboxane mimetic U44619. Taurine conjugated bile acid is one bile acid putatively mediating intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We selected 5 placentas from normal, unlabored patients. Two cotyledons from each placenta were isolated and dually perfused. Taurocholic acid was continuously infused into the fetoplacental and intervillous circulation of the test cotyledon. After 30 minutes U44619 was injected into both the test and control cotyledon vascular circuits. Pressure excursions were measured and compared to baseline pressures using a paired Student's t test. There was significant attenuation of the pressure excursion in the cotyledons perfused with taurocholic acid as compared to controls after injection of U44619. The difference from baseline in the taurocholic cotyledon compared with controls was 44.2 mmHg vs. 71.8 mmHg (p = 0.009). The perfusion of taurocholic acid attenuated the pressure response to thromboxane mimetic U44619 in the fetoplacental arterial circulation of a placental cotyledon as compared to control. This finding in our ex-vivo model may represent changes that occur in the placental vasculature with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. These placentas may have dysregulated vascular tone, which could contribute to the adverse fetal effects observed in ICP.

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY Dual RAAS blockade has dual effects on outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Makani and colleagues report that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with harm despite previous studies showing that this approach decreases blood pressure and albuminuria. Do these results imply that we should abandon surrogate markers? Or should we become more

  9. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; Janssen, Wilbert M. T.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects on proteinuria and blood pressure of addition of dietary sodium restriction or angiotensin receptor blockade at maximum dose, or their combination, in patients with non-diabetic nephropathy receiving background treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhib

  10. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; Janssen, Wilbert M. T.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects on proteinuria and blood pressure of addition of dietary sodium restriction or angiotensin receptor blockade at maximum dose, or their combination, in patients with non-diabetic nephropathy receiving background treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

  11. Linearization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildeberto S. Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.

  12. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...... fixed point. Remarkably this value is identical to the maximum bound predicted in the nonpertubative regime via the all-orders conjectured beta function for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories.......We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  13. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  14. Linear Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwalla Arun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear psoriasis, inflammatory linear varrucous epidermal naevus (ILVEN. Lichen straitus, linear lichen planus and invasion of epidermal naevi by psoriasis have clinical and histopathological overlap. We report two young male patients of true linear psoriasis without classical lesions elsewhere which were proved histopathologically. Seasonal variation and good response to topical antipsoriatic treatment supported the diagnosis.

  15. Improper use of the starting pressure gradient of linear flow in the plane radial flow equation%线性流的启动压力梯度不能用于平面径向流方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元千

    2011-01-01

    Bear first presented a physical concept and discriminant of the starting pressure gradient in 1972 when he studied the applied lower limit of the Darcy law. And then Professor Ge Jiali introduced the starting pressure gradient to China in 1982. The so-called starting pressure gradient refers to a pressure gradient that makes a fluid in fluid-saturated cores begin to flow. It should be pointed out that the pressure gradient of linear flow is directly proportional to the flow rate, while the starting pressure gradient is a constant. The pressure gradient of plane radial flow is directly proportional to the flow rate but inversely to the radial radius. Moreover, the starting pressure7 gradient at a position of different radial radius is variable. It is controversial for the correctness to have directly applied the Bear's starting pressure gradient and discriminant of linear flow to the plane radial flow equation by some researchers. Theoretically, the paper analyzed both the pressure gradient and starting pressure gradient of linear flow and plane radial flow and proposed the conception of starting flow rate. At the same time, a more applicable method to evaluate the starting drawdown pressure and starting bottomhole flowing pressure of low permeability tight reservoirs was proposed.%启动压力梯度的物理概念及判别式是Bear于1972年在利用岩心测试资料研究达西定律的应用下限时提出来的,葛家理教授首次介绍到我国.所谓启动压力梯度,是指流体在饱和的岩心开始发生流动时的压力梯度.应当指出,线性流的压力梯度与流量成正比,启动压力梯度为常数;平面径向流的压力梯度与流量成正比,与径向半径成反比,而且,不同径向半径位置的启动压力梯度是不同的.有关学者将线性流启动的压力梯度及判别式直接用于平面径向流方程的正确性值得质疑.笔者对线性流和平面径向流的压力梯度和启动压力梯度问题进行了

  16. A 5.2GHz, 0.5mW RF powered wireless sensor with dual on-chip antennas for implantable intraocular pressure monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    For the first time a single chip implantable wireless sensor system for Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) is presented. This system-on-chip (SoC) is battery-free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. The chip is self-contained and does not require external components or bond wires to function. This 1.4mm3 SoC has separate 2.4GHz-transmit and 5.2GHz-receive antennas, an energy harvesting module, a temperature sensor, a 7-bit TIQ Flash ADC, a 4-bit RFID, a power management and control unit, and a VCO transmitter. The chip is fabricated in a standard 6-metal 0.18μm CMOS process and is designed to work with a post-processed MEMS pressure sensor. It consumes 513μW of peak power and when implanted inside the eye, it is designed to communicate with an external reader using on-off keying (OOK). © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Heat transfer measurements on an incidence-tolerant low pressure turbine blade in a high speed linear cascade at low to moderate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moualeu, Leolein Patrick Gouemeni

    Runway-independent aircraft are expected to be the future for short-haul flights by improving air transportation and reducing area congestion encountered in airports. The Vehicle Systems Program of NASA identified a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor, equipped with variable-speed power-turbine engines, as the best concept. At cruise altitude, the engine rotor-speed will be reduced by as much as the 50% of take-off speed. The large incidence variation in the low pressure turbine associated with the change in speed can be detrimental to the engine performance. Low pressure turbine blades in cruise altitude are more predisposed to develop regions of boundary layer separation. Typical phenomenon such as impinging wakes on downstream blades and mainstream turbulences enhance the complexity of the flow in low pressure turbines. It is therefore important to be able to understand the flow behavior to accurately predict the losses. Research facilities are seldom able to experimentally reproduce low Reynolds numbers at relevant engine Mach number. Having large incidence swing as an additional parameter in the investigation of the boundary layer development, on a low pressure turbine blade, makes this topic unique and as a consequence requires a unique facility to conduct the experimental research. The compressible flow wind tunnel facility at the University of North Dakota had been updated to perform steady state experiments on a modular-cascade, designed to replicate a large variation of the incidence angles. The high speed and low Reynolds number facility maintained a sealed and closed loop configuration for each incidence angle. The updated facility is capable to produce experimental Reynolds numbers as low as 45,000 and as high as 570,000 at an exit Mach number of 0.72. Pressure and surface temperature measurements were performed at these low pressure turbine conditions. The present thesis investigates the boundary layer development on the surface of an Incidence-tolerant blade. The

  18. Quality Control of Differential Propagation Phase Shift for Dual Linear Polarization Radar%双线偏振雷达差分传播相移的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜牧云; 刘黎平; 胡志群; 余蓉

    2012-01-01

    Data processing and quality control is the foundation of the application of dual-linear polarization Doppler radar. Based on the observation in field experiments by a Cband Polarization Doppler Radar on Wheel (CPDRW), the difference of differential propagation phase shift ΦDP between precipitation and ground clutter and its relationship with signal-to-noise ratio SNR are analyzed and a new data analyzing and processing methodology is suggested. According to this new method, the useless ΦDP data can be given up and the KDP data with higher accuracy can be acquired. Analysis indicates that ΦDP data are vulnerable to the influence of the non-meteorological target like ground clutter and usually appears large fluctuations. Φ DP data are also sensitive to the variability of SNR and cross-correlation coefficient ρ Hv(0) , especially the latter. It appears abnormal fluctuations with the quality of related SNR and ρ Hv(0) becomes poor and that will affect the quality of the estimation of KDP data if no appropriate quality control scheme is adopted. U-sing this kind of KDP data, obvious errors in the quantitative application of precipitation estimation and precipitation particle morphology recognition can be obtained. In this new method, the abnormal volatility of ΦDP data combining with reflectivity factor ZH and radial velocity VT information is used to isolate the ground clutter, and then improper data are eliminated in the quantitative application such as quantitative precipitation estimation or attenuation correction. According to SNR and ρHV(0), the meteorological data is divided into good, poor and bad categories. For the good data, the fluctuation is smaller, the increasing trend with distances which accords with theoretical expectations is evident, so the preprocessing algorithms and estimate KDP data can be used directly; for the poor data, although the fluctuation is more pronounced than the good data, the data continuity begins to become poor and there

  19. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  20. Dual massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, Kevin, E-mail: Kevin.Morand@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-08-29

    The linearized massive gravity in three dimensions, over any maximally symmetric background, is known to be presented in a self-dual form as a first order equation which encodes not only the massive Klein-Gordon type field equation but also the supplementary transverse-traceless conditions. We generalize this construction to higher dimensions. The appropriate dual description in d dimensions, additionally to a (non-symmetric) tensor field h{sub {mu}{nu}}, involves an extra rank-(d-1) field equivalently represented by the torsion rank-3 tensor. The symmetry condition for h{sub {mu}{nu}} arises on-shell as a consequence of the field equations. The action principle of the dual theory is formulated. The focus has been made on four dimensions. Solving one of the fields in terms of the other and putting back in the action one obtains two other equivalent formulations of the theory in which the action is quadratic in derivatives. In one of these representations the theory is formulated entirely in terms of a rank-2 non-symmetric tensor h{sub {mu}{nu}}. This quadratic theory is not identical to the Fierz-Pauli theory and contains the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of h{sub {mu}{nu}}. Nevertheless, the only singularity in the propagator is the same as in the Fierz-Pauli theory so that only the massive spin-2 particle is propagating. In the other representation, the theory is formulated in terms of the torsion rank-3 tensor only. We analyze the conditions which follow from the field equations and show that they restrict to 5 degrees of freedom thus producing an alternative description to the massive spin-2 particle. A generalization to higher dimensions is suggested.

  1. Dual-horizon Peridynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Huilong; Cai, Yongchang; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new Peridynamic approach that naturally includes varying horizon sizes and completely solves the "ghost force" issue. Therefore, the concept of dual-horizon is introduced to consider the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation is proved to fulfill both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum. Neither the "partial stress tensor" nor the "`slice" technique are needed to ameliorate the ghost force issue in \\cite{Silling2014}. The consistency of reaction forces is naturally fulfilled by a unified simple formulation. The method can be easily implemented to any existing peridynamics code with minimal changes. A simple adaptive refinement procedure is proposed minimizing the computational cost. The method is applied here to the three Peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based Peridynamics. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthof-Winkler experi...

  2. Non-Linear Relativity in Position Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kimberly, D; Medeiros-Neto, J F; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, João; Medeiros, João

    2003-01-01

    We propose two methods for obtaining the dual of non-linear relativity as previously formulated in momentum space. In the first we allow for the (dual) position space to acquire a non-linear representation of the Lorentz group independently of the chosen representation in momentum space. This requires a non-linear definition for the invariant contraction between momentum and position spaces. The second approach, instead, respects the linearity of the invariant contraction. This fully fixes the dual of momentum space and dictates a set of energy-dependent space-time Lorentz transformations. We discuss a variety of physical implications that would distinguish these two strategies. We also show how they point to two rather distinct formulations of theories of gravity with an invariant energy and/or length scale.

  3. Linear programming mathematics, theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Linear Programming provides an in-depth look at simplex based as well as the more recent interior point techniques for solving linear programming problems. Starting with a review of the mathematical underpinnings of these approaches, the text provides details of the primal and dual simplex methods with the primal-dual, composite, and steepest edge simplex algorithms. This then is followed by a discussion of interior point techniques, including projective and affine potential reduction, primal and dual affine scaling, and path following algorithms. Also covered is the theory and solution of the linear complementarity problem using both the complementary pivot algorithm and interior point routines. A feature of the book is its early and extensive development and use of duality theory. Audience: The book is written for students in the areas of mathematics, economics, engineering and management science, and professionals who need a sound foundation in the important and dynamic discipline of linear programming.

  4. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-01-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.

  5. Linear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . Material...is slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for

  6. Between-centre variability in transfer function analysis, a widely used method for linear quantification of the dynamic pressure-flow relation: the CARNet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; Simpson, David M; Wang, Lotte J Y; Slump, Cornelis H; Zhang, Rong; Tarumi, Takashi; Rickards, Caroline A; Payne, Stephen; Mitsis, Georgios D; Kostoglou, Kyriaki; Marmarelis, Vasilis; Shin, Dae; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Ainslie, Philip N; Gommer, Erik; Müller, Martin; Dorado, Alexander C; Smielewski, Peter; Yelicich, Bernardo; Puppo, Corina; Liu, Xiuyun; Czosnyka, Marek; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Novak, Vera; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2014-05-01

    Transfer function analysis (TFA) is a frequently used method to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). However, controversies and variations exist in how research groups utilise TFA, causing high variability in interpretation. The objective of this study was to evaluate between-centre variability in TFA outcome metrics. 15 centres analysed the same 70 BP and CBFV datasets from healthy subjects (n=50 rest; n=20 during hypercapnia); 10 additional datasets were computer-generated. Each centre used their in-house TFA methods; however, certain parameters were specified to reduce a priori between-centre variability. Hypercapnia was used to assess discriminatory performance and synthetic data to evaluate effects of parameter settings. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression. A large non-homogeneous variation was found in TFA outcome metrics between the centres. Logistic regression demonstrated that 11 centres were able to distinguish between normal and impaired CA with an AUC>0.85. Further analysis identified TFA settings that are associated with large variation in outcome measures. These results indicate the need for standardisation of TFA settings in order to reduce between-centre variability and to allow accurate comparison between studies. Suggestions on optimal signal processing methods are proposed.

  7. Dual Numbers Approach in Multiaxis Machines Error Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Hrdina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxis machines error modeling is set in the context of modern differential geometry and linear algebra. We apply special classes of matrices over dual numbers and propose a generalization of such concept by means of general Weil algebras. We show that the classification of the geometric errors follows directly from the algebraic properties of the matrices over dual numbers and thus the calculus over the dual numbers is the proper tool for the methodology of multiaxis machines error modeling.

  8. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  9. MacWilliams identity and self-dual codes of linear codes over Z2a +uZ2a%Z2a+uZ2a上线性码的MacWilliams恒等式及自对偶码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贤梅; 熊蕾

    2016-01-01

    考虑环 R =Z2a +uZ2a上的线性码,其中 u2=u。研究了环 R 上线性码的完全 Gray 权估计的 MacWilliams 恒等式。给出了环 R 上的自对偶码的生成矩阵及环 Z23+uZ23上长为偶数 n 的自对偶码的数量公式。讨论了环 R上的挠码,得到挠码的生成矩阵及挠码与剩余码的关系。%The linear codes over R =Z2a +uZ2a with u2 =u are discussed.MacWilliams identity for the complete Gray weight enumerator is investigated firstly.Then,the generator matrices of self-dual codes over R and the number of dis-tinct self-dual codes of even length n over Z23 +uZ23 are given.The torsion codes over R are discussed and the genera-tor matrices of torsion codes and the relationship between the torsion codes and the residue codes are also obtained.

