WorldWideScience

Sample records for dual mode model

  1. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  2. Towards model-based control of RCCI-CDF mode-switching in dual fuel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrajuana, Armando; Bekdemir, C.; Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2018-01-01

    The operation of a dual fuel combustion engine using combustion mode-switching offers the benefit of higher thermal efficiency compared to single-mode operation. For various fuel combinations, the engine research community has shown that running dual fuel engines in Reactivity Controlled Compression

  3. Interference of Spin-2 Self-Dual Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilha, Anderson; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects of interference between the self-dual and anti self-dual massive modes of the linearized Einstein-Chern-Simons topological gravity. The dual models to be used in the interference process are carefully analyzed with special emphasis on their propagating spectrum. We identify the opposite dual aspects, necessary for the application of the interference formalism on this model. The soldered theory so obtained displays explicitly massive modes of the Proca type. It may also be...

  4. Pricing Models for Dual-channel Reverse Supply Chain Considering Regional Differences under “Internet Recycling” Mode in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Li, Peng; Chen, Juhong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet technology has been deeply influencing recycling industry to make it more intelligent and interconnected. However, most existing papers on “Internet Recycling” neglected the problem of pricing strategy under online and offline channels for different levels of recyclers. Moreover, the effect of regional differences has been emphasized a lot in dual-channel forward supply chain, but recycling field has seldom been concerned about it. In this paper, a recycling system consisting of one recycling center and several third-party recyclers (TPR) was investigated based on traditional mode and dual-channel mode. The dual-channel reverse supply chain model is transformed from traditional mode by the introduction of online channel. It involves two recycling modes, as recycling centre for online recovery and “Recycling center+TPR” for offline recovery. By establishing pricing strategies based on Stackelberg game model, the impacts of regional differences were analysed. Finally, numerical analysis was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the pricing mechanisms and strategies.

  5. 2-D modeling of dual-mode acoustic phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Po-Tse; Yu, Pyng; Tang, Jau

    2010-08-01

    In this theoretical work, we investigated coherent phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate based on 2-D Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model. Based on the two-temperature model commonly used in description of laser heating of metals, we considered two kinds of forces related to electronic and lattice stresses. Based on extensive simulation and analysis, we identified two major planar phonon modes, namely, a standing wave mode related to the triangle bisector and another mode corresponding to half of the side length. This work elucidates the roles of laser-induced electronic stress and lattice stress in controlling the initial phase and the amplitude ratio between these two phonon modes.

  6. 2-D modeling of dual-mode acoustic phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Po-Tse; Yu, Pyng; Tang, Jau

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Modeling the lattice dynamics of a triangular plate with the arrows indicating the direction of impulsive thermal stress. We investigated ultrafast structural dynamics of triangular nanoplates based on 2-D Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to explain coherent acoustic phonon excitation in nanoprisms. - Abstract: In this theoretical work, we investigated coherent phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate based on 2-D Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model. Based on the two-temperature model commonly used in description of laser heating of metals, we considered two kinds of forces related to electronic and lattice stresses. Based on extensive simulation and analysis, we identified two major planar phonon modes, namely, a standing wave mode related to the triangle bisector and another mode corresponding to half of the side length. This work elucidates the roles of laser-induced electronic stress and lattice stress in controlling the initial phase and the amplitude ratio between these two phonon modes.

  7. The exercise and affect relationship: evidence for the dual-mode model and a modified opponent process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sarah M; Arent, Shawn M

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between exertion level and affect using the framework of opponent-process theory and the dual-mode model, with the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist and the State Anxiety Inventory among 14 active and 14 sedentary participants doing 20 min of treadmill exercise at speeds of 5% below, 5% above, and at lactate threshold (LT). We found a significant effect of time, condition, Time × Condition, and Time × Group, but no group, Group × Condition, or Time × Group × Condition effects, such that the 5% above LT condition produced a worsening of affect in-task compared with all other conditions whereas, across conditions, participants experienced in-task increases in energy and tension, and in-task decreases in tiredness and calmness relative to baseline. Posttask, participants experienced mood improvement (decreased tension, anxiety, and increased calmness) across conditions, with a 30-min delay in the above LT condition. These results partially support the dual-mode model and a modified opponent-process theory.

  8. A Priori Analysis of a Compressible Flamelet Model using RANS Data for a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; McDaniel, James C.; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to make large eddy simulation of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustors more computationally accessible using realistic chemical reaction mechanisms, a compressible flamelet/progress variable (FPV) model was proposed that extends current FPV model formulations to high-speed, compressible flows. Development of this model relied on observations garnered from an a priori analysis of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) data obtained for the Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HI-FiRE) dual-mode scramjet combustor. The RANS data were obtained using a reduced chemical mechanism for the combustion of a JP-7 surrogate and were validated using avail- able experimental data. These RANS data were then post-processed to obtain, in an a priori fashion, the scalar fields corresponding to an FPV-based modeling approach. In the current work, in addition to the proposed compressible flamelet model, a standard incompressible FPV model was also considered. Several candidate progress variables were investigated for their ability to recover static temperature and major and minor product species. The effects of pressure and temperature on the tabulated progress variable source term were characterized, and model coupling terms embedded in the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied. Finally, results for the novel compressible flamelet/progress variable model were presented to demonstrate the improvement attained by modeling the effects of pressure and flamelet boundary conditions on the combustion.

  9. Multiple player tracking in sports video: a dual-mode two-way bayesian inference approach with progressive observation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junliang; Ai, Haizhou; Liu, Liwei; Lao, Shihong

    2011-06-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a very challenging task yet of fundamental importance for many practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking multiple players in sports video which is even more difficult due to the abrupt movements of players and their complex interactions. To handle the difficulties in this problem, we present a new MOT algorithm which contributes both in the observation modeling level and in the tracking strategy level. For the observation modeling, we develop a progressive observation modeling process that is able to provide strong tracking observations and greatly facilitate the tracking task. For the tracking strategy, we propose a dual-mode two-way Bayesian inference approach which dynamically switches between an offline general model and an online dedicated model to deal with single isolated object tracking and multiple occluded object tracking integrally by forward filtering and backward smoothing. Extensive experiments on different kinds of sports videos, including football, basketball, as well as hockey, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Mathematical model for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, J.; Chow, S.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. Such a concept could be particularly useful for missions which require both relatively high acceleration (e.g., for planetocentric maneuvers) and high performance at low acceleration (e.g., on heliocentric trajectories or for trajectory shaping). The first volume develops the mathematical model of the system.

  11. Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. A.

    The automotive dual mode hydrogen generation system is advocated as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage dc electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement. The second, and minor electrical generating means consists of multiple, miniature air disk generators which are mounted directly under the vehicle's hood and at other convenient locations within the engine compartment. The air disk generators are revolved at a speed which is proportionate to the vehicles forward speed and do not impose a drag on the vehicles motion.

  12. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback

  13. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  14. Dual-Mode Scramjet Flameholding Operability Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Flameholding measurements were made in two different direct connect combustor facilities that were designed to simulate a cavity flameholder in the flowfield of a hydrocarbon fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The presence of a shocktrain upstream of the flameholder has a significant impact on the inlet flow to the combustor and on the flameholding limits. A throttle was installed in the downstream end of the test rigs to provide the needed back-pressurization and decouple the operation of the flameholder from the backpressure formed by heat release and thermal choking, as in a flight engine. Measurements were made primarily with ethylene fuel but a limited number of tests were also performed with heated gaseous JP-7 fuel injection. The flameholding limits were measured by ramping inlet air temperature down until blowout was observed. The tests performed in the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) facility used a hydrogen fueled vitiated air heater, Mach 2.2 and 3.3 inlet nozzles, a scramjet combustor rig with a 1.666 by 6 inch inlet and a 0.65 inch deep cavity. Mean blowout temperature measured at the baseline condition with ethylene fuel, the Mach 2.2 inlet and a cavity pressure of 21 psia was 1502 oR. Flameholding sensitivity to a variety of parameters was assessed. Blowout temperature was found to be most sensitive to fuel injection location and fuel flowrates and surprisingly insensitive to operating pressure (by varying both back-pressurization and inlet flowrate) and inlet Mach number. Video imaging through both the bottom and side wall windows was collected simultaneously and showed that the flame structure was quite unsteady with significant lateral movements as well as movement upstream of the flameholder. Experiments in the University of Virginia (UVa) test facility used a Mach 2 inlet nozzle with a 1 inch by 1.5 inch exit cross section, an aspect ratio of 1.5 versus 3.6 in the UTRC facility. The UVa facility tests were designed to measure the

  15. Financial Management of Distance Learning in Dual-Mode Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville

    2012-01-01

    Dual-mode universities operating in a tough economic environment need to be able to answer a range of questions concerning their use of different teaching modes accurately and with confidence. Only an activity-based costing approach will provide them with this tool. Cost studies of other distance learning projects may provide benchmarks against…

  16. The dual of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, M.S.; Grigorio, L.; Wotzasek, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we apply different duality techniques, both the dual projection, based on the soldering formalism and the master action, in order to obtain and study the dual description of the Carroll- Field-Jackiw model [1], a theory with a Chern-Simons-like explicitly Lorentz and CPT violating term, including the interaction with external charges. This Maxwell-Chern-Simons-like model may be rewritten in terms of the interacting modes of a massless scalar model and a topologically massive model [2], that are mapped, through duality, into interacting massless Maxwell and massive self-dual modes [3]. It is also shown that these dual modes might be represented into an unified rank-two self-dual model that represents the direct dual of the vector Maxwell-Chern-Simons-like model

  17. Predicting Vaccination Intention and Benefit and Risk Perceptions: The Incorporation of Affect, Trust, and Television Influence in a Dual-Mode Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nien-Tsu Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Major health behavior change models tend to consider health decisions as primarily resulting from a systematic appraisal of relevant beliefs, such as the perceived benefits and risks of a pharmacological intervention. Drawing on research from the disciplines of risk management, communication, and psychology, this study proposed the inclusion of a heuristic route in established theory and tested the direction of influence between heuristic and systematic process variables. Affect and social trust were included as key heuristics in the proposed dual-mode framework of health decision making. Furthermore, exposure to health-related coverage on television was considered potentially influential over both heuristic and systematic process variables. To test this framework, data were collected from a national probability sample of 584 adults in the United States in 2012 regarding their decision to vaccinate against a hypothetical avian flu. The results provided some support for the bidirectional influence between heuristic and systematic processing. Affect toward flu vaccination and trust in the Food and Drug Administration were found to be powerful predictors of vaccination intention, enhancing intention both directly and indirectly via certain systematic process variables. The direction of influence between perceived susceptibility and severity, on the one hand, and affect, on the other, is less clear, suggesting the need for further research. Contrary to the opinion of media critics, exposure to televised health coverage was negatively associated with the perceived risks of vaccination. Results from this study carry theoretical and practical implications, and applying this model to the acceptance of different health interventions constitutes an area for future inquiries. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhu, Qi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2015-03-16

    A dual-cavity TM{sub 02}–TM{sub 01} mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM{sub 01} mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM{sub 01} mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM{sub 01} mode feedback.

  19. Examining Policy Guidelines for Distance Education in Dual Mode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reports a case of distance education policy in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), a dual mode University in Ghana. The interview method was used to obtain information from 21 purposively selected key informants in the University. Policy documents that addressed Distance ...

  20. Development and Use of the Dual-Mode Plasma Torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.; Shuey, M.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of development, a commercially available high-temperature treatment system has been developed and installed that treats heterogeneous low-level radioactive waste. High temperature plasma processing, unique torch design and operating features make it feasible to achieve a volume reduced, permanent, high integrity waste form while eliminating the personnel exposure and costs associated with conventional sorting, characterizing and handling. Plasma technology can also be used to treat previous conditioned waste packages that no longer meet the current acceptance criteria for final disposal. Plasma treatment can result, in many cases, in a substantial volume reduction, which lowers the final disposal costs. This paper covers the recently patented dual mode plasma torch design(1), the lessons learned that fostered its development and the advantages it brings to radioactive waste processing. This paper also provides current full scale Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) project status and how the dual mode torch is being used in the PACT system

  1. Sliding Mode Control of Diesel Engine Air-path System With Dual-loop EGR and VGT Based on the Reduced-order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sooyoung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a model-based controller for the diesel engine air-path system. The controller is implemented based on a reduced order model consisting of only pressure and power dynamics with practical concerns. To deal with the model uncertainties effectively, a sliding mode controller, which is robust to model uncertainties, is proposed for the air-path system. The control performance of the proposed control scheme is verified through simulation with the valid plant model of a 6,000cc heavy duty diesel engine.

  2. A Dual-Mode Microwave Applicator for Liver Tumor Thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Carolin; Schüßler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf; Bazrafshan, Babak; Hübner, Frank; Vogl, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a novel dual-mode microwave applicator for diagnosis and thermal ablation treatment of tumorous tissue is presented in this paper. This approach is realized by integrating a planar resonator array to, firstly, detect abnormalities by a relative dielectric analysis, and secondly, perform a highly localized thermal ablation. A further essential advantage is addressed by designing the applicator to be MRI compatible to provide a multimodal imaging procedure. Investigations for an appropriate frequency range lead to the use of much higher operating frequencies between 5 GHz and 10 GHz, providing a significantly lower power consumption for microwave ablation of only 20 W compared to commercial available applicators.

  3. Volatile organic compounds discrimination based on dual mode detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Enxiu; Chen, Yan; Feng, Zhihong; Zheng, Shijun; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua

    2018-06-01

    We report on a volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor that can provide concentration-independent signals toward target gases. The device is based on a dual-mode detection mechanism that can simultaneously record the mechanical (resonant frequency, f r) and electrical (current, I) responses of the same gas adsorption event. The two independent signals form a unique I–f r trace for each target VOC as the concentration varies. The mechanical response (frequency shift, Δf r) resulting from mass load on the device is directly related to the amount of surface adsorptions, while the electrical response (current variation, ΔI) is associated with charge transfer across the sensing interface and changes in carrier mobility. The two responses resulting from independent physical processes reflect intrinsic physical properties of each target gas. The ΔI–Δf r trace combined with the concentration dependent frequency (or current) signals can therefore be used to achieve target both recognition and quantification. The dual-mode device is designed and fabricated using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. It exhibits consistent and stable performance in our tests with six different VOCs including ethanol, methanol, acetone, formaldehyde, benzene and hexane.

  4. A novel dual mode neutron-gamma imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Neutron Scatter Camera (NSC) can image fission sources and determine their energy spectra at distances of tens of meters and through significant thicknesses of intervening materials in relatively short times (1). We recently completed a 32 element scatter camera and will present recent advances made with this instrument. A novel capability for the scatter camera is dual mode imaging. In normal neutron imaging mode we identify and image neutron events using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) and time of flight in liquid scintillator. Similarly gamma rays are identified from Compton scatter in the front and rear planes for our segmented detector. Rather than reject these events, we show it is possible to construct a gamma-ray image by running the analysis in a 'Compton mode'. Instead of calculating the scattering angle by the kinematics of elastic scatters as is appropriate for neutron events, it can be found by the kinematics of Compton scatters. Our scatter camera has not been optimized as a Compton gamma-ray imager but is found to work reasonably. We studied imaging performance using a Cs137 source. We find that we are able to image the gamma source with reasonable fidelity. We are able to determine gamma energy after some reasonable assumptions. We will detail the various algorithms we have developed for gamma image reconstruction. We will outline areas for improvement, include additional results and compare neutron and gamma mode imaging.

  5. Carbon Nanodots as Dual-Mode Nanosensors for Selective Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Long; Su, Li-Xia; Zang, Jin-Hao; Li, Xin-Jian; Lou, Qing; Shan, Chong-Xin

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product of oxidase-based enzymatic reactions, such as glucose/glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction. Therefore, the probing of generated H2O2 for achieving the detection of various carbohydrates and their oxidases is very significative. Herein, we report one kind of dual-emission carbon nanodots (CDs) that can serve as novel dual-mode nanosensors with both fluorometric and colorimetric output for the selective detection of H2O2. The dual-model nanosensors are established only by the undecorated dual-emission CDs, where significant fluorometric and colorimetric changes are observed with the addition of different concentrations of H2O2 in the CD solution, which benefit to the achievement of the naked-eye detection for H2O2. The mechanism of the nanosensors can be attributed to the fact that the external chemical stimuli like hydroxyl radicals from H2O2 bring about the change of surface properties and the aggregation of CDs, which dominate the emission and absorption of CDs. The constructed dual-mode nanosensors exhibit good biocompatibility and high selectivity toward H2O2 with a linear detection range spanning from 0.05 to 0.5 M and allow the detection of H2O2 as low as 14 mM.

  6. Design and optimisation of dual-mode heat pump systems using natural fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenling; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces new multi-period modelling and design methodology for dual-mode heat pumps using natural fluids. First, a mathematical model is developed to capture thermodynamic and operating characteristics of dual-mode heat pump systems, subject to different ambient temperatures. The multi-period optimisation framework has been developed to reflect different ambient conditions and its influences on heat pump performance, as well as to determine a system capacity of heat pump which allows systematic economic trade-offs between supplementary heating (or cooling) and operating cost for heat pump. Case study considering three geographical locations with different heating and cooling demands is presented to illustrate the importance of using multi-period optimisation for the design of heat pump systems.

  7. Dual-Pump CARS Measurements in the University of Virginia's Dual-Mode Scramjet: Configuration "C"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Danehy, Paul M.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James

    2013-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted at the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility in configuration C of the dual-mode scramjet. This is a continuation of previously published works on configuration A. The scramjet is hydrogen fueled and operated at two equivalence ratios, one representative of the scram mode and the other of the ram mode. Dual-pump CARS was used to acquire the mole fractions of the major species as well as the rotational and vibrational temperatures of N2. Developments in methods and uncertainties in fitting CARS spectra for vibrational temperature are discussed. Mean quantities and the standard deviation of the turbulent fluctuations at multiple planes in the flow path are presented. In the scram case the combustion of fuel is completed before the end of the measurement domain, while for the ram case the measurement domain extends into the region where the flow is accelerating and combustion is almost completed. Higher vibrational than rotational temperature is observed in those parts of the hot combustion plume where there is substantial H2 (and hence chemical reaction) present.

  8. A dual-mode driver IC with monolithic negative drive-voltage capability and digital current-mode controller for depletion-mode GaN HEMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.; Rose, M.; Fernandes, R.; van Otten, R.; Bergveld, H.J.; Trescases, O.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a driver and controller integrated circuit (IC) for depletion-mode gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The dual-mode driver can be configured for cascode-drive (CD) or HEMT-drive (HD) mode. In the CD mode, a cascode low-voltage DMOS is driven to

  9. Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer with Differential Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mode interferometer (DMI is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.

  10. Vacuum transitions in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.I.; Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The investigation is continued of the spontaneous vacuum transition problem in the Neview-Schwartz dual model (NSDM). It is shown that vacuum transitions allow disclosing of supplementary degeneration in the resonance state spectrum. The dual amplitudes possess an internal structure corresponding to the presence of an infinite number of quarks with increasing masses and retained charges. The Adler principle holds. Analytic continuation on the constant of induced vacuum transitions makes it possible to establish the existence of spontaneous vacuum transitions in the NSDM. The consequence of this fact is the exact SU(2) symmetry of π, rho meson trajectories and the Higgs mechanism in the model. In this case the ratios of masses of particles leading trajectories are analogous to those obtained in the current algebra. It is shown that in the NSDM there arises chiral SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) x ... symmetry resulting from spontaneous vacuum transitions

  11. Enhanced Two-Stage Hierarchical Control for a Dual Mode WECS-Based Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool M. Imran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the great benefits of utilizing renewable energy (e.g., wind energy in the power system, there are also some issues, such as increasing the uncertainty and reducing the system inertia. Communication-based centralized control has started to play a significant role in reacting to the aforementioned issues, especially for relatively small systems, such as microgrids. In this context, in this paper, an enhanced communication-based hierarchical control for a dual mode wind energy conversion system-based microgrid is modeled and investigated. The primary stage utilized the P-V/Q-f droop method, which is the preferred droop method to be used in microgrids when the line impedance is mainly resistive. The secondary stage relied on an enhanced methodology for compensating the deviations of voltage and frequency and improving the performance of the microgrid during small and large signal disturbances. Moreover, as this microgrid operates in a dual mode, the mode transition cases from grid-tied mode to autonomous mode and vice versa have been addressed. Thereafter, an improved control scheme for the unplanned outage transition and a modified control scheme for the pre-synchronization and reconnection transition were proposed. Finally, the proposed work was evaluated by the simulation results in MATLAB environment.

  12. Nanodiamond-Manganese dual mode MRI contrast agents for enhanced liver tumor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weixin; Toh, Tan Boon; Abdullah, Lissa Nurrul; Yvonne, Tay Wei Zheng; Lee, Kuan J; Guenther, Ilonka; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is critical for the diagnosis and monitoring of a number of diseases, including cancer. Certain clinical applications, including the detection of liver tumors, rely on both T1 and T2-weighted images even though contrast agent-enhanced MR imaging is not always reliable. Thus, there is a need for improved dual mode contrast agents with enhanced sensitivity. We report the development of a nanodiamond-manganese dual mode contrast agent that enhanced both T1 and T2-weighted MR imaging. Conjugation of manganese to nanodiamonds resulted in improved longitudinal and transverse relaxivity efficacy over unmodified MnCl 2 as well as clinical contrast agents. Following intravenous administration, nanodiamond-manganese complexes outperformed current clinical contrast agents in an orthotopic liver cancer mouse model while also reducing blood serum concentration of toxic free Mn 2+ ions. Thus, nanodiamond-manganese complexes may serve as more effective dual mode MRI contrast agent, particularly in cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HIFU Monitoring and Control with Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Andrew Jacob

    The biological effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have been known and studied for decades. HIFU has been shown capable of treating a wide variety of diseases and disorders. However, despite its demonstrated potential, HIFU has been slow to gain clinical acceptance. This is due, in part, to the difficulty associated with robustly monitoring and controlling the delivery of the HIFU energy. The non-invasive nature of the surgery makes the assessment of treatment progression difficult, leading to long treatment times and a significant risk of under treatment. This thesis research develops new techniques and systems for robustly monitoring HIFU therapies for the safe and efficacious delivery of the intended treatment. Systems and algorithms were developed for the two most common modes of HIFU delivery systems: single-element and phased array applicators. Delivering HIFU with a single element transducer is a widely used technique in HIFU therapies. The simplicity of a single element offers many benefits in terms of cost and overall system complexity. Typical monitoring schemes rely on an external device (e.g. diagnostic ultrasound or MRI) to assess the progression of therapy. The research presented in this thesis explores using the same element to both deliver and monitor the HIFU therapy. The use of a dual-mode ultrasound transducer (DMUT) required the development of an FPGA based single-channel arbitrary waveform generator and high-speed data acquisition unit. Data collected from initial uncontrolled ablations led to the development of monitoring and control algorithms which were implemented directly on the FPGA. Close integration between the data acquisition and arbitrary waveform units allowed for fast, low latency control over the ablation process. Results are presented that demonstrate control of HIFU therapies over a broad range of intensities and in multiple in vitro tissues. The second area of investigation expands the DMUT research to an

  14. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  15. Adaptive lesion formation using dual mode ultrasound array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Casper, Andrew; Haritonova, Alyona; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results from an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound platform designed to perform real-time monitoring and control of lesion formation. Real-time signal processing of echogenicity changes during lesion formation allows for identification of signature events indicative of tissue damage. The detection of these events triggers the cessation or the reduction of the exposure (intensity and/or time) to prevent overexposure. A dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) is used for forming single- and multiple-focus patterns in a variety of tissues. The DMUA approach allows for inherent registration between the therapeutic and imaging coordinate systems providing instantaneous, spatially-accurate feedback on lesion formation dynamics. The beamformed RF data has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to tissue changes during lesion formation, including in vivo. In particular, the beamformed echo data from the DMUA is very sensitive to cavitation activity in response to HIFU in a variety of modes, e.g. boiling cavitation. This form of feedback is characterized by sudden increase in echogenicity that could occur within milliseconds of the application of HIFU (see http://youtu.be/No2wh-ceTLs for an example). The real-time beamforming and signal processing allowing the adaptive control of lesion formation is enabled by a high performance GPU platform (response time within 10 msec). We present results from a series of experiments in bovine cardiac tissue demonstrating the robustness and increased speed of volumetric lesion formation for a range of clinically-relevant exposures. Gross histology demonstrate clearly that adaptive lesion formation results in tissue damage consistent with the size of the focal spot and the raster scan in 3 dimensions. In contrast, uncontrolled volumetric lesions exhibit significant pre-focal buildup due to excessive exposure from multiple full-exposure HIFU shots. Stopping or reducing the HIFU exposure upon the detection of such an

  16. Experimental study on combustion modes and thrust performance of a staged-combustor of the scramjet with dual-strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Chetehouna, Khaled; Gascoin, Nicolas; Bao, Wen

    2016-05-01

    To enable the scramjet operate in a wider flight Mach number, a staged-combustor with dual-strut is introduced to hold more heat release at low flight Mach conditions. The behavior of mode transition was examined using a direct-connect model scramjet experiment along with pressure measurements. The typical operating modes of the staged-combustor are analyzed. Fuel injection scheme has a significant effect on the combustor operating modes, particularly for the supersonic combustion mode. Thrust performances of the combustor with different combustion modes and fuel distributions are reported in this paper. The first-staged strut injection has a better engine performance in the operation of subsonic combustion mode. On the contrast, the second-staged strut injection has a better engine performance in the operation of supersonic combustion mode.

  17. Effect of universal adhesive etching modes on bond strength to dual-polymerizing composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-Luc; Brown, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    Information is lacking as to the effect on bond strength of the etching modes of universal adhesives when they are used to bond dual-polymerizing composite resins to dentin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the bonding of dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins to dentin when universal bonding agents are used in self-etch or etch-and-rinse modes. Sixty caries-free, extracted third molar teeth were sectioned transversely in the apical third of the crown and allocated to 12 groups (n=5). Three different bonding agents (Scotchbond Universal, OptiBond XTR, All-Bond Universal) were used to bond 2 different dual-polymerizing composite resins (CompCore AF or CoreFlo DC) to dentin, using 2 different etching approaches (etch-and-rinse or self-etch). The specimens were sectioned into sticks (1×1×8 mm) with a precision saw. The bond strength of the specimens was tested under microtensile force at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a 3-way ANOVA, a Games-Howell post hoc comparisons model, and Student t tests with Bonferroni corrections (α=.05). In the overall model, the composite resin used had no effect on bond strength (P=.830). The etching protocol by itself also did not have a significant effect (P=.059), although a trend was present. The bonding agent, however, did have an effect (Pcomposite resins to dentin, no single etching protocol is better than another. Depending on which bonding agent is being used, one etching mode may perform better. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SPHERICAL COVERAGE DUAL MODE SENSOR FOR UAS SEPARATION ASSURANCE, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a dual-mode sensor for use aboard unmanned aircraft for safe operation in the NAS that: 1. Incorporates high resolution Millimeter Wave radar with high...

  19. Design of Dual-Mode Local Oscillators Using CMOS Technology for Motion Detection Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Keum-Won; Lee, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Baek, Donghyun

    2018-04-01

    Recently, studies have been actively carried out to implement motion detecting sensors by applying radar techniques. Doppler radar or frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar are mainly used, but each type has drawbacks. In Doppler radar, no signal is detected when the movement is stopped. Also, FMCW radar cannot function when the detection object is near the sensor. Therefore, by implementing a single continuous wave (CW) radar for operating in dual-mode, the disadvantages in each mode can be compensated for. In this paper, a dual mode local oscillator (LO) is proposed that makes a CW radar operate as a Doppler or FMCW radar. To make the dual-mode LO, a method that controls the division ratio of the phase locked loop (PLL) is used. To support both radar mode easily, the proposed LO is implemented by adding a frequency sweep generator (FSG) block to a fractional-N PLL. The operation mode of the LO is determined by according to whether this block is operating or not. Since most radar sensors are used in conjunction with microcontroller units (MCUs), the proposed architecture is capable of dual-mode operation by changing only the input control code. In addition, all components such as VCO, LDO, and loop filter are integrated into the chip, so complexity and interface issues can be solved when implementing radar sensors. Thus, the proposed dual-mode LO is suitable as a radar sensor.