  10. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  11. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  12. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  13. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  14. Neighborhood-following algorithms for linear programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Kojima, M., Mizuno, S., Yoshise, A., A polynomial-time algorithm for a class of linear complementarity probems, Mathematical Programming, 1989, 44: 1-26.[2]Megiddo, N., Pathways to the optimal set in linear programming. in Progression Mathematical Programming:Interior Point and Related Methods, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989, 131-158.[3]Monteiro, R. D. C., Adler, I., Interior path following primal-dual algorithms, Part Ⅰ: linear programming, Mathematical Programming, 1989, 44: 27-41.[4]Monteiro, R. D. C., Adler, I., Interior path following primal-dual algorithms, Part Ⅱ: convex quadratic programming, Mathematical Programming, 1989, 44: 43-46.[5]Wright, S. J., Primal-Dual Interior-Point Methods, Philadephia: SIAM Publications, 1997.[6]Mizuno, S., Todd, M. J., Ye, Y., On adaptive step primal-dual interior-point algorithms for linear programming,Mathematics of Operations Research, 1993, 18:964-981.[7]Gonzaga, C. C., The largest step path following algorithm for monotone linear complementarity problems, Mathematical Programming, 1997, 76: 309-332.[8]Sturm, J. F., Zhang, S., On a wide region of centers primal-dual interior point algorithms for linear programming,Tinbergen Institute Rotterdam, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1995.[9]Hung, P., Ye, Y., An asymptotical O(√nL)-iteration path-following linear programming algorithm that uses wide neighborhoods, SIAM J.Optimization, 1996, 6: 570-586.[10]Ye, Y., Interior Point Algorithms: Theory and Analysis, New York: Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1997.[11]Güler, O., Ye, Y., Convergence behavior of interior-point algorithms. Mathematical Programming, 1993, 60:215-228.[12]Mehrotral, S., On the implementation of a primal-dual interior point mehtod, SIAM J. Optimization, 1992, 2(4):575-601.

  15. 40 CFR 1065.307 - Linearity verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linearity verification generally consists of introducing a series of at least 10 reference values to a... reference values of the linearity verification. For pressure, temperature, dewpoint, and GC-ECD linearity verifications, we recommend at least three reference values. For all other linearity verifications select...

  16. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  17. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with the basic concepts of vector spaces such as linear independence, basis and dimension, quotient space, linear transformation and duality with an exposition of the theory of linear operators on a finite dimensional vector space, this book includes the concept of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, triangulation and Jordan and rational canonical forms. Inner product spaces which cover finite dimensional spectral theory and an elementary theory of bilinear forms are also discussed. This new edition of the book incorporates the rich feedback of its readers. We have added new subject matter in the text to make the book more comprehensive. Many new examples have been discussed to illustrate the text. More exercises have been included. We have taken care to arrange the exercises in increasing order of difficulty. There is now a new section of hints for almost all exercises, except those which are straightforward, to enhance their importance for individual study and for classroom use.

  18. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  19. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, Reg

    1995-01-01

    As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin

  20. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited framelets with desired time localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear...... combination of dilations of ψ with explicitly given coefficients. The result allows a simple construction procedure for pairs of dual wavelet frames whose generators have compact support in the Fourier domain and desired time localization. The construction is based on characteriszing equations for dual...

  1. Interference of Spin-2 Self-Dual Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilha, A; Ilha, Anderson; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects of interference between the self-dual and anti self-dual massive modes of the linearized Einstein-Chern-Simons topological gravity. The dual models to be used in the interference process are carefully analyzed with special emphasis on their propagating spectrum. We identify the opposite dual aspects, necessary for the application of the interference formalism on this model. The soldered theory so obtained displays explicitly massive modes of the Proca type. It may also be written in a form of Polyakov-Weigman identity to a better appreciation of its physical contents.

  2. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  3. Fast dual tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  4. Fast dual tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA - Campus Universitario da Federacao, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects bad data which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model. In this paper, the author derives basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  5. An easy way to obtain strong duality results in linear, linear semidefinite and linear semi-infinite programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, P.C.; Still, Georg J.

    1999-01-01

    In linear programming it is known that an appropriate non-homogeneous Farkas Lemma leads to a short proof of the strong duality results for a pair of primal and dual programs. By using a corresponding generalized Farkas lemma we give a similar proof of the strong duality results for semidefinite

  6. Linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bourlès, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe

  7. Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.

  8. Determination of sulfonamide antibiotics and metabolites in liver, muscle and kidney samples by pressurized liquid extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonamides are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of sulfonamides residues in food is an issue of great concern. Throughout the present work, a method for the targeted analysis of 16 sulfonamides and metabolites residue in liver of several species has been developed and validated. Extraction and clean-up has been statistically optimized using central composite design experiments. Two extraction methods have been developed, validated and compared: i) pressurized liquid extraction, in which samples were defatted with hexane and subsequently extracted with acetonitrile and ii) ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile and further liquid-liquid extraction with hexane. Extracts have been analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation procedure has been based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and included the assessment of parameters such as decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. Method׳s performance has been satisfactory, with CCα values within the range of 111.2-161.4 µg kg(-1), limits of detection of 10 µg kg(-1) and accuracy values around 100% for all compounds.

  9. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  10. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  11. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  12. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  13. PADDLE: Proximal Algorithm for Dual Dictionaries LEarning

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Curzio; Verri, Alessandro; Villa, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Recently, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design of methods to learn from data overcomplete dictionaries for sparse coding. However, learned dictionaries require the solution of an optimization problem for coding new data. In order to overcome this drawback, we propose an algorithm aimed at learning both a dictionary and its dual: a linear mapping directly performing the coding. By leveraging on proximal methods, our algorithm jointly minimizes the reconstruction error of the dictionary and the coding error of its dual; the sparsity of the representation is induced by an $\\ell_1$-based penalty on its coefficients. The results obtained on synthetic data and real images show that the algorithm is capable of recovering the expected dictionaries. Furthermore, on a benchmark dataset, we show that the image features obtained from the dual matrix yield state-of-the-art classification performance while being much less computational intensive.

  14. Deriving robust and globalized robust solutions of uncertain linear programs having general convex uncertainty sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, B.L.; Blanc, J.P.C.; den Hertog, D.; Ben-Tal, A.

    We propose a new way to derive tractable robust counterparts of a linear program based on the duality between the robust (“pessimistic”) primal problem and its “optimistic” dual. First we obtain a new convex reformulation of the dual problem of a robust linear program, and then show how to construct

  15. The Dual Career Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  16. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  17. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions are...

  18. Self-Dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Self-dual gravity is a diffeomorphism invariant theory in four dimensions that describes two propagating polarisations of the graviton and has a negative mass dimension coupling constant. Nevertheless, this theory is not only renormalisable but quantum finite, as we explain. We also collect various facts about self-dual gravity that are scattered across the literature.

  19. Optical dual self functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 王宁

    1997-01-01

    A recipe to construct the exact dual self-Fourier-Fresnel-transform functions is shown, where the Dirac comb function and transformable even periodic function are used. The mathematical proof and examples are given Then this kind of self-transform function is extended to the feasible optical dual self-transform functions.

  20. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  1. Research on Dual Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Fucai Qian; Peilin Fu

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress by the authors in developing two solution frameworks for dual control. The first solution framework considers a class of dual control problems where there exists a parameter uncertainty in the observation equation of the LQG problem. An analytical active dual control law is derived by a variance minimization approach. The issue of how to determine an optimal degree of active learning is then addressed, thus achieving an optimality for this class of dual control problems. The second solution framework considers a general class of discrete-time LQG problems with unknown parameters in both state and observation equations. The best possible (partial) closed-loop feedback control law is derived by exploring the future nominal posterior probabilities, thus taking into account the effect of future learning when constructing the optimal nominal dual control.

  2. Transition-Aged Youths With Dual Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinyak, Christopher M; Gary, Faye A; Killion, Cheryl M; Suresky, M Jane

    2016-03-01

    The current study provides an overview of the research knowledge about unique problems encountered by transition-aged youths with dual diagnoses. A description of the considerable physical and emotional changes experienced by transition-aged youths provides a foundation for exploring the pressures and challenges compounded by mental health issues and substance abuse. Programs that provide intensive support throughout the transition years pay valuable dividends. However, transition-aged youths with dual diagnoses of mental disorders and substance abuse find themselves faced with limited or nonexistent options. There is a confusing lack of continuity and consistency of supports and services, which complicates the already perplexing circumstances that beleaguer the lives of young adults with dual diagnoses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas Khan; Samarendra K Mohanty; A K Sood

    2005-11-01

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and become twisted in hypertonic phosphate buffer saline and when trapped, experience an unbalanced radiation pressure force. The torque generated from the unbalanced force causes the trapped RBC to rotate. Addition of Ca++ ions in the solution, keeping the osmolarity same, makes the cell membranes stiffer and the cells deform less. Thus the speed of rotation of the red blood cells can be controlled, as less deformation and in turn less asymmetry in shape produces less torque under the radiation pressure resulting in slower rotation at the same laser power.

  4. Study of the shock structure of supersonic, dual, coaxial, jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. D. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The shock structure of supersonic, dual, coaxial jet is experimentally investigated. Eight different kinds of coaxial, dual nozzles are employed to observe the major features of the near field shock structure of the supersonic, coaxial, dual jets. Four convergent-divergent supersonic nozzles having the Mach number of 2.0 and 3.0, and are used to compare the coaxial jet flows discharging from two sonic nozzles. The primary pressure ratio is changed in the range between 4.0 and 10.0 and the assistant jet pressure ratio from 1.0 to 4.0. The results obtained show that the impinging angle, nozzle geometry and pressure ratio significantly affect the near field shock structure, Mach disk location and Mach disk diameter. The annular shock system is found depending the assistant and primary jet pressure ratios.

  5. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited framelets with desired time localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear combi...... wavelet frames and relies on a technical condition. We exhibit a general class of function satisfying this condition; in particular, we construct piecewise polynomial functions satisfying the condition.......For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear...

  6. Neighborhood-following algorithms for linear programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Wenbao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present neighborhood-following algorithms for linear programming. When the neighborhood is a wide neighborhood, our algorithms are wide neighborhood primal-dual interior point algorithms. If the neighborhood degenerates into the central path, our algorithms also degenerate into path-following algorithms. We prove that our algorithms maintain the O(√nL)-iteration complexity still, while the classical wide neighborhood primal-dual interior point algorithms have only the O(nL)-iteration complexity. We also proved that the algorithms are quadratic convergence if the optimal vertex is nondegenerate. Finally, we show some computational results of our algorithms.

  7. LINEAR SYSTEMS AND LINEAR INTERPOLATION I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁立峰

    2001-01-01

    he linear interpolation of linear system on a family of linear systems is introduced and discussed. Some results and examples on singly generated systems on a finite dimensional vector space are given.

  8. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Thinking: A Multidimensional Model and Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Vance, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon previously developed and more general dual-process models, this paper provides empirical support for a multidimensional thinking style construct comprised of linear thinking and multiple dimensions of nonlinear thinking. A self-report assessment instrument (Linear/Nonlinear Thinking Style Profile; LNTSP) is presented and…

  10. Linear and Nonlinear Thinking: A Multidimensional Model and Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Vance, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon previously developed and more general dual-process models, this paper provides empirical support for a multidimensional thinking style construct comprised of linear thinking and multiple dimensions of nonlinear thinking. A self-report assessment instrument (Linear/Nonlinear Thinking Style Profile; LNTSP) is presented and…

  11. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  12. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  13. Exact self-dual skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a Skyrme type model with the target space being the sphere S3 and with an action possessing, as usual, quadratic and quartic terms in field derivatives. The novel character of the model is that the strength of the couplings of those two terms are allowed to depend upon the space-time coordinates. The model should therefore be interpreted as an effective theory, such that those couplings correspond in fact to low energy expectation values of fields belonging to a more fundamental theory at high energies. The theory possesses a self-dual sector that saturates the Bogomolny bound leading to an energy depending linearly on the topological charge. The self-duality equations are conformally invariant in three space dimensions leading to a toroidal ansatz and exact self-dual Skyrmion solutions. Those solutions are labelled by two integers and, despite their toroidal character, the energy density is spherically symmetric when those integers are equal and oblate or prolate otherwise.

  14. Dual gradient drilling - simulations during connection operations

    OpenAIRE

    Time, André

    2014-01-01

    As oilfields are ageing and depleting, operators are forced to start searching for oil in more hostile environments. These new environments can introduce new drilling challenges. Prospects like ultra deep water reservoirs and depleted offshore reservoirs are difficult to drill with conventional drilling. This has lead the industry to developing the Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) system. DGD is an unconventional drilling method and it is classified as a Managed Pressure Drilling ...

  15. Walkable dual emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Hai-Bing; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Kang, Bin; Deng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Walkable dual emissions, in which the emission bands of the walker reversibly cross or leave those of the stationary ones depending on temperature and concentration, have been demonstrated in cyclic...

  16. Dual-Anode Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Use of two hydrogen anodes in nickel/hydrogen cell reduces ohmic and concentration polarizations contributing to internal resistance, yielding cell with improved discharging performance compared to single-anode cell. Dual-anode concept incorporated into nickel/hydrogen cells of individual pressure-vessel type (for use aboard spacecraft) and common pressure-vessel type, for use on Earth to store electrical energy from photovoltaic sources, "uninterruptible" power supplies of computer and telephone systems, electric vehicles, and load leveling on power lines. Also applicable to silver/hydrogen and other metal/gas batteries.

  17. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...

  18. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...

  19. Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-Over-Fiber Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiupu Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linearization technologies that can be used for linearizing RoF transmission are reviewed. Three main linearization methods, i.e. electrical analog linearization, optical linearization, and electrical digital linearization are presented and compared. Analog linearization can be achieved using analog predistortion circuits, and can be used for suppression of odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as third and fifth order. Optical linearization includes mixed-polarization, dual-wavelength, optical channelization and the others, implemented in optical domain, to suppress both even and odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as second and third order. Digital predistortion has been a widely used linearization method for RF power amplifiers. However, digital linearization that requires analog to digital converter is severely limited to hundreds of MHz bandwidth. Instead, analog and optical linearization provide broadband linearization with up to tens of GHz. Therefore, for broadband radio over fiber transmission that can be used for future broadband cloud radio access networks, analog and optical linearization are more appropriate than digital linearization. Generally speaking, both analog and optical linearization are able to improve spur-free dynamic range greater than 10 dB over tens of GHz. In order for current digital linearization to be used for broadband radio over fiber transmission, the reduced linearization complexity and increased linearization bandwidth are required. Moreover, some digital linearization methods in which the complexity can be reduced, such as Hammerstein type, may be more promising and require further investigation.

  20. A Dual-Band Dual-Polarized Array for Spaceborne SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, David M.; Schaubert, Daniel H.; Targonski, Stephen D.; Zawadski, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Future synthetic aperture radar antennas will be significantly more sophisticated than their earlier counterparts, requiring enhanced electrical capabilities such as operation at multiple frequencies with multiple polarization ability, as well as desirable non-electrical features such as light weight, easy and reliable deployability, and low cost. The present paper describes the results of a prototype SAR array developed with these considerations in mind. This paper will describe the development of a dual-frequency array operating at L and C bands, with dual linear polarization capability at both bands. Unlike most earlier dual-band arrays, this array shares the same radiating aperture for both bands and both polarizations, resulting the smallest possible aperture area for a given gain specification. A critical constraint in this project was a requirement for an extremely light weight package, leading to the use of foam substrates with thin dielectric membranes for metalizations of the radiating elements and feed networks.

  1. Linear dynamic range enhancement in a CMOS imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A CMOS imager with increased linear dynamic range but without degradation in noise, responsivity, linearity, fixed-pattern noise, or photometric calibration comprises a linear calibrated dual gain pixel in which the gain is reduced after a pre-defined threshold level by switching in an additional capacitance. The pixel may include a novel on-pixel latch circuit that is used to switch in the additional capacitance.

  2. Linear geometry thyratron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, S.

    1985-03-01

    The low pressure gas-filled thyratron is scalable in the long dimension. Internally the tube is formed as a tetrode, with an auxiliary grid placed between the cathode and the control grid. A dc or pulsed power source drives the auxiliary grid both to insure uniform cathode emission and to provide a grid-cathode plasma prior to commutation. The high voltage holdoff structure consists of the anode, the control grid and its electrostatic shielding baffles, and a main quartz insulator. A small gas flow supply and exhaust system is used that eliminates the need for a hydrogen reservoir and permits other gases, such as helium, to be used. The thyratron provides a low inductance, high current, long lifetime switch configuration: useful for switch-on applications involving large scale lasers and other similar loads that are distributed in a linear geometry.