  20. Design of Dual-Mode Local Oscillators Using CMOS Technology for Motion Detection Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Won Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have been actively carried out to implement motion detecting sensors by applying radar techniques. Doppler radar or frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar are mainly used, but each type has drawbacks. In Doppler radar, no signal is detected when the movement is stopped. Also, FMCW radar cannot function when the detection object is near the sensor. Therefore, by implementing a single continuous wave (CW radar for operating in dual-mode, the disadvantages in each mode can be compensated for. In this paper, a dual mode local oscillator (LO is proposed that makes a CW radar operate as a Doppler or FMCW radar. To make the dual-mode LO, a method that controls the division ratio of the phase locked loop (PLL is used. To support both radar mode easily, the proposed LO is implemented by adding a frequency sweep generator (FSG block to a fractional-N PLL. The operation mode of the LO is determined by according to whether this block is operating or not. Since most radar sensors are used in conjunction with microcontroller units (MCUs, the proposed architecture is capable of dual-mode operation by changing only the input control code. In addition, all components such as VCO, LDO, and loop filter are integrated into the chip, so complexity and interface issues can be solved when implementing radar sensors. Thus, the proposed dual-mode LO is suitable as a radar sensor.

  1. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshu Zhang

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  2. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  3. Dual comb generation from a mode-locked fiber laser with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosman, Ahmet E; Sander, Michelle Y

    2017-08-07

    Ultra-high precision dual-comb spectroscopy traditionally requires two mode-locked, fully stabilized lasers with complex feedback electronics. We present a novel mode-locked operation regime in a thulium-holmium co-doped fiber laser, a frequency-halved state with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses, for dual comb generation from a single source. In a linear fiber laser cavity, an ultrafast pulse train composed of co-generated, equal intensity and orthogonally polarized consecutive pulses at half of the fundamental repetition rate is demonstrated based on vector solitons. Upon optical interference of the orthogonally polarized pulse trains, two stable microwave RF beat combs are formed, effectively down-converting the optical properties into the microwave regime. These co-generated, dual polarization interlaced pulse trains, from one all-fiber laser configuration with common mode suppression, thus provide an attractive compact source for dual-comb spectroscopy, optical metrology and polarization entanglement measurements.

  4. Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Sunil Kumar; Singla, Varun; Sandhu, Sarbjot Singh; Dhir, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Experimental investigation has been carried out to utilize biogas as an alternative source of energy in compression ignition (CI) engine under dual fuel operational mode. Biogas was inducted into the inlet manifold at different flow rates along with fresh air through inlet manifold and diesel was injected as a pilot fuel to initiate combustion under dual fuel mode. The engine performance and emission characteristics of dual fuel operational mode were analyzed at different biogas flow rates and compared with baseline conventional diesel fuel. Based upon the improved performance and lower emission characteristics under the dual fuel operation, the optimum flow rate of biogas was observed to be 2.2 kg/h. The lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) were noticed with biogas-diesel fuel under dual fuel mode when compared with neat diesel operation. Test results showed reduced NO x emissions and smoke opacity level in the exhaust tailpipe emissions. However, higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were noticed under dual fuel mode at entire engine loads when compared with baseline fossil petro-diesel. Hence, the use of low-cost gaseous fuel such as biogas would be an economically viable proposition to address the current and future problems of energy scarcity and associated environmental concerns.

  5. Design of dual-mode optical fibres for the FTTH applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Yang; Li, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Yin; Zhu, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present in this article a proposal and design for dual-mode optical fibres for fibre-to-the-home applications. High-order modes in the fibre can be effectively suppressed by the connection of the fibre with standard single-mode optical fibres at the two ends of the fibre. The alignment tolerance at the splicing process is presented. In particular, a low bending loss operation with low splice loss is demonstrated using the proposed technique.

  6. Design of dual-mode optical fibres for the FTTH applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Yang; Li, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Yin; Zhu, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present in this article a proposal and design for dual-mode optical fibres for fibre-to-the-home applications. High-order modes in the fibre can be effectively suppressed by the connection of the fibre with standard single-mode optical fibres at the two ends of the fibre. The alignment tolerance at the splicing process is presented. In particular, a low bending loss operation with low splice loss is demonstrated using the proposed technique

  7. A 380pW Dual Mode Optical Wake-up Receiver with Ambient Noise Cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wootaek; Jang, Taekwang; Lee, Inhee; Kim, Hun-Seok; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-06-01

    We present a sub-nW optical wake-up receiver for wireless sensor nodes. The wake-up receiver supports dual mode operation for both ultra-low standby power and high data rates, while canceling ambient in-band noise. In 0.18µm CMOS the receiver consumes 380pW in always-on wake-up mode and 28.1µW in fast RX mode at 250kbps.

  8. Dual-Pump CARS Measurements in the University of Virginia's Dual-Mode Scramjet: Configuration "A"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Gallo, Emanuela; Danehy, Paul M.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe efforts to obtain canonical data sets to assist computational modelers in their development of models for the prediction of mixing and combustion in scramjet combustors operating in the ramjet-scramjet transition regime. The CARS technique is employed to acquire temporally and spatially resolved measurements of temperature and species mole-fraction at four planes, one upstream of an H2 fuel injector and three downstream. The technique is described and results are presented for cases with and without chemical reaction. The vibrational energy mode in the heated airstream of the combustor was observed to be frozen at near facility heater conditions and significant nonuniformities in temperature were observed, attributed to nonuniformities of temperature exiting the heater. The measurements downstream of fuel injection show development of mixing and combustion, and are already proving useful to the modelers.

  9. [Application of second generation dual-source computed tomography dual-energy scan mode in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hua-dan; Liu, Wei; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Yu; Su, Bai-yan; Sun, Zhao-yong; Chen, Fang; Jin, Zheng-yu

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the clinical value of multiple sequences derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) dual-energy scan mode in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Totally 23 patients with clinically or pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. DSCT (Definition Flash) was used and dual-energy scan mode was used in their pancreatic parenchyma phase scan (100kVp/230mAs and Sn140kVp/178mAs) . Mono-energetic 60kev, mono-energetic 80kev, mono-energetic 100kev, mono-energetic 120kev, linear blend image, non-linear blend image, and iodine map were acquired. pancreatic parenchyma-tumor CT value difference, ratio of tumor to pancreatic parenchyma, and pancreatic parenchyma-tumor contrast to noise ratio were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for the comparison of diagnostic values of the above eight different dual-energy derived sequences for pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic parenchyma-tumor CT value difference, ratio of tumor to pancreatic parenchyma, and pancreatic parenchyma-tumor contrast to noise ratio were significantly different among eight sequences (P<0.05) . Mono-energetic 60kev image showed the largest parenchyma-tumor CT value [ (77.53 ± 23.42) HU] , and iodine map showed the lowest tumor/parenchyma enhancement ratio (0.39?0.12) and the largest contrast to noise ratio (4.08 ± 1.46) . Multiple sequences can be derived from dual-energy scan mode with DSCT via multiple post-processing methods. Integration of these sequences may further improve the sensitivity of the multislice spiral CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Dual-Mode Operation of an Optical Lattice Clock Using Strontium and Ytterbium Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takumi; Hisai, Yusuke; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Yasuda, Masami; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2018-06-01

    We have developed an optical lattice clock that can operate in dual modes: a strontium (Sr) clock mode and an ytterbium (Yb) clock mode. Dual-mode operation of the Sr-Yb optical lattice clock is achieved by alternately cooling and trapping 87 Sr and 171 Yb atoms inside the vacuum chamber of the clock. Optical lattices for Sr and Yb atoms were arranged with horizontal and vertical configurations, respectively, resulting in a small distance of the order of between the trapped Sr and Yb atoms. The 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 clock transitions in the trapped atoms were interrogated in turn and the clock lasers were stabilized to the transitions. We demonstrated the frequency ratio measurement of the Sr and Yb clock transitions by using the dual-mode operation of the Sr-Yb optical lattice clock. The dual-mode operation can reduce the uncertainty of the blackbody radiation shift in the frequency ratio measurement, because both Sr and Yb atoms share the same blackbody radiation.

  11. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  12. Dual-mode ultraflow access networks: a hybrid solution for the access bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazovsky, Leonid G.; Shen, Thomas Shunrong; Dhaini, Ahmad R.; Yin, Shuang; De Leenheer, Marc; Detwiler, Benjamin A.

    2013-12-01

    Optical Flow Switching (OFS) is a promising solution for large Internet data transfers. In this paper, we introduce UltraFlow Access, a novel optical access network architecture that offers dual-mode service to its end-users: IP and OFS. With UltraFlow Access, we design and implement a new dual-mode control plane and a new dual-mode network stack to ensure efficient connection setup and reliable and optimal data transmission. We study the impact of the UltraFlow system's design on the network throughput. Our experimental results show that with an optimized system design, near optimal (around 10 Gb/s) OFS data throughput can be attained when the line rate is 10Gb/s.

  13. Design and Implementation of Dual-Mode Wireless Video Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAO Song-Jian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual-mode wireless video transmission has two major problems. Firstly, one is time delay difference bringing about asynchronous reception decoding frame error phenomenon; secondly, dual-mode network bandwidth inconformity causes scheduling problem. In order to solve above two problems, a kind of TD-SCDMA/CDMA20001x dual-mode wireless video transmission design method is proposed. For the solution of decoding frame error phenomenon, the design puts forward adding frame identification and packet preprocessing at the sending and synchronizing combination at the receiving end. For the solution of scheduling problem, the wireless communication channel cooperative work and video data transmission scheduling management algorithm is proposed in the design.

  14. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 ...

  15. Simulation de Ia propagation de fissures dans les solides elastiques en modes mixtes par Ia methode des equations integrales duales

    OpenAIRE

    Kebir , Hocine; Roelandt , Jean Marc; Gaudin , Jocelyn

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The present paper is concerned with the effective numerical implementation of the two dimensional Dual Boundary element method to analyse the mixed-mode crack growth All the boundaries are discretized with discontinuous quadratic boundary elements and the crack-tip is modeled by singular elements that exactly represent the strain field singularity $1/\\sqrt{r}$. The Stress lntensity Factors can be computed very accurately from the crack opening dis placement at collocat...

  16. Dual model for parton densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Napoly, O.

    1981-01-01

    We derive power-counting rules for quark densities near x=1 and x=0 from parton interpretations of one-particle inclusive dual amplitudes. Using these rules, we give explicit expressions for quark distributions (including charm) inside hadrons. We can then show the compatibility between fragmentation and recombination descriptions of low-p/sub perpendicular/ processes

  17. Dual-mode nested search method for categorical uncertain multi-objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Long; Wang, Hu

    2016-10-01

    Categorical multi-objective optimization is an important issue involved in many matching design problems. Non-numerical variables and their uncertainty are the major challenges of such optimizations. Therefore, this article proposes a dual-mode nested search (DMNS) method. In the outer layer, kriging metamodels are established using standard regular simplex mapping (SRSM) from categorical candidates to numerical values. Assisted by the metamodels, a k-cluster-based intelligent sampling strategy is developed to search Pareto frontier points. The inner layer uses an interval number method to model the uncertainty of categorical candidates. To improve the efficiency, a multi-feature convergent optimization via most-promising-area stochastic search (MFCOMPASS) is proposed to determine the bounds of objectives. Finally, typical numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DMNS method.

  18. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...

  19. Coordination in the Decentralized Assembly System with Dual Supply Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a decentralized assembly system that consists of one assembler and two independent suppliers; wherein one supplier is perfectly reliable for the production, while the other generates yield uncertainty. Facing the random market demand, the assembler has to order the components from one supplier in advance and meanwhile requires the other supplier to deliver the components under VMI mode. We construct a Nash game between the supplier and the assembler so as to derive their equilibrium procurement/production strategies. The results show that the channel’s performance is highly undermined by the decentralization between players and also the combination of two supply modes. Compared to the centralized system, we propose an advance payment contract to perfectly coordinate the supply chain performance. The numerical examples indicate some management implications on the supply mode comparison and sensitivity analysis.

  20. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebersdorf, A; Lingk, C; De Giorgi, M; Feldmann, J; Sacher, J; Arzberger, M; Ulbrich, C; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Abstreiter, G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments

  1. An overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator with efficient dual-mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Li, Jiawei; Bai, Xianchen; Song, Zhimin; Teng, Yan; Ye, Hu; Li, Xiaoze; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    A dual-mode operation mechanism in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator is presented. The electron beam interacts with the −1st space harmonic of TM 01 mode synchronously in the slow wave structure. Then the backward propagating TM 01 mode is converted to the forward propagating TM 02 mode. As the phase velocity of the volume harmonic of TM 02 mode is about twice that of the surface harmonic of TM 01 mode, the TM 02 mode also plays an important role in the high-power microwave generation. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that an efficiency of 48% and a significant improvement of the power capacity have been obtained

  2. The effects of voice and manual control mode on dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, C. D.; Zenyuh, J.; Culp, V.; Marshak, W.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental principles of human performance, compatibility and resource competition, are combined with two structural dichotomies in the human information processing system, manual versus voice output, and left versus right cerebral hemisphere, in order to predict the optimum combination of voice and manual control with either hand, for time-sharing performance of a dicrete and continuous task. Eight right handed male subjected performed a discrete first-order tracking task, time-shared with an auditorily presented Sternberg Memory Search Task. Each task could be controlled by voice, or by the left or right hand, in all possible combinations except for a dual voice mode. When performance was analyzed in terms of a dual-task decrement from single task control conditions, the following variables influenced time-sharing efficiency in diminishing order of magnitude, (1) the modality of control, (discrete manual control of tracking was superior to discrete voice control of tracking and the converse was true with the memory search task), (2) response competition, (performance was degraded when both tasks were responded manually), (3) hemispheric competition, (performance degraded whenever two tasks were controlled by the left hemisphere) (i.e., voice or right handed control). The results confirm the value of predictive models invoice control implementation.

  3. Nonword Reading: Comparing Dual-Route Cascaded and Connectionist Dual-Process Models with Human Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Stephen C.; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Two prominent dual-route computational models of reading aloud are the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, and the connectionist dual-process plus (CDP+) model. While sharing similarly designed lexical routes, the two models differ greatly in their respective nonlexical route architecture, such that they often differ on nonword pronunciation. Neither…

  4. A Dual Mode Propulsion System for Small Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Gagne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the development of a chemical micropropulsion system suitable for primary propulsion and/or attitude control for a nanosatellite. Due to the limitations and expense of current micropropulsion technologies, few nanosatellites with propulsion have been launched to date; however, the availability of such a propulsion system would allow for new nanosatellite mission concepts, such as deep space exploration, maneuvering in low gravity environments and formation flying. This work describes the design of “dual mode” monopropellant/bipropellant microthruster prototype that employs a novel homogeneous catalysis scheme. Results from prototype testing are reported that validate the concept. The micropropulsion system is designed to be fabricated using a combination of additively-manufactured and commercial off the shelf (COTS parts along with non-toxic fuels, thus making it a low-cost and environmentally-friendly option for future nanosatellite missions.

  5. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser utilizing a dual-ring scheme with a saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Yao-Jen; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. Here, a dual-ring (DR) structure with an unpumped EDF of 2 m is designed to achieve SLM oscillation. Five fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are applied in the laser cavity serving as the reflective element to generate different dual-wavelength outputs. In the measurement, six sets of generated dual-wavelengths with various mode-spacing (Δλ) can be achieved via the five FBGs. Additionally, the stability performance of the proposed EDF DR laser is also demonstrated.

  6. A dual-mode proximity sensor with integrated capacitive and temperature sensing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Shihua; Huang, Ying; He, Xiaoyue; Sun, Zhiguang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    The proximity sensor is one of the most important devices in the field of robot application. It can accurately provide the proximity information to assistant robots to interact with human beings and the external environment safely. In this paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a dual-mode proximity sensor composed of capacitive and resistive sensing units. We defined the capacitive type proximity sensor perceiving the proximity information as C-mode and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting as R-mode. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were chosen as the R-mode sensing material because of its high performance. The dual-mode proximity sensor presents the following features: (1) the sensing distance of the dual-mode proximity sensor has been enlarged compared with the single capacitive proximity sensor in the same geometrical pattern; (2) experiments have verified that the proposed sensor can sense the proximity information of different materials; (3) the proximity sensing capability of the sensor has been improved by two modes perceive collaboratively, for a plastic block at a temperature of 60 °C: the R-mode will perceive the proximity information when the distance d between the sensor and object is 6.0–17.0 mm and the C-mode will do that when their interval is 0–2.0 mm; additionally two modes will work together when the distance is 2.0–6.0 mm. These features indicate our transducer is very valuable in skin-like sensing applications. (paper)

  7. Sliding-Mode Control to Compensate PVT Variations in Dual Core Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourshaghaghi, H.R.; Fatemi, S.H.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel robust sliding-mode controller for stabilizing supply voltage and clock frequency of dual core processors determined by dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) methods in the presence of systematic and random variations. We show that maximum rejection for

  8. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  9. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-22

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10(-7) in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  10. Stabilization of self-mode-locked quantum dash lasers by symmetric dual-loop optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Haroon; Wei, Wei; Kumar, Pramod; Sooudi, Ehsan; McInerney, John. G.

    2018-02-01

    We report experimental studies of the influence of symmetric dual-loop optical feedback on the RF linewidth and timing jitter of self-mode-locked two-section quantum dash lasers emitting at 1550 nm. Various feedback schemes were investigated and optimum levels determined for narrowest RF linewidth and low timing jitter, for single-loop and symmetric dual-loop feedback. Two symmetric dual-loop configurations, with balanced and unbalanced feedback ratios, were studied. We demonstrate that unbalanced symmetric dual loop feedback, with the inner cavity resonant and fine delay tuning of the outer loop, gives narrowest RF linewidth and reduced timing jitter over a wide range of delay, unlike single and balanced symmetric dual-loop configurations. This configuration with feedback lengths 80 and 140 m narrows the RF linewidth by 4-67x and 10-100x, respectively, across the widest delay range, compared to free-running. For symmetric dual-loop feedback, the influence of different power split ratios through the feedback loops was determined. Our results show that symmetric dual-loop feedback is markedly more effective than single-loop feedback in reducing RF linewidth and timing jitter, and is much less sensitive to delay phase, making this technique ideal for applications where robustness and alignment tolerance are essential.

  11. Frustration of Bragg reflection by cooperative dual-mode interference: a new mode of optical propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, A

    1998-12-01

    A new optical mode of propagation is described, which is the natural eigenmode (supermode) of a fiber (or any optical waveguide) with two cospatial periodic gratings. The mode frustrates the backward Bragg scattering from the grating by destructive interference of its two constituent submodes (which are eigenmodes of a uniform waveguide). It can be used in a new type of spatial mode conversion in optical guides.

  12. Analysis of dual-mode lasing characteristics in a 1310-nm optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, R.; Olinger, J.; Hurtado, A.; Grillot, F.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2015-03-01

    Recent work has shown the Quantum Dot (QD) material system to be well-suited to support dual-mode lasing. In particular, optical injection from a master laser (ML) into the residual Fabry-Perot (FP) modes of a 1310 nm Quantum Dot Distributed Feedback (QD-DFB) laser has been recently demonstrated to offer a highly reliable platform for stable dual-mode lasing operation. External controls on the ML, such as operating temperature and bias current, can be used to precisely adjust the spacing between the two lasing modes. This tunability of modeseparation is very promising for a range of applications requiring the generation of microwave, millimeter wave and terahertz signals. Considering the versatility and utility of such a scheme, it is imperative to acquire a deeper understanding of the factors that influence the dual-mode lasing process, in order to optimize performance. Toward this end, this paper seeks to further our understanding of the optically-injected dual-mode lasing mechanism. For fixed values of optical power injected into each FP residual mode and wavelength detuning, the dual-mode lasing characteristics are analyzed with regard to important system parameters such as the position and the intensity of the injected residual mode (relative to the Bragg and the other residual FP modes of the device) for two similarly-fabricated QD-DFBs. Results indicate that for dual mode lasing spaced less than 5 nm apart, the relative intensity of the injected FP mode and intracavity noise levels are critical factors in determining dual mode lasing behavior. Insight into the dual-mode lasing characteristics could provide an important design guideline for the master and QD-DFB slave laser cavities.

  13. Animal Modeling and Neurocircuitry of Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Dual diagnosis is a problem of tremendous depth and scope, spanning many classes of mental disorders and addictive drugs. Animal models of psychiatric disorders studied in addiction paradigms suggest a unitary nature of mental illness and addiction vulnerability both on the neurocircuit and clinical-behavioral levels. These models provide platforms for exploring the interactive roles of biological, environmental and developmental factors on neurocircuits commonly involved in psychiatric and addiction diseases. While suggestive of the artifice of segregated research, training, and clinical cultures between psychiatric and addiction fields, this research may lead to more parsimonious, integrative and preventative treatments for dual diagnosis. PMID:20585464

  14. Optimal control of mode transition for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle with dry dual-clutch transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Lei, Dan; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Hangyu

    2018-05-01

    When the four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with a dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) is in the mode transition process from pure electrical rear wheel drive to front wheel drive with engine or hybrid drive, the problem of vehicle longitudinal jerk is prominent. A mode transition robust control algorithm which resists external disturbance and model parameter fluctuation has been developed, by taking full advantage of fast and accurate torque (or speed) response of three electrical power sources and getting the clutch of DCT fully involved in the mode transition process. Firstly, models of key components of driveline system have been established, and the model of five-degrees-of-freedom vehicle longitudinal dynamics has been built by using a Uni-Tire model. Next, a multistage optimal control method has been produced to realize the decision of engine torque and clutch-transmitted torque. The sliding-mode control strategy for measurable disturbance has been proposed at the stage of engine speed dragged up. Meanwhile, the double tracking control architecture that integrates the model calculating feedforward control with H∞ robust feedback control has been presented at the stage of speed synchronization. Finally, the results from Matlab/Simulink software and hardware-in-the-loop test both demonstrate that the proposed control strategy for mode transition can not only coordinate the torque among different power sources and clutch while minimizing vehicle longitudinal jerk, but also provide strong robustness to model uncertainties and external disturbance.

  15. Dual resonance models and their currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown how dual resonance models were rederived from the concept of a string tracing out a surface in space-time. Thus, interacting strings reproduce the dual amplitudes. A scheme for tackling the unitarity problem began to develop. As a consistent theory of hadronic processes began to be built, workers at the same time were naturally led to expect that leptons could be included with hadrons in a unified dual theory. Thus, there is a search for dual amplitudes which would describe interactions between hadrons and currents (for example, electrons), as well as interactions involving only hadrons. Such amplitudes, it is believed, will be the correct ones, describing the real world. Such amplitudes will provide valuable information concerning such things as hadronic form factors. The great difficulties in building current-amplitudes with the required properties of proper factorization on a good spectrum, duality, current algebra, and proper asymptotic behavior are described. Dual models at the present time require for consistency, an intercept value of α 0 = 1 and a dimension value of d = 26 (or d = 10). There have been speculations that the unphysical dimension may be made physical by associating the ''extra dimensions'' with certain internal degrees of freedom. However, it is desired that the theory itself, force the dimension d = 4. It is quite possible that the dimension problem and the intercept problem are tied together and that resolving either problem will resolve the other. Order by order, a new dual current is constructed that is manifestly factorizable and which appears to be valid for arbitrary space-time dimension. The fact that this current is not bound at d = 26, leads to interesting speculations on the nature of dual currents

  16. Dual Rotating Rake Measurements of Higher-Order Duct Modes: Validation Using Experimental and Numerical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Hixon, Duane R.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2018-01-01

    A rotating rake mode measurement system was designed to measure acoustic duct modes generated by a fan stage. After analysis of the measured data, the mode coefficient amplitudes and phases were quantified. Early studies using this system found that mode power levels computed from rotating rake measured data would agree with the far-field power levels. However, this agreement required that the sound from the noise sources within the duct propagated outward from the duct exit without reflection and previous studies suggested conditions could exist where significant reflections could occur. This paper shows that mounting a second rake to the rotating system, with an offset in both the axial and the azimuthal directions, measures the data necessary to determine the modes propagating in both directions within a duct. The rotating rake data analysis technique was extended to include the data measured by the second rake. The analysis resulted in a set of circumferential mode coefficients at each of the two rake microphone locations. Radial basis functions were then least-squares fit to this data to obtain the radial mode coefficients for the modes propagating in both directions within the duct while accounting for the presence of evanescent modes. The validation of the dual-rotating-rake measurements was conducted using data from a combination of experiments and numerical calculations to compute reflection coefficients and other mode coefficient ratios. Compared to results from analytical and numerical computations, the results from dual-rotating-rake measured data followed the expected trends when frequency, mode number, and duct termination geometry were changed.

  17. Dual elaboration models in attitude change processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines empirical and theoretical developments in research on attitude change in the past 50 years. It focuses the period from 1980 till present as well as cognitive response theories as the dominant theoretical approach in the field. The postulates of Elaboration Likelihood Model, as most-researched representative of dual process theories are studied, based on review of accumulated research evidence. Main research findings are grouped in four basic factors: message source, message content, message recipient and its context. Most influential criticisms of the theory are then presented regarding its empirical base and dual process assumption. Some possible applications and further research perspectives are discussed at the end.

  18. Distributed Model Predictive Control via Dual Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents dual decomposition as a means to coordinate a number of subsystems coupled by state and input constraints. Each subsystem is equipped with a local model predictive controller while a centralized entity manages the subsystems via prices associated with the coupling constraints...

  19. Design and analysis of a dual mode CMOS field programmable analog array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoyan; Yang Haigang; Yin Tao; Wu Qisong; Zhang Hongfeng; Liu Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel field-programmable analog array (FPAA) architecture featuring a dual mode including discrete-time (DT) and continuous-time (CT) operation modes, along with a highly routable connection boxes (CBs) based interconnection lattice. The dual mode circuit for the FPAA is capable of achieving targeted optimal performance in different applications. The architecture utilizes routing switches in a CB not only for the signal interconnection purpose but also for control of the electrical charge transfer required in switched-capacitor circuits. This way, the performance of the circuit in either mode shall not be hampered with adding of programmability. The proposed FPAA is designed and implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage. The result from post-layout simulation shows that a maximum bandwidth of 265 MHz through the interconnection network is achieved. The measured results from demonstrated examples show that the maximum signal bandwidth of up to 2 MHz in CT mode is obtained with the spurious free dynamic range of 54 dB, while the signal processing precision in DT mode reaches 96.4%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Dual Z-Source Inverter With Three-Level Reduced Common-Mode Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a dual Z-source inverter that can be used with either a single dc source or two isolated dc sources. Unlike traditional inverters, the integration of a properly designed Z-source network and semiconductor switches to the proposed dual inverter allows buck......-boost power conversion to be performed over a wide modulation range, with three-level output waveforms generated. The connection of an additional transformer to the inverter ac output also allows all generic wye-or delta-connected loads with three-wire or four-wire configuration to be supplied by the inverter....... Modulationwise, the dual inverter can be controlled using a carefully designed carrier-based pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) scheme that will always ensure balanced voltage boosting of the Z-source network while simultaneously achieving reduced common-mode switching. Because of the omission of dead-time delays...