  3. Inverse-Gaussian-Apodized Fiber Bragg Grating for Dual Wavelength Lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Bo; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Tang, Dingyuan; Hao, Jianzhong; Tay, Chia Meng; Liang, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with an inverse-Gaussian apodization function is proposed and fabricated. It is shown that such a FBG possesses easily controllable dual-wavelength narrow transmission peaks. Incorporating such a FBG filter in a fiber laser with a linear cavity, stable dual-wavelength emission with 0.146 nm wavelength spacing is obtained. It provides a simple and low cost approach of achieving the dual-wavelength fiber laser operation.

  4. SELF-DUAL PERMUTATION CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS AND FINITE PRINCIPAL IDEAL RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光辉; 刘宏伟

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings and finite principal ideal rings. We first give some results on the torsion codes associated with the linear codes over formal power series rings. These results allow for obtaining some conditions for non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings. Finally, we describe self-dual permutation codes over finite principal ideal rings by examining permutation codes over their component chain rings.

  5. Emittance Growth in Linear Induction Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility uses bremsstrahlung radiation source spots produced by the focused electron beams from two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to radiograph large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives. Radiographic resolution is determined by the size of the source spot, and beam emittance is the ultimate limitation to spot size. Some of the possible causes for the emittance growth in the DARHT LIA have been investigated using particle-in-ce...

  6. PRIMAL PERTURBATION SIMPLEX ALGORITHMS FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-qi Pan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two new perturbation simplex variants. Solving linear programming problems without introducing artificial variables, each of the two uses the dual pivot rule to achieve primal feasibility, and then the primal pivot rule to achieve optimality. The second algorithm, a modification of the first, is designed to handle highly degenerate problems more etficiently. Some interesting results concerning merit of the perturbation are established. Numerical results from preliminary tests are also reported.

  7. Dual differential polarimetry. A technique to recover polarimetric information from dual polarization observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Muller, S

    2016-01-01

    Current mm/submm interferometers, like the Atacama Large mm/submm Array (ALMA), use receivers that register the sky signal in a linear polarization basis. In the case of observations performed in full-polarization mode (where the cross-correlations are computed among all the polarization channels) it is possible to reconstruct the full-polarization brightness distribution of the observed sources, as long as a proper calibration of delay offsets and leakage among polarization channels can be performed. Observations of calibrators, preferably with some linear polarization, with a good parallactic angle coverage are usually needed for such a calibration. In principle, dual-polarization observations only allow us to recover the Stokes $I$ intensity distribution of the sources, regardless of the parallactic angle coverage of the observations. In this paper, we present a novel technique of dual differential polarimetry that makes it possible to obtain information related to the full-polarization brightness distribu...

  8. Semi-numerical solution for a fractal telegraphic dual-porosity fluid flow model

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Luis, D P; Hernández, D; Camacho-Velázquez, R G

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a semi-numerical solution of a fractal telegraphic dual-porosity fluid flow model. It combines Laplace transform and finite difference schemes. The Laplace transform handles the time variable whereas the finite difference method deals with the spatial coordinate. This semi-numerical scheme is not restricted by space discretization and allows the computation of a solution at any time without compromising numerical stability or the mass conservation principle. Our formulation results in a non-analytically-solvable second-order differential equation whose numerical treatment outcomes in a tri-diagonal linear algebraic system. Moreover, we describe comparisons between semi-numerical and semi-analytical solutions for particular cases. Results agree well with those from semi-analytic solutions. Furthermore, we expose a parametric analysis from the coupled model in order to show the effects of relevant parameters on pressure profiles and flow rates for the case where neither analytic nor sem...

  9. Quantum-corrected self-dual black hole entropy in tunneling formalism with GUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anacleto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the Hamilton–Jacobi method to determine the entropy of a self-dual black hole by using linear and quadratic GUPs (generalized uncertainty principles. We have obtained the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of self-dual black holes and its quantum corrections that are logarithm and also of several other types.

  10. Quantum-corrected self-dual black hole entropy in tunneling formalism with GUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anacleto, M.A., E-mail: anaclet@df.ufcg.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Brito, F.A., E-mail: fabrito@df.ufcg.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Passos, E., E-mail: passos@df.ufcg.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil)

    2015-10-07

    In this paper we focus on the Hamilton–Jacobi method to determine the entropy of a self-dual black hole by using linear and quadratic GUPs (generalized uncertainty principles). We have obtained the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of self-dual black holes and its quantum corrections that are logarithm and also of several other types.

  11. Observability conditions of switched linear singular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MENG; Jifeng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The observability problem of switched linear singular(SLS) systems is studied in this paper. Based on the observability definition, the unobservable subspaces of given switching laws are investigated under the condition that all subsystems are regular. A necessary condition and a sufficient condition for observability of SLS systems are given. It is shown that the observability and controllability are dual for some special SLS systems with circulatory switching laws. The method developed here is applicable to the observability analysis of normal switched linear systems.

  12. The simplex method of linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Ficken, FA

    2015-01-01

    This concise but detailed and thorough treatment discusses the rudiments of the well-known simplex method for solving optimization problems in linear programming. Geared toward undergraduate students, the approach offers sufficient material for readers without a strong background in linear algebra. Many different kinds of problems further enrich the presentation. The text begins with examinations of the allocation problem, matrix notation for dual problems, feasibility, and theorems on duality and existence. Subsequent chapters address convex sets and boundedness, the prepared problem and boun

  13. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  14. Study on methods of calculating resistance of flue gas from cement production line into dual-pressure waste heat recovery power generation system%水泥线双压余热发电系统烟风阻力计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王为术; 贺慧宁; 董英斌; 张红生; 刘军

    2011-01-01

    The dual-pressure waste heat recovery power generation system efficiently recovers low-temperatured waste heat from cement production lines. In order to accurately calculate the pressure of flue gas from cement production lines into the waste heat recovery power generation system, three resistance mathematical models are deduced based on the momentum law and the energy conservation law, which are cooling resistance in clinker layers, resistance of flue gas flowing from boilers into pipeline as well as resistance in boiler tubes. In addition, visual software of calculating resistance of flue gas is developed based on C++ Builder.%水泥线双压余热发电系统可高效回收水泥线低温余热,为准确计算水泥线余热发电系统的烟风阻力,基于动量定律和能量守恒定律,推导建立了熟料料层冷却阻力、锅炉引入管道阻力、锅炉管束阻力等阻力计算模型,并基于C++Builder开发了水泥线余热发电系统烟风阻力可视化计算软件.

  15. Differential calculus in normed linear spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjea, Kalyan

    2007-01-01

    This book presents Advanced Calculus from a geometric point of view: instead of dealing with partial derivatives of functions of several variables, the derivative of the function is treated as a linear transformation between normed linear spaces. Not only does this lead to a simplified and transparent exposition of "difficult" results like the Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems but also permits, without any extra effort, a discussion of the Differential Calculus of functions defined on infinite dimensional Hilbert or Banach spaces.The prerequisites demanded of the reader are modest: a sound understanding of convergence of sequences and series of real numbers, the continuity and differentiability properties of functions of a real variable and a little Linear Algebra should provide adequate background for understanding the book. The first two chapters cover much of the more advanced background material on Linear Algebra (like dual spaces, multilinear functions and tensor products.) Chapter 3 gives an ab ini...

  16. Orthogonally linear polarized lasers(Ⅰ)--principle and devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shulian; XU Ting

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, i.e. Zeeman dual-frequency lasers and four-frequency ring lasers (laser gyros) have been developed since the invention of lasers, in which circularly polarized lights oscillate. This paper summarizes recent progress of the study on orthogonally linear polarized lasers with the standing wave cavity. Firstly, the expression of producing orthogonally linear polarized lights in standing wave cavity, i.e. laser frequency splitting, is given. Almost all the birefringence effects made in laser cavity are used to produce orthogonally linear polarized lights. The effect includes quartz crystal birefringence effect, calcite birefringence effect,stress (photo-elastic) birefringence effect and electro-optical birefringence effect. Secondly, several physical phenomena of orthogonally linear polarized lasers are discovered such as aberrance of frequency splitting curves caused by optical activity of quartz crystal, order-passing of longitudinal modes with frequency splitting and strong modes competition. Finally, because the traditional Zeeman dual frequency laser cannot output frequency difference larger than 3 MHz, the approaches of obtaining larger frequency difference are studied. The sequential results, several kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, are described, such as birefringence dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 40 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 1 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, the LD pumped YAG birefringence dual frequency laser outputting frequency difference of several gigahertz, and the lasers whose longitudinal mode spacing is c/4L instead of c/2L.

  17. Pressure transient analysis for long homogeneous reservoirs using TDS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Freddy Humberto [Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana - Cra. 1, Neiva, Huila (Colombia); Hernandez, Yuly Andrea [Hocol S.A., Cra. 7 No 114-43, Floor 16, Bogota (Colombia); Hernandez, Claudia Marcela [Weatherford, Cra. 7 No 81-90, Neiva, Huila (Colombia)

    2007-08-15

    A significant number of well pressure tests are conducted in long, narrow reservoirs with close and open extreme boundaries. It is desirable not only to appropriately identify these types of systems but also to develop an adequate and practical interpretation technique to determine their parameters and size, when possible. An accurate understanding of how the reservoir produces and the magnitude of producible reserves can lead to competent decisions and adequate reservoir management. So far, studies found for identification and determination of parameters for such systems are conducted by conventional techniques (semilog analysis) and semilog and log-log type-curve matching of pressure versus time. Type-curve matching is basically a trial-and-error procedure which may provide inaccurate results. Besides, a limitation in the number of type curves plays a negative role. In this paper, a detailed analysis of pressure derivative behavior for a vertical well in linear reservoirs with open and closed extreme boundaries is presented for the case of constant rate production. We studied independently each flow regime, especially the linear flow regime since it is the most characteristic 'fingerprint' of these systems. We found that when the well is located at one of the extremes of the reservoir, a single linear flow regime develops once radial flow and/or wellbore storage effects have ended. When the well is located at a given distance from both extreme boundaries, the pressure derivative permits the identification of two linear flows toward the well and it has been called that 'dual-linear flow regime'. This is characterized by an increment of the intercept of the 1/2-slope line from {pi}{sup 0.5} to {pi} with a consequent transition between these two straight lines. The identification of intersection points, lines, and characteristic slopes allows us to develop an interpretation technique without employing type-curve matching. This technique uses

  18. Commuting Dual Toeplitz Operators on the Polydisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Feng LU; Shu Xia SHANG

    2007-01-01

    On the polydisk, the commutativity of dual Toeplitz operators is studied. We obtain characterizations of commuting dual Toeplitz operators, essentially commuting dual Toeplitz operators and essentially semi-commuting dual Toeplitz operators.

  19. Development of 1 kW Stirling cryocooler using a linear compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Kim, H.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H.; In, S.; Park, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic cooling systems for HTS electric power devices require a reliable and efficient high-capacity cryocooler. A Striling cryocooler with a linear compressor can be a good candidate. It has advantages of low vibration and long maintenance cycle compared with a kinematic-driven Stirling cryocooler. In this study, we developed a dual-opposed linear compressor of 12 kW electric input power with two 6 kW linear motors. Electrical performance of the fabricated linear compressor is verified by experimental measurement of thrust constant. The developed Stirling cryocooler has a gamma-type configuration. The piston and displacer are supported with a flexure spring. A slit-type heat exchanger is adopted for the cold and warm-end, and the generated heat is rejected by cooling water. In the cooling performance test, waveforms of voltage, current, displacement and pressure are obtained and their amplitude and phase difference are analysed. The developed cryocooler reaches 47.8 K within 23.4 min. with no-load. Heat load tests shows a cooling capacity of 440 W at 78.1 K with 6.45 kW of electric input power and 19.4 of % Carnot COP.

  20. Cu-TDPAT, an rht -type dual-functional metal-organic framework offering significant potential for use in H 2 and natural gas purification processes operating at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Haohan

    2012-08-09

    The separations of CO 2/CO/CH 4/H 2, CO 2/H 2, CH 4/H 2, and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures at pressures ranging to 7 MPa are important in a variety of contexts, including H 2 production, natural gas purification, and fuel-gas processing. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the selective adsorption potential of an rht-type metal-organic framework [Cu 3(TDPAT)(H 2O) 3]·10H 2O·5DMA (Cu-TDPAT), possessing a high density of both open metal sites and Lewis basic sites. Experimental high pressure pure component isotherm data for CO 2, CO, CH 4, and H 2 are combined with the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) for estimation of mixture adsorption equilibrium. The separation performance of Cu-TDPAT is compared with four other microporous materials, specifically chosen in order to span a wide range of physicochemical characteristics: MgMOF-74, MIL-101, LTA-5A, and NaX. For all mixtures investigated, the capacity of Cu-TDPAT to produce the desired product, H 2 or CH 4, satisfying stringent purity requirements, in a fixed bed operating at pressures exceeding about 4 MPa, is either comparable to, or exceeds, that of other materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Pressure diffusion waves in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitry; Korneev, Valeri; Goloshubin, Gennady

    2003-04-08

    Pressure diffusion wave in porous rocks are under consideration. The pressure diffusion mechanism can provide an explanation of the high attenuation of low-frequency signals in fluid-saturated rocks. Both single and dual porosity models are considered. In either case, the attenuation coefficient is a function of the frequency.

  2. An explicit construction of self-dual 2-forms in eight dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilge, A H; Koçak, S; Bilge, Ayse Humeyra; Dereli, Tekin; Kocak, Sahin

    1995-01-01

    The geometry of self-dual 2-forms in eight dimensions is studied. These 2-forms determine an n^2-n+1 dimensional manifold {\\cal S}_{2n}. We prove that for add n, it has only one dimensionallinear subspaces. In eight dimensions, the self-dual forms of Corrigan et al constitue a seven dimensional linear subspace of {\\cal S}_8, among many other intersting linear subspaces.

  3. Study on Hydrodynamic Vibration in Dual Bluff Body Vortex Flowmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the dual bluff body vortex shedding is investigated, and the possibility to use dual bluff body combinations to strengthen the hydrodynamic vibration around the bluff body objects is explored. The numerical and experimental approaches were utilized to examine the time dependent flow field and the pressure oscillation around the bluff bodies. The numerical data were obtained by the advanced large eddy simulation model. The experiment was conducted on a laboratory scale of Karman vortex flowmeter with 40 mm diameter. It is revealed that the optimized dual bluff body combinations strengthened the hydrodynamic vibration. It was also found that the hydrodynamic vibration with 180° phase difference occurred at the axisymmetric points of circular pipe on the lateral faces of the equilateral triangle-section bluff bodies. Using the dual bluff body configuration and the differential sensing technique, a novel prototype of vortex flowmeter with excellent noise immunity and improved sensibility was developed.

  4. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng Ding

    Full Text Available The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc, an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1 the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2 leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3 a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98, with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and

  5. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  6. New Linear Partitioning Models based on Experimental Water – Supercritical CO2 Partitioning Data of Selected Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burant, Aniela S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Lowry, Gregory; Karamalidis, Athanasios

    2016-05-17

    Partitioning coefficients of organic compounds between water and supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) are necessary to assess the risk of migration of these chemicals from subsurface CO2 storage sites. Despite the large number of potential organic contaminants, the current data set of published water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients is very limited. Here, the partitioning coefficients of thiophene, pyrrole, and anisole were measured in situ over a range of temperatures and pressures using a novel pressurized batch reactor system with dual spectroscopic detectors: a near infrared spectrometer for measuring the organic analyte in the CO2 phase, and a UV detector for quantifying the analyte in the aqueous phase. Our measured partitioning coefficients followed expected trends based on volatility and aqueous solubility. The partitioning coefficients and literature data were then used to update a published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship and to develop five new linear free energy relationships for predicting water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients. Four of the models targeted a single class of organic compounds. Unlike models that utilize Abraham solvation parameters, the new relationships use vapor pressure and aqueous solubility of the organic compound at 25 °C and CO2 density to predict partitioning coefficients over a range of temperature and pressure conditions. The compound class models provide better estimates of partitioning behavior for compounds in that class than the model built for the entire dataset.

  7. Analysis of Pressure Fluctuations in a Dual-leg Fluidized Bed Based on Recurrence Plot%双支腿流化床压力脉动的递归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春振; 段钰锋; 胡海韬

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence plot (RP) was used to study the effects of fluidization velocity and bed material inventory on chaotic characteristics in a dual-leg fluidized bed (DL-FB) with dimensions of 0.24 m width, 0.04m depth and 2.0 mm height. The height of dual-leg is 0.16 m. The glass beads with diameters of 0.25-0.28mm were adopted as bed material. The results show that the RP could be utilized effectively to explain the nonlinear dynamic performance in the DL-FB and the chaos of the DL-FB is higher than that of the single distributor FB because of the combination of bubbling actions and solids exchange behavior between two half beds. With the increase of fluidization velocity, entropy as a recurrence quantification parameter varies along with a M-type curve at different fluidization velocities. Four processes were shown for the gas-solids flow in the DL-FB with the increase of the fluidization velocity: lower fluidization velocity with no particles exchange, less solids exchange at lower fluidization velocity, solids exchange and particles dispersion. The trend of the effect of bed inventory on entropy is not obvious.%采用递归图系统研究了流化风速、床存量对双支腿流化床(DL-FB)内气固流动混沌特性的影响规律.DL-FB的宽、深和高分别为0.24、0.04和2.0 m,支腿高为0.16m,使用粒径范围为0.25~0.28的玻璃珠作为床料.结果表明递归图可用于描述DL-FB内的气固两相流动的混沌特性,且DL-FB内的气固流动较单布风板流化床复杂.DL-FB系统熵随着流化气速的增加呈“M”型曲线变化.DL-FB系统随气速的增加会出现低速颗粒未交换段、低速颗粒交换起始段、颗粒交换段和颗粒悬浮段.床存量对系统熵的影响较大且没有明显规律.DL-FB内的压力脉动包含气泡行为和颗粒交换在半床间交换行为.

  8. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  9. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  10. COMPARISON OF LINEAR CONTROLLERS FOR A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2005-01-01

    In many hydraulic control applications, classic linear controllers are still employed, although there exist a number of number of nonlinear control methods, which may be better suited for handling the intrensic non-linearities often found in hydraulic systems. The focus of this paper is therefore...... on comparing different linear controllers, based on both simulation and experimental results, to determine what is obtainable when applying standard linear controllers to a hydraulic SISO servo system. The paper furthermore addresses how the performance may be improved by using internal pressure control...

  11. Deformable surface modeling based on dual subdivision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; SUN Hanqiu; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    Based on dual Doo-Sabin subdivision and the corresponding parameterization, a modeling technique of deformable surfaces is presented in this paper. In the proposed model, all the dynamic parameters are computed in a unified way for both non-defective and defective subdivision matrices, and central differences are used to discretize the Lagrangian dynamics equation instead of backward differences. Moreover, a local scheme is developed to solve the dynamics equation approximately, thus the order of the linear equation is reduced greatly. Therefore, the proposed model is more efficient and faster than the existing dynamic models. It can be used for deformable surface design, interactive surface editing, medical imaging and simulation.

  12. Explicit Derivation of Yang-Mills Self-Dual Solutions on non-Commutative Harmonic Space

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, A; Sahraoui, E L; Saidi, E H

    2001-01-01

    We develop the noncommutative harmonic space (NHS) analysis to study the problem of solving the non-linear constraint eqs of noncommutative Yang-Mills self-duality in four-dimensions. We show that this space, denoted also as NHS($\\eta,\\theta$), has two SU(2) isovector deformations $\\eta^{(ij)}$ and $\\theta^{(ij)}$ parametrising respectively two noncommutative harmonic subspaces NHS($\\eta,0$) and NHS($0,\\theta$) used to study the self-dual and anti self-dual noncommutative Yang-Mills solutions. We formulate the Yang-Mills self-dual constraint eqs on NHS($\\eta,0$) by extending the idea of harmonic analyticity to linearize them. Then we give a perturbative self-dual solution recovering the ordinary one. Finally we present the explicit computation of an exact self-dual solution.

  13. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  14. Dual RAS Therapy Not on Target, but Fully Alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; de Zeeuw, D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) form a cornerstone in the treatment of kidney disease. These drugs lower blood pressure and albuminuria, and afford renal protection. Dual therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker have been shown to be m

  15. Feedback linearization of piecewise linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, Kanat; Ustoglu, Ilker

    2005-01-01

    One of the classical problems of nonlinear systems and control theory is feedback linearization. Its obvious motivation is that one can utilize linear control theory if the nonlinear system at hand is linearizable by feedback. This problem is well-understood for the smooth nonlinear systems. In the

  16. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  17. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  18. Dual-comb MIXSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S. M.; Zaugg, C. A.; Klenner, A.; Mangold, M.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2015-03-01

    We present a single semiconductor disk laser simultaneously emitting two different gigahertz modelocked pulse trains. A birefringent crystal inside a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface-emitting laser (MIXSEL) separates the cavity beam into two spatially separated beams with perpendicular polarizations on the MIXSEL chip. This MIXSEL then generates two orthogonally polarized collinear modelocked pulse trains from one simple straight cavity. Superimposing the beams on a photo detector creates a microwave beat signal, representing a strikingly simple setup to down-convert the terahertz optical frequencies into the electronically accessible microwave regime. This makes the dual-comb MIXSEL scheme an ultra-compact and cost-efficient candidate for dual-comb spectroscopy applications.

  19. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  20. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  1. Linearity of Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Swingle, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of entropy operators in genera...

  2. Dual differential polarimetry. A technique to recover polarimetric information from dual-polarization observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Muller, S.

    2016-09-01

    Current mm/submm interferometers, like the Atacama Large mm/submm Array (ALMA), use receivers that register the sky signal in a linear polarization basis. In the case of observations performed in full-polarization mode (where the cross-correlations are computed among all the polarization channels) it is possible to reconstruct the full-polarization brightness distribution of the observed sources, as long as a proper calibration of delay offsets and leakage among polarization channels can be performed. Observations of calibrators, preferably with some linear polarization, with a good parallactic angle coverage are usually needed for such a calibration. In principle, dual-polarization observations only allow us to recover the Stokes I intensity distribution of the sources, regardless of the parallactic angle coverage of the observations. In this paper, we present a novel technique of dual differential polarimetry that makes it possible to obtain information related to the full-polarization brightness distribution of the observed sources from dual-polarization observations. This technique is inspired in the Earth-rotation polarization synthesis and can be applied even to sources with complex structures.

  3. Dyonic branes and linear dilaton background

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G; Leygnac, C; Orlov, D; Clement, Gerard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Leygnac, Cedric; Orlov, Dmitri

    2006-01-01

    We study dyonic solutions to the gravity-dilaton-antisymmetric form equations with the goal of identifying new $p$-brane solutions on the fluxed linear dilaton background. Starting with the generic solutions constructed by reducing the system to decoupled Liouville equations for certain values of parameters, we identify the most general solution whose singularities are hidden behind a regular event horizon, and then explore the admissible asymptotic behaviors. In addition to known asymptotically flat dyonic branes, we find two classes of asymptotically non-flat solutions which can be interpreted as describing magnetically charged branes on the electrically charged linear dilaton background (and the $S$-dual configuration of electrically charged branes on the magnetically charged background), and uncharged black branes on the dyonically charged linear dilaton background. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with the first law of thermodynamics for the new solutions.

  4. fs/ns dual-pulse LIBS analytic survey for copper-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santagata, A. [CNR-IMIP, Unita Operativa di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, 85050 Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)], E-mail: santagata@pz.imip.cnr.it; Teghil, R. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Albano, G.; Spera, D.; Villani, P. [CNR-IMIP, Unita Operativa di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, 85050 Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); De Bonis, A. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Parisi, G.P. [CNR-IMIP, Unita Operativa di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, 85050 Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); Galasso, A. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The quantitative analytic capability of a fs/ns dual-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique, based on the orthogonal reheating of a fs-laser ablation plume by a ns-laser pulse, is presented. In this work, it is shown how the effect played by the delay times between the two laser beams can vary the analytical response of this dual-pulse LIBS configuration. In order to address this task, the Sn, Pb and Zn calibration curves of five certified copper-based samples have been investigated. These calibration curves have been obtained, in air at atmospheric pressure, by integrating the emission data collected in two different inter-pulse delay zones, one in the delay interval of 1-41 {mu}s, the other within the range of 46-196 {mu}s. For drawing the species calibration curves, the emission intensities of the considered Pb(I), Sn(I) and Zn(I) electronic transitions have been normalized with a non-resonant Cu(I) emission line. The experimental results have shown that, by varying the inter-pulse delay between the two laser beams, complementary analytical results can be induced. By considering at once all data acquired within the inter-pulse delay time of 1-196 {mu}s, this hypothesis has been strengthened. The calibration curves obtained in this way are characterized by excellent linear regression coefficients (0.988-0.999) despite of the large Sn, Pb and Zn compositional variation of the targets employed. The results presented reveal, for the first time, that, by taking into account the role played by the inter-pulse delay time between the two laser beams, the fs/ns dual-pulse LIBS configuration here used can be improved and provide very good opportunities for performing quantitative analysis of copper-based alloys.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF BEST APPROXIMATIONS IN METRIC LINEAR SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sizwe Mabizela

    2003-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a real metric linear space, with translation-invariant metric d and G a linear subspace of X. In this paper we use functionals in the Lipschitz dual of X to characterize those elements of G which are best approximations to elements of X. We also give simultaneous characterization of elements of best approximation and also consider elements of e-approximation.

  6. Combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of graded TiO₂-VO₂ mixed-phase composites and their dual functional property as self-cleaning and photochromic window coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mia; Kafizas, Andreas; Bawaked, Salem M; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Basahel, Sulaiman N; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2013-06-10

    A combinatorial film with a phase gradient from V:TiO₂ (V: Ti ≥ 0.08), through a range of TiO₂-VO₂ composites, to a vanadium-rich composite (V: Ti = 1.81) was grown by combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (cAPCVD). The film was grown from the reaction of TiCl₄, VCl₄, ethyl acetate (EtAc), and H₂O at 550 °C on glass. The gradient in gas mixtures across the reactor induced compositional film growth, producing a single film with numerous phases and compositions at different positions. Seventeen unique positions distributed evenly along a central horizontal strip were investigated. The physical properties were characterized by wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The functional properties examined included the degree of photoinduced hydrophilicity (PIH), UVC-photocatalysis, and thermochromism. Superhydrophilic contact angles could be achieved at all positions, even within a highly VO₂-rich composite (V: Ti = 1.81). A maximum level of UVC photocatalysis was observed at a position bordering the solubility limit of V:TiO₂ (V: Ti ≈ 0.21) and fragmentation into a mixed-phase composite. Within the mixed-phase TiO₂: VO₂ composition region (V: Ti = 1.09 to 1.81) a decrease in the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature of VO₂ from 68 to 51 °C was observed.

  7. Integrable deformations of T-dual $\\sigma$ models

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-abelian) T duals of two-dimensional $\\sigma$ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator $\\omega$ on the dualised subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when $\\omega$ is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of Principal Chiral Models, and present the corresponding generalisation to the case of supercoset models.

  8. Effect of CEFR Condenser Pressure on Thermal Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Tong-wei; ZHANG; Huan-qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) use two horizontal dual-flow condensers, circulating watersystem and vacuum system using fixed-speed pumps, therefore, thermal efficiency depends largely on thelevel of condenser pressure.

  9. Alexander Duals of Multipermutohedron Ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajay Kumar; Chanchal Kumar

    2014-02-01

    An Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal has many combinatorial properties. The standard monomials of an Artinian quotient of such a dual correspond bijectively to some -parking functions, and many interesting properties of these Artinian quotients are obtained by Postnikov and Shapiro (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 356 (2004) 3109–3142). Using the multigraded Hilbert series of an Artinian quotient of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals, we obtained a simple proof of Steck determinant formula for enumeration of -parking functions. A combinatorial formula for all the multigraded Betti numbers of an Alexander dual of multipermutohedron ideals are also obtained.

  10. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  11. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  12. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    countries acknowledged as forerunners in gender equality, which also have ‘fairly strong’ parliamentary standing committees. The results show that both committees on gender equality can be regarded as ‘feminist’ in character and both interact with relevant civil society organisations. Their impact......Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...

  13. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  14. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  15. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  16. On Regular Linear Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. (A)LVAREZ

    2012-01-01

    For a closed linear relation in a Banach space the concept of regularity is introduced and studied.It is shown that many of the results of Mbekhta and other authors for operators remain valid in the context of multivalued linear operators.We also extend the punctured neighbourhood theorem for operators to linear relations and as an application we obtain a characterization of semiFredholm linear relations which are regular.

  17. Evaluation of Linear Regression Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Using Intramuscular EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.

  18. Relative permeability in dual porosity porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deghmoum, A. [SONATRACH CRD, Boumerdes (Algeria); Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Mazouzi, A. [SONATRACH PED (Algeria)

    2000-06-01

    One of the important factors in the field of reservoir simulation of dual-porosity systems is reliable relative permeability data. Laboratory limitations hinder measurements. The real behaviour of naturally fractures reservoirs is not reflected in the reservoir core samples, which as a rule originate from zones without induced or natural fractures. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that the relative permeability of a naturally fractured system is a straight line, which can cause errors. The authors undertook to conduct special core analyses on Berea outcrop core samples, to simulate fracture opening through the cutting of the samples to get different fracture apertures, to study the effects of dual porosity on the shape of capillary pressure curves, and to evaluate absolute and relative permeability, as they are affected by fracture opening. The correlation obtained between absolute permeability and fracture aperture was good, and capillary pressure curves permitted the observation of the effect of dual porosity. High residual oil saturation was present in the matrix, since the fractures became the easiest route for water flow, and this situation prevented the use of unsteady-state tests to measure relative permeability on the samples. Instead, the centrifuge technique was successfully used. A naturally fractured reservoir (NFR), the Tin Fouye Tabankort (TFT) reservoir in Algeria was selected to extend the findings. The site was principally selected due to the availability of naturally fractured cores and published data. Core observations, well test analysis and borehole imager tools were all TFT natural fracture indicators presented in the paper. Representative data of relative permeability was obtained by conducting a displacement test on a full diameter core to solve the laboratory limitations. The correlation between permeability and fracture opening was used to estimate the aperture of natural fractures in TFT reservoir. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs.

  19. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  20. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  1. Dual-frequency super harmonic imaging piezoelectric transducers for transrectal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Kasoji, Sandeep; Dayton, Paul A.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a 2/14 MHz dual-frequency single-element transducer and a 2/22 MHz sub-array (16/48-elements linear array) transducer were developed for contrast enhanced super-harmonic ultrasound imaging of prostate cancer with the low frequency ultrasound transducer as a transmitter for contrast agent (microbubble) excitation and the high frequency transducer as a receiver for detection of nonlinear responses from microbubbles. The 1-3 piezoelectric composite was used as active materials of the single-element transducers due to its low acoustic impedance and high coupling factor. A high dielectric constant PZT ceramic was used for the sub-array transducer due to its high dielectric property induced relatively low electrical impedance. The possible resonance modes of the active elements were estimated using finite element analysis (FEA). The pulse-echo response, peak-negative pressure and bubble response were tested, followed by in vitro contrast imaging tests using a graphite-gelatin tissue-mimicking phantom. The single-element dual frequency transducer (8 × 4 × 2 mm3) showed a -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 56.5% for the transmitter, and 41.8% for the receiver. A 2 MHz-transmitter (730 μm pitch and 6.5 mm elevation aperture) and a 22 MHz-receiver (240 μm pitch and 1.5 mm aperture) of the sub-array transducer exhibited -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 51.0% and 40.2%, respectively. The peak negative pressure at the far field was about -1.3 MPa with 200 Vpp, 1-cycle 2 MHz burst, which is high enough to excite microbubbles for nonlinear responses. The 7th harmonic responses from micro bubbles were successfully detected in the phantom imaging test showing a contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) of 16 dB.