  1. Dual-Mode Dual-Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Fourth Iteration T-Square Fractal and Shorting Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dual mode microstrip fractal resonator is proposed and developed for miniaturization of the dual band bandpass filter. The perimeter of the proposed resonator is increased by employing fourth iteration T-square fractal shape. Consequently the lower resonant frequency of the filter is decreased without increasing the usable space. The self similarity of the usable structure enables it to produce the two degenerate modes which are coupled using the proper perturbation technique. The shorting pin is placed at the null in the surface current distribution at the center of the resonator. This shorting pin is coactively coupled to the resonant circuit of the resonator, effectively coupled to the lower degenerate mode and reduces the lower edge band resonant frequency. By adjusting the resonator dimensions and the size of the shorting pin, the resonant frequency and the out-of-band rejection around the transmission bands can be controlled to meet the design requirements. The simulated response of the designed filter has two transmission bands, the first band is from 2.34-3.65 GHz with resonant frequencies at 2.47GHz and 3.55GHz, the second band is from 4.37-5.324GHz with resonant frequencies at 4.5GHz and 5.13GHz. In the pass bands, the group delay is less than 0.65 ns. The proposed filter can be applied to WLAN (2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz and WiMAX (3.5 GHz and Bluetooth and ZigBee (4.9 GHz.

  2. On Goldstone particles and the Adler principle in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.; Pashnev, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The results that have been obtained on the basis of considering the spontaneous vacuum transitions for the cases of Veneziano dual model and dual M-model are generalized to model containing internal quantum numbers of SU(N)-group. This generalization allows to consider how in dual models the spontaneous violation of symmetry occurs, which Goldstone particles appear in this process, how Adler's principle is realized for dual amplitudes and their topics related of spontaneous violation of symmetry

  3. Dual-mode plasmonic nanorod type antenna based on the concept of a trapped dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretos, Anastasios H; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-04-06

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the feasibility of creating a dual-mode plasmonic nanorod antenna. The proposed design methodology relies on adapting to optical wavelengths the principles of operation of trapped dipole antennas, which have been widely used in the low MHz frequency range. This type of antenna typically employs parallel LC circuits, also referred to as "traps", which are connected along the two arms of the dipole. By judiciously choosing the resonant frequency of these traps, as well as their position along the arms of the dipole, it is feasible to excite the λ/2 resonance of both the original dipole as well as the shorter section defined by the length of wire between the two traps. This effectively enables the dipole antenna to have a dual-mode of operation. Our analysis reveals that the implementation of this concept at the nanoscale requires that two cylindrical pockets (i.e. loading volumes) be introduced along the length of the nanoantenna, inside which plasmonic core-shell particles are embedded. By properly selecting the geometry and constitution of the core-shell particle as well as the constitution of the host material of the two loading volumes and their position along the nanorod, the equivalent effect of a resonant parallel LC circuit can be realized. This effectively enables a dual-mode operation of the nanorod antenna. The proposed methodology introduces a compact approach for the realization of dual-mode optical sensors while at the same time it clearly illustrates the inherent tuning capabilities that core-shell particles can offer in a practical framework.

  4. Microscale characterization of the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel biomaterials using dual-mode ultrasound elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P; Deng, Cheri X

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of the microscale mechanical properties of biomaterials is a key challenge in the field of mechanobiology. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography (DUE) uses high frequency focused ultrasound to induce compression in a sample, combined with interleaved ultrasound imaging to measure the resulting deformation. This technique can be used to non-invasively perform creep testing on hydrogel biomaterials to characterize their viscoelastic properties. DUE was applied to a range of hydrogel constructs consisting of either hydroxyapatite (HA)-doped agarose, HA-collagen, HA-fibrin, or preosteoblast-seeded collagen constructs. DUE provided spatial and temporal mapping of local and bulk displacements and strains at high resolution. Hydrogel materials exhibited characteristic creep behavior, and the maximum strain and residual strain were both material- and concentration-dependent. Burger's viscoelastic model was used to extract characteristic parameters describing material behavior. Increased protein concentration resulted in greater stiffness and viscosity, but did not affect the viscoelastic time constant of acellular constructs. Collagen constructs exhibited significantly higher modulus and viscosity than fibrin constructs. Cell-seeded collagen constructs became stiffer with altered mechanical behavior as they developed over time. Importantly, DUE also provides insight into the spatial variation of viscoelastic properties at sub-millimeter resolution, allowing interrogation of the interior of constructs. DUE presents a novel technique for non-invasively characterizing hydrogel materials at the microscale, and therefore may have unique utility in the study of mechanobiology and the characterization of hydrogel biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  6. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb...

  7. Dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller for an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thameem Ansari, M.Md.; Velusami, S.

    2010-01-01

    A design of dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller for an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed in this paper. The design methodology of dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller is a hybrid model based on the concepts of linguistic hedges and hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithms. The linguistic hedge operators are used to adjust the shape of the system membership functions dynamically and can speed up the control result to fit the system demand. The hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to search the optimal linguistic hedge combination in the linguistic hedge module. Dual mode concept is also incorporated in the proposed controller because it can improve the system performance. The system with the proposed controller was simulated and the frequency deviation resulting from a step load disturbance is presented. The comparison of the proportional plus integral controller, fuzzy logic controller and the proposed dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller shows that, with the application of the proposed controller, the system performance is improved significantly. The proposed controller is also found to be less sensitive to the changes in the parameters of the system and also robust under different operating modes of the hybrid power system.

  8. Bioinspired Flexible and Highly Responsive Dual-Mode Strain/Magnetism Composite Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei; Li, Yuan-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Nie, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Rui; Hu, Ning; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2018-04-04

    The mimicry of human skin to detect both oncoming and physical-contacting object is of great importance in the fields of manufacturing, artificial robots and vehicles, etc. Herein, a novel bioinspired flexible and highly responsive dual-mode strain/magnetism composite sensor, which works via both contact and contactless modes, is first fabricated by incorporating Fe 3 O 4 /silicone system into a carbon fiber aerogel (CFA). The distance dependence of magnetic field endorses the CFA/Fe 3 O 4 /silicone composite possible for spatial sensing due to the introduction of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. As a result, the as-prepared flexible sensor exhibits precise and real-time response not only to direct-contact compression as usual but also to contactless magnetic field in a wide frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz, achieving the maximum variance of 68% and 86% in relative electrical resistance, respectively. The contact and contactless sensing modes of the strain/magnetism sensor are clearly demonstrated by recording the speeds of bicycle riding and walking, respectively. Interestingly, this dual-mode composite sensor exhibits the capacity of identifying the contact and contactless state, which is the first report for flexible sensors. The current protocol is eco-friendly, facile, and thought-provoking for the fabrication of multifunctional sensors.

  9. A reconfigurable frequency-selective surface for dual-mode multi-band filtering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidzadeh, Maryam; Ghobadi, Changiz; Nourinia, Javad

    2017-03-01

    A reconfigurable single-layer frequency-selective surface (FSS) with dual-mode multi-band modes of operation is presented. The proposed structure is printed on a compact 10 × 10 mm2 FR4 substrate with the thickness of 1.6 mm. A simple square loop is printed on the front side while another one along with two defected vertical arms is deployed on the backside. To realise the reconfiguration, two pin diodes are embedded on the backside square loop. Suitable insertion of conductive elements along with pin diodes yields in dual-mode multi-band rejection of applicable in service frequency ranges. The first operating mode due to diodes' 'ON' state provides rejection of 2.4 GHz WLAN in 2-3 GHz, 5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN and X band in 5-12 GHz, and a part of Ku band in 13.9-16 GHz. In diodes 'OFF' state, the FSS blocks WLAN in 4-7.3 GHz, X band in 8-12.7 GHz as well as part of Ku band in 13.7-16.7 GHz. As well, high attenuation of incident waves is observed by a high shielding effectiveness (SE) in the blocked frequency bands. Also, a stable behaviour against different polarisations and angles of incidence is obtained. Comprehensive studies are conducted on a fabricated prototype to assess its performance from which encouraging results are obtained.

  10. Dual superconductor models of color confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Ripka, Georges

    2004-01-01

    The lectures, delivered at ECT (European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas) in Trento (Italy) in 2002 and 2003, are addressed to physicists who wish to acquire a minimal background to understand present day attempts to model the confinement of quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD) in terms of dual superconductors. The lectures focus more on the models than on attempts to derive them from QCD. They discuss the Dirac theory of magnetic monopoles, the world sheet swept out by Dirac strings, deformations of Dirac strings and charge quantization, gauge fields associated to the field tensor and to the dual field tensor, the Landau-Ginzburg (Abelian Higgs) model of a dual superconductor, the flux tube joining two equal and opposite color-electric charges, the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex, the divergencies of the London limit, the comparison of the calculated flux tube and string tension with lattice data, duality transformations and the use of Kalb-Ramond fields, the two-potential Zwanzi...

  11. Mini-cavity plasma core reactors for dual-mode space nuclear power/propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, S.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-cavity plasma core reactor is investigated for potential use in a dual-mode space power and propulsion system. In the propulsive mode, hydrogen propellant is injected radially inward through the reactor solid regions and into the cavity. The propellant is heated by both solid driver fuel elements surrounding the cavity and uranium plasma before it is exhausted out the nozzle. The propellant only removes a fraction of the driver power, the remainder is transferred by a coolant fluid to a power conversion system, which incorporates a radiator for heat rejection. In the power generation mode, the plasma and propellant flows are shut off, and the driver elements supply thermal power to the power conversion system, which generates electricity for primary electric propulsion purposes

  12. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with variable duration of alternating phase elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A; Shishilov, Oleg N

    2014-06-20

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography separation processes consist of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and are characterized by the shuttle (forward and back) transport of the sample in chromatographic columns. In this paper, the improved MDM method based on variable duration of alternating phase elution steps has been developed and validated. The MDM separation processes with variable duration of phase elution steps are analyzed. Basing on the cell model, analytical solutions are developed for impulse and non-impulse sample loading at the beginning of the column. Using the analytical solutions, a calculation program is presented to facilitate the simulation of MDM with variable duration of phase elution steps, which can be used to select optimal process conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two options of the MDM separation are analyzed: 1 - with one-step solute elution: the separation is conducted so, that the sample is transferred forward and back with upper and lower phases inside the column until the desired separation of the components is reached, and then each individual component elutes entirely within one step; 2 - with multi-step solute elution, when the fractions of individual components are collected in over several steps. It is demonstrated that proper selection of the duration of individual cycles (phase flow times) can greatly increase the separation efficiency of CCC columns. Experiments were carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent systems hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the theory. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sistim Tampilan Jadwal Pesawat Udara Dengan Mode Dual Display Di Bandara Ahmad Yani Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Suseno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schedule for airline passengers is important information that is provided by the airport manager. Airport flight information on the display screen using a media schedule called flight information display system (FIDS. FIDS system comes from two processes that display arrival and departure information. The device comes from the appearance of two separate computer with information for each. The use of two computers that are used to the old system at the airport FIDS devices. This research aims to create an integrated FIDS system device to combine the information into one unified display in dual display mode pattern display (dual view. Design systems using software programming VB6 and hardware modifications applied to design a system FIDS new on view flight schedules. With a centralized system obtained an interactive display schedules for flight schedule. Keywords : FIDS system; Flight schedule; Display  information

  14. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, −85 dBm and −110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10−3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications. PMID:27297267

  15. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Jr., Carlos M. Torres,; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  16. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  17. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  18. A Dual-Mode UWB Wireless Platform with Random Pulse Length Detection for Remote Patient Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, Carlos; Bisbe, Sergi; Shen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    on a single hardware platform, but it is capable of both monitoring and data transmission. This is achieved by employing a new random pulse length detection method that allows data transmission by using a modulated monitoring signal. To prove the proposed concept a test system has been built, using commercial......This paper presents a dual-mode ultra-wideband platform for wireless Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM). Existing RPM solutions are typically based on two different hardware platforms; one responsible for medical-data monitoring and one to handle data transmission. The proposed RPM topology is based...

  19. Dual-mode endomicroscopy for detection of epithelial dysplasia in the mouth: a descriptive pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Poh, Catherine F.; Lam, Sylvia; Lane, Pierre; Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2017-08-01

    Dual-mode endomicroscopy is a diagnostic tool for early cancer detection. It combines the high-resolution nuclear tissue contrast of fluorescence endomicroscopy with quantified depth-dependent epithelial backscattering as obtained by diffuse optical microscopy. In an in vivo pilot imaging study of 27 oral lesions from 21 patients, we demonstrate the complementary diagnostic value of both modalities and show correlations between grade of epithelial dysplasia and relative depth-dependent shifts in light backscattering. When combined, the two modalities provide diagnostic sensitivity to both moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia in vivo.

  20. Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-In; Kwon, Yong-Hoan; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2007-03-01

    The authors propose a method to control the viewing angle of a liquid crystal (LC) panel using dual-mode switching. To realize both wide viewing angle (WVA) characteristics and narrow viewing angle (NVA) characteristics with a single LC panel, the authors use two different dark states. The LC layer can be aligned homogeneously parallel to the transmission axis of the bottom polarizer for WVA dark state operation, while it can be aligned vertically for NVA dark state operation. The authors demonstrated that viewing angle control can be achieved with a single panel without any loss of contrast at the front.

  1. Mode switching control of dual-evaporator air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-L.; Yeh, T.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Modern air-conditioners incorporate variable-speed compressors and variable-opening expansion valves as the actuators for improving cooling performance and energy efficiency. These actuators have to be properly feedback-controlled; otherwise the systems may exhibit even poorer performance than the conventional machines which use fixed-speed compressors and mechanical expansion valves. Particularly for an air-conditioner with multiple evaporators, there are occasions that the machine is operated in a mode that only selected evaporator(s) is(are) turned on, and switching(s) between modes occurs(occur) during the control process. In this case, one needs to have more carefully designed control and switching strategies to ensure the system performance. In this paper, a framework for mode switching control of the dual-evaporator air-conditioning (DEAC) system is proposed. The framework is basically an integration of a controller and a dynamic compensator. The controller, which possesses the flow-distribution capability and assumes both evaporators are on throughout the control process, is intended to provide nominal performance. While mode switching is achieved by varying the reference settings in the controller, the dynamic compensator is used to improve the transient responses immediately after the switching. Experiments indicate that the proposed framework can achieve satisfactory indoor temperature regulation and provide bumpless switching between different modes of operation.

  2. Asynchronous and synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a mode-locker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Pan, Yingling; Zhao, Xin; Yin, Siyao; Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    The evolution from asynchronous to synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber laser is experimentally investigated by tailoring the intracavity dispersion. Through tuning the intracavity-loss-dependent gain profile and the birefringence-induced filter effect, asynchronous dual-wavelength soliton pulses can be generated until the intracavity anomalous dispersion is reduced to ∼8  fs/nm. The transition from asynchronous to synchronous pulse generation is then observed at an elevated pump power in the presence of residual anomalous dispersion, and it is shown that pulses are temporally synchronized at the mode-locker in the cavity. Spectral sidelobes are observed and could be attributed to the four-wave-mixing effect between dual-wavelength pulses at the carbon nanotube mode-locker. These results could provide further insight into the design and realization of such dual-wavelength ultrafast lasers for different applications such as dual-comb metrology as well as better understanding of the inter-pulse interactions in such dual-comb lasers.

  3. SERS-Fluorescence Dual-Mode pH-Sensing Method Based on Janus Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuai; Sun, Xiaoting; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yaning; Wang, Yue; Xu, Zhangrun; Chen, Mingli; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-11-15

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-fluorescence dual-mode pH-sensing method based on Janus microgels was developed, which combined the advantages of high specificity offered by SERS and fast imaging afforded by fluorescence. Dual-mode probes, pH-dependent 4-mercaptobenzoic acid, and carbon dots were individually encapsulated in the independent hemispheres of Janus microparticles fabricated via a centrifugal microfluidic chip. On the basis of the obvious volumetric change of hydrogels in different pHs, the Janus microparticles were successfully applied for sensitive and reliable pH measurement from 1.0 to 8.0, and the two hemispheres showed no obvious interference. The proposed method addressed the limitation that sole use of the SERS-based pH sensing usually failed in strong acidic media. The gastric juice pH and extracellular pH change were measured separately in vitro using the Janus microparticles, which confirmed the validity of microgels for pH sensing. The microparticles exhibited good stability, reversibility, biocompatibility, and ideal semipermeability for avoiding protein contamination, and they have the potential to be implantable sensors to continuously monitor pH in vivo.

  4. A dual-mode 6-9 GHz transmitter for OFDM-UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunfeng; Gao Ting; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated dual-mode 6 to 9 GHz transmitter for both WiMedia and China MB-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed transmitter consists of a dual-mode I/QLPF, an up-conversion mixer, a two-stage power driver amplifier and a broadband high-speed frequency divider with LO buffers for I/Q LO carrier generation. The measurement results show that the gain ripple of the transmitter is within ±1.5/±2.8 dB from 6 to 8.7/9 GHz. The output IP3 is about +13.2 dBm, the output 1dBCP is around +2.8 dBm, and the LO leakage/sideband rejection ratio is about -35/-38 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated with a TSMC 0.13 μm RFCMOS process with a die size of 1.6 x 1.3 mm 2 and the core circuit consumes only 46 mA under a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. A dual-mode 6-9 GHz transmitter for OFDM-UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yunfeng; Gao Ting; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents a fully integrated dual-mode 6 to 9 GHz transmitter for both WiMedia and China MB-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed transmitter consists of a dual-mode I/QLPF, an up-conversion mixer, a two-stage power driver amplifier and a broadband high-speed frequency divider with LO buffers for I/Q LO carrier generation. The measurement results show that the gain ripple of the transmitter is within {+-}1.5/{+-}2.8 dB from 6 to 8.7/9 GHz. The output IP3 is about +13.2 dBm, the output 1dBCP is around +2.8 dBm, and the LO leakage/sideband rejection ratio is about -35/-38 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated with a TSMC 0.13 {mu}m RFCMOS process with a die size of 1.6 x 1.3 mm{sup 2} and the core circuit consumes only 46 mA under a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. A Multifunctional Isolated and Non-Isolated Dual Mode Converter for Renewable Energy Conversion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multifunctional isolated and non-isolated dual-mode low-power converter was designed for renewable energy conversion applications such as photovoltaic power generation to achieve different operating modes under bi-directional electrical conversion. The proposed topology consists of a bidirectional non-isolated DC/DC circuit and an isolated converter with a high-frequency transformer, which merge the advantages of both the conventional isolated converter and non-isolated converter with the combination of the two converter technologies. Compared with traditional converters, the multifunctional converter can not only realize conventional bi-directional functions, but can also be applied for many different operation modes and meet the high output/input ratio demands with the two converter circuits operating together. A novel control algorithm was proposed to achieve the various functions of the proposed converter. An experimental platform based on the proposed circuit was established. Both the simulation and experimental results indicated that the proposed converter could provide isolated and non-isolated modes in different applications, which could meet different practical engineering requirements.

  7. Study on using acetylene in dual fuel mode with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, T.; Nagarajan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in employing gaseous fuels to internal combustion (IC) engines whether for stationary or mobile automotive applications has gained importance because of the economical, sustainable and environmental technical features associated with their usage. However, the incidence of preignition and knock remains a significant barrier in achieving their optimum performance potential. With the advent of latest technologies, the above barriers are eliminated. One such technique is timed manifold injection (TMI) of the gaseous fuel, which is controlled electronically to precisely monitor the induction of fuel to overcome the preignition problem in the intake. In the present investigation, acetylene was injected in the intake manifold in a single cylinder diesel engine, with a gas flow rate of 240 g/h, start of injection time is 10 o aTDC and 90 o CA (9.9 ms) duration, operated in dual fuel mode. In order to decrease the NOx emissions from acetylene-diesel engine, cooled EGR was employed. The cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency and emissions such as NOx, smoke, CO, HC, CO 2 and exhaust gas temperature were studied. Dual fuel operation with acetylene induction coupled with cooled EGR results in lowered NOx emissions and improved part load performance. -- Highlights: → Acetylene was tried in SI engines, but due to backfire further research was hindered as an alternative fuel. → But it is not tried in CI engine. Timed manifold injection was tried in diesel engine in the present work to combat backfire. → Author was successful in running the diesel engine in dual fuel mode. → 21% maximum diesel replacement was achieved. Author is confident that acetylene will be commercialised as a fuel for diesel engine in future.

  8. Modulating Brain Connectivity by Simultaneous Dual-Mode Stimulation over Bilateral Primary Motor Cortices in Subacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used for the modulation of stroke patients’ motor function. Recently, more challenging approaches have been studied. In this study, simultaneous stimulation using both rTMS and tDCS (dual-mode stimulation over bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s was investigated to compare its modulatory effects with single rTMS stimulation over the ipsilesional M1 in subacute stroke patients. Twenty-four patients participated; 12 participants were assigned to the dual-mode stimulation group while the other 12 participants were assigned to the rTMS-only group. We assessed each patient’s motor function using the Fugl-Meyer assessment score and acquired their resting-state fMRI data at two times: prior to stimulation and 2 months after stimulation. Twelve healthy subjects were also recruited as the control group. The interhemispheric connectivity of the contralesional M1, interhemispheric connectivity between bilateral hemispheres, and global efficiency of the motor network noticeably increased in the dual-mode stimulation group compared to the rTMS-only group. Contrary to the dual-mode stimulation group, there was no significant change in the rTMS-only group. These data suggested that simultaneous dual-mode stimulation contributed to the recovery of interhemispheric interaction than rTMS only in subacute stroke patients. This trial is registered with NCT03279640.

  9. Design and multifidelity analysis of dual mode scramjet compression system using coupled NPSS and fluent simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandakumar

    Hypersonic airbreathing engines mark a potential future development of the aerospace industry and immense efforts have been taken in gaining knowledge in them for the past decades. The physical phenomenon occurring at the hypersonic flow regime makes the design and performance prediction of a scramjet engine hard. Though cutting-edge simulation tools fight their way toward accurate prediction of the environment, the time consumed by the entire process in designing and analyzing a scramjet engine and its component may be exorbitant. A multi-fidelity approach for designing a scramjet with a cruising Mach number of 6 is detailed in this research where high-order simulations are applied according to the physics involved in the component. Two state-of-the-art simulation tools were used to take the aerodynamic and propulsion disciplines into account for realistic prediction of the individual components as well as the entire scramjet. The specific goal of this research is to create a virtual environment to design and analyze a hypersonic, two-dimensional, planar inlet and isolator to check its operability for a dual-mode scramjet engine. The dual mode scramjet engine starts at a Mach number of 3.5 where it operates as a ramjet and accelerates to Mach 6 to be operated as a scramjet engine. The intercomponent interaction between the compression components with the rest of the engine is studied by varying the fidelity of the numerical simulation according to the complexity of the situation. Efforts have been taken to track the transition Mach number as it switches from ramjet to scramjet. A complete scramjet assembly was built using the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) and the performance of the engine was evaluated for various scenarios. Different numerical techniques were opted for varying the fidelity of the analysis with the highest fidelity consisting of 2D RANS CFD simulation. The interaction between the NPSS elements with the CFD solver is governed by the

  10. Dual models with SL(2, C) symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brink, L

    1972-01-01

    Making use of homogeneous space techniques, the authors construct a class of dual models, which is a generalization of the Virasoro- Shapiro type of model. The integrand in the integral representation for the N-point function depends not only on the modulus of the distances between two-dimensional Koba-Nielsen variables, but also on the corresponding phases. This is in fact the most general SL(2, C) invariant amplitude that can be constructed using complex integration variables. The extra phase factors in the integrand provide a possible means of avoiding tachyons both as external particles and as intermediate states in the amplitude. When factorized in a simple- minded fashion the intercepts are fixed to be integers. Although the external particles can be chosen not to be tachyons, such states appear as intermediate states. Within this factorization one can show that there are gauge conditions for the amplitude that can provide a ghostkilling mechanism. (19 refs).

  11. Dual mode antibacterial activity of ion substituted calcium phosphate nanocarriers for bone infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar eT.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has tremendous potential for the management of infectious diseases caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria, through the development of newer antibacterial materials and efficient modes of antibiotic delivery. Calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics are commonly used as bone substitutes due to their similarity to bone mineral and are widely researched upon for the treatment of bone infections associated with bone loss. CaPs can be used as local antibiotic delivery agents for bone infections and can be substituted with antibacterial ions in their crystal structure to have a wide spectrum, sustained antibacterial activity even against drug resistant bacteria. In the present work, a dual mode antibiotic delivery system with antibacterial ion substituted calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA nanoparticles has been developed. Antibacterial ions such as zinc, silver and strontium have been incorporated into CDHA at concentrations of 6 at. %, 0.25-0.75 at. % and 2.5-7.5 at. % respectively. The samples were found to be phase pure, acicular nanoparticles of length 40-50 nm and width 5-6 nm approximately. The loading and release profile of doxycycline, a commonly used antibiotic, was studied from the nanocarriers. The drug release was studied for five days and the release profile was influenced by the ion concentrations. The release of antibacterial ions was studied over a period of 21 days. The ion substituted CDHA samples were tested for antibacterial efficacy on S.aureus and E.coli by MIC/MBC studies and time-kill assay. AgCDHA and ZnCDHA showed high antibacterial activity against both bacteria while SrCDHA was weakly active against S.aureus. Present study shows that the antibiotic release can provide the initial high antibacterial activity and the sustained ion release can provide a long-term antibacterial activity. Such dual mode antibiotic and antibacterial ion release offers an efficient and potent way to treat an incumbent drug

  12. Dual Numbers Approach in Multiaxis Machines Error Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Hrdina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxis machines error modeling is set in the context of modern differential geometry and linear algebra. We apply special classes of matrices over dual numbers and propose a generalization of such concept by means of general Weil algebras. We show that the classification of the geometric errors follows directly from the algebraic properties of the matrices over dual numbers and thus the calculus over the dual numbers is the proper tool for the methodology of multiaxis machines error modeling.

  13. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelated...... modes are required to cover the whole operational window of a processs plant including intermediary operating modes. Development of such an model ensemble for a plant would constitute a systematic way of defining the possible plant operating modes and thus provide a platform for also defining a set...... of candidate control structures. The present contribution focuses on development of a model ensemble for a plant with an illustartive example for a bioreactor. Starting from a functional model a process plant may be conceptually designed and qualitative operating models may be developed to cover the different...

  14. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  15. Dual mode operation, highly selective nanohole array-based plasmonic colour filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Mahani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Arash; Mehran, Mahdiyeh

    2017-09-01

    Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters (PCFs) has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed PCFs depict a poor colour purity focusing on generating either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation PCFs employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70%-80% and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40-50 nm. The colour selectivity of the transmission mode for the additive colours is also significant due to their enhanced performance through the utilization of a relatively thick aluminium film in contact with a modified dielectric environment. These filters provide a simple design with one-step lithography in addition to compatibility with the conventional CMOS processes. Moreover, they are polarization insensitive due to their symmetric geometry. A complete palette of pure subtractive and additive colours has been realized with potential applications, such as multispectral imaging, CMOS image sensors, displays, and colour printing.

  16. Topics in dual models and extended solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Two main topics are explored. The first deals with the infinities arising from the one loop planar string diagram of the standard dual model. It is shown that for the number of dimensions d = 25 or 26, these infinities lead to a renormalization of the slope of the Regge trajectories, in addition to a renormalization of the coupling constant. The second topic deals with the propagator for a confined particle (monopole) in a field theory. When summed to all orders, this propagator is altogether free of singularities in the finite momentum plane, and an attempt is made to illustrate this. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is examined and it is shown that ladder diagrams are not sufficient to obtain this result. However, in a nonrelativistic approximation confinement is obtained and all poles disappear

  17. New results in the Dual Parton Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, J.T.T.; Capella, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the similarity between the x distribution for particle production and the fragmentation functions are observed in e+e- collisions and in deep inelastic scattering are presented. Based on the observation, the authors develop a complete approach to multiparticle production which incorporates the most important features and concepts learned about high energy collisions. 1. Topological expansion : the dominant diagram at high energy corresponds to the simplest topology. 2. Unitarity : diagrams of various topology contribute to the cross sections in a way that unitary is preserved. 3. Regge behaviour and Duality. 4. Partonic structure of hadrons. These general theoretical ideas, result from many joint experimental and theoretical efforts on the study of soft hadron physics. The dual parton model is able to explain all the experimental features from FNAL to SPS collider energies. It has all the properties of an S-matrix theory and provides a unified description of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

  18. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  19. The dual model of perfectionism and depression among Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual model of perfectionism was adopted to explore the influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on depression in college students. The results support the dual process model of perfectionism in Chinese undergraduates. A sample of 206 Chinese undergraduates completed measures of perfectionism, ...