  2. F-theory and linear sigma models

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadsky, M; Greene, Brian R; Johansen, A; Lazaroiu, C I

    1998-01-01

    We present an explicit method for translating between the linear sigma model and the spectral cover description of SU(r) stable bundles over an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We use this to investigate the 4-dimensional duality between (0,2) heterotic and F-theory compactifications. We indirectly find that much interesting heterotic information must be contained in the `spectral bundle' and in its dual description as a gauge theory on multiple F-theory 7-branes. A by-product of these efforts is a method for analyzing semistability and the splitting type of vector bundles over an elliptic curve given as the sheaf cohomology of a monad.

  3. Komputasi Aliran Daya Optimal Sistem Tenaga Skala Besar dengan Metode Primal Dual Interior Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafii Syafii

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of Primal Dual Interior Point method in the analysis of optimal power flow. Optimal power flow analysis with Primal Dual Interior Point method then compared with Linear Programming Method using Matpower program. The simulation results show that the computation results of Primal Dual Interior Point similar with Linear Programming Method for total cost of generation and large power generated by each power plant. But in terms of computation time Primal Dual Interior Point method is faster than the method of Linear Programming, especially for large systems. Primal Dual Interior Point method have solved the problem in 40.59 seconds, while Linear Programming method takes longer 239.72 seconds for large-scale system 9241 bus. This is because the settlement PDIP algorithm starts from the starting point x0, which is located within the area of feasible move towards the optimal point, in contrast to the simplex method that moves along the border of the feasible from one extreme point to the other extreme point. Thus Primal Dual Interior Point method have more efficient in solving optimal power flow problem of large-scale power systems.

  4. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  5. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Vector SpacesFieldsThe Space FnVector Spaces over an Arbitrary Field Subspaces of Vector SpacesSpan and IndependenceBases and Finite Dimensional Vector SpacesBases and Infinite Dimensional Vector SpacesCoordinate VectorsLinear TransformationsIntroduction to Linear TransformationsThe Range and Kernel of a Linear TransformationThe Correspondence and Isomorphism TheoremsMatrix of a Linear TransformationThe Algebra of L(V, W) and Mmn(F)Invertible Transformations and MatricesPolynomialsThe Algebra of PolynomialsRoots of PolynomialsTheory of a Single Linear OperatorInvariant Subspaces of an Operator

  6. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  7. Robust dual-response optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanikoglu, Ihsan; den Hertog, Dick; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a robust optimization reformulation of the dual-response problem developed in response surface methodology. The dual-response approach fits separate models for the mean and the variance and analyzes these two models in a mathematical optimization setting. We use metamodels esti

  8. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  9. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  10. Dual Card,Double Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As Christmas Day and New Year Day draw near, why not treat yourself with a smart digital gizmo. Then, the Samsung Dual-card Cellphone is what you are longing for. Samsung B5712C, the first dual-card model released by Samsung,

  11. Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.

  12. Benefits of Dual Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstrum, Kiara

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper examines how dual language education (DLE) programs are valuable. The literature shows that children do much more than just thrive in a dual language environment. According to research, children who are bilingual are cognitively, academically, intellectually, socially and verbally more advantaged than their monolingual…

  13. An Asymptotic Analysis of the MIMO BC under Linear Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the MIMO broadcast channel in the high SNR regime when linear filtering is applied instead of dirty paper coding. Using a user-wise rate duality where the streams of every single user are not treated as self-interference as in the hitherto existing stream-wise rate dualities for linear filtering, we solve the weighted sum rate maximization problem of the broadcast channel in the dual multiple access channel. Thus, we can exactly quantify the asymptotic rate loss of linear filtering compared to dirty paper coding for any channel realization. Having converted the optimum covariance matrices to the broadcast channel by means of the duality, we observe that the optimal covariance matrices in the broadcast channel feature quite complicated but still closed form expressions although the respective transmit covariance matrices in the dual multiple access channel share a very simple structure. We immediately come to the conclusion that block-diagonalization is the asymptotically optimum transmit strate...

  14. Gas Damping Coefficient Research for MEMS Comb Linear Vibration Gyroscope

    CERN Document Server

    Qiufen, G; Feng, S; Fuqiang, L

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-MEMS gyroscope is an important part of MEMS (Micro Electrical Mechanical System). There are some disturb ignored in traditional gyroscope that must be evaluated newly because of its smaller size (reach the level of micron). In these disturb, the air pressure largely influences the performance of MEMS gyroscope. Different air pressure causes different gas damping coefficient for the MEMS comb linear vibration gyroscope and different gas damping coefficient influences the quality factor of the gyroscope directive. The quality factor influences the dynamic working bandwidth of the MEMS comb linear vibration gyroscope, so it is influences the output characteristic of the MEMS comb linear vibration gyroscope. The paper shows the relationship between the air pressure and the output amplified and phase of the detecting axis through analyzing the air pressure influence on the MEMS comb linear vibration gyroscope. It discusses the influence on the frequency distribute and quality factor of the MEMS comb linear...

  15. Dual-/tri-apodization techniques for high frequency ultrasound imaging: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jong Seob

    2014-10-11

    In the ultrasound B-mode (Brightness-mode) imaging, high side-lobe level reduces contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A linear apodization scheme by using the window function can suppress the side-lobe level while the main-lobe width is increased resulting in degraded lateral resolution. In order to reduce the side-lobe level without sacrificing the main-lobe width, a non-linear apodization method has been suggested. In this paper, we computationally evaluated the performance of the non-linear apodization method such as dual-/tri-apodization focusing on the high frequency ultrasound image. The rectangular, Dolph-Chebyshev, and Kaiser window functions were employed to implement dual-/tri-apodization algorithms. The point and cyst target simulations were conducted by using a dedicated ultrasound simulation tool called Field-II. The center frequency of the simulated linear array transducer was 40 MHz and the total number of elements was 128. The performance of dual-/tri-apodization was compared with that of the rectangular window function focusing on the side-lobe level and the main-lobe widths (at -6 dB and -35 dB). In the point target simulation, the main-lobe widths of the dual-/tri-apodization were very similar to that of the rectangular window, and the side-lobe levels of the dual-/tri-apodization were more suppressed by 9~10 dB. In the cyst target simulation, CNR values of the dual-/tri-apodization were improved by 41% and 51%, respectively. The performance of the non-linear apodization was numerically investigated. In comparison with the rectangular window function, the non-linear apodization method such as dual- and tri-apodization had low side-lobe level without sacrificing the main-lobe width. Thus, it can be a potential way to increase CNR maintaining the main-lobe width in the high frequency ultrasound imaging.

  16. FEM simulation of the dynamical pressure and temperature load in target materials of the positron source for the International Linear Collider (ILC); FEM-Simulation der dynamischen Druck- und Temperaturbelastung in Targetmaterialien der Positronenquelle fuer den International Linear Collider (ILC) unter der Einwirkung von kurzen hochenergetischen Teilchenstrahlpulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Felix

    2014-12-15

    Future linear elektron-positron colliders at high energies require a huge amount of positrons during operation time. Positrons are produced by pulsed high-energy electron beams which pass a target. The deposited energy along their path is increasing the temperature immediately and causes stress in the target material. Using the commercial software package ANSYS the development and evolution of potential stress waves in a W-26% is simulated to obtain the dynamic behavior of the material. The load due to the electron beam causes stress waves which still exist 30μs after the cut off. The maximum stress value of the von Mises stress is 392 MPa. That is well below the limit of elasticity. However, cyclic load up to 643 MPa is obtained exceeding the fatigue limit. To provide an optimum design for a positron target these results have to be taken into account.

  17. Interior Point Method for Solving Fuzzy Number Linear Programming Problems Using Linear Ranking Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-hua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various methods have been developed for solving linear programming problems with fuzzy number, such as simplex method and dual simplex method. But their computational complexities are exponential, which is not satisfactory for solving large-scale fuzzy linear programming problems, especially in the engineering field. A new method which can solve large-scale fuzzy number linear programming problems is presented in this paper, which is named a revised interior point method. Its idea is similar to that of interior point method used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before, but its feasible direction and step size are chosen by using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, linear ranking function, fuzzy vector, and their operations, and its end condition is involved in linear ranking function. Their correctness and rationality are proved. Moreover, choice of the initial interior point and some factors influencing the results of this method are also discussed and analyzed. The result of algorithm analysis and example study that shows proper safety factor parameter, accuracy parameter, and initial interior point of this method may reduce iterations and they can be selected easily according to the actual needs. Finally, the method proposed in this paper is an alternative method for solving fuzzy number linear programming problems.

  18. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  19. Goal-Oriented Error Estimation and Adaptivity for Free-Boundary Problems: The Shape-Linearization Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.G.; Van Brummelen, E.H.; De Borst, R.

    2010-01-01

    We develop duality-based a posteriori error estimates for functional outputs of solutions of free-boundary problems via shape-linearization principles. To derive an appropriate dual (linearized adjoint) problem, we linearize the domain dependence of the very weak form and goal functional of interest

  20. Pressure ulcers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Madhuri

    2011-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...

  1. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  2. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  3. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... risk and utility that economists traditionally assume, allowance for rank-dependent decision weights, and consideration of income thresholds. We examine the issues involved in full maximum likelihood estimation of the model using observed choice data. We propose a general method for integrating...... the multiple criteria, using the logic of mixture models, which we believe is attractive from a decision-theoretic and statistical perspective. The model is applied to observed choices from a major natural experiment involving intrinsically dynamic choices over highly skewed outcomes. The evidence points...

  4. Coherent multiscale image processing using dual-tree quaternion wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Lam; Choi, Hyeokho; Baraniuk, Richard G

    2008-07-01

    The dual-tree quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) is a new multiscale analysis tool for geometric image features. The QWT is a near shift-invariant tight frame representation whose coefficients sport a magnitude and three phases: two phases encode local image shifts while the third contains image texture information. The QWT is based on an alternative theory for the 2-D Hilbert transform and can be computed using a dual-tree filter bank with linear computational complexity. To demonstrate the properties of the QWT's coherent magnitude/phase representation, we develop an efficient and accurate procedure for estimating the local geometrical structure of an image. We also develop a new multiscale algorithm for estimating the disparity between a pair of images that is promising for image registration and flow estimation applications. The algorithm features multiscale phase unwrapping, linear complexity, and sub-pixel estimation accuracy.

  5. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  6. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  7. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  8. Vortex dynamics in self-dual Chern-Simons Higgs systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y; Kim, Yoonbai; Lee, Kimyeong

    1994-01-01

    We consider vortex dynamics in self-dual Chern-Simons Higgs systems. We show that the naive Aharanov-Bohm phase is the inverse of the statistical phase expected from the vortex spin, and that the self-dual configurations of vortices are degenerate in energy but not in angular momentum. We also use the path integral formalism to derive the dual formulation of Chern-Simons Higgs systems in which vortices appear as charged particles. We argue that besides the electromagnetic interaction, there is an additional interaction between vortices, the so-called Magnus force, and that these forces can be put together into a single `dual electromagnetic' interaction. This dual electromagnetic interaction leads to the right Aharanov-Bohm phase. We also derive and study the effective action for slowly moving vortices, which contains terms both linear and quadratic in the vortex velocity.

  9. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  10. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  11. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  12. Pressure ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  13. A Master Equation for Multi-Dimensional Non-Linear Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1992-01-01

    A master equation ( $n$ dimensional non--Abelian current conservation law with mutually commuting current components ) is introduced for multi-dimensional non-linear field theories. It is shown that the master equation provides a systematic way to understand 2-d integrable non-linear equations as well as 4-d self-dual equations and, more importantly, their generalizations to higher dimensions.

  14. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  15. Charges for linearized gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aksteiner, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes, i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity, which may be seen to correspond to the Poincare Lie-algebra. The 2-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a 2-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.

  16. Recombineering linear BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells.

  17. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  18. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  19. Remarks on 2+1 Self-dual Chern-Simons Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C; Sabido, M

    2000-01-01

    We study 2+1 Chern-Simons gravity at the classical level action. In particular we rederive the linear combinations of the ``standard'' and ``exotic'' Einstein actions, from the (anti)`self-duality' of the `internal' Lorentzian indices. The relation to a genuine four-dimensional (anti) self-dual topological theories greatly facilitates the analysis and its relation to hyperbolic three-dimensional geometry. Finally non-abelian vector field ``dual'' action is also obtained.

  20. A new warmstarting strategy for the primal-dual column generation method

    OpenAIRE

    Gondzio, Jacek; Gonzalez-Brevis, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new warmstarting technique in the context of a primal-dual column generation method applied to solve a particular class of combinatorial optimization problems. The technique relies on calculating an initial point and on solving auxiliary linear optimization problems to determine the step direction needed to fully restore primal and dual feasibilities after new columns arrive. Conditions on the maximum size of the cuts and on a suitable initial point are discussed. Additi...

  1. Remarks on 2+1 Self-dual Chern-Simons Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.; Sabido, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study 2+1 Chern-Simons gravity at the classical action level. In particular we rederive the linear combinations of the ``standard'' and ``exotic'' Einstein actions, from the (anti) self-duality of the ``internal'' Lorentzian indices. The relation to a genuine four-dimensional (anti)self-dual topological theory greatly facilitates the analysis and its relation to hyperbolic three-dimensional geometry. Finally a non-abelian vector field ``dual'' action is also obtained.

  2. Assessment of Linear and Non-Linear Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Aerothermal Turbomachinery Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascale KULISA; Cédric DANO

    2006-01-01

    Three linear two-equation turbulence models k- ε, k- ω and k- 1 and a non-linear k- l model are used for aerodynamic and thermal turbine flow prediction. The pressure profile in the wake and the heat transfer coefficient on the blade are compared with experimental data. Good agreement is obtained with the linear k- l model. No significant modifications are observed with the non-linear model. The balance of transport equation terms in the blade wake is also presented. Linear and non-linear k- l models are evaluated to predict the threedimensional vortices characterising the turbine flows. The simulations show that the passage vortex is the main origin of the losses.

  3. Plasma endotoxin core antibody concentration and linear growth are unrelated in rural Malawian children aged 2-5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteropathy is subclinical inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with reduced linear growth in developing countries. Usually investigators have used biopsy or a dual sugar absorption test to assess environmental enteropathy. Such tests are time and resource intens...

  4. Optimal dual-fuel propulsion for minimum inert weight or minimum fuel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of single-stage vehicles with multiple propulsion phases has been conducted with the phasing optimized to minimize a general cost function. Some results are presented for linearized sizing relationships which indicate that single-stage-to-orbit, dual-fuel rocket vehicles can have lower inert weight than similar single-fuel rocket vehicles and that the advantage of dual-fuel vehicles can be increased if a dual-fuel engine is developed. The results also indicate that the optimum split can vary considerably with the choice of cost function to be minimized.

  5. THE PRIMAL-DUAL POTENTIAL REDUCTION ALGORITHM FOR POSITIVE SEMI-DEFINITE PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-ming Huang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a primal-dual potential reduction algorithm for positivesemi-definite programming. Using the symetric preserving scalings for both primal anddual interior matrices, we can construct an algorithm which is very similar to the primal-dual potential reduction algorithm of Huang and Kortanek [6] for linear programming. Thecomplexity of the algorithm is either O(n log(X0 @ S0/ε) or O(√nlog(X0 @ S0/ε) dependson the value of ρ in the primal-dual potential function, where X0 and S0 is the initialinterior matrices of the positive semi-definite programming.

  6. Tunable, high-power, continuous-wave dual-polarization Yb-fiber oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, Peter; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate a high-power, dual-polarization Yb-fiber oscillator, by separately locking the two linear polarization states defined by slow and fast axis of a polarization-maintaining gain fiber with volume Bragg gratings. Dual-line lasing is achieved with a tunable wavelength separation from 0.03 to 2 THz, while exceeding output powers of 78 W over the entire tuning range, maintaining a high beam-quality with M(2)<1.2. With this laser configuration we achieve a peak-to-peak power variation of <1% for the dual-line signal and <3% for the individual signals.

  7. Alternative self-dual gravity in eight dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    We develop an alternative Ashtekar formalism in eight dimensions. In fact, using a MacDowell-Mansouri physical framework and a self-dual curvature symmetry, we propose an action in eight dimensions in which the Levi-Civita tenor with eight indices plays a key role. We explicitly show that such an action contains number of linear, quadratic and cubic terms in the Riemann tensor, Ricci tensor and scalar curvature. In particular, the linear term is reduced to the Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant in eight dimensions. We prove that such a reduced action is equivalent to the Lovelock action in eight dimensions.

  8. Alternative Self-dual Gravity in Eight Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, J A

    2016-01-01

    We develop an alternative Ashtekar formalism in eight dimensions. In fact, using a MacDowell-Mansouri physical framework and a self-dual curvature symmetry we propose an action in eight dimensions in which the Levi-Civita tenor with eight indices plays a key role. We explicitly show that such an action contains number of linear, quadratic and cubic terms in the Riemann tensor, Ricci tensor and scalar curvature. In particular, the linear term is reduced to the Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant in eight dimensions. We prove that such a reduced action is equivalent to the Lovelock action in eight dimensions.

  9. China’s Development Approach Under Dual-gap Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1970s,China firmly resolved upon a path of re- form and opening up to the outside world under a heightened sense of crisis stemming from the tremendous gap between China and developed countries in terms of economic development.China chose to accelerate industrialization in order to narrow this gap, but the cost of doing so is reflected primarily in the multifaceted

  10. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  11. Linear Rogue waves

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, C

    2015-01-01

    We predict the existence of linear discrete rogue waves. We discuss that Josephson effect is the underlying reason for the formation of such waves. We study linear rogue waves in continuous system and present an exact analytical rogue wave solution of the Schrodinger-like equation.

  12. Linearized Wenger graphs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Motivated by recent extensive studies on Wenger graphs, we introduce a new infinite class of bipartite graphs of a similar type, called linearized Wenger graphs. The spectrum, diameter and girth of these linearized Wenger graphs are determined.

  13. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vandana S Inamdar; Priti P Rege

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the robustness of the watermarking algorithm, a dual watermarking method is proposed to prove copyright ownership. Visible watermarking is important for protecting online resources from unauthorized reproduction. However robust, visible watermarks are vulnerable to illegal removal and other common signal processing and geometric attacks. Multiple invisible watermarks can enhance the protection of the visibly watermarked image. When the ownership of tampered image is in question, the invisible watermark can be extracted to provide appropriate ownership information. We have proposed dual watermarking scheme with multiple biometric watermarks in which it embeds speech and face biometric traits of owner invisibly and lastly offline signature is overlaid translucently on image. Before embedding, speech is compressed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Gabor face is created from face biometric trait. All three watermarks Gabor face, LPC coefficients and offline signature are the biometric characteristics of the owner and hence they are highly related with copyright holder. The proposed scheme is robust enough, Gabor face and LPC coefficients can be extracted from the signature marked image or even from the tampered image from which signature is removed illegally or legally. As multiple watermarks are embedded at least one watermark survives under different attacks. It can find application for joint ownership or to address single ownership multiple times.

  14. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound the...

  15. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption.......Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...

  16. A New Finite Continuation Algorithm for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new finite continuation algorithm for linear programming. The dual of the linear programming problem with unit lower and upper bounds is formulated as an $\\ell_1$ minimization problem augmented with the addition of a linear term. This nondifferentiable problem is approximated...... by a smooth problem. It is shown that the minimizers of the smooth problem define a family of piecewise-linear paths as a function of a smoothing parameter. Based on this property, a finite algorithm that traces these paths to arrive at an optimal solution of the linear program is developed. The smooth...... problems are solved by a Newton-type algorithm. Preliminary numerical results indicate that the new algorithm is promising....

  17. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Dual Bell Nozzle Film Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Kalen; Garcia, Christian; Ruf, Joseph; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) are working together to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the dual bell nozzle concept. Dual bell nozzles are a form of altitude compensating nozzle that consists of two connecting bell contours. At low altitude the nozzle flows fully in the first, relatively lower area ratio, nozzle. The nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point which joins the two bell contours. This relatively low expansion results in higher nozzle efficiency during the low altitude portion of the launch. As ambient pressure decreases with increasing altitude, the nozzle flow will expand to fill the relatively large area ratio second nozzle. The larger area ratio of the second bell enables higher Isp during the high altitude and vacuum portions of the launch. Despite a long history of theoretical consideration and promise towards improving rocket performance, dual bell nozzles have yet to be developed for practical use and have seen only limited testing. One barrier to use of dual bell nozzles is the lack of control over the nozzle flow transition from the first bell to the second bell during operation. A method that this team is pursuing to enhance the controllability of the nozzle flow transition is manipulation of the film coolant that is injected near the inflection between the two bell contours. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is being run to assess the degree of control over nozzle flow transition generated via manipulation of the film injection. A cold flow dual bell nozzle, without film coolant, was tested over a range of simulated altitudes in 2004 in MSFC's nozzle test facility. Both NASA centers have performed a series of simulations of that dual bell to validate their computational models. Those CFD results are compared to the experimental results within this paper. MSFC then proceeded to add film injection to the CFD grid of the dual bell nozzle. A series of

  19. Analysis and measurement of the stability of dual-resonator oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaed, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of oscillators with dual-resonating tanks. After deriving oscillator models, it is shown that contrary to prior belief, there can be only one stable oscillating state. Sufficient conditions for stable oscillating states are derived and silicon measurement results are used to prove their validity. A fully integrated transmitter for intraocular pressure sensing that leverages the dual-resonator tank is designed and fabricated based on the derived models. An unstable version of the transmitter is also demonstrated to prove the concept of instability in dual-resonator oscillators © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Lp-dual Quermassintegral sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we first introduce a concept of L_p-dual Quermassintegral sum function of convex bodies and establish the polar projection Minkowski inequality and the polar projection Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for L_p-dual Quermassintegral sums.Moreover,by using Lutwak’s width-integral of index i,we establish the L_p-Brunn-Minkowski inequality for the polar mixed projec- tion bodies.As applications,we prove some interrelated results.

  1. Dual pairs in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Balmaz, François

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a rigorous study of the dual pair structure of the ideal fluid and the dual pair structure for the $n$-dimensional Camassa-Holm (EPDiff) equation, including the proofs of the necessary transitivity results. In the case of the ideal fluid, we show that a careful definition of the momentum maps leads naturally to central extensions of diffeomorphism groups such as the group of quantomorphisms and the Ismagilov central extension.

  2. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  3. Perceptual Space of Superimposed Dual-Frequency Vibrations in the Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeongil; Choi, Seungmoon

    2017-01-01

    The use of distinguishable complex vibrations that have multiple spectral components can improve the transfer of information by vibrotactile interfaces. We investigated the qualitative characteristics of dual-frequency vibrations as the simplest complex vibrations compared to single-frequency vibrations. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted to elucidate the perceptual characteristics of these vibrations by measuring the perceptual distances among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations. The perceptual distances of dual-frequency vibrations between their two frequency components along their relative intensity ratio were measured in Experiment I. The estimated perceptual spaces for three frequency conditions showed non-linear perceptual differences between the dual-frequency and single-frequency vibrations. A perceptual space was estimated from the measured perceptual distances among ten dual-frequency compositions and five single-frequency vibrations in Experiment II. The effect of the component frequency and the frequency ratio was revealed in the perceptual space. In a percept of dual-frequency vibration, the lower frequency component showed a dominant effect. Additionally, the perceptual difference among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations were increased with a low relative difference between two frequencies of a dual-frequency vibration. These results are expected to provide a fundamental understanding about the perception of complex vibrations to enrich the transfer of information using vibrotactile stimuli. PMID:28081187

  4. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bottom, the pressure at the chine is 0.75 times the pressure at the keel, and the pressures between the keel and chine vary linearly, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix I of this part. The pressure at... unflared bottom, and the pressure between the chine and the beginning of the flare varies linearly,...

  5. [Myth of optimal pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, E J; Maltha, J C

    2000-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement always follows the same pattern. Four phases can be distinguished. During the last phase, the linear phase, the tooth moves through the alveolar bone. One could assume that the rate of tooth displacement is related to the magnitude of the force or to the pressure in the periodontal ligament. No consensus exists on the optimal pressure for orthodontic tooth movement. In literature pressures are advocated, ranging from 2 to 30 KPa. Animal experiments show that a large range of force magnitudes results in an equal rate of tooth movement. A dose-response relation is only feasible when forces are used which are far below those used in an everyday practice.

  6. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  7. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  8. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  9. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2005-01-01

    Master linear regression techniques with a new edition of a classic text Reviews of the Second Edition: ""I found it enjoyable reading and so full of interesting material that even the well-informed reader will probably find something new . . . a necessity for all of those who do linear regression."" -Technometrics, February 1987 ""Overall, I feel that the book is a valuable addition to the now considerable list of texts on applied linear regression. It should be a strong contender as the leading text for a first serious course in regression analysis."" -American Scientist, May-June 1987

  10. Linear associative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abian, Alexander

    1973-01-01

    Linear Associative Algebras focuses on finite dimensional linear associative algebras and the Wedderburn structure theorems.The publication first elaborates on semigroups and groups, rings and fields, direct sum and tensor product of rings, and polynomial and matrix rings. The text then ponders on vector spaces, including finite dimensional vector spaces and matrix representation of vectors. The book takes a look at linear associative algebras, as well as the idempotent and nilpotent elements of an algebra, ideals of an algebra, total matrix algebras and the canonical forms of matrices, matrix

  11. Duality for symmetric second rank tensors. II. The linearized gravitational field

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, H; Urrutia, L F; Urrutia, Luis F.

    2003-01-01

    The construction of dual theories for linearized gravity in four dimensions is considered. Our approach is based on the parent Lagrangian method previously developed for the massive spin-two case, but now considered for the zero mass case. This leads to a dual theory described in terms of a rank two symmetric tensor, analogous to the usual gravitational field, and an auxiliary antisymmetric field. This theory has an enlarged gauge symmetry, but with an adequate partial gauge fixing it can be reduced to a gauge symmetry similar to the standard one of linearized gravitation. We present examples illustrating the general procedure and the physical interpretation of the dual fields. The zero mass case of the massive theory dual to the massive spin-two theory is also examined, but we show that it only contains a spin-zero excitation.

  12. Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.

  13. Isolated linear blaschkoid psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, M; Abedini, R; Azizpour, A; Nikoo, A

    2016-10-01

    Linear psoriasis (LPs) is considered a rare clinical presentation of psoriasis, which is characterized by linear erythematous and scaly lesions along the lines of Blaschko. We report the case of a 20-year-old man who presented with asymptomatic linear and S-shaped erythematous, scaly plaques on right side of his trunk. The plaques were arranged along the lines of Blaschko with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Histological examination of a skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of psoriasis. Topical calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate ointments were prescribed for 2 months. A good clinical improvement was achieved, with reduction in lesion thickness and scaling. In patients with linear erythematous and scaly plaques along the lines of Blaschko, the diagnosis of LPs should be kept in mind, especially in patients with asymptomatic lesions of late onset. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Linear systems theory revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates and clarifies how different definitions of reachability, observability, controllability, reconstructability and minimality that appear in the control literature, may be equivalent or different, depending on the type of linear system. The differences are caused by (1) whether

  15. 360° tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Xue, Weiqi; Liu, Liu;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonators. A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with ~2dB radio frequency power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz is obtained......We demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonators. A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with ~2dB radio frequency power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz is obtained...

  16. Elementary linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Andrilli, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Elementary Linear Algebra develops and explains in careful detail the computational techniques and fundamental theoretical results central to a first course in linear algebra. This highly acclaimed text focuses on developing the abstract thinking essential for further mathematical study. The authors give early, intensive attention to the skills necessary to make students comfortable with mathematical proofs. The text builds a gradual and smooth transition from computational results to general theory of abstract vector spaces. It also provides flexbile coverage of practical applications, expl

  17. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  18. Linear Resonance Cooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    7.0 % % o the testing of an experimental linear motor driven expander using a standard production 1/4W split Stirling Common Module compressor. . - o...3 2.2 Expander Design CTI-CRYOGENICS has long recognized the potential of employing a linear drive motor to assist regenerator displacement and...assessment of the expander’s performance with lip seals and clearance seals for a regenerator comprised of nickel balls. Further comparison of a stainless

  19. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  20. Linear Ion Trap for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, William; Arevalo, Ricardo; Danell, Ryan; van Amerom, Friso; Pinnick, Veronica; Li, Xiang; Hovmand, Lars; Getty, Stephanie; Mahaffy, Paul; Goesmann, Fred; Steininger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from radiative and oxidative degradation. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. MOMA includes a linear, or 2D, ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) that is designed to analyze molecular composition of (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated on a gas chromatograph and (ii) ions directly desorbed from solid samples at Mars ambient pressure using a pulsed laser and a fast-valve capillary ion inlet system. This "dual source" approach gives MOMA unprecedented breadth of detection over a wide range of molecular weights and volatilities. Analysis of nonvolatile, higher-molecular weight organics such as carboxylic acids and peptides even in the presence of significant perchlorate concentrations is enabled by the extremely short (~1 ns) pulses of the desorption laser. Use of the ion trap's tandem mass spectrometry mode permits selective focus on key species for isolation and controlled fragmentation, providing structural analysis capabilities. The flight-like engineering test unit (ETU) of the ITMS, now under construction, will be used to verify breadboard performance with high fidelity, while simultaneously supporting the development of analytical scripts and spectral libraries using synthetic and natural Mars analog samples guided by current results from MSL. ETU campaign data will strongly advise the specifics of the calibration applied to the MOMA flight model as well as the science operational procedures during the mission.

  1. Lifshitz Hydrodynamics from Lifshitz Black Branes with Linear Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Hartong, Jelle; Sanchioni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We construct a new class of 4-dimensional z=2 Lifshitz black branes that have a nonzero linear momentum. These are solutions of an Einstein-Proca-dilaton model that can be obtained by Scherk-Schwarz circle reduction of AdS_5 gravity coupled to a free real scalar field. The boundary of a bulk Lifshitz space-time is a Newton-Cartan geometry. We show that the fluid dual to the moving Lifshitz black brane leads to a novel form of Lifshitz hydrodynamics on a Newton-Cartan space-time. Since the linear momentum of the black brane cannot be obtained by a boost transformation the velocity of the fluid or rather, by boundary rotational invariance, its magnitude plays the role of a chemical potential. The conjugate dual variable is mass density. The Lifshitz perfect fluid can be thought of as arising from a Schroedinger perfect fluid with broken particle number symmetry.