  20. A dose-per-pulse monitor for a dual-mode medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, D.M.; Martell, E.S.; Fueurstake, T.; Norrlinger, B.; Schwendener, H.; Rawlinson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    On a radiotherapy accelerator, the dose monitoring system is the last level of protection between the patient and the extremely high dose rate which all accelerators are capable of producing. The risk of losing this level of protection is substantially reduced if two or more dose monitoring systems are used which are mechanically and electrically independent in design. This paper describes the installation of an independent radiation monitor in a dual-mode, computer-controlled accelerator with a moveable monitor chamber. The added device is fixed in the beam path, is capable of monitoring each beam pulse, and is capable of terminating irradiation within the pulse repetition period if any measured pulse is unacceptably high

  1. Dual-mode gradient HPLC procedure for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and proguanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, A; Caire-Maurisier, A-M; Rieutord, A; Brion, F; Clair, P

    2002-01-01

    In order to assay the antipaludic capsule of the Service de Santé des Armées (SSA), that contains two antimalarial drugs, i.e. chloroquine sulfate (CQS, cp1) and proguanil hydrochloride (PGH, cp5), a HPLC procedure was developed. A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with an ultraviolet detection at 254 nm was set up and validated. Elution system includes programming of both organic concentration and flow-rate known as 'dual-mode gradient'. This method allows the simultaneous determination of both active compounds and separation of four process related substances. The method is simple, rapid, selective and accurate, and the precision is good with an inter- and intra-assay of <2%. The sensitivity is particularly suitable for pharmaceutical quality control.

  2. 10 KWe dual-mode space nuclear power system for military and scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, J.; Westerman, K.; Rochow, R.; Scoles, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept which has been identified and is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. This paper will focus on the nuclear power system design, including: the reactor with its UO 2 fuel in tungsten clad, 36 thermionic heat pipe modules (THPMs) which produce electricity within the reactor and remove waste heat, radiation shielding, waste heat radiators, and reactivity control systems. The use of non-vented fuel elements for short lifetime missions (under five years) will be described

  3. Monitoring and guidance of HIFU beams with dual-mode ultrasound arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, John R; Casper, Andrew J; Ebbini, Emad S

    2009-01-01

    We present experimental results illustrating the unique advantages of dual-mode array (DMUA) systems in monitoring and guidance of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) lesion formation. DMUAs offer a unique paradigm in image-guided surgery; one in which images obtained using the same therapeutic transducer provide feedback for: 1) refocusing the array in the presence of strongly scattering objects, e.g. the ribs, 2) temperature change at the intended location of the HIFU focus, and 3) changes in the echogenicity of the tissue in response to therapeutic HIFU. These forms of feedback have been demonstrated in vitro in preparation for the design and implementation of a real-time system for imaging and therapy with DMUAs. The results clearly demonstrate that DMUA image feedback is spatially accurate and provide sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for identification of high contrast objects like the ribs and significant blood vessels in the path of the HIFU beam.

  4. Yb3+,Er3+,Eu3+-codoped YVO4 material for bioimaging with dual mode excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thao, Chu Thi Bich; Huy, Bui The; Sharipov, Mirkomil; Kim, Jin-Ik.; Dao, Van-Duong; Moon, Ja-Young; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2017-01-01

    We propose an efficient bioimaging strategy using Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ -triplet doped YVO 4 nanoparticles which were synthesized with polymer as a template. The obtained particles possess nanoscale, uniform, and flexible excitation. The effect of Eu 3+ ions on the luminescence properties of YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ was investigated. The upconversion mechanism of the prepared material was also discussed. The structure and optical properties of the prepared material were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) upconversion and photoluminescence spectra. The Commission International de I′Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates was investigated to confirm the performance of color luminescent emission. The prepared YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ nanoparticles could be easily dispersed in water by surface modification with cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH). The aqueous dispersion of the modified YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ exhibits bright upconversion and downconversion luminescence and has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cells. Our developed material with dual excitation offers a promising advance in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Prepared particles possess nanoscale size, uniform, and larger scale. • The material exhibits strong emission under dual mode excitations. • The surface material has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cell. • Low cytotoxicity, no auto-fluorescence

  5. Dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept for mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept based on the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) to support future manned missions to Mars. The system uses proven Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines to partially convert the reactor thermal power to electricity. The electric power generated is kept the same during the propulsion and the power modes, but the reactor thermal power in the former could be several times higher, while maintaining the reactor temperatures almost constant. During the propulsion mode, the electric power of the system, minus ∼1-5 kW e for house keeping, is used to operate a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). In addition, the reactor thermal power, plus more than 85% of the head load of the CBC engine radiators, are used to heat hydrogen. The hot hydrogen is mixed with the high temperature plasma in a VASIMR to provide both high thrust and I sp >35,000 N.s/kg, reducing the travel time to Mars to about 3 months. The electric power also supports surface exploration of Mars. The fuel temperature and the inlet temperatures of the He-Xe working fluid to the nuclear reactor core and the CBC turbine are maintained almost constant during both the propulsion and power modes to minimize thermal stresses. Also, the exit temperature of the He-Xe from the reactor core is kept at least 200 K below the maximum fuel design temperature. The present system has no single point failure and could be tested fully assembled in a ground facility using electric heaters in place of the nuclear reactor. Operation and design parameters of a 40-kW e prototype are presented and discussed to illustrate the operation and design principles of the proposed system

  6. Twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakala, P.; Goluchová, K.; Török, G.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Vincent, F. H.; Mazur, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. High-frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low-mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3:2. A widely discussed class of proposed QPOs models is based on oscillations of accretion toroidal structures orbiting in the close vicinity of black holes or neutron stars. Aims: Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of slender tori. We consider the model of an optically thick slender accretion torus with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent Kα iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. Methods: We used relativistic ray-tracing implemented in the parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyzed the influence of the distant observer inclination and the spin of the central compact object. Relativistic optical projection of the oscillating slender torus is illustrated by images in false colours related to the frequency shift. Results: We show that performed simulations yield power spectra with the pair of dominant peaks that correspond to the frequencies of radial and vertical oscillation modes and with the peak frequency ratio equal to the proper value 3:2 on a wide range of inclinations and spin values. We also discuss exceptional cases of a very low and very high inclination, as well as unstable high spin relativistic precession-like configurations that predict a constant frequency ratio equal to 1:2. We

  7. A novel detector based on dual-mode fiber polished half block's characteristics for sensitive monitorings of radiation and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, Ghadirli

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The overlay index dependence characteristics of the power distribution between two modes of dual-mode fiber polished half blocks is studied. The heat dependence characteristics of a certain overlay index affects the modal power distributions at the input of interferometer sensors used for monitoring the sensitive heat radiation changes. The other fundamental applications such as material recognitions through the index dependence characteristics in the closed chambers is also suggested

  8. Baby Skyrme model and fermionic zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiruga, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigate some features of the fermionic sector of the supersymmetric version of the baby Skyrme model. We find that, in the background of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield compact baby Skyrmions, fermionic zero modes are confined to the defect core. Further, we show that, while three Supersymmetry (SUSY) generators are broken in the defect core, SUSY is completely restored outside. We study also the effect of a D-term deformation of the model. Such a deformation allows for the existence of fermionic zero modes and broken SUSY outside the compact defect.

  9. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  10. Fatigue Failure Modes of the Grain Size Transition Zone in a Dual Microstructure Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Kantzos, Pete T.; Palsa, Bonnie; Telesman, Jack; Gayda, John; Sudbrack, Chantal K.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical property requirements vary with location in nickel-based superalloy disks. In order to maximize the associated mechanical properties, heat treatment methods have been developed for producing tailored grain microstructures. In this study, fatigue failure modes of a grain size transition zone in a dual microstructure disk were evaluated. A specialized heat treatment method was applied to produce varying grain microstructure in the bore to rim portions of a powder metallurgy processed nickel-based superalloy disk. The transition in grain size was concentrated in a zone of the disk web, between the bore and rim. Specimens were extracted parallel and transversely across this transition zone, and multiple fatigue tests were performed at 427 C and 704 C. Grain size distributions were characterized in the specimens, and related to operative failure initiation modes. Mean fatigue life decreased with increasing maximum grain size, going out through the transition zone. The scatter in limited tests of replicates was comparable for failures of uniform gage specimens in all transition zone locations examined.

  11. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang

    2009-11-23

    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  12. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed

  13. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); Ge, Nien-Hui, E-mail: nhge@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  14. Dual wavelength Mode-Locking of InAs/InP quantum dot laser diodes at 1.5µm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on stable dual-wavelength mode-locking of 3.1GHz and 10GHz two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot laser diodes. Evaluation of relative time delay between different spectral components indicates opposite sign of chirp over the two spectral lobes

  15. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, A-P; Luo, Z-C; Xu, W-C; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Dianov, E M

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Exploiting the spectral filtering effect caused by the combination of the polarizer and intracavity birefringence, the wavelength separation of dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses can be flexibly tuned between 2.38 and 20.45 nm. Taking the advantage of NPR-induced intensity-dependent loss to suppress the mode competition, the stable dual-wavelength pulses output is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation is achieved by simply rotating the polarization controllers (PCs)

  16. Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehravar, S.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.; Kieu, K.

    2016-06-01

    Dual-comb technique has enabled exciting applications in high resolution spectroscopy, precision distance measurements, and 3D imaging. Major advantages over traditional methods can be achieved with dual-comb technique. For example, dual-comb spectroscopy provides orders of magnitude improvement in acquisition speed over standard Fourier-transform spectroscopy while still preserving the high resolution capability. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for complex and expensive ultrafast laser systems. Here, we present a simple and robust dual-comb system that employs a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser operating at telecommunication wavelength. Two femtosecond frequency combs (with a small difference in repetition rates) are generated from a single laser cavity to ensure mutual coherent properties and common noise cancellation. As the result, we have achieved real-time absorption spectroscopy measurements without the need for complex servo locking with accurate frequency referencing, and relatively high signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. The Complexity of Developmental Predictions from Dual Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…

  18. A Dual System Model of Preferences under Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and…

  19. Dual-mode ferromagnetic resonance in an FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB synthetic antiferromagnet with uniaxial anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiling; Zhang, Shouheng; Qiao, Shizhu; Du, Honglei; Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Ruicong; Chu, Xian-Ming; Miao, Guo-Xing; Dai, Youyong; Kang, Shishou; Yan, Shishen; Li, Shandong

    2018-05-01

    Dual-mode ferromagnetic resonance is observed in FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB trilayer synthetic antiferromagnets with uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The optical mode is present in the (0-108 Oe) magnetic field range, where the top and bottom layer magnetizations are aligned in opposite directions. The strong acoustic mode appears, when the magnetic field exceeds the 300 Oe value, which corresponds to the flop transition in the trilayer. Magnetic field and angular dependences of resonant frequencies are studied for both optical (low-field) and acoustic (high field) modes. The low-field mode is found to be anisotropic but insensitive to the magnetic field value. In contrast, the high field mode is quasi-isotropic, but its resonant frequency is tunable by the value of the magnetic field. The coexistence of two modes of ferromagnetic resonance as well as switching between them with the increase in the magnetic field originates from the difference in the sign of interlayer coupling energy at the parallel and antiparallel configurations of the synthetic antiferromagnet. The dual-mode resonance in the studied trilayer structures provides greater flexibility in the design and functionalization of micro-inductors in monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  20. Radio frequency ablation in the rabbit lung using wet electrodes: comparison of monopolar and dual bipolar electrode mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Park, Sang Hee; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Jeon, Soo Bin; Lee, Yong Chul

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effect of radio frequency ablation (RFA) on the dimensions of radio frequency coagulation necrosis in a rabbit lung using a wet electrode in monopolar mode with that in dual electrode bipolar mode at different infusion rates (15 mm/hr versus 30 ml/hr) and saline concentrations (0.9% normal versus 5.8% hypertonic saline. Fifty ablation zones (one ablation zone in each rabbit) were produced in 50 rabbit using one or two 16-guage wet electrodes with a 1- cm active tip. The RFA system used in the monopolar and dual electrode wet bipolar RFA consisted of a 375-kHz generator (Elektrotom HiTT 106, Berchtold, Medizinelektronik, Germany). The power used was 30 watts and the exposure time was 5 minutes. The rabbits were assigned to one of five groups. Group A (n = 10) was infused with 0.9% NaCl used at a rate of 30 ml/hr in a monopolar mode. Groups B (n=10) and C (n=10) were infused with 0.9% NaCl at a rate of 15 and 30ml/hr, respectively in dual electrode bipolar mode; groups D (n=10) and E (n=10) were infused with 5.8% NaCl at a rate of 15 and 30 ml/hr, respectively in a dual electrode bipolar mode. The dimensions of the ablation zones in the gross specimens from the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance by means of the Scheffe test (post-hoc testing). The mean largest diameter of the ablation zones was larger in dual electrode bipolar mode (30.9 ± 4.4 mm) than in monopolar mode (22.5 ± 3.5 mm). The mean smallest diameter of the ablation zones was larger in dual electrode bipolar mode (22.3 ± 2.5 mm) than in monopolar mode (19.5 ± 3.5 mm). There were significant differences in the largest and smallest dimension between the monopolar (group A ) ana dual electrode wet bipolar mode (groups B-E). In dual electrode bipolar mode, the mean largest diameter of the ablation zones was larger at an infusion rate of 15 ml/hr (34.2 ± 4.0 mm) than at 30 ml/hr (27.6 ± 0.0 mm), and the mean smallest diameter of the ablation zones was larger at an

  1. Probing the fundamental limit of niobium in high radiofrequency fields by dual mode excitation in superconducting radiofrequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari

    2011-01-01

    We have studied thermal breakdown in several multicell superconducting radiofrequency cavity by simultaneous excitation of two TM 010 passband modes. Unlike measurements done in the past, which indicated a clear thermal nature of the breakdown, our measurements present a more complex picture with interplay of both thermal and magnetic effects. JLab LG-1 that we studied was limited at 40.5 MV/m, corresponding to B peak = 173 mT, in 89 mode. Dual mode measurements on this quench indicate that this quench is not purely magnetic, and so we conclude that this field is not the fundamental limit in SRF cavities

  2. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  3. Charge distribution in an two-chain dual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkowski, K.; Kotanski, A.

    1983-01-01

    Charge distributions in the multiple production processes are analysed using the dual chain model. A parametrisation of charge distributions for single dual chains based on the νp and anti vp data is proposed. The rapidity charge distributions are then calculated for pp and anti pp collisions and compared with the previous calculations based on the recursive cascade model of single chains. The results differ at the SPS collider energies and in the energy dependence of the net forward charge supplying the useful tests of the dual chain model. (orig.)

  4. High-efficiency dual-modes vortex beam generator with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiwei; Cai, Tong; Wang, Guang-Ming; Liang, Jian-Gang; Li, Xike; Yu, Jiancheng

    2018-04-23

    Vortex beam is believed to be an effective way to extend communication capacity, but available efforts suffer from the issues of complex configurations, fixed operation mode as well as low efficiency. Here, we propose a general strategy to design dual-modes vortex beam generator by using metasurfaces with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties. Combining the focusing and vortex functionalities, we design/fabricate a type of compact dual-modes vortex beam generator operating at both reflection/transmission sides of the system. Experimental results demonstrate that the designed metadevice can switch freely and independently between the reflective vortex with topological charge m 1  = 2 and transmissive vortex with m 2  = 1. Moreover, the metadevice exhibits very high efficiencies of 91% and 85% for the reflective and transmissive case respectively. Our findings open a door for multifunctional metadevices with high performances, which indicate wide applications in modern integration-optics and wireless communication systems.

  5. Characterization of performance-emission indices of a diesel engine using ANFIS operating in dual-fuel mode with LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amitav; Roy, Sumit; Banerjee, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    This experimental work highlights the inherent capability of an adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based model to act as a robust system identification tool (SIT) in prognosticating the performance and emission parameters of an existing diesel engine running of diesel-LPG dual fuel mode. The developed model proved its adeptness by successfully harnessing the effects of the input parameters of load, injection duration and LPG energy share on output parameters of BSFCEQ, BTE, NOX, SOOT, CO and HC. Successive evaluation of the ANFIS model, revealed high levels of resemblance with the already forecasted ANN results for the same input parameters and it was evident that similar to ANN, ANFIS also has the innate ability to act as a robust SIT. The ANFIS predicted data harmonized the experimental data with high overall accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) values are stretched in between 0.99207 to 0.999988. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) tallies were recorded in the range of 0.02-0.173% with the root mean square errors (RMSE) in acceptable margins. Hence the developed model is capable of emulating the actual engine parameters with commendable ranges of accuracy, which in turn would act as a robust prediction platform in the future domains of optimization.

  6. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-04-01

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM01. The existence of TM01 mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  7. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM{sub 01}. The existence of TM{sub 01} mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  8. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb generation from a completely common-path, unidirectional lasing cavity would be an interesting territory to explore. In this paper, we demonstrate such a dual-comb lasing scheme based on a nanomaterial saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms concurrently introduced into a mode-locked fiber laser. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in unusual bifurcation into two-pulse states with quite different characteristics. Simultaneous oscillation of pulses with four-fold difference in pulsewidths and tens of Hz repetition rate difference is observed. The coherence between these spectral-overlapped, picosecond and femtosecond pulses is further verified by the corresponding asynchronous cross-sampling and dual-comb spectroscopy measurements.

  9. Robust equivalent consumption-based controllers for a dual-mode diesel parallel HEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio; Venditti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-plug-in dual-mode parallel hybrid architecture. • Cross-validation machine-learning for robust equivalent consumption-based controllers. • Optimal control strategy based on fuel consumption, NOx and battery aging. • Impact of different equivalent consumption definitions on HEV performance. • Correlation between vehicle braking energy and SOC variation in the traction stages. - Abstract: New equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) tools have been developed and applied to identify the optimal control strategy of a dual-mode parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a compression-ignition engine. In this architecture, the electric machine is coupled to the engine through either a single-speed gearbox (torque-coupling) or a planetary gear set (speed-coupling). One of the main novelties of the present study concerns the definition of the instantaneous equivalent consumption (EC) function, which takes into account not only fuel consumption (FC) and the energy flow through the electric components, but also NO_x emissions, battery aging, and the battery SOC. The EC function has been trained using a cross-validation machine-learning technique, based on a genetic algorithm, where the training data set has been selected in order to maximize performances over a testing data set. The adoption of this technique, in conjunction with the new definition of EC, have led to the identification of very robust controllers, which provide an accurate control for different driving scenarios, even when the EC function is not specifically trained on the same missions over which it is tested. To this aim, a data set of fifty driving cycles and six user-defined missions, which cover a total distance of 70–100 km, has been considered as a training driving set. The ECMS controllers can be implemented in a vehicle control unit, and their performance has resulted to be close to that of a dynamic programming tool, which has here been used as benchmark

  10. Formation of multifunctional Fe3O4/Au composite nanoparticles for dual-mode MR/CT imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yong; Li Jing-Chao; Shen Ming-Wu; Shi Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances with iron oxide/gold (Fe 3 O 4 /Au) composite nanoparticles (CNPs) in dual-modality magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) imaging applications are reviewed. The synthesis and assembly of “dumbbelllike” and “core/shell” Fe 3 O 4 /Au CNPs is introduced. Potential applications of some developed Fe 3 O 4 /Au CNPs as contrast agents for dual-mode MR/CT imaging applications are described in detail. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  11. Recent Advances in Cancer Therapy Based on Dual Mode Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellas Spyratou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many tumor-targeted strategies have been used worldwide to limit the side effects and improve the effectiveness of therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT, etc. Biophotonic therapy modalities comprise very promising alternative techniques for cancer treatment with minimal invasiveness and side-effects. These modalities use light e.g., laser irradiation in an extracorporeal or intravenous mode to activate photosensitizer agents with selectivity in the target tissue. Photothermal therapy (PTT is a minimally invasive technique for cancer treatment which uses laser-activated photoabsorbers to convert photon energy into heat sufficient to induce cells destruction via apoptosis, necroptosis and/or necrosis. During the last decade, PTT has attracted an increased interest since the therapy can be combined with customized functionalized nanoparticles (NPs. Recent advances in nanotechnology have given rise to generation of various types of NPs, like gold NPs (AuNPs, designed to act both as radiosensitizers and photothermal sensitizing agents due to their unique optical and electrical properties i.e., functioning in dual mode. Functionalized AuNPS can be employed in combination with non-ionizing and ionizing radiation to significantly improve the efficacy of cancer treatment while at the same time sparing normal tissues. Here, we first provide an overview of the use of NPs for cancer therapy. Then we review many recent advances on the use of gold NPs in PTT, RT and PTT/RT based on different types of AuNPs, irradiation conditions and protocols. We refer to the interaction mechanisms of AuNPs with cancer cells via the effects of non-ionizing and ionizing radiations and we provide recent existing experimental data as a baseline for the design of optimized protocols in PTT, RT and PTT/RT combined treatment.

  12. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Beckstead, Jason; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Pauker, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administe...

  13. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  14. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD. Data to be displayed are geometrically transformed before written into a memory cell to cancel optical artifacts coming from the diamond-like shaped structure of the micromirror array. The 24-bit color depth of the display is fully exploited to increase the frame rate by a factor of 24, which makes the technique practicable for real samples. Our commercial DMD-based LED-illumination is cost effective and can be easily coupled as an add-on module for already existing inverted microscopes. The reflection and transmission information provided by our dual microscope complement each other and can be useful for imaging non-uniform samples and to prevent self-shadowing effects.

  15. The Development of CyberLearning in Dual-Mode: Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Jane Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance education in Taiwan has evolved into the third phase – cyberlearning – conceptualized as teaching and learning interactions mediated entirely through the application of state-of-the-art information and communications technologies (ICT, such as the Internet and World Wide Web. Socio-economic influences, the development of new technologies and a marked shift in learning paradigms have increased the utilization of ICT at all levels of the Taiwanese education system. Since the advent and provision of cyberlearning programs, well over half (56 percent of the conventional universities and colleges have been upgraded to dual-mode higher educational institutions. They offer real-time multicast instructional systems using videoconferencing and cable TV technology, virtual classroom systems via network-based instructional management systems, and curriculum-on-demand systems utilizing video-on-demand technology. Critical success factors in the development of these cyber universities and the opportunities, challenges and implications inherent in these are analyzed. ICT and the provision of cyberlearning have gradually been changing the structure and vision of higher education institutions as well as the entire learning environment and educational systems. Because the Ministry of Education (MOE has initiated a policy on credit-based degrees for cyberlearning courses/ programs, the development of open and distance education is anticipated to hasten the transformation of Taiwan’s education system towards one which will create an ideal learning society in the 21st century.

  16. Micro generation of electricity with gasification gas in a engine generator in dual mode; Microgeracao de eletricidade com gas de gaseificacao num motor gerador dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Souza, Abel Alves de; Ricieri, Reinaldo P. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PE (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo_js07@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Among the alternatives to the increase of world energy demand the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a process technology of biomass energy in a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas got a low calorific value that can be used in diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used, it was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 10 hp and mated to an electric generator 5,5 kW. The fuel gas was produced in a gasifier type co-current. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through electric bank of heaters. For the oil diesel savings, the gas was injected mixed with intake air, as the oil diesel was normally injected by the injector of the engine (motor dual). The consumption od diesel was measured diesel by means of a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood showed a decrease in diesel consumption by up to 57%. (author)

  17. Establishment of animal model of dual liver transplantation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The animal model of the whole-size and reduced-size liver transplantation in both rat and mouse has been successfully established. Because of the difficulties and complexities in microsurgical technology, the animal model of dual liver transplantation was still not established for twelve years since the first human dual liver transplantation has been made a success. There is an essential need to establish this animal model to lay a basic foundation for clinical practice. To study the physiological and histopathological changes of dual liver transplantation, "Y" type vein from the cross part between vena cava and two iliac of donor and "Y' type prosthesis were employed to recanalize portal vein and the bile duct between dual liver grafts and recipient. The dual right upper lobes about 45-50% of the recipient liver volume were taken as donor, one was orthotopically implanted at its original position, the other was rotated 180° sagitally and heterotopically positioned in the left upper quadrant. Microcirculation parameters, liver function, immunohistochemistry and survival were analyzed to evaluate the function of dual liver grafts. No significant difference in the hepatic microcirculatory flow was found between two grafts in the first 90 minutes after reperfusion. Light and electronic microscope showed the liver architecture was maintained without obvious features of cellular destruction and the continuity of the endothelium was preserved. Only 3 heterotopically positioned graft appeared patchy desquamation of endothelial cell, mitochondrial swelling and hepatocytes cytoplasmic vacuolization. Immunohistochemistry revealed there is no difference in hepatocyte activity and the ability of endothelia to contract and relax after reperfusion between dual grafts. Dual grafts made a rapid amelioration of liver function after reperfusion. 7 rats survived more than 7 days with survival rate of 58.3.%. Using "Y" type vein and bile duct prosthesis, we

  18. DUAL MODE OFFERING AS VIABLE APPROACH FOR PROMOTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE in 2011. The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats. However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term. The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software. At the

  19. Dual Mode Offering As Viable Approach 
For Promotion Of Higher Education In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE in 2011. The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats. However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term. The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software. At the

  20. A Minimal Model to Explore the Influence of Distant Modes on Mode-Coupling Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    The phenomenon of mode-coupling instability is one of the most frequently explored mechanisms to explain self-excited oscillation in sliding systems with friction. A mode coupling instability is usually due to the coupling of two modes. However, further modes can have an important influence on the coupling of two modes. This work extends a well-known minimal model to describe mode-coupling instabilities in order to explore the influence of a distant mode on the classical mode-coupling pattern. This work suggests a new minimal model. The model is explored and it is shown that a third mode can have significant influence on the classical mode-coupling instabilities where two modes are coupling. Different phenomena are analysed and it is pointed out that distant modes can only be ignored in very special cases and that the onset friction-induced oscillations can even be very sensitive to minimal variation of a distant mode. Due to the chosen academic minimal-model and the abandonment of a complex Finite-Element model the insight stays rather phenomenological but a better understanding of the mode-coupling mechnanism can be gained.

  1. MPC-based energy management with adaptive Markov-chain prediction for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; ChangLe; DING; Feng; WANG; WeiDa; HE; Wei; QI; YunLong

    2017-01-01

    The and energy to management strategy battery is state an important part of a hybrid electrical vehicle design.It is used to improve various fuel economy sustain a proper of charge an by controlling control the power components is while satisfying to constraints and driving demands.However,achieving optimal and performance challenging due the nonlinearities of the hybrid powertrain,conflicting vehicle the time varying constraints,the dilemma capable in which controller control complexity and real-time capability are generally objectives.In this paper,a of real-time cascaded complies strategy is proposed for a dual-mode hybrid electric that considers controller based nonlinearities based the system model and with all time-varying with constraints.sampling The strategy consists of a supervisory controller on a non-linear predictive control short(MPC)sampling a long time with future strategy interval and a coordinating on linear model predictive based control with a time interval to deal different load dynamics of the system.The Additionally,a novel data methodology using adaptive Markov chains to predict demand is introduced.predictive future information is used to improve controller cycles performance.conducted.The The proposed is implemented validity on a real test-bed approach and experimental trials using economy unknown is driving are results other demonstrate the of the proposed and show that fuel significantly improved compared with methods.