  2. Lifshitz hydrodynamics from Lifshitz black branes with linear momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, Jelle [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Obers, Niels A.; Sanchioni, Marco [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-10-21

    We construct a new class of 4-dimensional z=2 Lifshitz black branes that have a non-zero linear momentum. These are solutions of an Einstein-Proca-dilaton model that can be obtained by Scherk-Schwarz circle reduction of AdS{sub 5} gravity coupled to a free real scalar field. The boundary of a bulk Lifshitz space-time is a Newton-Cartan geometry. We show that the fluid dual to the moving Lifshitz black brane leads to a novel form of Lifshitz hydrodynamics on a Newton-Cartan space-time. Since the linear momentum of the black brane cannot be obtained by a boost transformation the velocity of the fluid or rather, by boundary rotational invariance, its magnitude plays the role of a chemical potential. The conjugate dual variable is mass density. The Lifshitz perfect fluid can be thought of as arising from a Schrödinger perfect fluid with broken particle number symmetry.

  3. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are unsure of themselves, new to the group, or inexperienced with peer pressure may also be more likely to give in. ... stand that makes you look uncool to your group. But these situations can be ... up to peer pressure, but it does take courage — yours: Listen to ...

  4. First-Order Acoustic Wave Equation Reverse Time Migration Based on the Dual-Sensor Seismic Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiachun; Liu, Xuewei; Wu, Ru-Shan

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the mathematical requirements for conventional reverse time migration (RTM) and summarize their rationale. The known information provided by current acquisition system is inadequate for the second-order acoustic wave equations. Therefore, we introduce a dual-sensor seismic acquisition system into the coupled first-order acoustic wave equations. We propose a new dual-sensor reverse time migration called dual-sensor RTM, which includes two input variables, the pressure and vertical particle velocity data. We focus on the performance of dual-sensor RTM in estimating reflection coefficients compared with conventional RTM. Synthetic examples are used for the study of estimating coefficients of reflectors with both dual-sensor RTM and conventional RTM. The results indicate that dual-sensor RTM with two inputs calculates amplitude information more accurately and images structural positions of complex substructures, such as the Marmousi model, more clearly than that of conventional RTM. This shows that the dual-sensor RTM has better accuracy in backpropagation and carries more information in the directivity because of particle velocity injection. Through a simple point-shape model, we demonstrate that dual-sensor RTM decreases the effect of multi-pathing of propagating waves, which is helpful for focusing the energy. In addition, compared to conventional RTM, dual-sensor RTM does not cause extra memory costs. Dual-sensor RTM is, therefore, promising for the computation of multi-component seismic data.

  5. Robust Collaborative Optimization Method Based on Dual-response Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; FAN Wenhui; CHANG Tianqing; YUAN Yuming

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for robust collaborative design of complex products based on dual-response surface (DRS-RCO) is proposed to solve multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problems under uncertainty. Collaborative optimization (CO) which decomposes the whole system into a double-level nonlinear optimization problem is widely Accepted as an efficient method to solve MDO problems. In order to improve the quality of complex product in design process, robust collaborative optimization (RCO) is developed to solve those problems under uncertain conditions. RCO does opfmiTation on the linear sum of mean and standard deviation of objective function and gets an optimal solution with high robustnmess. Response surfaces method is an important way to do approximation in robust design. DRS-RCO is an improved RCO method in which dual-response surface replaces system uncertainty analysis module of CO. The dual-response surface is the approximate model of mean and standard deviation of objective function respectively. In DRS-RCO, All the information of subsystems is included in dual-response surfaces. As an additional item, the standard deviation of objective function is added to the subsystem optimization. This item guarantee both the mean and standard deviation of this subsystem is reaching the minima at the same time. Finally, a test problem with two coupled subsystems is conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of DRS-RCO.

  6. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liu; Yan, Yao; Jiahao, Ma; Yanhang, Zhang; Qian, Wang; Zhaohua, Zhang; Tianling, Ren

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 μm2. It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm2. In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm2. Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10-2 mV/kPa. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025021, 61434001), and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  7. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  8. A Mathematical Theory of the Gauged Linear Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Huijun; Ruan, Yongbin

    2015-01-01

    We construct a rigorous mathematical theory of Witten's Gauged Linear Sigma Model (GLSM). Our theory applies to a wide range of examples, including many cases with non-Abelian gauge group. Both the Gromov-Witten theory of a Calabi-Yau complete intersection X and the Landau-Ginzburg dual (FJRW-theory) of X can be expressed as gauged linear sigma models. Furthermore, the Landau-Ginzburg/Calabi-Yau correspondence can be interpreted as a variation of the moment map or a deformation of GIT in the GLSM. This paper focuses primarily on the algebraic theory, while a companion article will treat the analytic theory.

  9. Quantum codes from linear codes over finite chain rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiusheng; Liu, Hualu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide two methods of constructing quantum codes from linear codes over finite chain rings. The first one is derived from the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) construction applied to self-dual codes over finite chain rings. The second construction is derived from the CSS construction applied to Gray images of the linear codes over finite chain ring {\\mathbb {F}}_{p^{2m}}+u{\\mathbb {F}}_{p^{2m}}. The good parameters of quantum codes from cyclic codes over finite chain rings are obtained.

  10. Links among impossible differential, integral and zero correlation linear cryptanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Rijmen, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    is to fix this gap and establish links between impossible differential cryptanalysis and integral cryptanalysis. Firstly, by introducing the concept of structure and dual structure, we prove that a → b is an impossible differential of a structure E if and only if it is a zero correlation linear hull...... linear hull always indicates the existence of an integral distinguisher. With this observation we improve the number of rounds of integral distinguishers of Feistel structures, CAST-256, SMS4 and Camellia. Finally, we conclude that an r-round impossible differential of E always leads to an r...

  11. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  12. On Linear Algebra Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan AYDIN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear algebra is a basic course followed in mathematics, science, and engineering university departments.Generally, this course is taken in either the first or second year but there have been difficulties in teachingand learning. This type of active algebra has resulted in an increase in research by mathematics educationresearchers. But there is insufficient information on this subject in Turkish and therefore it has not beengiven any educational status. This paper aims to give a general overview of this subject in teaching andlearning. These education studies can be considered quadruple: a the history of linear algebra, b formalismobstacles of linear algebra and cognitive flexibility to improve teaching and learning, c the relation betweenlinear algebra and geometry, d using technology in the teaching and learning linear algebra.Mathematicseducation researchers cannot provide an absolute solution to overcome the teaching and learning difficultiesof linear algebra. Epistemological analyses and experimental teaching have shown the learning difficulties.Given these results, further advice and assistance can be offered locally.

  13. Theory of linear operations

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  14. Thoracic applications of dual energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy-Jardin, Martine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Pontana, Francois; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Tacelli, Nunzia; Santangelo, Teresa; Remy, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Recent technological advances in multidetector computed tomography (CT) have led to the introduction of dual-source CT, which allows acquisition of CT data at the same energy or at 2 distinct tube voltage settings during a single acquisition. The advantage of the former is improvement of temporal resolution, whereas the latter offers new options for CT imaging, allowing tissue characterization and functional analysis with morphologic evaluation. The most investigated application has been iodine mapping at pulmonary CT angiography. The material decomposition achievable opens up new options for recognizing substances poorly characterized by single-energy CT. Although it is too early to draw definitive conclusions on dual-energy CT applications, this article reviews the results already reported with the first generation of dual-source CT systems.

  15. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury. Some chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hardening of the arteries, make it hard for pressure ... Use a mild soap and warm (not hot) water. Apply moisturizers so your skin doesn’t get ...

  16. Pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  17. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  18. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  19. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Linear Algebra, Second Edition takes a gentle approach that starts with familiar concepts and then gradually builds to deeper results. Each section begins with an outline of previously introduced concepts and results necessary for mastering the new material. By reviewing what students need to know before moving forward, the text builds a solid foundation upon which to progress. The new edition of this successful text focuses on vector spaces and the maps between them that preserve their structure (linear transformations). Designed for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate stud

  20. Linear- rubbing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Linear-rubbing is a characteristic technique in the academic school of internal exercise massage in Shanghai. It was known as "flat pushing method" in the past times. The academic school of internal exercise Tuina finds, in the clinical practice of flat pushing, that if the internal exercise accumuhtes in the palm and one-way movement is replaced by two-way movement, the kinetic energy may be transformed into heat energy, bringing about a new unique manipulating technique, which is rather different from the usual flat pushing no longer and now called linear-rubbing therapy.

  1. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise......Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification...... implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust....

  2. Analysis of exact linearization and aproximate feedback linearization techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitman, Leizer; Cardoso, Gildeberto de Souza

    2011-01-01

    p. 1-17 This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.

  3. Analysis of Exact Linearization and Aproximate Feedback Linearization Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Gildeberto S.; Leizer Schnitman

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.

  4. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  5. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  6. Nuclearity for Dual Operator Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhe Dong; Jicheng Tao

    2010-02-01

    In this short paper, we study the nuclearity for the dual operator space $V^∗$ of an operator space . We show that $V^∗$ is nuclear if and only if $V^{∗∗∗}$ is injective, where $V^{∗∗∗}$ is the third dual of . This is in striking contrast to the situation for general operator spaces. This result is used to prove that $V^{∗∗}$ is nuclear if and only if is nuclear and $V^{∗∗}$ is exact.

  7. Broadband Dual Circularly Polarized Magnetoelectric Dipole Antenna Fed by a Miniaturized Six-Branch Hybrid Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A broadband dual circularly polarized magnetoelectric dipole antenna (MEDA fed by a miniaturized six-branch hybrid coupler (SBHC is presented in this paper. First, a dual linearly polarized MEDA with a bandwidth of 73.3% is developed based on the previous design with a bandwidth of 52%. The SBHC, with a miniaturized size of 53%, is designed on a printed circuit board underneath the ground of the MEDA, which possesses an efficient bandwidth of 80.7% to generate the antenna for dual circular polarization. Measurement results show that the proposed dual circularly polarized MEDA achieves an impedance bandwidth of 84.5%, an axial-ratio bandwidth of 81.8%, and a nearly symmetrical, stable unidirectional radiation pattern with an average gain of 8 dBic over its impedance bandwidth.

  8. Killing-Yano tensor and supersymmetry of the self-dual Plebanski-Demianski solution

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Masato

    2015-01-01

    We explore various aspects of the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski family in the Euclidean Einstein-Maxwell-$\\Lambda$ system. The Killing-Yano tensor which was recently found by Yasui and one of the present authors allows us to prove that the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski metric can be brought into the self-dual Carter metric by an orientation-reversing coordinate transformation. We show that the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski solution admits two independent Killing spinors in the framework of $N=2$ minimal gauged supergravity, whereas the non-self-dual solution admits only a single Killing spinor. This can be demonstrated by casting the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski metric into two distinct Przanowski-Tod forms. As a by-product, a new example of the three-dimensional Einstein-Weyl space is presented. We also prove that the self-dual Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski metric falls into two different Calderbank-Pedersen family, which is determined by a single function subjected to the linear equation on the t...

  9. Dual Arm Free Flying Space Robot Trajectory Planning Using Polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishikesh Rathee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents path planning of dual arm free flying space robot using smooth functions of time. Kinematic and dynamic modeling of dual arm free flying space robot is presented first. Using kinematic model, the Jacobian of the system has been derived, and using dynamic model, equations of motion are derived. A path planning methodology for planar system is developed using smooth function of time such as polynomials. Due to nonholonomic behaviour of the manipulator in the zero gravity environment linear and angular momentum is conserved. The proposed method yields input trajectories that drive both the manipulator and the base to a desired configuration. Joint torque curves can be obtained by introducing this joint trajectory curves in equation of motion of the space robot.

  10. Adaptive Dual-Threshold Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯舒娟; 梅文博; 张志明

    2003-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of local-maximum modulus extraction and threshold selection in the edge detection of finite-resolution digital images, a new wavelet transform based adaptive dual-threshold edge detection algorithm is proposed. The local-maximum modulus is extracted by linear interpolation in wavelet domain. With the analysis on histogram, the image is filtered with an adaptive dual-threshold method, which effectively detects the contours of small structures as well as the boundaries of large objects. A wavelet domain's propagation function is used to further select weak edges. Experimental results have shown the self-adaptivity of the threshold to images having the same kind of histogram, and the efficiency even in noise-tampered images.

  11. F-theory and linear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bershadsky, M.; Johansen, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lyman Lab. of Physics; Chiang, T.M. [Newman Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Greene, B.R.; Lazaroiu, C.I. [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    1998-09-07

    We present an explicit method for translating between the linear sigma model and the spectral cover description of SU(r) stable bundles over an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We use this to investigate the four-dimensional duality between (0,2) heterotic and F-theory compactifications. We indirectly find that much interesting heterotic information must be contained in the `spectral bundle` and in its dual description as a gauge theory on multiple F-theory 7-branes. A by-product of these efforts is a method for analyzing semistability and the splitting type of vector bundles over an elliptic curve given as the sheaf cohomology of a monad. (orig.) 24 refs.

  12. Emittance growth in linear induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ekdahl, C A; Schulze, M E; Carlson, C A; Frayer, D K; Mostrum, C; Thoma, C H

    2014-01-01

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility uses bremsstrahlung radiation source spots produced by the focused electron beams from two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to radiograph large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives. Radiographic resolution is determined by the size of the source spot, and beam emittance is the ultimate limitation to spot size. On the DARHT Axis-II LIA we measure an emittance higher than predicted by theoretical simulations, and even though this axis produces sub-millimeter source spots, we are exploring ways to improve the emittance. Some of the possible causes for the discrepancy have been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, although most of these are discounted based on beam measurements. The most likely source of emittance growth is a mismatch of the beam to the magnetic transport, which can cause beam halo.

  13. A dual method for maximum entropy restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

  14. Sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames

    CERN Document Server

    Krahmer, Felix; Lemvig, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We study sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames of a given finite frame. We show that any finite frame has a dual with no more than $n^2$ non-vanishing entries, where $n$ denotes the ambient dimension, and that for most frames no sparser dual is possible. Moreover, we derive an expression for the exact sparsity level of the sparsest dual for any given finite frame using a generalized notion of spark. We then study the spectral properties of dual frames in terms of singular values of the synthesis operator. We provide a complete characterization for which spectral patterns of dual frames are possible for a fixed frame. For many cases, we provide simple explicit constructions for dual frames with a given spectrum, in particular, if the constraint on the dual is that it be tight.

  15. Physiological Synchronization in a Vigilance Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels and other physio-logical responses between people is a potentially important component of work team performance, client-therapist relationships, and other types of human interaction. This study addressed several problems: What statistical models are viable for identifying synchronization for loosely coupled human systems? How is the level of synchronization related to psychosocial variables such as empathy, subjective ratings of workload, and actual performance? Participants were 70 undergraduates who worked in pairs on a vigilance dual task in which they watched a virtual reality security camera, rang a bell when they saw the target intruder, and completed a jig-saw puzzle. Event rates either increased or decreased during the 90 min work period. The average R2 values for each person were .66, .66, .62, and .53 for the linear autoregressive model, linear autoregressive model with a synchronization component, the nonlinear autoregressive model, and the nonlinear autoregressive model with a synchronization component, respectively. All models were more accurate at a lag of 20 sec compared to 50 sec or customized lag lengths. Although the linear models were more accurate overall, the nonlinear synchronization parameters were more often related to psychological variables and performance. In particular, greater synchronization was observed with the nonlinear model when the target event rate increased, compared to when it decreased, which was expected from the general theory of synchronization. Nonlinear models were also more effective for uncovering inhibitory or dampening relationships between the co-workers as well as mutually excitatory relationships. Future research should explore the comparative model results for tasks that induce higher levels of synchronization and involve different types of internal group coordination.

  16. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  17. Linear Projective Program Syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extremely simple program notation more advanced program features can be developed in linear projective program syntax such as conditional statements, while loops, recursion, use of an evaluation stack, object classes, method calls etc. Taking care of a cumulative and bottom up

  18. About Some Linear Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu T. Pop

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of Jakimovski and Leviatan from their work in 1969, we construct a general class of linear positive operators. We study the convergence, the evaluation for the rate of convergence in terms of the first modulus of smoothness and we give a Voronovskaja-type theorem for these operators.