  2. MPC-based energy management with adaptive Markov-chain prediction for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG ChangLe; DING Feng; WANG WeiDa; HE Wei; QI YunLong

    2017-01-01

    The energy management strategy is an important part of a hybrid electrical vehicle design.It is used to improve fuel economy and to sustain a proper battery state of charge by controlling the power components while satisfying various constraints and driving demands.However,achieving an optimal control performance is challenging due to the nonlinearities of the hybrid powertrain,the time varying constraints,and the dilemma in which controller complexity and real-time capability are generally conflicting objectives.In this paper,a real-time capable cascaded control strategy is proposed for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle that considers nonlinearities of the system and complies with all time-varying constraints.The strategy consists of a supervisory controller based on a non-linear model predictive control (MPC) with a long sampling time interval and a coordinating controller based on linear model predictive control with a short sampling time interval to deal with different dynamics of the system.Additionally,a novel data based methodology using adaptive Markov chains to predict future load demand is introduced.The predictive future information is used to improve controller performance.The proposed strategy is implemented on a real test-bed and experimental trials using unknown driving cycles are conducted.The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach and show that fuel economy is significantly improved compared with other methods.

  3. Superoperators in the dual model with coloured quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manida, S.N.

    1978-01-01

    The derivation of the dual model with coloured quarks is considered. The model is represented as a superoperator generalization of the Bardakci-Halpern model. It is shown that the three-regeon vertex of the model appears to be more compact and transparent

  4. WE-G-BRA-09: Microsphere Brachytherapy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in a Dual-Vendor Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younge, K C; Lee, C I; Feng, M; Novelli, P; Moran, J M; Prisciandaro, J I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and quality of a dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Methods: A multidisciplinary team including physicists, dosimetrists, a radiation oncologist, an interventional radiologist, and radiation safety personnel performed an FMEA for our dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program employing SIR-Spheres (Sirtex Medical Limited, Australia) and Theraspheres (BTG, England). We developed a program process tree and step-by-step instructions which were used to generate a comprehensive list of failure modes. These modes were then ranked according to severity, occurrence rate, and detectability. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) were calculated by multiplying these three scores together. Three different severity scales were created: one each for harmful effects to the patient, staff, or the institution. Each failure mode was ranked on one or more of these scales. Results: The group identified 164 failure modes for the microsphere program. 113 of these were ranked using the patient severity scale, 52 using the staff severity scale, and 50 using the institution severity scale. The highest ranked items on the patient severity scale were an error in the automated dosimetry worksheet (RPN = 297.5), and the incorrect target specified on the planning study (RPN = 135). Some failure modes ranked differently between vendors, especially those corresponding to dose vial preparation because of the different methods used. Based on our findings, we made several improvements to our QA program, including documentation to easily identify which product is being used, an additional hand calculation during planning, and reorganization of QA steps before treatment delivery. We will continue to periodically review and revise the FMEA. Conclusion: We have applied FMEA to our dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program to identify potential key weaknesses in the treatment chain. Our FMEA results were used to

  5. WE-G-BRA-09: Microsphere Brachytherapy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in a Dual-Vendor Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younge, K C; Lee, C I; Feng, M; Novelli, P; Moran, J M; Prisciandaro, J I [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the safety and quality of a dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Methods: A multidisciplinary team including physicists, dosimetrists, a radiation oncologist, an interventional radiologist, and radiation safety personnel performed an FMEA for our dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program employing SIR-Spheres (Sirtex Medical Limited, Australia) and Theraspheres (BTG, England). We developed a program process tree and step-by-step instructions which were used to generate a comprehensive list of failure modes. These modes were then ranked according to severity, occurrence rate, and detectability. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) were calculated by multiplying these three scores together. Three different severity scales were created: one each for harmful effects to the patient, staff, or the institution. Each failure mode was ranked on one or more of these scales. Results: The group identified 164 failure modes for the microsphere program. 113 of these were ranked using the patient severity scale, 52 using the staff severity scale, and 50 using the institution severity scale. The highest ranked items on the patient severity scale were an error in the automated dosimetry worksheet (RPN = 297.5), and the incorrect target specified on the planning study (RPN = 135). Some failure modes ranked differently between vendors, especially those corresponding to dose vial preparation because of the different methods used. Based on our findings, we made several improvements to our QA program, including documentation to easily identify which product is being used, an additional hand calculation during planning, and reorganization of QA steps before treatment delivery. We will continue to periodically review and revise the FMEA. Conclusion: We have applied FMEA to our dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program to identify potential key weaknesses in the treatment chain. Our FMEA results were used to

  6. Optical frequency comb generation based on the dual-mode square microlaser and a nonlinear fiber loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hai-Zhong; Han, Jun-Yuan; Li, Qing; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Qin, Guan-Shi; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach using a dual-mode square microlaser as the pump source is demonstrated to produce wideband optical frequency comb (OFC). The enhanced nonlinear frequency conversion processes are accomplished in a nonlinear fiber loop, which can reduce the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold and then generate a dual-mode Brillouin laser with improved optical signal-to-noise ratio. An OFC with 130 nm bandwidth and 76 GHz repetition rate is successfully generated under the four-wave mixing, and the number of the comb lines is enhanced by 26 times compared with the system without fiber loop. In addition, the repetition rate of the comb can be adjusted by changing the injection current of the microlaser. The pulse width of the comb spectrum is also compressed from 3 to 1 ps with an extra amplification-nonlinear process.

  7. Dual-Mode SERS-Fluorescence Immunoassay Using Graphene Quantum Dot Labeling on One-Dimensional Aligned Magnetoplasmonic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fengming; Zhou, Hongjian; Tan, Tran Van; Kim, Jeonghyo; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-06-10

    A novel dual-mode immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence was designed using graphene quantum dot (GQD) labels to detect a tuberculosis (TB) antigen, CFP-10, via a newly developed sensing platform of linearly aligned magnetoplasmonic (MagPlas) nanoparticles (NPs). The GQDs were excellent bilabeling materials for simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The one-dimensional (1D) alignment of MagPlas NPs simplified the immunoassay process and enabled fast, enhanced signal transduction. With a sandwich-type immunoassay using dual-mode nanoprobes, both SERS signals and fluorescence images were recognized in a highly sensitive and selective manner with a detection limit of 0.0511 pg mL(-1).

  8. Modelling life trajectories and mode choice using Bayesian belief networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, transport mode choice was primarily examined as a stand alone problem. Given a purpose and destination, the choice of transport mode was modelled as a function of the various attributes of the transport mode alternatives. Later, transport mode choice decisions were modelled as part of

  9. [The dual process model of addiction. Towards an integrated model?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeeren, R; Hebbrecht, M

    2012-01-01

    Neurobiology and cognitive psychology have provided us with a dual process model of addiction. According to this model, behavior is considered to be the dynamic result of a combination of automatic and controlling processes. In cases of addiction the balance between these two processes is severely disturbed. Automated processes will continue to produce impulses that ensure the continuance of addictive behavior. Weak, reflective or controlling processes are both the reason for and the result of the inability to forgo addiction. To identify features that are common to current neurocognitive insights into addiction and psychodynamic views on addiction. The picture that emerges from research is not clear. There is some evidence that attentional bias has a causal effect on addiction. There is no evidence that automatic associations have a causal effect, but there is some evidence that automatic action-tendencies do have a causal effect. Current neurocognitive views on the dual process model of addiction can be integrated with an evidence-based approach to addiction and with psychodynamic views on addiction.

  10. A Comparative Study of Voltage, Peak Current and Dual Current Mode Control Methods for Noninverting Buck-Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Č. Bošković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of voltage mode control (VMC and two current mode control (CMC methods of noninverting buck-boost converter. The converter control-to-output transfer function, line-to-output transfer function and the output impedance are obtained for all methods by averaging converter equations over one switching period and applying small-signal linearization. The obtained results are required for the design procedure of feedback compensator to keep a system stable and robust. A comparative study of VMC, peak current mode control (PCMC and dual-current mode control (DCMC is performed. Performance evaluation of the closed-loop system with obtained compensator between these methods is performed via numerical simulations.

  11. Structural Design of Dual-Mode Ramjets and Associated System Issues (Conception structurale des statoreacteurs mixtes et defis systeme associes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Institute PAO Protection Against Oxidation RBCC Rocket Based Combined Cycle RSL Reusable Space Launchers SSTO Single Stage to Orbit TOW Take-Off Weight...Orbit) or Single Stage To Orbit ( SSTO ) vehicles, or other kind of hypersonic vehicles. For example, in the scope of the French PREPHA program, the...study of a generic SSTO vehicle led to conclusion that the best type of airbreathing engine could be the dual-mode ramjet (subsonic then supersonic

  12. Highly Luminescent Dual Mode Polymeric Nanofiber-Based Flexible Mat for White Security Paper and Encrypted Nanotaggant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Ashish; Kedawat, Garima; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Singh, Nidhi; Srivastava, Avanish K; Dhakate, Sanjay R; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2018-05-23

    Increasing counterfeiting of important data, currency, stamp papers, branded products etc., has become a major security threat which could lead to serious damage to the global economy. Consequences of such damage are compelling for researchers to develop new high-end security features to address full-proof solutions. Herein, we report a dual mode flexible highly luminescent white security paper and nanotaggants composed of nanophosphors incorporated in polymer matrix to form a nanofiber-based mat for anti-counterfeiting applications. The dual mode nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning technique by admixing the composite of NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ @NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ , Er 3+ nanophosphors in the polyvinyl alcohol solution. This flexible polymer mat derived from nanofibers appears white in daylight, while emitting strong red (NaYF 4 :Eu 3+ ) and green (NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ , Er 3+ ) colors at excitation wavelengths of 254 nm and 980 nm, respectively. These luminescent nanofibers can also be encrypted as a new class of nanotaggants to protect confidential documents. These obtained results suggest that highly luminescent dual mode polymeric nanofiber-based flexible white security paper and nanotaggants could offer next-generation high-end unique security features against counterfeiting. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual Mode Sensing of Alcoholic Strength in Spirit Samples with Stimuli-Responsive Infinite Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingjing; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-07-07

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on stimuli-responsive infinite coordination polymers (ICPs). The ICP supramolecular network is prepared with 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (bix) as the ligand and Zn(2+) as the central metal ion in ethanol, in which rhodamine B (RhB) is encapsulated through self-adaptive chemistry. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed RhB/Zn(bix) is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into the ethanol dispersion of RhB/Zn(bix) destroys Zn(bix) network structure, resulting in the release of RhB from ICP into the solvent. As a consequence, the solvent displays the color of released RhB and, at the meantime, turns on the fluorescence of RhB, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could distinguish the AS of different commercial spirit samples by the naked eye within a wide linear range from 20 to 100% vol and by monitoring the increase of fluorescent intensity of the released RhB. This study not only offers a new method for on-spot visible detection of AS in commercial spirit samples, but also provides a strategy for designing dual mode sensing mechanisms for different analytical purposes based on novel stimuli-responsive materials.

  14. Melanin-originated carbonaceous dots for triple negative breast cancer diagnosis by fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chuan; Huang, Yuan; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2017-07-01

    Carbonaceous dots exhibit increasing applications in diagnosis and drug delivery due to excellent photostability and biocompatibility properties. However, relative short excitation and emission of melanin carbonaceous dots (MCDs) limit the applicability in fluorescence bioimaging. Furthermore, the generally poor spatial resolution of fluorescence imaging limits potential in vivo applications. Due to a variety of beneficial properties, in this study, MCDs were prepared exhibiting great potential in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode bioimaging. The MCDs exhibited a long excitation peak at 615nm and emission peak at 650nm, further highlighting the applicability in fluorescence imaging, while the absorbance peak at 633nm renders MCDs suitable for photoacoustic imaging. In vivo, the photoacoustic signal of MCDs was linearly correlated with the concentration of MCDs. Moreover, the MCDs were shown to be taken up into triple negative breast cancer cell line 4T1 in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of subcutaneous 4T1 tumor demonstrated that MCDs could passively target triple negative breast cancer tissue by enhanced permeability and retention effects and may therefore be used for tumor dual-mode imaging. Furthermore, fluorescence distribution in tissue slices suggested that MCDs may distribute in 4T1 tumor with high efficacy. In conclusion, the MCDs studied offer potential application in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual mode antimony electrode for simultaneous measurements of PO2 and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, F; Nilsson, G

    2000-01-01

    In biomedical research and clinical medicine there is a demand for potent sensors to measure the components that make up blood gas analyses. Today, as when the electrochemical PO2, PCO2 and pH electrodes were first introduced, these measurements are usually made with the same type of sensor technology. The aims of the present study were, firstly, to find out whether the platinum cathode in the Clark electrode can be replaced by antimony for oxygen measurements (amperometry (A)); secondly, whether, during oxygen measurements, the inherent corrosion potential of the antimony metal can be used for measurement of pH in the same measurement area (potentiometry (P)). An electrode of purified, crystallographically orientated monocrystalline antimony (COMA) connected to a reference electrode (silver-silver chloride) was used for the P measurements. Measurements of A (at -900 mV) and P were made in an aqueous environment regulated for oxygen, pH, and temperature. Reproducible oxygen sensitivities of 0.925 nA/% oxygen (2% CV (coefficient of variation)) (A), 10.7 mV/% (P), and 0.7 mV/% (P) were found in the oxygen range: 0-21%, <5%, and above 5%, respectively. The pH sensitivity was 57 mV/pH unit (P). Oxygen and pH measurements were less accurate at oxygen concentrations close to 0%. Both the oxygen and pH part of the composite electrode signal can be identified by this dual mode technique (A and P). The sensor seems to be promising as it provides measurements of two separate variables (oxygen and pH) and also has the desirable characteristics of a solid state sensor.

  16. Aliasing modes in the lattice Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.

    2007-01-01

    We study the Schwinger model on a lattice consisting of zeros of the Hermite polynomials that incorporates a lattice derivative and a discrete Fourier transform with many properties. Such a lattice produces a Klein-Gordon equation for the boson field and the exact value of the mass in the asymptotic limit if the boundaries are not taken into account. On the contrary, if the lattice is considered with boundaries new modes appear due to aliasing effects. In the continuum limit, however, this lattice yields also a Klein-Gordon equation with a reduced mass

  17. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS

  18. On the quark structure of resonance states in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.; Pashnev, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown using as an example the Veneziano dual model, that each particular dual model already contains a certain latent quark structure unambiauously determined by internal properties of the dual model. To prove this degeneration of the resonance state spectrum is studied by introducing an additional disturbing interaction into the model being considered. Induced transitions of particles into a vacuum act as such an additional disturbance. This method complements the known factorization method of Fubini, Gordon and Veneziano and turns out to be free from an essential limitation of the latter connected with implicit assumption about the basence of internal additive laws of conservation in the model. By using the method of induced transitions of particles into a vacuum it has been possible to show that the resonance state spectrum is indeed more degenerated than it should be expected from the factorization theorem, and that the supplementary degeneration corresponds to the quark model with an infinite number of quarks of the increasing mass. Structures of some terms of the dual amplitude expansion over the degrees of the constant of the induced transition of particles to vacuum are considered; it is shown that the summation of this expansion may be reduced to a solution of a certain integral equation. On the basis of the integral equation obtained an integral representation ofr dual amplitudes is established. The problems related with degeneration of resonance states and with determination of additive quantum numbers leading to the quark interpretation of the degeneration being considered are discussed

  19. Saline-enhanced hepatic radiofrequency ablation using a perfused-cooled electrode: comparison of dual probe bipolar mode with monopolar and single probe bipolar modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Gyung Goo; Han, Chang Jin; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether saline-enhanced dual probe bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using perfused-cooled electrodes shows better in-vitro efficiency than monopolar or single probe bipolar RFA in creating larger coagulation necrosis. RF was applied to excised bovine livers in both bipolar and monopolar modes using a 200W generator (CC-3; Radionics) and the perfused-cooled electrodes for 10 mins. After placing single or double perfused-cooled electrodes in the explanted liver, 30 ablation zones were created at three different regimens: group A; saline-enhanced monopolar RFA, group B; saline-enhanced single probe bipolar RFA, and group C; saline-enhanced dual probe bipolar RFA. During RFA, we measured the tissue temperature at 15mm from the electrode. The dimensions of the ablation zones and changes in the impedance currents and liver temperature during RFA were then compared between the groups. The mean current values were higher for monopolar mode (group A) than for the bipolar modes (group B and C): 1550 ± 25 mA in group A, 764 ±189 mA in group B and 819 ± 98 mA in group C(ρ 3 in group A, 23.7 ±3.8 cm 3 in group B, and 34.2 ± 5.1 cm 3 in group C(ρ 0.05). The temperature at 15 mm from the electrode was higher in group C than in the other groups: 70 ± 18 .deg. C in group A, 59 ± 23 .deg. C in group B and 96 ± 16 .deg. C in group C (ρ < 0.05). Saline-enhanced bipolar RFA using dual perfused-cooled electrodes increases the dimension of the ablation zone more efficiently than monopolar RFA or single probe bipolar RFA

  20. A dynamic dual process model of risky decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Adele; Trueblood, Jennifer S

    2018-03-01

    Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems. In the current article, we present a dynamic dual process model framework of risky decision making that provides an account of the timing and interaction of the 2 systems and can explain both choice and response-time data. We outline several predictions of the model, including how changes in the timing of the 2 systems as well as time pressure can influence behavior. The framework also allows us to explore different assumptions about how preferences are constructed by the 2 systems as well as the dynamic interaction of the 2 systems. In particular, we examine 3 different possible functional forms of the 2 systems and 2 possible ways the systems can interact (simultaneously or serially). We compare these dual process models with 2 single process models using risky decision making data from Guo, Trueblood, and Diederich (2017). Using this data, we find that 1 of the dual process models significantly outperforms the other models in accounting for both choices and response times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Dual-mode optical fiber-based tweezers for robust trapping and manipulation of absorbing particles in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Souvik; Kanti Saha, Tushar; Kumar, Avinash; Bera, Sudipta K.; Banerjee, Ayan

    2017-12-01

    We develop an optical tweezers system using a single dual-mode optical fiber where mesoscopic absorbing particles can be trapped in three dimensions and manipulated employing photophoretic forces. We generate a superposition of fundamental and first order Hermite-Gaussian beam modes by the simple innovation of coupling a laser into a commercial optical fiber designed to be single mode for a wavelength higher than that of the laser. We achieve robust trapping of the absorbing particles for hours using both the pure fundamental and superposition mode beams and attain large manipulation velocities of ˜5 mm s-1 in the axial direction and ˜0.75 mm s-1 in the radial direction. We then demonstrate that the superposition mode is more effective in trapping and manipulation compared to the fundamental mode by around 80%, which may be increased several times by the use of a pure first order Hermite-Gaussian mode. The work has promising implications for trapping and spectroscopy of aerosols in air using simple optical fiber-based traps.

  2. Asymmetric dual-loop feedback to suppress spurious tones and reduce timing jitter in self-mode-locked quantum-dash lasers emitting at 155 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Haroon; McInerney, John G.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate an asymmetric dual-loop feedback scheme to suppress external cavity side-modes induced in self-mode-locked quantum-dash lasers with conventional single and dual-loop feedback. In this letter, we achieved optimal suppression of spurious tones by optimizing the length of second delay time. We observed that asymmetric dual-loop feedback, with large (~8x) disparity in cavity lengths, eliminates all external-cavity side-modes and produces flat RF spectra close to the main peak with low timing jitter compared to single-loop feedback. Significant reduction in RF linewidth and reduced timing jitter was also observed as a function of increased second feedback delay time. The experimental results based on this feedback configuration validate predictions of recently published numerical simulations. This interesting asymmetric dual-loop feedback scheme provides simplest, efficient and cost effective stabilization of side-band free optoelectronic oscillators based on mode-locked lasers.

  3. ELMs and constraints on the H-mode pedestal: A model based on peeling-ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Maximizing the pedestal height while maintaining acceptable ELMs is a key issue for optimizing tokamak performance. We present a model for ELMs and pedestal constraints based upon theoretical analysis of edge instabilities which can limit the pedestal height and drive ELMs. Sharp pedestal pressure gradients drive large bootstrap currents which play a complex dual role in the stability physics. Consequently, the dominant modes are often intermediate-n coupled 'peeling-ballooning' modes, driven both by current and the pressure gradient. A highly efficient new MHD code, ELITE, is used to study these modes, and calculate quantitative stability constraints on the pedestal, including direct constraints on the pedestal height. A model of various ELM types is developed, and quantitatively compared to data from several tokamaks. A number of observations agree with predictions, including ELM onset times, ELM depth, and variation in pedestal height with discharge shape. Projections of pedestal stability constraints for Next Step designs, and nonlinear simulations of peeling-ballooning modes using the BOUT code are also presented. (author)

  4. Motivation and justification: a dual-process model of culture in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisey, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    This article presents a new model of culture in action. Although most sociologists who study culture emphasize its role in post hoc sense making, sociologists of religion and social psychologists tend to focus on the role beliefs play in motivation. The dual-process model integrates justificatory and motivational approaches by distinguishing between "discursive" and "practical" modes of culture and cognition. The author uses panel data from the National Study of Youth and Religion to illustrate the model's usefulness. Consistent with its predictions, he finds that though respondents cannot articulate clear principles of moral judgment, their choice from a list of moral-cultural scripts strongly predicts later behavior.

  5. Realization of Current Mode Universal Filter and a Dual-Mode Single Resistance Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Employing VDCC and Only Grounded Passive Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents a circuit that can act as a universal filter as well as a single resistence controlled oscillator by unpretentiously changing the switch positions. The circuit employs only two active devices and all grounded passive elements. The utilization of only grounded passive components makes this circuit a better choice for integrated circuit implementation. The current mode biquadratic filter offers all the five basic responses along with independent tunability of its quality factor. The dual-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator offers explicit current outputs along with voltage outputs. The circuit also offers a simple and uncoupled condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation. The typical analysis such as non-ideal, sensitivity and parasitic analysis along with the regular simulation results as well as experimental results are exposed here, to strengthen the design idea.

  6. High-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, W Z; Chang, M T; Su, K W; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2013-01-01

    We report on high-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser. A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is developed to achieve synchronously mode-locked operation at two spectral bands centered at 1031.67 and 1049.42 nm with a pulse duration of 1.54 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 80.3 GHz. With a diamond heat spreader to improve the heat removal efficiency, the average output power can be up to 1.1 W at an absorbed pump power of 5.18 W. The autocorrelation traces reveal that the mode-locked pulse is modulated with a beat frequency of 4.92 THz and displays a modulation depth to be greater than 80%. (paper)

  7. Compact 84 GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser using dual-fiber coupled fused-quartz microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-An; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chuang, Yi-Chen; Ting, Wei-Jo; Wang, Bo-Chun; Peng, Jin-Long; Chen, Guan-Hong; Chang, Yuan-Chia

    2017-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a compact and portable-size 84-GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser, in which a dual-fiber coupled fused-quartz microresonator is employed as the intracavity optical comb filter as well as the optical nonlinear material for optical frequency comb generation. About eight coherent optical tones can be generated in the proposed fiber laser. The 20-dB bandwidth is larger than 588 GHz. The full-width half-maximum pulse-width of the proposed laser is 2.5 ps. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed passive mode-locked fiber laser to carry a 5-Gbit/s on-off-keying signal and transmit over 20-km standard single mode fiber. A 7% forward error correction requirement can be achieved, showing the proposed fiber laser can be a potential candidate for fiber-wireless applications.

  8. Can plane wave modes be physical modes in soliton models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabe, F.

    1995-08-01

    I show that plane waves may not be used as asymptotic states in soliton models because they describe unphysical states. When asymptotic states are taken to the physical there is not T-matrix of O(1). (author). 9 refs

  9. Two Novel Methods and Multi-Mode Periodic Solutions for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Gianni; Koch, Hans; Terracini, Susanna

    2005-04-01

    We introduce two novel methods for studying periodic solutions of the FPU β-model, both numerically and rigorously. One is a variational approach, based on the dual formulation of the problem, and the other involves computer-assisted proofs. These methods are used e.g. to construct a new type of solutions, whose energy is spread among several modes, associated with closely spaced resonances.

  10. Dual-Mode Measurement and Theoretical Analysis of Evaporation Kinetics of Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hanyu; He, Chi-Ruei; Basdeo, Carl; Li, Ji-Qin; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Li, Si-Yu; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the precision measurement of evaporation kinetics of binary mixtures using a quartz crystal resonator. A thin layer of light alcohol mixture including a volatile (methanol) and a much less volatile (1-butanol) components is deployed on top of the resonator. The normal or acoustic mode is to detect the moving liquid-vapor interface due to evaporation with a great spatial precision on the order of microns, and simultaneously the shear mode is used for in-situ detection of point viscosity or concentration of the mixture near the resonator. A one-dimensional theoretical model is developed to describe the underlying mass transfer and interfacial transport phenomena. Along with the modeling results, the transient evaporation kinetics, moving interface, and the stratification of viscosity of the liquid mixture during evaporation are simultaneously measured by the impedance response of the shear and longitudinal waves emitted from the resonator. The system can be used to characterize complicated evaporation kinetics involving multi-component fuels. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, NSF CMMI-0952646.

  11. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  12. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control...

  13. Modelling the failure modes in geobag revetments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, A; Crapper, M; Pender, G; Wright, G; Wong, W S

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, sand filled geotextile bags (geobags) have been used as a means of long-term riverbank revetment stabilization. However, despite their deployment in a significant number of locations, the failure modes of such structures are not well understood. Three interactions influence the geobag performance, i.e. geobag-geobag, geobag-water flow and geobag-water flow-river bank. The aim of the research reported here is to develop a detailed understanding of the failure mechanisms in a geobag revetment using a discrete element model (DEM) validated by laboratory data. The laboratory measured velocity data were used for preparing a mapped velocity field for a coupled DEM simulation of geobag revetment failure. The validated DEM model could identify well the critical bag location in varying water depths. Toe scour, one of the major instability factors in revetments, and its influence on the bottom-most layer of the bags were also reasonably represented in this DEM model. It is envisaged that the use of a DEM model will provide more details on geobag revetment performance in riverbanks.

  14. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    Full Text Available This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO. Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations.

  15. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Yuanchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC) scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO). Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations. PMID:26181826

  16. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-08-01

    We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester Cdbnd O and diazo Ndbnd N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single Cdbnd O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  17. Dual peripheral model up to Serpukhov energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempp, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    The high energy behaviour of the s-channel Regge residues is inferred from three plausible requirements. The resulting s-channel helicity amplitudes allow-in a dual sense-the following t-channel interpretation: for -t>or=0.25 GeV/sup 2/ the flip amplitude has the form of a t-channel Regge pole, while the non-flip amplitude looks like a Regge cut. Finally, a quantitative comparison of the predictions with the data available for the set of SU(3) related processes pi N CEX, KN, KN CEX and pi /sup -/p to eta n is performed, covering the energy range 2

  18. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  19. Electron heating mode transition induced by mixing radio frequency and ultrahigh frequency dual frequency powers in capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-01-01

    Electron heating mode transitions induced by mixing the low- and high-frequency power in dual-frequency nitrogen discharges at 400 mTorr pressure are presented. As the low-frequency (13.56 MHz) power decreases and high-frequency (320 MHz) power increases for the fixed power of 200 W, there is a transition of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) from Druyvesteyn to bi-Maxwellian type characterized by a distinguished warm electron population. It is shown that this EEDF evolution is attributed to the transition from collisional to collisionless stochastic heating of the low-energy electrons.

  20. 3D modeling of dual wind-up extensional rheometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of a dual wind-up drum rheometer of the Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER; Sentmanat, 2004 [1]) or the Extensional Viscosity Fixture (EVF; Garritano and Berting, 2006 [2]) type have been performed. In the SER and EVF a strip of rectangular shape...... is attached onto two drums, followed by a rotation of both drums in opposite direction. The numerical modeling is based on integral constitutive equations of the K-BKZ type. Generally, to ensure a proper uni-axial extensional deformation in dual wind-up drum rheometers the simulations show that a very small...

  1. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Du, L.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two

  2. The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-10-01

    This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story

  3. International Family Migration and the Dual-Earner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu

    2018-01-01

    Gender differences in labor force participation are exceptionally small in Nordic countries. We investigate how couples emigrating from Denmark self-select and sort into different destinations and whether couples pursue the dual-earner model, in which both partners work, when abroad. Female labor...

  4. Scale-invariant inclusive spectra in a dual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovsky, L.L.; Martynov, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    One-particle inclusive distributions at large transverse momentum phisub(tr) are shown to scale, Edσ/d 3 phi approximately phisub(tr)sup(-N)(1-Xsub(tr))sup(1+N/2)lnphisub(tr), in a dual model with Mandelstam analyticity if the Regge trajectories are logarithmic asymptotically

  5. Optimization and Model Validation of Operation Control Strategies for a Novel Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion Pure Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strict operational condition of driving motors for vehicles propels the development of more complicated configurations in pure electric vehicles (PEVs. Multi-power-source powertrain configurations are one of the efficient technologies to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of driving motors. However, most of the existing studies are predominantly focused on optimal designs of powertrains and power distribution between the engine and motor of hybrid electric vehicles, which are not appropriate for PEVs. This paper proposes a novel dual-motor coupling-propulsion powertrain system that improves the dynamic and economic performance of the powertrain system in PEVs. The proposed powertrain system can realize both the single-motor driving mode and dual-motor coupling driving mode. The driving modes are divided and a power distribution strategy for the different driving modes based on an optimal system efficiency rule is employed, which enhances the performance of the proposed system. Further, a mode-switching strategy that ensures driving comfort by preventing jerk during mode switching is incorporated into the system. The results of comparative evaluations that were conducted using a dual-motor electric vehicle model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, indicate that the mileage and dynamic performance of the proposed powertrain system are significantly better than those of the traditional single-motor powertrain system.

  6. Modeling knee joint endoprosthesis mode of deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeeba, V. Yu; Ivancivsky, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the work was to define the efficient design of the endoprosthesis, working in a multiple-cycle loading environment. Methodology and methods: triangulated surfaces of the base contact surfaces of endoprosthesis butt elements have been created using the PowerShape and SolidWorks software functional environment, and the assemblies of the possible combinations of the knee joint prosthetic designs have been prepared. The mode of deformation modeling took place in the multipurpose program complex ANSYS. Results and discussion: as a result of the numerical modeling, the following data were obtained for each of the developed knee joint versions: the distribution fields of absolute (total) and relative deformations; equivalent stress distribution fields; fatigue strength coefficient distribution fields. In the course of the studies, the following efficient design assembly has been established: 1) Ti-Al-V alloy composite femoral component with polymer inserts; 2) ceramic liners of the compound separator; 3) a Ti-Al-V alloy composite tibial component. The fatigue strength coefficient for the femoral component is 4.2; for the femoral component polymer inserts is 1.2; for the ceramic liners of the compound separator is 3.1; for the tibial component is 2.7. This promising endoprosthesis structure is recommended for further design and technological development.

  7. Field space entanglement entropy, zero modes and Lifshitz models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffel, Helmuth; Kelnhofer, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    The field space entanglement entropy of a quantum field theory is obtained by integrating out a subset of its fields. We study an interacting quantum field theory consisting of massless scalar fields on a closed compact manifold M. To this model we associate its Lifshitz dual model. The ground states of both models are invariant under constant shifts. We interpret this invariance as gauge symmetry and subject the models to proper gauge fixing. By applying the heat kernel regularization one can show that the field space entanglement entropies of the massless scalar field model and of its Lifshitz dual are agreeing.

  8. Field space entanglement entropy, zero modes and Lifshitz models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Huffel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The field space entanglement entropy of a quantum field theory is obtained by integrating out a subset of its fields. We study an interacting quantum field theory consisting of massless scalar fields on a closed compact manifold M. To this model we associate its Lifshitz dual model. The ground states of both models are invariant under constant shifts. We interpret this invariance as gauge symmetry and subject the models to proper gauge fixing. By applying the heat kernel regularization one can show that the field space entanglement entropies of the massless scalar field model and of its Lifshitz dual are agreeing.

  9. Functional Dual Adaptive Control with Recursive Gaussian Process Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüher, Jakub; Král, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with dual adaptive control problem, where the functional uncertainties in the system description are modelled by a non-parametric Gaussian process regression model. Current approaches to adaptive control based on Gaussian process models are severely limited in their practical applicability, because the model is re-adjusted using all the currently available data, which keeps growing with every time step. We propose the use of recursive Gaussian process regression algorithm for significant reduction in computational requirements, thus bringing the Gaussian process-based adaptive controllers closer to their practical applicability. In this work, we design a bi-criterial dual controller based on recursive Gaussian process model for discrete-time stochastic dynamic systems given in an affine-in-control form. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the proposed controller achieves comparable performance with the full Gaussian process-based controller in terms of control quality while keeping the computational demands bounded. (paper)

  10. Covalent Organic Framework Functionalized with 8-Hydroxyquinoline as a Dual-Mode Fluorescent and Colorimetric pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; He, Linwei; Ma, Fuyin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yaxing; Silver, Mark A; Chen, Lanhua; Zhu, Lin; Gui, Daxiang; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2018-05-09

    Real-time and accurate detection of pH in aqueous solution is of great significance in chemical, environmental, and engineering-related fields. We report here the use of 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized covalent organic framework (COF-HQ) for dual-mode pH sensing. In the fluorescent mode, the emission intensity of COF-HQ weakened as the pH decreased, and also displayed a good linear relationship against pH in the range from 1 to 5. In addition, COF-HQ showed discernible color changes from yellow to black as the acidity increased and can be therefore used as a colorimetric pH sensor. All these changes are reversible and COF-HQ can be recycled for multiple detection runs owing to its high hydrolytical stability. It can be further assembled into a mixed matrix membrane for practical applications.

  11. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  12. A dual-trace model for visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Marcus; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-11-01

    Visual sensory memory refers to a transient memory lingering briefly after the stimulus offset. Although previous literature suggests that visual sensory memory is supported by a fine-grained trace for continuous representation and a coarse-grained trace of categorical information, simultaneous separation and assessment of these traces can be difficult without a quantitative model. The present study used a continuous estimation procedure to test a novel mathematical model of the dual-trace hypothesis of visual sensory memory according to which visual sensory memory could be modeled as a mixture of 2 von Mises (2VM) distributions differing in standard deviation. When visual sensory memory and working memory (WM) for colors were distinguished using different experimental manipulations in the first 3 experiments, the 2VM model outperformed Zhang and Luck (2008) standard mixture model (SM) representing a mixture of a single memory trace and random guesses, even though SM outperformed 2VM for WM. Experiment 4 generalized 2VM's advantages of fitting visual sensory memory data over SM from color to orientation. Furthermore, a single trace model and 4 other alternative models were ruled out, suggesting the necessity and sufficiency of dual traces for visual sensory memory. Together these results support the dual-trace model of visual sensory memory and provide a preliminary inquiry into the nature of information loss from visual sensory memory to WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A Dual-Mode Large-Arrayed CMOS ISFET Sensor for Accurate and High-Throughput pH Sensing in Biomedical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Yu, Hao; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Yu; Yan, Mei; Wu, Dongping

    2015-09-01

    The existing ISFET-based DNA sequencing detects hydrogen ions released during the polymerization of DNA strands on microbeads, which are scattered into microwell array above the ISFET sensor with unknown distribution. However, false pH detection happens at empty microwells due to crosstalk from neighboring microbeads. In this paper, a dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor is proposed to have accurate pH detection toward DNA sequencing. Dual-mode sensing, optical and chemical modes, is realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor (CIS) with ISFET pH sensor, and is fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CIS process. With accurate determination of microbead physical locations with CIS pixel by contact imaging, the dual-mode sensor can correlate local pH for one DNA slice at one location-determined microbead, which can result in improved pH detection accuracy. Moreover, toward a high-throughput DNA sequencing, a correlated-double-sampling readout that supports large array for both modes is deployed to reduce pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity such as threshold voltage mismatch. The proposed CMOS dual-mode sensor is experimentally examined to show a well correlated pH map and optical image for microbeads with a pH sensitivity of 26.2 mV/pH, a fixed pattern noise (FPN) reduction from 4% to 0.3%, and a readout speed of 1200 frames/s. A dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor with suppressed FPN for accurate large-arrayed pH sensing is proposed and demonstrated with state-of-the-art measured results toward accurate and high-throughput DNA sequencing. The developed dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor has great potential for future personal genome diagnostics with high accuracy and low cost.

  14. Predicting sugar consumption: Application of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Trost, Nadine; Keech, Jacob J; Chan, Derwin K C; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-09-01

    Excess consumption of added dietary sugars is related to multiple metabolic problems and adverse health conditions. Identifying the modifiable social cognitive and motivational constructs that predict sugar consumption is important to inform behavioral interventions aimed at reducing sugar intake. We tested the efficacy of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model derived from multiple theories to predict sugar consumption. Using a prospective design, university students (N = 90) completed initial measures of the reflective (autonomous and controlled motivation, intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control), impulsive (implicit attitudes), volitional (action and coping planning), and behavioral (past sugar consumption) components of the proposed model. Self-reported sugar consumption was measured two weeks later. A structural equation model revealed that intentions, implicit attitudes, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption had small, significant effects on sugar consumption. Attitudes, subjective norm, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption predicted intentions. There were no effects of the planning constructs. Model effects were independent of the effects of past sugar consumption. The model identified the relative contribution of reflective and impulsive components in predicting sugar consumption. Given the prominent role of the impulsive component, interventions that assist individuals in managing cues-to-action and behavioral monitoring are likely to be effective in regulating sugar consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of clover detector in addback mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-07-01

    Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for modeling the clover germanium detector in addback mode and to predict its response for high energy γ-rays. In the present formalism, the operation of a bare clover detector could be described in terms of three quantities only. Considering an additional parameter, the formalism could be extended for suppressed clover. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as input, the peak-to-total ratio has been calculated for three energies (Eγ = 3.401, 5.324 and 10.430 MeV) where direct measurement of peak-to-total ratio is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. The experimental validation and consistency of the formalism have been shown considering data for TIGRESS clover detector. In a recent work (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008), we showed that for a given γ-ray energy, the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of number of detector modules. In the present paper, we have shown that for a given composite detector (clover detector is considered here), the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of γ-ray energy.

  16. Modeling of clover detector in addback mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for modeling the clover germanium detector in addback mode and to predict its response for high energy γ-rays. In the present formalism, the operation of a bare clover detector could be described in terms of three quantities only. Considering an additional parameter, the formalism could be extended for suppressed clover. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as input, the peak-to-total ratio has been calculated for three energies (E γ = 3.401, 5.324 and 10.430 MeV) where direct measurement of peak-to-total ratio is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. The experimental validation and consistency of the formalism have been shown considering data for TIGRESS clover detector. In a recent work (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008), we showed that for a given γ-ray energy, the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of number of detector modules. In the present paper, we have shown that for a given composite detector (clover detector is considered here), the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of γ-ray energy.

  17. Phenomenological model for H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.

    1985-08-01

    A phenomenological model has been developed to clarify the role of the boundary configuration in the heat transport of the H-mode regime. We assume that the dominant mechanism of heat loss at the edge of the plasma is convection and that the diffusion coefficient (D/sub edge/) at the edge of the plasma increases rapidly with plasma pressure, but drops to a low value when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold value. When particle refueling takes place without time delay, as in the case of a limiter discharge, the unfavorable temperature dependence of the D/sub edge/ prohibits even a modest rise of the edge temperature. In a divertor discharge, the particles lost from the closed surface are kept away from the edge region for a time comparable to or longer than the energy transport time in the edge region. Thus, rapid increase in the heat flux allows an excursion of the edge temperature to a higher value thereby reaching the threshold value of the H-transition

  18. In situ, dual-mode monitoring of organ-on-a-chip with smartphone-based fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohee; Islas-Robles, Argel; Nicolini, Ariana M; Monks, Terrence J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-12-15

    The use of organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms enables improved simulation of the human kidney's response to nephrotoxic drugs. The standard method of analyzing nephrotoxicity from existing OOC has majorly consisted of invasively collecting samples (cells, lysates, media, etc.) from an OOC. Such disruptive analyses potentiate contamination, disrupt the replicated in vivo environment, and require expertize to execute. Moreover, traditional analyses, including immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and microplate immunoassay are essentially not in situ and require substantial time, resources, and costs. In the present work, the incorporation of fluorescence nanoparticle immunocapture/immunoagglutination assay into an OOC enabled dual-mode monitoring of drug-induced nephrotoxicity in situ. A smartphone-based fluorescence microscope was fabricated as a handheld in situ monitoring device attached to an OOC. Both the presence of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) on the apical brush-border membrane of 786-O proximal tubule cells within the OOC surface, and the release of GGT to the outflow of the OOC were evaluated with the fluorescence scatter detection of captured and immunoagglutinated anti-GGT conjugated nanoparticles. This dual-mode assay method provides a novel groundbreaking tool to enable the internal and external in situ monitoring of the OOC, which may be integrated into any existing OOCs to facilitate their subsequent analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-04-27

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades.

  20. Giant Gold Nanowire Vesicle-Based Colorimetric and SERS Dual-Mode Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Jia, Yaru; Song, Xinxin; Lu, Jing; Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Baoqing; Han, Jiaojiao; Huang, Youju; Zhang, Jiawei; Chen, Tao

    2018-05-15

    Conventional methods for the detection of Vibrio parahemolyticus (VP) usually need tedious, labor-intensive processes, and have low sensitivity, which further limits their practical applications. Herein, we developed a simple and efficient colorimetry and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode immunosensor for sensitive detection of VP, by employing giant Au vesicles with anchored tiny gold nanowires (AuNW) as a smart probe. Due to the larger specific surface and special hollow structure of giant Au vesicles, silver staining would easily lead to vivid color change for colorimetric analysis and further amplify SERS signals. The t-test was further used to determine if two sets of data from colorimetry and SERS were significantly different from each other. The result shows that there was no significant difference between data from the two methods. Two sets of data can mutually validate each other and avoid false positive and negative detection. The designed colorimetry-SERS dual-mode sensor would be very promising in various applications such as food safety inspection, personal healthcare, and on-site environmental monitoring.

  1. Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.M.; Leite, R.V.; Landim, R.R.; Costa Filho, R.N.

    2014-01-01

    A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.

  2. Finiteness of PST self-dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Piguet, Olivier; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2000-12-01

    The Pasti-Sorokin-Tonin model for describing chiral forms is considered at the quantum level. We study the ultraviolet and infrared behaviour of the model in two, four and six dimensions in the framework of algebraic renormalization. The absence of anomalies, as well as the finiteness, up to non-physical renormalizations, are shown in all dimensions analyzed. (author)

  3. Dual Value Creation and Business Model Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    This ethnographic research explores the process of business model design in the context of an NGO internationalizing to an emerging market. It contributes to the business model literature by investigating how this NGO - targeting multiple key stakeholders - was experimenting (1) with value...

  4. Nonlinear simulation of tearing mode and m=1 kink mode based on kinetic RMHD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Yoshida, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Naitou, H.; Nagahara, H.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Itoh, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Tokuda, S.; Azumi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate dynamics of sawtooth oscillation and neoclassical tearing modes based on kinetic RMHD model, putting an emphasis on interaction with microscopic and transport processes. The simulation results show that the assumption in the conventional theory of neoclassical tearing mode is rather rude. (author)

  5. Comparing single- and dual-process models of memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Dunn, John C; Joubert, Amy; Taylor, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This experiment examined single-process and dual-process accounts of the development of visual recognition memory. The participants, 6-7-year-olds, 9-10-year-olds and adults, were presented with a list of pictures which they encoded under shallow or deep conditions. They then made recognition and confidence judgments about a list containing old and new items. We replicated the main trends reported by Ghetti and Angelini () in that recognition hit rates increased from 6 to 9 years of age, with larger age changes following deep than shallow encoding. Formal versions of the dual-process high threshold signal detection model and several single-process models (equal variance signal detection, unequal variance signal detection, mixture signal detection) were fit to the developmental data. The unequal variance and mixture signal detection models gave a better account of the data than either of the other models. A state-trace analysis found evidence for only one underlying memory process across the age range tested. These results suggest that single-process memory models based on memory strength are a viable alternative to dual-process models for explaining memory development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Novel control modes to improve the performance of rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xinming; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Cheng'an; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-10-01

    The rectilinear ion trap (RIT) has gradually become one of the preferred mass analyzers for portable mass spectrometers because of its simple configuration. In order to enhance the performance, including sensitivity, quantitation capability, throughput, and resolution, a novel RIT mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers was designed and characterized. The studied system constituted a quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) in the first chamber and a RIT in the second chamber. Two control modes are hereby proposed: Storage Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (SQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used at high pressure for ion storage and isolation, and the RIT was used for analysis; and Analysis Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (AQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used for ion storage and cooling. Subsequently, synchronous scanning and analysis were carried out by QLIT and RIT. In SQLIT-RIT mode, signal intensity was improved by a factor of 30; the limit of quantitation was reduced more than tenfold to 50 ng mL-1, and an optimal duty cycle of 96.4% was achieved. In AQLIT-RIT mode, the number of ions coexisting in the RIT was reduced, which weakened the space-charge effect and reduced the mass shift. Furthermore, the mass resolution was enhanced by a factor of 3. The results indicate that the novel control modes achieve satisfactory performance without adding any system complexity, which provides a viable pathway to guarantee good analytical performance in miniaturization of the mass spectrometer.

  7. High effective inverse dynamics modelling for dual-arm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haoyu; Liu, Yanli; Wu, Hongtao

    2018-05-01

    To deal with the problem of inverse dynamics modelling for dual arm robot, a recursive inverse dynamics modelling method based on decoupled natural orthogonal complement is presented. In this model, the concepts and methods of Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement matrices are used to eliminate the constraint forces in the Newton-Euler kinematic equations, and the screws is used to express the kinematic and dynamics variables. On this basis, the paper has developed a special simulation program with symbol software of Mathematica and conducted a simulation research on the a dual-arm robot. Simulation results show that the proposed method based on decoupled natural orthogonal complement can save an enormous amount of CPU time that was spent in computing compared with the recursive Newton-Euler kinematic equations and the results is correct and reasonable, which can verify the reliability and efficiency of the method.

  8. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.; Kirk, G. J. D.; Jones, D. L.; Wissuwa, M.; Roose, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional 'single porosity' models, this 'dual porosity' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Adler zero and the dual multiperipheral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, L.A.P.

    1978-01-01

    We show that the ππ → ππ Adler PCAC (partial conservation of axial-vector current) condition requires a Reggeon intercept α (0) approx. = 0.5 within a broad class of multiperipheral models at the planar and cylinder levels. In the planar approximation this is closely related to the cancellation of the Reggeon-Reggeon cut

  11. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  12. A tuneable, power efficient and narrow single longitudinal mode fibre ring laser using an inline dual-taper fibre Mach–Zehnder filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Dernaika, M; Alimadad, M; Ibrahim, M F; Lim, K S; Harun, S W; Kharraz, O M

    2014-01-01

    A tuneable single longitudinal mode fibre ring laser with dual-taper fibre filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. The single longitudinal mode operation, and power limitations for a Mach–Zehnder interferometer filter generated from a single mode fibre, are verified for the first time. Incorporating an in-line taper fibre Mach–Zehnder interferometer filter inside the laser ring cavity causes a spatial mode beating interference, resulting in a passive narrow band filter with the ability to generate stable single longitudinal modes. The single longitudinal mode achieves a side mode suppression ratio of more than 60 dB using low pump power. The tuneability of the fibre laser ranges from 1525 to 1562 nm using a passive band pass filter. A study of the stability and limitation of the single longitudinal mode in the Mach–Zehnder tapered fibre is also presented. (paper)

  13. A dual system model of preferences under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and Rottenstreich and Hsee (2001) among others, the DSM incorporates (a) individual differences in disposition to rational versus emotional decision making, (b) the affective nature of outcomes, and (c) different task construals within its framework. The model has good descriptive validity and accounts for (a) violation of nontransparent stochastic dominance, (b) fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, (c) ambiguity aversion, (d) common consequence effect, (e) common ratio effect, (f) isolation effect, and (g) coalescing and event-splitting effects. The DSM is also used to make several novel predictions of conditions under which specific behavior patterns may or may not occur.

  14. Charm production in the dual topological unitarization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The open and hidden charm hadroproduction has been traced up to the SPS energies in the framework of the dual parton model. The free parameter (the suppression of the charmed sea) comes from the experiments on D-meson hadroproduction. Then the hidden-charm production data are described assuming that the J/ψ-meson production suggests only one cc-bar pair in the string, while the pair ψψ production suggests two cc-bar pairs

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2017-10-31

    Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the "open loop sensitivity" of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  16. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the “open loop sensitivity” of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  17. Dual-Mode Gas Sensor Composed of a Silicon Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor and a Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator: A Case Study in Freons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a novel dual-mode gas sensor system which comprises a silicon nanoribbon field effect transistor (Si-NR FET and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR. We investigate their sensing characteristics using polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and demonstrate that polarity has a significant effect on the response of the Si-NR FET sensor, and only a minor effect on the FBAR sensor. In this dual-mode system, qualitative discrimination can be achieved by analyzing polarity with the Si-NR FET and quantitative concentration information can be obtained using a polymer-coated FBAR with a detection limit at the ppm level. The complementary performance of the sensing elements provides higher analytical efficiency. Additionally, a dual mixture of two types of freons (CFC-113 and HCFC-141b is further analyzed with the dual-mode gas sensor. Owing to the small size and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-compatibility of the system, the dual-mode gas sensor shows potential as a portable integrated sensing system for the analysis of gas mixtures in the future.

  18. An AdS3 dual for minimal model CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    We propose a duality between the 2d W N minimal models in the large N't Hooft limit, and a family of higher spin theories on AdS 3 . The 2d conformal field theories (CFTs) can be described as Wess-Zumino-Witten coset models, and include, for N=2, the usual Virasoro unitary series. The dual bulk theory contains, in addition to the massless higher spin fields, two complex scalars (of equal mass). The mass is directly related to the 't Hooft coupling constant of the dual CFT. We give convincing evidence that the spectra of the two theories match precisely for all values of the 't Hooft coupling. We also show that the renormalization group flows in the 2d CFT agree exactly with the usual AdS/CFT prediction of the gravity theory. Our proposal is in many ways analogous to the Klebanov-Polyakov conjecture for an AdS 4 dual for the singlet sector of large N vector models.

  19. Failure mode and effects analysis in a dual-product microsphere brachytherapy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Kelly Cooper; Lee, Choonik; Moran, Jean M; Feng, Mary; Novelli, Paula; Prisciandaro, Joann I

    We performed a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) during the addition of a new microspheres product into our existing microsphere brachytherapy program to identify areas for safety improvements. A diverse group of team members from the microsphere program participated in the project to create a process map, identify and score failure modes, and discuss programmatic changes to address the highest ranking items. We developed custom severity ranking scales for staff- and institution-related failure modes to encompass possible risks that may exist outside of patient-based effects. Between both types of microsphere products, 173 failure mode/effect pairs were identified: 90 for patients, 35 for staff, and 48 for the institution. The SIR-Spheres program was ranked separately from the TheraSphere program because of significant differences in workflow during dose calculation, preparation, and delivery. High-ranking failure modes in each category were addressed with programmatic changes. The FMEA aided in identifying potential risk factors in our microsphere program and allowed a theoretically safer and more efficient design of the workflow and quality assurance for both our new SIR-Spheres program and our existing TheraSphere program. As new guidelines are made available, and our experience with the SIR-Spheres program increases, we will update the FMEA as an efficient starting point for future improvements. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A quasistatic mixed-mode delamination model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Mantič, V.; Panagiotopoulos, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2013), s. 591-610 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rate-independent interface fracture * inelastic debonding * interface plasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=7907&mode=full

  1. Development of a micromechanical pitch-tunable grating with reflective/transmissive dual working modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yi-Ting; Yuan, Wei-Zheng; Li, Tai-Ping; Yan, Bin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical pitch-tunable grating with the capability of working in both reflective and transmissive modes is developed by using the silicon-on-glass (SOG) process. At a voltage of 65 V, the grating period is measured to increase by 4.62%. A simple optical experiment is performed to demonstrate how the proposed grating works in both modes. Then, experiments to measure the change of the diffraction angle versus driving voltage in both reflective and transmissive modes are designed and carried out utilizing an area-arrayed charge-coupled device (CCD), and the results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation. Discussions on the structural configuration and diffraction efficiency of the proposed grating are presented. The grating presented provides better flexibility in the design and development of application systems.

  2. Compact Microstrip Triple-Mode Bandpass Filters Using Dual-Stub-Loaded Spiral Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new microstrip triple-mode resonators loaded with T-shaped open stubs using axially and centrally symmetric spiral structures, respectively, are presented. Spiraled for circuit size reduction, these two half-wavelength resonators can both generate three resonant modes over a wide frequency band by loading two T-stubs with different lengths. Due to the structural symmetry, they can be analyzed by odd- and even-mode method. To validate the design concept, two compact bandpass filters (BPFs using these two novel resonators with center frequencies of 1.76 GHz and 2.44 GHz for the GSM1800 and WLAN/Zigbee applications, respectively, have been designed, fabricated and tested. The center frequencies and bandwidths can be tunable through the analysis of resonant frequency responses, fractional bandwidths and external quality factor versus the resonator parameters. The final measured results have achieved good consistence with the simulations of these two BPFs.

  3. Multiparticle production in a two-component dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Bopp, F.W.; Capella, A.; Kwiecinski, J.; Maire, M.; Ranft, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1992-01-01

    The dual parton model (DPM) describes soft and semihard multiparticle production. The version of the DPM presented in this paper includes soft and hard mechanisms as well as diffractive processes. The model is formulated as a Monte Carlo event generator. We calculate in this model, in the energy range of the hadron colliders, rapidity distributions and the rise of the rapidity plateau with the collision energy, transverse-momentum distributions and the rise of average transverse momenta with the collision energy, multiplicity distributions in different pseudorapidity regions, and transverse-energy distributions. For most of these quantities we find a reasonable agreement with experimental data

  4. Modeling of mode purity in high power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, S.Y.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Saraph, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Spurious mode generation at the same frequency of the operational mode in a high power gyrotron can significantly reduce the power handling capability and the stability of a gyrotron oscillator because these modes are usually not matched at the output window and thus have high absorption and reflection rates. To study the generation of this kind of mode, the authors developed a numerical model based on an existing multimode self-consistent time-dependent computer code. This model includes both TE and TM modes and accounts for mode transformations due to the waveguide inhomogeneity. With this new tool, they study the mode transformation in the gyrotron and the possibility of excitation of parasitic TE and TM modes in the up taper section due to the gyroklystron mechanism. Their preliminary results show moderate excitation of both TE and TM modes at the same frequency as the main operating mode at locations near their cutoff. Details of the model and further simulation results will be presented

  5. Interacting-string picture of dual-resonance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1985-01-01

    Dual-resonance models are an alyzed by means of operators which act within the physical Hilbert space of positive-metric states. The basis of the method is to extend the relativistic-string picture of a previous study to interacting particles. Functional methods are used, but their relation to the operator is evident, and factorization is maintained. An expression is given for the N-point amplitude in terms of physical-particle operators. For the three-point function the Neumann functions which occur in this expression are evaluated, so that we have a formula for the on- and off-energy-shell vertex. The authors assume that the string has no longitudinal degrees of freedom, and their results are Lorentz invariant and dual only if d=26

  6. Development and Operation of Dual-Mode Analyzers for Wireless Power Consortium/Power Matters Alliance Wireless Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a protocol analyzer to be used in wireless power systems and analyzed the operation of wireless chargers defined by standards of Qi of Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) and Power Matters Alliance (PMA) protocols. The integrated circuit (IC, or microchip) developed so far for wireless power transmission is not easily adopted by chargers for specific purposes. A device for measuring the performance of test equipment currently available is required to transform and expand the types of protocol. Since a protocol analyzer with these functions is required, we have developed a device that can analyze the two protocols of WPC and PMA at the same time. As a result of our research, we present a dual-mode system that can analyze the protocols of both WPC and PMA.