  19. Linear Mappings of Quaternion Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2011-01-01

    In the paper I considered linear and antilinear automorphisms of quaternion algebra. I proved the theorem that there is unique expansion of R-linear mapping of quaternion algebra relative to the given set of linear and antilinear automorphisms.

  20. OH PLIF Visualization of a Premixed Ethylene-fueled Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.; Johansen, Craig T.; Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) planar induced laser fluorescence (PLIF) measurements have been performed in a small-scale scramjet combustor at the University of Virginia Aerospace Research Laboratory at nominal simulated Mach 5 enthalpy. OH lines were carefully chosen to have fluorescent signal that is independent of pressure and temperature but linear with mole fraction. The OH PLIF signal was imaged in planes orthogonal to and parallel to the freestream flow at different equivalence ratios. Flameout limits were tested and identified. Instantaneous planar images were recorded and analyzed to compare the results with width increased dual-pump enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (WIDECARS) measurements in the same facility and large eddy simulation/Reynolds average Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) numerical simulation. The flame angle was found to be approximately 10 degrees for several different conditions, which is in agreement with numerical predictions and measurements using WIDECARS. Finally, a comparison between NO PLIF non-combustion cases and OH PLIF combustion cases is provided: the comparison reveals that the dominant effect of flame propagation is freestream turbulence rather than heat release and concentration gradients.

  1. Effect of a dual task on postural control in dyslexic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Legrand

    Full Text Available Several studies have examined postural control in dyslexic children; however, their results were inconclusive. This study investigated the effect of a dual task on postural stability in dyslexic children. Eighteen dyslexic children (mean age 10.3±1.2 years were compared with eighteen non-dyslexic children of similar age. Postural stability was recorded with a platform (TechnoConcept® while the child, in separate sessions, made reflex horizontal and vertical saccades of 10° of amplitude, and read a text silently. We measured the surface and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP. Reading performance was assessed by counting the number of words read during postural measures. Both groups of children were more stable while performing saccades than while reading a text. Furthermore, dyslexic children were significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic children, especially during the reading task. Finally, the number of words read by dyslexic children was significantly lower than that of non-dyslexic children and, in contrast to the non-dyslexic children. In line with the U-shaped non-linear interaction model, we suggest that the attention consumed by the reading task could be responsible for the loss of postural control in both groups of children. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children supports the hypothesis that such children have a lack of integration of multiple sensorimotor inputs.

  2. A Study of Impedance Relationships in Dual Frequency PECVD Process Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Douglas; Augustyniak, Edward; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Pecvd/Ald Team

    2016-09-01

    Commercial plasma process reactors are commonly operated with a very limited suite of on-board plasma diagnostics. However, as process demands advance so has the need for detailed plasma monitoring and diagnosis. The VI probe is one of the few instruments commonly available for this task. We present a study of voltage, current, impedance and phase trends acquired by off-the-shelf VI probes in Dual Frequency (DF) 400 kHz/13.56MHz capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) as typically used for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). These plasmas typically operate at pressures from 1 to 5 Torr and at RF power levels of 3 W/cm2. Interpretation of DF VI probe impedance trends is challenging. Non-linear interactions are known to exist in plasma impedance scaling with low and high frequency RF power. Simple capacitive sheath models typically do not simultaneously reproduce the impedance observed at each drive frequency. This work will compare VI probe observed DF CCP impedance tends with plasma fluid simulation. Also explored is the agreement seen with sheath models presently available in the literature. Prospects for the creation of useful equivalent circuit models is also discussed.

  3. Dual symmetry in a generalized Maxwell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, F T; McKeon, D G C

    2016-01-01

    We examine Podolsky's electrodynamics, which is noninvariant under the usual duality transformation. We deduce a generalization of Hodge's star duality, which leads to a dual gauge field and restores to a certain extent the dual symmetry. The model becomes fully dual symmetric asymptotically when it reduces to the Maxwell theory. We argue that this strict dual symmetry directly implies the existence of the basic invariants of the electromagnetic fields.

  4. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound the anomalous dimension of the Dirac fermion mass operator to be less than one in the conformal window.

  5. History of Physical Terms: "Pressure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontali, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Scientific terms drawn from common language are often charged with suggestions that may even be inconsistent with their restricted scientific meaning, thus posing didactic problems. The (non-linear) historical journey of the word "pressure" is illustrated here through original quotations from Stevinus, Torricelli, Pascal, Boyle,…

  6. History of Physical Terms: "Pressure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontali, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Scientific terms drawn from common language are often charged with suggestions that may even be inconsistent with their restricted scientific meaning, thus posing didactic problems. The (non-linear) historical journey of the word "pressure" is illustrated here through original quotations from Stevinus, Torricelli, Pascal, Boyle,…

  7. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OSCM TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS BY USING DUAL ELECTRODE MZ-MODULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOKA KUMAR RATHA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of OSCM transmission system using dual electrode MZ modulator was analyzed and investigated by simulation through the use of optisim software. The dual electrode z-cut LiNbO3MZM makes the use of two linear polarizer’s placed before and after it respectively. By carefully selecting the angles of the two linear polarizers, the third order intermodulation and harmonic distortion can be suppressed significantly. The performance of the system was investigated by varying few parameters such as data rate, optical modulation index, subcarrier frequency, phase shift difference between branches of dual electrode MZ modulator, fiber length and phase of the local oscillator at the receiver side.

  8. An L/X Dual-Band Dual-Polarized Shared-Aperture Array for Spaceborne SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targonski, Stephen D.; Pozar, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar antennas have many special electrical requirements, such as operation at multiple frequencies with multiple polarization ability, with fairly wideband operation being required at these frequencies. They are also required to be electrically large, giving rise to issues such as low mass, easy and reliable deployability, and low cost. This paper describes the results of a prototype SAR array developed with these considerations in mind. The prototype antenna is a dual-frequency array operating at L and X bands, with dual linear polarization capability at both bands. This array shares the same radiating aperture for both bands and both polarizations, as was done in [l]. The prototype antenna described can also be used as a single module in a much larger array.

  9. Dual Enrollment for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Linsey; Hughes, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses and potentially earn college credit. The term concurrent enrollment is sometimes used interchangeably with dual enrollment, and sometimes to refer to a particular model of dual enrollment. In some programs, students earn high school and college credit simultaneously;…

  10. Dual Enrollment in Spanish: One Working Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…

  11. Sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We study sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames of a given finite frame. We show that any finite frame has a dual with no more than $n^2$ non-vanishing entries, where $n$ denotes the ambient dimension, and that for most frames no sparser dual is possible. Moreover, we derive an expressio...

  12. Dual Enrollment in Spanish: One Working Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…

  13. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  14. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  15. Noncommutative Self-dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C; Sabido, M

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a self-dual formulation of gravity, we obtain a noncommutative theory of pure Einstein theory in four dimensions. In order to do that, we use Seiberg-Witten map. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion constraint is solved by the vanishing of commutative torsion. Finally, the noncommutative corrections to the action are computed up to second order.

  16. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  17. Physical Health and Dual Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Debbie; Keen, Sarah; Mauro, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The physical health of people with mental illness may be neglected for a variety of reasons. This paper looks at the common physical health problems experienced by people with a dual diagnosis of substance misuse and serious mental illness, and suggests ways of assessing and managing them.

  18. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  20. A Dual Approach for Solving Nonlinear Infinity-Norm Minimization Problems with Applications in Separable Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider nonlinear infinity-norm minimization problems. We device a reliable Lagrangian dual approach for solving this kind of problems and based on this method we propose an algorithm for the mixed linear and nonlinear infinitynorm minimization problems. Numerical results are presented.

  1. Dual Polarization Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna Array With Very Low Cross-Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development and performance of a wideband dual linear polarization microstrip antenna array used in the Danish high-resolution airborne multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar, EMISAR. The antenna was designed for an operating frequency of 1.25 GHz±50 MHz and...

  2. Dual Development of Conversational and Narrative Discourse: Mother and Child Interactions during Narrative Co-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated longitudinally the co-constructed narratives of 31 mother-child dyads collected when the children were 3-, 4-, and 5-years old, examining the dual development of child conversational and narrative discourse skills and the impact of maternal verbal assistance. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed that children's developmental…

  3. Generalized Riccati equations for self-dual Yang--Mills fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, L.; Yen, H.C.

    1987-05-01

    It is shown that although no Riccati equations in the strict sense are likely to exist for the self-dual Yang--Mills fields, certain ''generalized Riccati equations'' derivable from the Baecklund transformation do exist, and are capable of reproducing the linear system when a certain contraint is imposed.

  4. Concepts for polarising sheets & "dual-gridded" reflectors for circular polarisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albani, M.; Balling, P.; Datashvili, L.; Gerini, G.; Ingvarson, P.; Pontoppidan, K.; Sabbadini, M.; Sjöberg, D.; Skokic, S.; Vecchi, G.

    2010-01-01

    C-, Ku- and Ka-band communications and broadcast satellites use so-called dual-gridded reflector antennas for linear polarisation to provide independent reflector surfaces and/or independent feeds for the two orthogonal polarisations. This paper describes initial work to extend this concept to circu

  5. Feasibility and accuracy of tissue characterization with dual source computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Abbema, Joanne K.; Van der Schaaf, Arjen; Kristanto, Wisnu; Groen, Jaap M.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a model for tissue characterization with dual source computed tomography (DSCT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A model for tissue characterization in CT was used with a parameterization of linear attenuation coefficients. Sixteen chemical substances with

  6. Generic primal-dual interior point methods based on a new kernel function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EL Ghami, M.; Roos, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a generic primal-dual interior point methods (IPMs) for linear optimization in which the search direction depends on a univariate kernel function which is also used as proximity measure in the analysis of the algorithm. The proposed kernel function does not satisfy all the c

  7. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...

  8. A Dual Approach for Solving Nonlinear Infinite-Norm Minimization Problems with Applications in Separable Cases

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on nonlinear infinite-norm minimization problems that have many applications, especially in computer science and operations research. We set a reliable Lagrangian dual aproach for solving this kind of problems in general, and based on this method, we propose an algorithm for the mixed linear and nonlinear infinite-norm minimization cases with numerical results.

  9. Characterization of the order relation on the set of completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we characterize the order relation on the set of all nondegenerate completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras in terms of a self-dual Hilbert module induced by each completely n-positive linear map.

  10. Topics in computational linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    . Linear optimization problems covers both linear programming problems, which are polynomially solvable, and mixed integer linear programming problems, which belong to the class of NP-hard problems. The three main reasons for the practical succes of linear optimization are: wide applicability, availabilty...... of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... systems of linear equations, C) reduction of linear programs and D) integration of algebraic modelling of linear optimization problems in C++. Each of these topics is treated in a separate paper included in this dissertation. The efficiency of solving mixed 0-1 linear programs by linear programming based...

  11. An improved flexible telemetry system to autonomously monitor sub-bandage pressure and wound moisture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehmood, Nasir; Hariz, Alex; Templeton, Sue; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an improved mobile-based telemetric dual mode sensing system to monitor pressure and moisture levels in compression bandages and dressings used for chronic wound management...

  12. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  13. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  14. Linear recursive distributed representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtlin, Thomas; Dominey, Peter F

    2005-09-01

    Connectionist networks have been criticized for their inability to represent complex structures with systematicity. That is, while they can be trained to represent and manipulate complex objects made of several constituents, they generally fail to generalize to novel combinations of the same constituents. This paper presents a modification of Pollack's Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM), that addresses this criticism. The network uses linear units and is trained with Oja's rule, in which it generalizes PCA to tree-structured data. Learned representations may be linearly combined, in order to represent new complex structures. This results in unprecedented generalization capabilities. Capacity is orders of magnitude higher than that of a RAAM trained with back-propagation. Moreover, regularities of the training set are preserved in the new formed objects. The formation of new structures displays developmental effects similar to those observed in children when learning to generalize about the argument structure of verbs.

  15. Piecewise Linear Wilson lines

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Veken, Frederik F

    2014-01-01

    Wilson lines, being comparators that render non-local operator products gauge invariant, are extensively used in QCD calculations, especially in small-$x$ calculations, calculations concerning validation of factorisation schemes and in calculations for constructing or modelling parton density functions. We develop an algorithm to express piecewise path ordered exponentials as path ordered integrals over the separate segments, and apply it on linear segments, reducing the number of diagrams needed to be calculated. We show how different linear path topologies can be related using their colour structure. This framework allows one to easily switch results between different Wilson line structures, which is especially useful when testing different structures against each other, e.g. when checking universality properties of non-perturbative objects.

  16. Scaled Sparse Linear Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Tingni

    2011-01-01

    Scaled sparse linear regression jointly estimates the regression coefficients and noise level in a linear model. It chooses an equilibrium with a sparse regression method by iteratively estimating the noise level via the mean residual squares and scaling the penalty in proportion to the estimated noise level. The iterative algorithm costs nearly nothing beyond the computation of a path of the sparse regression estimator for penalty levels above a threshold. For the scaled Lasso, the algorithm is a gradient descent in a convex minimization of a penalized joint loss function for the regression coefficients and noise level. Under mild regularity conditions, we prove that the method yields simultaneously an estimator for the noise level and an estimated coefficient vector in the Lasso path satisfying certain oracle inequalities for the estimation of the noise level, prediction, and the estimation of regression coefficients. These oracle inequalities provide sufficient conditions for the consistency and asymptotic...

  17. Dual-energy perfusion-CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauß, M., E-mail: miriam.klauss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Stiller, W., E-mail: wolfram.stiller@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pahn, G., E-mail: gregor.pahn@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fritz, F., E-mail: franzi.fritz@cegug.org [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kieser, M., E-mail: meinhard.kieser@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Inst. of Medical Biometry and Informatics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U., E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grenacher, L., E-mail: lars.grenacher@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT)-perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas for assessing the differences in perfusion, permeability and blood volume of healthy pancreatic tissue and histopathologically confirmed solid pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and methods: 24 patients with histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma were examined prospectively with a 64-slice dual source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 dual-energy (DE) acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). 80 kV{sub p}, 140 kV{sub p}, and weighted average (linearly blended M0.3) 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool (Body-PCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for estimating perfusion, permeability, and blood volume values. Color-coded parameter maps were generated. Results: In all 24 patients dual-energy CT-perfusion was. All carcinomas could be identified in the color-coded perfusion maps. Calculated perfusion, permeability and blood volume values were significantly lower in pancreatic carcinomas compared to healthy pancreatic tissue. Weighted average 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent perfusion-, permeability- and blood volume-values determined from DE image data were 0.27 ± 0.04 min{sup −1} vs. 0.91 ± 0.04 min{sup −1} (p < 0.0001), 0.5 ± 0.07 *0.5 min{sup −1} vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 *0.5 min{sup −1} (p = 0.06) and 0.49 ± 0.07 min{sup −1} vs. 1.28 ± 0.11 min{sup −1} (p < 0.0001). Compared with 80 and 140 kV{sub p} the standard deviations of the kV{sub p}120 kV{sub p}-equivalent values were manifestly smaller. Conclusion: Dual-energy CT-perfusion of the pancreas is feasible. The use of DECT improves the accuracy of CT-perfusion of the pancreas by fully exploiting the advantages of enhanced iodine contrast at 80 kV{sub p} in combination with the noise reduction at 140 kV{sub p}. Therefore using dual-energy perfusion data could improve the delineation

  18. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  19. Linear abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, L A; Wolfman, E F

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury.

  20. Redesigning linear algebra algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the standard algorithms in linear algebra as implemented in FORTRAN do not achieve maximum performance on today's large-scale vector computers. The author examines the problem and constructs alternative formulations of algorithms that do not lose the clarity of the original algorithm or sacrifice the FORTRAN portable environment, but do gain the performance attainable on these supercomputers. The resulting implementation not only performs well on vector computers but also increases performance on conventional sequential computers. 13 references.