  7. Ultrafast spectral dynamics of dual-color-soliton intracavity collision in a mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Li, Bowen; Wei, Xiaoming; Yu, Ying; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The single-shot spectral dynamics of dual-color-soliton collisions inside a mode-locked laser is experimentally and numerically investigated. By using the all-optically dispersive Fourier transform, we spectrally unveil the collision-induced soliton self-reshaping process, which features dynamic spectral fringes over the soliton main lobe, and the rebuilding of Kelly sidebands with wavelength drifting. Meanwhile, the numerical simulations validate the experimental observation and provide additional insights into the physical mechanism of the collision-induced spectral dynamics from the temporal domain perspective. It is verified that the dynamic interference between the soliton and the dispersive waves is responsible for the observed collision-induced spectral evolution. These dynamic phenomena not only demonstrate the role of dispersive waves in the sophisticated soliton interaction inside the laser cavity, but also facilitate a deeper understanding of the soliton's inherent stability.

  8. Thermal Equilibrium Dynamic Control Based on DPWM Dual-Mode Modulation of High Power NPC Three-Level Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhou Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In some special applications of NPC three-level inverters, such as mine hoist, there exist special conditions of overloading during the whole hoisting process and large overload in starting stage, during which the power-loss calculation of power devices and thermal control are important factors affecting the thermal stability of inverters. The principles of SVPWM and DPWM were described in this paper firstly, based on which the dynamic power losses of the two modulations of hoist in single period were calculated. Secondly, a thermal equilibrium dynamic control based on DPMW dual-mode modulation was proposed, which can switch the modulation dynamically according to the change of dynamic power loss to realize dynamic control of power loss and thermal equilibrium of inverter. Finally, simulation and experiment prove the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  9. Development of an Advanced Digital Reactor Protection System Using Diverse Dual Processors to Prevent Common-Mode Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Kook; Nam, Sang Ku; Sohn, Se Do; Chang, Hoon Seon

    2003-01-01

    The advanced digital reactor protection system (ADRPS) with diverse dual processors has been developed to prevent common-mode failure (CMF). The principle of diversity is applied to both hardware design and software design. For hardware diversity, two different types of CPUs are used for the bistable processor and local coincidence logic (LCL) processor. The Versa Module Eurocard-based single board computers are used for the CPU hardware platforms. The QNX operating system and the VxWorks operating system were selected for software diversity. Functional diversity is also applied to the input and output modules, and to the algorithm in the bistable processors and LCL processors. The characteristics of the newly developed digital protection system are described together with the preventive capability against CMF. Also, system reliability analysis is discussed. The evaluation results show that the ADRPS has a good preventive capability against the CMF and is a highly reliable reactor protection system

  10. Design of a search and rescue terminal based on the dual-mode satellite and CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junping; Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Bing; Zhou, Yubin; Song, Hao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Meikui; Liu, Tongze; Zhou, Li

    2010-12-01

    The current goal is to create a set of portable terminals with GPS/BD2 dual-mode satellite positioning, vital signs monitoring and wireless transmission functions. The terminal depends on an ARM processor to collect and combine data related to vital signs and GPS/BD2 location information, and sends the message to headquarters through the military CDMA network. It integrates multiple functions as a whole. The satellite positioning and wireless transmission capabilities are integrated into the motherboard, and the vital signs sensors used in the form of belts communicate with the board through Bluetooth. It can be adjusted according to the headquarters' instructions. This kind of device is of great practical significance for operations during disaster relief, search and rescue of the wounded in wartime, non-war military operations and other special circumstances.

  11. Software verification and validation methodology for advanced digital reactor protection system using diverse dual processors to prevent common mode failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ki Chang; Shin, Hyun Kook; Lee, Nam Hoon; Baek, Seung Min; Kim, Hang Bae

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Digital Reactor Protection System (ADRPS) with diverse dual processors is being developed by the National Research Lab of KOPEC for ADRPS development. One of the ADRPS goals is to develop digital Plant Protection System (PPS) free of Common Mode Failure (CMF). To prevent CMF, the principle of diversity is applied to both hardware design and software design. For the hardware diversity, two different types of CPUs are used for Bistable Processor and Local Coincidence Logic Processor. The VME based Single Board Computers (SBC) are used for the CPU hardware platforms. The QNX Operating System (OS) and the VxWorks OS are used for software diversity. Rigorous Software Verification and Validation (V and V) is also required to prevent CMF. In this paper, software V and V methodology for the ADRPS is described to enhance the ADRPS software reliability and to assure high quality of the ADRPS software

  12. Pad-mode-induced instantaneous mode instability for simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-10-01

    Automotive disc brake squeal is fugitive, transient and remains difficult to predict. In particular, instantaneous mode squeal observed experimentally does not seem to be associated with mode coupling and its mechanism is not clear. The effects of contact pressures, friction coefficients as well as material properties (pressure and temperature dependency and anisotropy) for brake squeal propensity have not been systematically explored. By analysing a finite element model of an isotropic pad sliding on a plate similar to that of a previously reported experimental study, pad modes have been identified and found to be stable using conventional complex eigenvalue analysis. However, by subjecting the model to contact pressure harmonic excitation for a range of pressures and friction coefficients, a forced response analysis reveals that the dissipated energy for pad modes is negative and becomes more negative with increasing contact pressures and friction coefficients, indicating the potential for instabilities. The frequency of the pad mode in the sliding direction is within the range of squeal frequencies observed experimentally. Nonlinear time series analysis of the vibration velocity also confirms the evolution of instabilities induced by pad modes as the friction coefficient increases. By extending this analysis to a more realistic but simple brake model in the form of a pad-on-disc system, in-plane pad-modes, which a complex eigenvalue analysis predicts to be stable, have also been identified by negative dissipated energy for both isotropic and anisotropic pad material properties. The influence of contact pressures on potential instabilities has been found to be more dominant than changes in material properties owing to changes in pressure or temperature. Results here suggest that instantaneous mode squeal is likely caused by in-plane pad-mode instabilities.

  13. Dual source multidetector CT-angiography before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using a high-pitch spiral acquisition mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, W.; Anders, K.; May, M.S.; Uder, M. [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schuhbaeck, A.; Gauss, S.; Marwan, M.; Arnold, M.; Muschiol, G.; Daniel, W.G.; Achenbach, S. [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Ensminger, S. [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to surgical valve replacement in high risk patients. Angiography of the aortic root, aorta and iliac arteries is required to select suitable candidates, but contrast agents can be harmful due to impaired renal function. We evaluated ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral dual source Computed Tomography (CT) with minimized volume of contrast agent to assess aortic root anatomy and vascular access. 42 patients (82 {+-} 6 years) scheduled for TAVI underwent dual source (DS) CT angiography (CTA) of the aorta using a prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral mode (pitch = 3.4) with 40 mL iodinated contrast agent. We analyzed aortic root/iliac dimensions, attenuation, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), image noise and radiation exposure. Aortic root/iliac dimensions and distance of coronary ostia from the annulus could be determined in all cases. Mean aortic and iliac artery attenuation was 320 {+-} 70 HU and 340 {+-} 77 HU. Aortic/iliac CNR was 21.7 {+-} 6.8 HU and 14.5 {+-} 5.4 HU using 100 kV (18.8 {+-} 4.1 HU and 8.7 {+-} 2.6 HU using 120 kV). Mean effective dose was 4.5 {+-} 1.2 mSv. High-pitch spiral DSCTA can be used to assess the entire aorta and iliac arteries in TAVI candidates with a low volume of contrast agent while preserving diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  14. Observation of stable bound soliton with dual-wavelength in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yu; Tian Jin-Rong; Dong Zi-Kai; Xu Run-Qin; Li Ke-Xuan; Song Yan-Rong

    2017-01-01

    A phase-locked bound state soliton with dual-wavelength is observed experimentally in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber (EDF) laser with a fiber loop mirror (FLM). The pulse duration of the soliton is 15 ps and the peak-to-peak separation is 125 ps. The repetition rate of the pulse sequence is 3.47 MHz. The output power is 11.8 mW at the pump power of 128 mW, corresponding to the pulse energy of 1.52 nJ. The FLM with a polarization controller can produce a comb spectrum, which acts as a filter. By adjusting the polarization controller or varying the pump power, the central wavelength of the comb spectrum can be tuned. When it combines with the reflective spectrum of the fiber Bragg grating, the total spectrum of the cavity can be cleaved into two parts, then the bound state soliton with dual-wavelength at 1549.7 nm and 1550.4 nm is obtained. (paper)

  15. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  16. Dual-channel amplification in a single-mode diode laser for multi-isotope laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, James L.; Van Dongen, Janelle; Lebel, Paul; Klappauf, Bruce G.; Madison, Kirk W.

    2007-01-01

    The output from two grating-stabilized external-cavity diode lasers were injected into a single-mode diode laser. Operating at a wavelength of 780 nm, this laser produced ∼50 mW of power with two main frequency components of the same spectral characteristics of the seed lasers. The power ratio of the amplified components was freely adjustable due to gain saturation, and amplification was observed for frequency differences of the two seed lasers in the range from 73 MHz to 6.6 GHz. This system was used to realize a dual isotope magneto-optic trap (MOT) for rubidium ( 85 Rb and 87 Rb). The resulting position and cloud size of the dual isotope MOT was the same as that of the single species MOTs to within ±10 and ±20 μm, respectively. We also characterized the additional spectral components produced by four wave mixing (FWM) in the diode laser amplifier and utilized a particular FWM sideband to realize hyperfine pumping and subsequent laser trapping of 85 Rb in the absence of a 'repump' laser dedicated to hyperfine pumping

  17. Bend-insensitive single-mode photonic crystal fiber with ultralarge effective area for dual applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Alam, M. Shah

    2013-05-01

    A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having circular arrangement of cladding air holes has been designed and numerically optimized to obtain a bend insensitive single mode fiber with large mode area for both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application. The bending loss of the proposed bent PCF lies in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 dB/turn or lower over 1300 to 1700 nm, and 2 × 10-4 dB/turn at the wavelength of 1550 nm for a 30-mm bend radius with a higher order mode (HOM) cut-off frequency below 1200 nm for WDM application. When the whole structure of the PCF is scaled down, a bending loss of 6.78×10-4 dB/turn at 1550 nm for a 4-mm bend radius is obtained, and the loss remains in the order of 10-4 dB/turn over the same range of wavelength with an HOM cut-off frequency below 700 nm, and makes the fiber useful for FTTH applications. Furthermore, this structure is also optimized to show a splice loss near zero for fusion-splicing to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF).

  18. Animacroxam, a Novel Dual-Mode Compound Targeting Histone Deacetylases and Cytoskeletal Integrity of Testicular Germ Cell Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Gustav; Dittmer, Alexandra; Kuzyniak, Weronika; Hoffmann, Björn; Schrader, Mark; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard; Nitzsche, Bianca; Höpfner, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Novel approaches for the medical treatment of advanced solid tumors, including testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), are desperately needed. Especially, TGCT patients not responding to cisplatin-based therapy need therapeutic alternatives, as there is no effective medical treatment available for this particular subgroup. Here, we studied the suitability of the novel dual-mode compound animacroxam for TGCT treatment. Animacroxam consists of an HDAC-inhibitory hydroxamate moiety coupled to a 4,5-diarylimidazole with inherent cytoskeleton disrupting potency. Animacroxam revealed pronounced antiproliferative, cell-cycle arresting, and apoptosis-inducing effects in TGCT cell lines with different cisplatin sensitivities. The IC 50 values of animacroxam ranged from 0.22 to 0.42 μmol/L and were not correlated to the cisplatin sensitivity of the tumor cells. No unspecific cytotoxicity of animacroxam was observed in either cisplatin-sensitive or resistant TGCT cells, even at doses as high as 10 μmol/L. Furthermore, animacroxam induced the formation of actin stress fibers in cancer cells, thereby confirming the cytoskeleton-disrupting and antimigratory properties of its imidazole moiety. When compared with the clinically established HDAC inhibitor vorinostat, the novel dual-mode compound animacroxam exhibited superior antitumoral efficacy in vitro Animacroxam also reduced the tumor size of TGCT tumors in vivo , as evidenced by performing xenograft experiments on tumor bearing chorioallantoic membranes of fertilizes chicken eggs (CAM assay). The in vivo experiments also revealed a very good tolerability of the compound, and hence, animacroxam may be a promising candidate for innovative treatment of TGCT in general and the more so for platinum-insensitive or refractory TGCT. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2364-74. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Solar g-modes? Comparison of detected asymptotic g-mode frequencies with solar model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzannah Rebecca; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Mussack, Katie; Bradley, Paul A.

    2018-06-01

    After many years of searching for solar gravity modes, Fossat et al. (2017) reported detection of the nearly equally spaced high-order g-modes periods using a 15-year time series of GOLF data from the SOHO spacecraft. Here we report progress towards and challenges associated with calculating and comparing g-mode period predictions for several previously published standard solar models using various abundance mixtures and opacities, as well as the predictions for some non-standard models incorporating early mass loss, and compare with the periods reported by Fossat et al (2017). Additionally, we have a side-by-side comparison of results of different stellar pulsation codes for calculating g-mode predictions. These comparisons will allow for testing of nonstandard physics input that affect the core, including an early more massive Sun and dynamic electron screening.

  20. Dual coding: a cognitive model for psychoanalytic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, W

    1985-01-01

    Four theories of mental representation derived from current experimental work in cognitive psychology have been discussed in relation to psychoanalytic theory. These are: verbal mediation theory, in which language determines or mediates thought; perceptual dominance theory, in which imagistic structures are dominant; common code or propositional models, in which all information, perceptual or linguistic, is represented in an abstract, amodal code; and dual coding, in which nonverbal and verbal information are each encoded, in symbolic form, in separate systems specialized for such representation, and connected by a complex system of referential relations. The weight of current empirical evidence supports the dual code theory. However, psychoanalysis has implicitly accepted a mixed model-perceptual dominance theory applying to unconscious representation, and verbal mediation characterizing mature conscious waking thought. The characterization of psychoanalysis, by Schafer, Spence, and others, as a domain in which reality is constructed rather than discovered, reflects the application of this incomplete mixed model. The representations of experience in the patient's mind are seen as without structure of their own, needing to be organized by words, thus vulnerable to distortion or dissolution by the language of the analyst or the patient himself. In these terms, hypothesis testing becomes a meaningless pursuit; the propositions of the theory are no longer falsifiable; the analyst is always more or less "right." This paper suggests that the integrated dual code formulation provides a more coherent theoretical framework for psychoanalysis than the mixed model, with important implications for theory and technique. In terms of dual coding, the problem is not that the nonverbal representations are vulnerable to distortion by words, but that the words that pass back and forth between analyst and patient will not affect the nonverbal schemata at all. Using the dual code

  1. Dual representation of item positions in verbal short-term memory: Evidence for two access modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Elke B; Verhaeghen, Paul; Cerella, John

    Memory sets of N = 1~5 digits were exposed sequentially from left-to-right across the screen, followed by N recognition probes. Probes had to be compared to memory list items on identity only (Sternberg task) or conditional on list position. Positions were probed randomly or in left-to-right order. Search functions related probe response times to set size. Random probing led to ramped, "Sternbergian" functions whose intercepts were elevated by the location requirement. Sequential probing led to flat search functions-fast responses unaffected by set size. These results suggested that items in STM could be accessed either by a slow search-on-identity followed by recovery of an associated location tag, or in a single step by following item-to-item links in study order. It is argued that this dual coding of location information occurs spontaneously at study, and that either code can be utilised at retrieval depending on test demands.

  2. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves. PMID:19058148

  3. Age differences in dual information-processing modes: implications for cancer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-12-15

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making, as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. The authors examined evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, reviewed the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making, and introduced how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves.

  4. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-11-13

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device.

  5. Experimental Lamb mode identification in a plate containing a hole using dual signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Youbi, Faysal El; Moulin, Emmanuel; Leyla, Najib Abou

    2008-01-01

    The identification of Lamb mode amplitude variation as a function of the damage evolution is still the most difficult step in the process of damage monitoring using embedded Lamb wave-based systems. The aim of this paper is to propose a simple system based on the generation of two different frequencies in order to better identify Lamb mode amplitude and to avoid false data interpretation in plates containing a hole of variable diameter. This identification is based on a simple relation between the short-time Fourier transform and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Experimentally, a 3 mm thick aluminium plate is used and the two frequencies have been chosen equal to 400 kHz and 600 kHz in order to generate the two first fundamental Lamb waves

  6. Hyaluronic acid-modified manganese-chelated dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles for the targeted CT/MR dual-mode imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhi; Luo, Yu; Yang, Shuohui; Lin, Jiang; Gao, Dongmei; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jinguo; Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. The early and effective diagnosis has always been desired. Herein, we present the preparation and characterization of hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) targeting CD44 receptor-expressing cancer cells for computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) dual-mode imaging. We first modified amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5.NH2) with an Mn chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI), and HA. Then, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were entrapped within the above raw product, denoted as G5.NH2-FI-DOTA-HA. The designed multifunctional NPs were formed after further Mn chelation and purification and were denoted as {(Au0)100G5.NH2-FI-DOTA(Mn)-HA}. These NPs were characterized via several different techniques. We found that the {(Au0)100G5.NH2-FI-DOTA(Mn)-HA} NPs exhibited good water dispersibility, stability under different conditions, and cytocompatibility within a given concentration range. Because both AuNPs and Mn were present in the product, {(Au0)100G5.NH2-FI-DOTA(Mn)-HA} displayed a high X-ray attenuation intensity and favorable r1 relaxivity, which are advantageous properties for targeted CT/MR dual-mode imaging. This approach was used to image HCC cells in vitro and orthotopically transplanted HCC tumors in a unique in vivo model through the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. This work introduces a novel strategy for preparing multifunctional NPs via dendrimer nanotechnology.

  7. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-31

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  8. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Shen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN, electronic-thermal noise (ETN, flicker noise (FN and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN. The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF. There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  9. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Jiménez, Angel David; Clemente Pesudo, Pedro Javier; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis Sáez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD...

  10. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical

  11. Dual processing model of medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Beckstead, Jason; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Pauker, Stephen G

    2012-09-03

    Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. We show that physician's beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker's threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the

  12. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to

  13. Effect of engine load and biogas flow rate to the performance of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel (dieselbiogas) mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has released a target on reduction Green Houses Gases emissions (GHG) by 26% from level business-as-usual by 2020, and the target can be up to 41% by international supports. In the energy sector, this target can be reached effectively by promoting fossil fuel replacement or blending with biofuel. One of the potential solutions is operating compression ignition (CI) engine in dual-fuel (diesel-biogas) mode. In this study effects of engine load and biogas flow rate on the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel mode are investigated. In the present study, the used biogas is refined with methane content 70% of volume. The objectives are to explore the optimum operating condition of the CI engine run in dual-fuel mode. The experiments are performed on a four-strokes CI engine with rated output power of 4.41 kW. The engine is tested at constant speed 1500 rpm. The engine load varied from 600W to 1500W and biogas flow rate varied from 0 L/min to 6 L/min. The results show brake thermal efficiency of the engine run in dual-fuel mode is better than pure diesel mode if the biogas flow rates are 2 L/min and 4 L/min. It is recommended to operate the present engine in a dual-fuel mode with biogas flow rate of 4 L/min. The consumption of diesel fuel can be replaced up to 50%.

  14. Application of rrm as behavior mode choice on modelling transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, M. S.; Sadullah, A. F.

    2018-03-01

    Transportation mode selection, the first step in transportation planning process, is probably one of the most important planning elements. The development of models that can explain the preference of passengers regarding their chosen mode of public transport option will contribute to the improvement and development of existing public transport. Logit models have been widely used to determine the mode choice models in which the alternative are different transport modes. Random Regret Minimization (RRM) theory is a theory developed from the behavior to choose (choice behavior) in a state of uncertainty. During its development, the theory was used in various disciplines, such as marketing, micro economy, psychology, management, and transportation. This article aims to show the use of RRM in various modes of selection, from the results of various studies that have been conducted both in north sumatera and western Java.

  15. Simple model with damping of the mode-coupling instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestrikov, D V [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1996-08-01

    In this paper we use a simple model to study the suppression of the transverse mode-coupling instability. Two possibilities are considered. One is due to the damping of particular synchrobetatron modes, and another - due to Landau damping, caused by the nonlinearity of betatron oscillations. (author)

  16. Dual Mode Sensing with Low-Profile Piezoelectric Thin Wafer Sensors for Steel Bridge Crack Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of fatigue cracking in steel bridges is of high interest to many bridge owners and agencies. Due to the variety of deterioration sources and locations of bridge defects, there is currently no single method that can detect and address the potential sources globally. In this paper, we presented a dual mode sensing methodology integrating acoustic emission and ultrasonic wave inspection based on the use of low-profile piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS. After introducing the research background and piezoelectric sensing principles, PWAS crack detection in passive acoustic emission mode is first presented. Their acoustic emission detection capability has been validated through both static and compact tension fatigue tests. With the use of coaxial cable wiring, PWAS AE signal quality has been improved. The active ultrasonic inspection is conducted by the damage index and wave imaging approach. The results in the paper show that such an integration of passive acoustic emission detection with active ultrasonic sensing is a technological leap forward from the current practice of periodic and subjective visual inspection and bridge management based primarily on history of past performance.

  17. Multi-longitudinal-mode micro-laser model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staliunas, Kestutis

    2017-10-01

    We derive a convenient model for broad aperture micro-lasers, such as microchip lasers, broad area semiconductor lasers, or VCSELs, taking into account several longitudinal mode families. We provide linear stability analysis, and show characteristic spatio-temporal dynamics in such multi-longitudinal mode laser models. Moreover, we derive the coupled mode model in the presence of intracavity refraction index modulation (intracavity photonic crystal). Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  18. Study on Complex Advertising and Price Competition Dual-Channel Supply Chain Models Considering the Overconfidence Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how the manufacturers make decisions when two manufacturers compete for local advertising investment, we examine two noncooperative models (Stackelberg and Nash game and propose a cost sharing contract to investigate channel competition of dual-channel supply chain. The dominant power between manufacturer and retailer and the effect of channel competition strategy on price are mainly discussed. In addition, dynamic system concepts are integrated into Stackelberg game model based on bounded rational mechanism. We analyze the local stability and find that the stability level of the dual-channel supply chains depends crucially on the price adjustment speed, the level of demand uncertainty, and the risk preference. The outcome shows that, under the master-slave game model, the profits of manufacturers are greater than that under decentralized decision-making mode, and the profits of retailers under master-slave game model are less than that under decentralized decision-making mode. The profits of manufacturers and retailers in the stable region are greater than that in unstable region. Finally, the delay feedback control method is utilized and effectively controls the chaotic behavior of dual-channel supply chain model. The results have theoretical and practical significance for the game models in terms of advertising and price competition.

  19. An effort to enhance hydrogen energy share in a compression ignition engine under dual-fuel mode using low temperature combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 energy share increased from 18% with DDM to 36% with WDM (water injection). • H 2 energy share improved marginally with retarded injection timing mode (RDM). • Energy efficiency increased with increasing amount of H 2 in dual-fuel engine. • NO x emission decreased with water injection and retarded pilot fuel injection. • HC, CO and smoke emissions increased slightly with low temperature combustion. - Abstract: A limited hydrogen (H 2 ) energy share due to knocking is the major hurdle for effective utilization of H 2 in compression ignition (CI) engines under dual-fuel operation. The present study aims at improvement of H 2 energy share in a 7.4 kW direct injection CI engine under dual-fuel mode with two low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies; (i) retarded pilot fuel injection timing and (ii) water injection. Experiments were carried out under conventional strategies of diesel dual-fuel mode (DDM) and B20 dual-fuel mode (BDM); and LTC strategies of retarded injection timing dual-fuel mode (RDM) and water injected dual-fuel mode (WDM). The results explored that the H 2 energy share increased significantly from 18% with conventional DDM to 24, and 36% with RDM, and WDM respectively. The energy efficiency increased with increasing H 2 energy share under dual-fuel operation; however, for a particular energy share of 18% H 2 , it decreased from 34.8% with DDM to 33.7% with BDM, 32.7% with WDM and 29.9% with RDM. At 18% H 2 energy share, oxides of nitrogen emission decreased by 37% with RDM and 32% with WDM as compared to conventional DDM due to reduction of in-cylinder temperature, while it increased slightly about 5% with BDM. It is emerged from the study that water injection technique is the viable option among all other strategies to enhance the H 2 energy share in the engine with a slight penalty of increase in smoke, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions

  20. A dual-mode mobile phone microscope using the onboard camera flash and ambient light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, A; Wilson, E R; Thompson, J G; Gibson, B C

    2018-02-19

    Mobile phone microscopes are a natural platform for point-of-care imaging, but current solutions require an externally powered illumination source, thereby adding bulk and cost. We present a mobile phone microscope that uses the internal flash or sunlight as the illumination source, thereby reducing complexity whilst maintaining functionality and performance. The microscope is capable of both brightfield and darkfield imaging modes, enabling microscopic visualisation of samples ranging from plant to mammalian cells. We describe the microscope design principles, assembly process, and demonstrate its imaging capabilities through the visualisation of unlabelled cell nuclei to observing the motility of cattle sperm and zooplankton.

  1. Pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and physiological spread-of-excitation using Cochlear's dual-electrode mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Jenny L; Neff, Donna L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Hughes, Michelle L

    2014-08-01

    This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d' scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs.

  2. Component mode synthesis methods applied to 3D heterogeneous core calculations, using the mixed dual finite element solver MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LENR, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous core calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions: in the first one (Component Mode Synthesis method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (Factorized Component Mode Synthesis method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well-fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher order angular approximations - particularly easily to a SPN approximation - the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with UOX and MOX assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  3. Component mode synthesis methods applied to 3D heterogeneous core calculations, using the mixed dual finite element solver MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous core calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions: in the first one (Component Mode Synthesis method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (Factorized Component Mode Synthesis method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well-fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher order angular approximations - particularly easily to a SPN approximation - the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with UOX and MOX assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  4. Covariant introduction of quark spin into the dual resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iroshnikov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A very simple method of insertion of a quark spin into the dual resonance model of hadron interaction is proposed. The method is suitable for amplitudes with an arbitrary number of particles. The amplitude of interaction of real particles is presented as a product of contribution of oscillatory excitations in the (q anti q) system and of a spin factor. The latter is equal to the trace of the product of the external particle wave functions constructed from structural quarks and satisfying the relativistic Bargman-Wigner equations. Two examples of calculating the meson interaction amplitudes are presented

  5. Nonscaling parametrization of hadronic spectra and dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    Using the popular Wdowczyk-Wolfendale parametrization (WW-parametrization) as an example one studies restrictions imposed by a dual parton model for different nonscaling parametrizations of the pulsed hadron spectra in soft hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclear interactions. One derived a new parametrization free from basic drawback of the WW-formulae. In the central range the determined parametrization show agreement with the Wdowczyk-Wolfendale formula, but in contrast to the last-named one it does not result in contradiction with the experiment due to fast reduction of inelastic factor reduction with energy increase [ru

  6. Conical Refraction: new observations and a dual cone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovskii, G S; Carnegie, D J; Kalkandjiev, T K; Rafailov, E U

    2013-05-06

    We propose a paraxial dual-cone model of conical refraction involving the interference of two cones of light behind the exit face of the crystal. The supporting experiment is based on beam selecting elements breaking down the conically refracted beam into two separate hollow cones which are symmetrical with one another. The shape of these cones of light is a product of a 'competition' between the divergence caused by the conical refraction and the convergence due to the focusing by the lens. The developed mathematical description of the conical refraction demonstrates an excellent agreement with experiment.

  7. Light curing through glass ceramics: effect of curing mode on micromechanical properties of dual-curing resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate micromechanical properties of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes including light curing through glass ceramic materials. Vickers hardness (VH) and indentation modulus (Y HU) of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA were measured after 1 week of storage (37 °C, 100 % humidity). The resin cements were tested following self-curing or light curing with the second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit Elipar FreeLight 2 in Standard Mode (1,545 mW/cm(2)) or with the third-generation LED curing unit VALO in High Power Mode (1,869 mW/cm(2)) or in XtraPower Mode (3,505 mW/cm(2)). Light curing was performed directly or through glass ceramic discs of 1.5 or 3 mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. VH and Y HU were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). RelyX Unicem 2 Automix resulted in the highest VH and Y HU followed by BeautiCem SA, BisCem, SpeedCEM, and finally Panavia F2.0. Self-curing of RelyX Unicem 2 Automix and SpeedCEM lowered VH and Y HU compared to light curing whereas self-curing of Panavia F2.0, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA led to similar or significantly higher VH and Y HU compared to light curing. Generally, direct light curing resulted in similar or lower VH and Y HU compared to light curing through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. Light curing through 3-mm-thick discs of IPS e.max CAD generally reduced VH and Y HU for all resin cements except SpeedCEM, which was the least affected by light curing through ceramic discs. The resin cements responded heterogeneously to changes in curing mode. The applied irradiances and light curing times adequately cured the resin cements even through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. When light curing resin cements through thick glass ceramic restorations, clinicians should consider to prolong the light curing times even with LED curing units providing high

  8. Dual degree partnership in nursing: an innovative undergraduate educational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastable, Susan B; Markowitz, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    We report the success of a unique articulation Dual Degree Partnership in Nursing (DDPN) model. The process used to establish and implement this approach is described. Unlike typical 2+2 agreements between associate degree (AD) and bachelor degree (BS) nursing education programs, the DDPN is designed with a 1+2+1 sequence. Intended to attract high school students, this model provides the opportunity to earn two degrees (AD and BS) while experiencing a 4-year campus living and learning environment. This configuration was accomplished without compromising the integrity of either of the established programs. After collecting data over the past 6 years, this model demonstrates popularity with the traditional-aged student, as well as success from an academic perspective. Statistics on retention, graduation, and NCLEX® pass rates indicate the feasibility and success of the model. Based on the findings, the potential for replication is promising for other colleges interested in a similar collaboration. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Intake Transparent Transpired Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Semenou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in several types of commercial or institutional buildings, a significant rise of transpired solar collectors used to preheat the fresh air of the building can be observed. Nevertheless, when the air mass flow rate is low, the collector efficiency collapses and a large amount of energy remains unused. This paper presents a simple yet effective mathematical model of a transparent transpired solar collector (TTC with dual intake in order to remove stagnation problems in the plenum and ensure a better thermal efficiency and more heat recovery. A thermal model and a pressure loss model were developed. Then, the combined model was validated with experimental data from the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC. The results show that the collector efficiency can be up to 70% and even 80% regardless of operating conditions. The temperature gain is able to reach 20°K when the solar irradiation is high.

  10. Lipid characterization of individual porcine oocytes by dual mode DESI-MS and data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirro, Valentina; Oliveri, Paolo; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; González-Serrano, Andrés Felipe; Machaty, Zoltan; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Repeated analysis by DESI(±)-MS of intact single oocytes for lipid characterization. • Deployment of a data fusion strategy to merge positive and negative ion mode data. • Enhanced interpretation of metabolic changes by more efficient analysis of spectral data. • Discovery of increased fatty acid metabolism and membrane complexity during maturation. • Assistance in the improvement of in vitro embryo production for porcine species. - Abstract: The development of sensitive measurements to analyze individual cells is of relevance to elucidate specialized roles or metabolic functions of each cell under physiological and pathological conditions. Lipids play multiple and critical roles in cellular functions and the application of analytical methods in the lipidomics area is of increasing interest. In this work, in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes was studied. Two independent sources of chemical information (represented by mass spectra in the positive and negative ion modes) from single oocytes (immature oocytes, 24-h and 44-h in vitro matured oocytes) were acquired by using desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). Low and mid-level data fusion strategies are presented with the aim of better exploring the large amount of chemical information contained in the two mass spectrometric lipid profiles. Data were explored by principal component analysis (PCA) within the two multi-block approaches to include information on free fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol-related molecules, di- and triacylglycerols. After data fusion, clearer differences among immature and in vitro matured porcine oocytes were observed, which provide novel information regarding lipid metabolism throughout oocyte maturation. In particular, changes in TAG composition, as well as increase in fatty acid metabolism and membrane complexity were evidenced during the in vitro maturation process. This information can assist the improvement of in vitro embryo

  11. A general mixed boundary model reduction method for component mode synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voormeeren, S N; Van der Valk, P L C; Rixen, D J

    2010-01-01

    A classic issue in component mode synthesis (CMS) methods is the choice for fixed or free boundary conditions at the interface degrees of freedom (DoF) and the associated vibration modes in the components reduction base. In this paper, a novel mixed boundary CMS method called the 'Mixed Craig-Bampton' method is proposed. The method is derived by dividing the substructure DoF into a set of internal DoF, free interface DoF and fixed interface DoF. To this end a simple but effective scheme is introduced that, for every pair of interface DoF, selects a free or fixed boundary condition for each DoF individually. Based on this selection a reduction basis is computed consisting of vibration modes, static constraint modes and static residual flexibility modes. In order to assemble the reduced substructures a novel mixed assembly procedure is developed. It is shown that this approach leads to relatively sparse reduced matrices, whereas other mixed boundary methods often lead to full matrices. As such, the Mixed Craig-Bampton method forms a natural generalization of the classic Craig-Bampton and more recent Dual Craig-Bampton methods. Finally, the method is applied to a finite element test model. Analysis reveals that the proposed method has comparable or better accuracy and superior versatility with respect to the existing methods.

  12. A discussion of mode choice models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    Artiklen diskuterer matematiske modeller for transportmiddelvalg med særlig fokus på modeller, der bygger på nyttefunktioner. I kapitel 3 refereres til et begrænset eksperiment, der viste at den sædvanlige lineære nyttefunktion ikke er tilstrækkelig til at beskrive selv en meget simpel valgsituat...

  13. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Paddy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. Discussion Parallel dual processing models of reasoning posit two cognitive modes of information processing that are in constant operation as humans reason. One mode has been described as experiential, fast and heuristic; the other as rational, conscious and rule based. Within such models, the uptake of new research evidence can be represented by the latter mode; it is reflective, explicit and intentional. On the other hand, well practiced clinical judgments can be positioned in the experiential mode, being automatic, reflexive and swift. Research suggests that individual differences between people in both cognitive capacity (e.g., intelligence and cognitive processing (e.g., thinking styles influence how both reasoning modes interact. This being so, it is proposed that these same differences between doctors may moderate the uptake of new research evidence. Such dispositional characteristics have largely been ignored in research investigating effective strategies in implementing research evidence. Whilst medical decision-making occurs in a complex social environment with multiple influences and decision makers, it remains true that an individual doctor's judgment still retains a key position in terms of diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients. This paper argues therefore, that individual differences between doctors in terms of

  14. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Ruth M; Phillips, Paddy A; Bond, Malcolm J

    2006-05-25

    A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. Parallel dual processing models of reasoning posit two cognitive modes of information processing that are in constant operation as humans reason. One mode has been described as experiential, fast and heuristic; the other as rational, conscious and rule based. Within such models, the uptake of new research evidence can be represented by the latter mode; it is reflective, explicit and intentional. On the other hand, well practiced clinical judgments can be positioned in the experiential mode, being automatic, reflexive and swift. Research suggests that individual differences between people in both cognitive capacity (e.g., intelligence) and cognitive processing (e.g., thinking styles) influence how both reasoning modes interact. This being so, it is proposed that these same differences between doctors may moderate the uptake of new research evidence. Such dispositional characteristics have largely been ignored in research investigating effective strategies in implementing research evidence. Whilst medical decision-making occurs in a complex social environment with multiple influences and decision makers, it remains true that an individual doctor's judgment still retains a key position in terms of diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients. This paper argues therefore, that individual differences between doctors in terms of reasoning are important considerations in any

  15. Dual energy CT at the synchrotron: A piglet model for neurovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Kelly, Michael E.; Nemoz, Christian; Fiedler, Stefan; Ogieglo, Lissa; Crawford, Paul; Paterson, Jessica; Beavis, Cole; Esteve, Francois; Brochard, Thierry; Renier, Michel; Requardt, Herwig; Dallery, Dominique; Le Duc, Geraldine; Meguro, Kotoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although the quality of imaging techniques available for neurovascular angiography in the hospital environment has significantly improved over the last decades, the equipment used for clinical work is not always suited for neurovascular research in animal models. We have previously investigated the suitability of synchrotron-based K-edge digital subtraction angiography (KEDSA) after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent for neurovascular angiography in radiography mode in both rabbit and pig models. We now have used the KEDSA technique for the acquisition of three-dimensional images and dual energy CT. Materials and methods: All experiments were conducted at the biomedical beamline ID 17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). A solid state germanium (Ge) detector was used for the acquisition of image pairs at 33.0 and 33.3 keV. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed from an image series containing 60 single images taken throughout a full rotation of 360 o . CT images were reconstructed from two half-acquisitions with 720 projections each. Results: The small detector field of view was a limiting factor in our experiments. Nevertheless, we were able to show that dual energy CT using the KEDSA technique available at ID 17 is suitable for neurovascular research in animal models.

  16. Dual energy CT at the synchrotron: a piglet model for neurovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Kelly, Michael E; Nemoz, Christian; Fiedler, Stefan; Ogieglo, Lissa; Crawford, Paul; Paterson, Jessica; Beavis, Cole; Esteve, Francois; Brochard, Thierry; Renier, Michel; Requardt, Herwig; Dallery, Dominique; Le Duc, Geraldine; Meguro, Kotoo

    2011-08-01

    Although the quality of imaging techniques available for neurovascular angiography in the hospital environment has significantly improved over the last decades, the equipment used for clinical work is not always suited for neurovascular research in animal models. We have previously investigated the suitability of synchrotron-based K-edge digital subtraction angiography (KEDSA) after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent for neurovascular angiography in radiography mode in both rabbit and pig models. We now have used the KEDSA technique for the acquisition of three-dimensional images and dual energy CT. All experiments were conducted at the biomedical beamline ID 17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). A solid state germanium (Ge) detector was used for the acquisition of image pairs at 33.0 and 33.3 keV. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed from an image series containing 60 single images taken throughout a full rotation of 360°. CT images were reconstructed from two half-acquisitions with 720 projections each. The small detector field of view was a limiting factor in our experiments. Nevertheless, we were able to show that dual energy CT using the KEDSA technique available at ID 17 is suitable for neurovascular research in animal models. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Nonlinear defect localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in one-dimensional waveguide arrays with dual-flip defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guan, Yefeng; Li, Hai; Luo, Zhihuan; Mai, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    We study families of stationary nonlinear localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in a one-dimensional linear waveguide array with dual phase-flip nonlinear point defects. Unstaggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are studied when the defect nonlinearity is self-focusing. For the fundamental modes, symmetric and asymmetric nonlinear modes are found. Their stable areas are studied using different defect coefficients and their total power. For the nonlinear dipole modes, the stability conditions of this type of mode are also identified by different defect coefficients and the total power. When the defect nonlinearity is replaced by the self-defocusing one, staggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are created. Finally, if we replace the linear waveguide with a full nonlinear waveguide, a new type of gray and anti-gray solitons, which are constructed by a kink and anti-kink pair, can be supported by such dual phase-flip defects. In contrast to the usual gray and anti-gray solitons formed by a single kink, their backgrounds on either side of the gray hole or bright hump have the same phase.

  18. Improved dual sided doped memristor: modelling and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Shrivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor as a novel and emerging electronic device having vast range of applications suffer from poor frequency response and saturation length. In this paper, the authors present a novel and an innovative device structure for the memristor with two active layers and its non-linear ionic drift model for an improved frequency response and saturation length. The authors investigated and compared the I–V characteristics for the proposed model with the conventional memristors and found better results in each case (different window functions for the proposed dual sided doped memristor. For circuit level simulation, they developed a SPICE model of the proposed memristor and designed some logic gates based on hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor memristive logic (memristor ratioed logic. The proposed memristor yields improved results in terms of noise margin, delay time and dynamic hazards than that of the conventional memristors (single active layer memristors.

  19. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco H. Visser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulating-type (or integrating-type NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s, the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed.

  20. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernandez, J. A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; López-Callejas, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Muñoz-Castro, A.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results.

  1. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Fernandez, J A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Muñoz-Castro, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results. (paper)

  2. Micrococcus luteus mediated dual mode synthesis of gold nanoparticles: involvement of extracellular α-amylase and cell wall teichuronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Pichaimani; Thanalakshmi, Muthukrishnan; Kumar, Priyadarsini; Premkumar, Kumpati

    2013-03-01

    In the present study we have utilized the bioreductive potential of Micrococcus luteus for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Biochemical and physiological analysis indicate that the biosynthesized GNPs were achieved by dual mode, involving extracellular α-amylase and cell wall teichuronic acid (TUA) of M. luteus. The biosynthetic potential of both α-amylase and TUA, after isolation from bacterium, was examined. Under optimum conditions, these biomolecules reduces Au(3+) into Au(0) and the resulting GNPs were found to be stable for 1 month. The synthesized GNPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results demonstrated that the synthesized GNPs were found to be monodispersive and spherical in shape with an average size of ∼6 nm and ∼50 nm for α-amylase and teichuronic acid, respectively. These findings suggest that M. luteus can be exploited as a potential biosource for the eco-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RADIOISOTOPE-DRIVEN DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR CUBESAT-SCALE PAYLOADS TO THE OUTER PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. D. Jerred; T. M. Howe; S. D. Howe; A. Rajguru

    2014-02-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (approximately 1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. Thus, in effect, allows for beneficial exploration to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO.

  4. NIR optimized dual mode photoluminescence in Nd doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukul, Prasenjit Prasad; Mahata, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Kaushal, E-mail: kumar.bhu@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    Authors here report the dual mode photo luminescence emission in neodymium doped yttrium oxide ceramic phosphor upon 808 nm diode laser excitation. Single cubic phase Nd{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} phosphor was synthesized using urea assisted combustion route. Nd{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic phosphor has given photoluminescence in a wide wavelength range covering near infrared window (850–1100 nm) to the visible region i.e. green (525 nm) and red (680 nm) upon 808 nm diode laser excitation. The two most intense bands on 808 nm excitation were observed at 750 nm and 1064 nm due to the upconversion and downconversion emission processes. The sample was also tested for emission using 980 nm and intense green emission due to the trace presence of Er{sup 3+} in the raw materials was seen in the sample. The excitation power dependent upconversion measurements have shown that transitions {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} are thermally coupled and can be used to estimate the sample temperature using Boltzmann relation.

  5. Effect of curing modes of dual-curing core systems on microtensile bond strength to dentin and formation of an acid-base resistant zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Ikeda, Masaomi; Chen, Jihua; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) of two dualcuring core systems to dentin using four curing modes. Sixty-four caries-free human molars were randomly divided into two groups according to two dual-curing resin core systems: (1) Clearfil DC Core Automix; (2) Estelite Core Quick. For each core system, four different curing modes were applied to the adhesive and core resin: (1) dual-cured and dual-cured (DD); (2) chemically cured and dual-cured (CD); (3) dual-cured and chemically cured (DC); (4) chemically cured and chemically cured (CC). The specimens were sectioned into sticks (n = 20 for each group) for the microtensile bond test. μTBS data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Dunnett T3 test. Failure patterns were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the proportion of each mode. Dentin sandwiches were produced and subjected to an acid-base challenge. After argon-ion etching, the ultrastructure of ABRZ was observed using SEM. For Clearfil DC Core Automix, the μTBS values in MPa were as follows: DD: 29.1 ± 5.4, CD: 21.6 ± 5.6, DC: 17.9 ± 2.8, CC: 11.5 ± 3.2. For Estelite Core Quick, they were: DD: 48.9 ±5.7, CD: 20.5 ± 4.7, DC: 41.4 ± 8.3, CC: 19.1 ± 6.0. The bond strength was affected by both material and curing mode, and the interaction of the two factors was significant (p < 0.001). Within both systems, there were significant differences among groups, and the DD group showed the highest μTBS (p < 0.05). ABRZ morphology was not affected by curing mode, but it was highly adhesive-material dependent. The curing mode of dual-curing core systems affects bond strength to dentin, but has no significant effect on the formation of ABRZ.

  6. Glioma-targeting micelles for optical/magnetic resonance dual-mode imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Q

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Qing Zhou,1,* Ketao Mu,2,* Lingyu Jiang,1 Hui Xie,3 Wei Liu,1 Zhengzheng Li,1 Hui Qi,1 Shuyan Liang,1 Huibi Xu,1 Yanhong Zhu,1 Wenzhen Zhu,2 Xiangliang Yang11National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, 2Radiology Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Information Processing, China Patent Information Center, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Surgical resection is the primary mode for glioma treatment, while gross total resection is difficult to achieve, due to the invasiveness of the gliomas. Meanwhile, the tumor-resection region is closely related to survival rate and life quality. Therefore, we developed optical/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI bifunctional targeted micelles for glioma so as to delineate the glioma location before and during operation. The micelles were constructed through encapsulation of hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs with polyethylene glycol-block-polycaprolactone (PEG-b-PCL by using a solvent-evaporation method, and modified with a near-infrared fluorescent probe, Cy5.5, in addition to the glioma-targeting ligand lactoferrin (Lf. Being encapsulated by PEG-b-PCL, the hydrophobic SPIONs dispersed well in phosphate-buffered saline over 4 weeks, and the relaxivity (r2 of micelles was 215.4 mM–1·s–1, with sustained satisfactory fluorescent imaging ability, which might have been due to the interval formed by PEG-b-PCL for avoiding the fluorescence quenching caused by SPIONs. The in vivo results indicated that the nanoparticles with Lf accumulated efficiently in glioma cells and prolonged the duration of hypointensity at the tumor site over 48 hours in the MR image compared to the nontarget group. Corresponding with the MRI results, the margin of the glioma was clearly demarcated in the fluorescence image

  7. A Plasma Based OES-CRDS Dual-mode Portable Spectrometer for Trace Element Detection: Emission and Ringdown Measurements of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan; Wang, Chuji

    2012-10-01

    Design and development of a plasma based optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode portable spectrometer for in situ monitoring of trace elements is described. A microwave plasma torch (MPT) has been utilized, which serves both as an atomization and excitation source for the two modes, viz. OES and CRDS, of the spectrometer. Operation of both modes of the instrument is demonstrated with initial measurements of elemental mercury (Hg). A detection limit of 44 ng mL-1 for Hg at 253.65 nm was determined with the emission mode of the instrument. Severe radiation trapping of 253.65 nm line hampers the measurement of Hg in higher concentration region (> 50 μg ml-1). Therefore, a different wavelength, 365.01 nm, is suggested to measure Hg in that region. Ringdown measurements of the metastable 6s6p ^3P0 state of Hg in the plasma using a 404.65 nm palm size diode laser was conducted to demonstrate the CRDS mode of the instrument. Along with being portable, dual-mode, and self-calibrated, the instrument is capable of measuring a wide range of concentration ranging from sub ng mL-1 to several μg ml-1 for a number of elements.

  8. A dual resonance model for high energy electroweak reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jean-Francois

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an original model for the weak interaction at high energy (about 1 TeV) that is inspired from resonance dual models established for hadron physics. The first chapter details the basis and assumptions of the standard model. The second chapter deals with various scenarios that go beyond the standard model and that involve a strong interaction and a perturbative approach to assess coupling. The third chapter is dedicated to the main teachings of hadron physics concerning resonances, the model of Regge poles and the concept of duality. We present our new model in the fourth chapter, we build a scenario in which standard fermions and the 3 massive gauge bosons would have a sub-structure alike that of hadrons. In order to give non-null values to the width of resonances we use the K matrix method, we describe this method in the last chapter and we apply it for the computation of the width of the Z 0 boson. Our model predicts a large spectra of states particularly with the 143-up-lets of ff-bar states. The K matrix method has allowed us to compute amplitudes for helicity, then to collapse them in amplitudes invariant with SU(2) and to project these amplitudes in partial waves of helicity. For most resonances partial widths are very low compared to their mass

  9. Lumped model for rotational modes in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2012-10-16

    We present a lumped model for the rotational modes induced by the rotational motion of individual scatterers in two-dimensional phononic crystals comprised of square arrays of solid cylindrical scatterers in solid hosts. The model provides a physical interpretation of the origin of the rotational modes, reveals the important role played by the rotational motion in determining the band structure, and reproduces the dispersion relations in a certain range. The model increases the possibilities of manipulating wave propagation in phononic crystals. In particular, expressions derived from the model for eigenfrequencies at high symmetry points unambiguously predict the presence of a new type of Dirac-like cone at the Brillouin center, which is found to be the result of accidental degeneracy of the rotational and dipolar modes.

  10. Lumped model for rotational modes in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    We present a lumped model for the rotational modes induced by the rotational motion of individual scatterers in two-dimensional phononic crystals comprised of square arrays of solid cylindrical scatterers in solid hosts. The model provides a physical interpretation of the origin of the rotational modes, reveals the important role played by the rotational motion in determining the band structure, and reproduces the dispersion relations in a certain range. The model increases the possibilities of manipulating wave propagation in phononic crystals. In particular, expressions derived from the model for eigenfrequencies at high symmetry points unambiguously predict the presence of a new type of Dirac-like cone at the Brillouin center, which is found to be the result of accidental degeneracy of the rotational and dipolar modes.

  11. A lumped model for rotational modes in periodic solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Asiri, Sharefa M.; Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    We present a lumped model to study the rotational modes in a type of two-dimensional periodic solid composites comprised of a square array of rubber-coated steel cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model captures the physical essence of rotational modes in such systems for various combinations of material parameters, and, therefore it is able to describe the transition behaviour when the system is gradually adjusted from an elastic metamaterial to an elastic phononic crystal. From the model, we can define a transition zone which separates the typical elastic metamaterials and the phononic crystals.

  12. A lumped model for rotational modes in periodic solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2013-10-01

    We present a lumped model to study the rotational modes in a type of two-dimensional periodic solid composites comprised of a square array of rubber-coated steel cylinders embedded in an epoxy matrix. The model captures the physical essence of rotational modes in such systems for various combinations of material parameters, and, therefore it is able to describe the transition behaviour when the system is gradually adjusted from an elastic metamaterial to an elastic phononic crystal. From the model, we can define a transition zone which separates the typical elastic metamaterials and the phononic crystals.

  13. MODELING OF TRACTION SYNCHRONOUS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vas’kovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of electromagnetic field for simulating operational modes of traction synchronous motors with permanent magnets intended for electric vehicles is developed. The mathematical model takes into account real-time rotor rotation and allows calculating and analyzing the motor basic running characteristics as time functions.

  14. Dual deep modeling: multi-level modeling with dual potencies and its formalization in F-Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Bernd; Schuetz, Christoph G; Jeusfeld, Manfred A; Schrefl, Michael

    2018-01-01

    An enterprise database contains a global, integrated, and consistent representation of a company's data. Multi-level modeling facilitates the definition and maintenance of such an integrated conceptual data model in a dynamic environment of changing data requirements of diverse applications. Multi-level models transcend the traditional separation of class and object with clabjects as the central modeling primitive, which allows for a more flexible and natural representation of many real-world use cases. In deep instantiation, the number of instantiation levels of a clabject or property is indicated by a single potency. Dual deep modeling (DDM) differentiates between source potency and target potency of a property or association and supports the flexible instantiation and refinement of the property by statements connecting clabjects at different modeling levels. DDM comes with multiple generalization of clabjects, subsetting/specialization of properties, and multi-level cardinality constraints. Examples are presented using a UML-style notation for DDM together with UML class and object diagrams for the representation of two-level user views derived from the multi-level model. Syntax and semantics of DDM are formalized and implemented in F-Logic, supporting the modeler with integrity checks and rich query facilities.

  15. Multi-Mode Electric Actuator Dynamic Modelling for Missile Fin Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimashankar Gurav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral acceleration (LATAX performance. This paper aims to integrate a generic DC fin actuator model with dual-mode feedforward and feedback control for tail-controlled missiles in conjunction with the autopilot system design. Moreover, the characteristics of the actuator torque information in relation to the aerodynamic fin loading for given missile trim velocities are also provided. The novelty of this paper is the integration of the missile LATAX autopilot states and actuator states including the motor torque, position and angular velocity. The advantage of such an approach is the parametric analysis and suitability of the fin actuator in relation to the missile lateral acceleration dynamic behaviour.

  16. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    strikes a balance between simple tire models that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions and computationally intensive models that...strikes a balance between heuristic tire models (such as a linear point-follower) that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris

  17. Component mode synthesis methods for 3-D heterogeneous core calculations applied to the mixed-dual finite element solver MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A.M.; Lautard, J.J.; Van Criekingen, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous three-dimensional calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis (CMS) technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions. In the first one (the CMS method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (factorized CMS method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher-order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher-order angular approximations-particularly easily to an SPN approximation-the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with uranium dioxide and mixed oxide assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  18. Meso-Scale Modelling of Deformation, Damage and Failure in Dual Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Sarraf, Iman

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, offer high ductility, formability, and strength, as well as high strength-to-weight ratio and improved crash resistance. Dual phase steels belong to a family of high strength grades which consist of martensite, responsible for strengthening, distributed in a ductile ferrite matrix which accommodates the deformation throughout the forming process. It has been shown that the predominant damage mechanism and failure in DP steels depends on the ferrite and martensite grain sizes and their morphology, and can range from a mixture of brittle and ductile rupture to completely ductile rupture in a quasi-static uniaxial tension test. In this study, a hybrid finite element cellular automata model, initially proposed by Anton Shterenlikht (2003), was developed to evaluate the forming behaviour and predict the onset of instability and damage evolution in a dual phase steel. In this model, the finite element constitutive model is used to represent macro-level strain gradients and a damage variable, and two different cell arrays are designed to represent the ductile and brittle fracture modes in meso-scale. In the FE part of the model, a modified Rousselier ductile damage model is developed to account for nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Also, several rate-dependent hardening models were developed and evaluated to describe the work hardening flow curve of DP600. Based on statistical analysis and simulation results, a modified Johnson-Cook (JC) model and a multiplicative combination of the Voce-modified JC functions were found to be the most accurate hardening models. The developed models were then implemented in a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT) for ABAQUS/Explicit finite element simulation software to simulate uniaxial tension tests at strain rates ranging from 0.001 1/s to 1000 1/s, Marciniak tests, and electrohydraulic free-forming (EHFF

  19. Uncertainty in dual permeability model parameters for structured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of dual permeability models (DPM) to predict contaminant transport is contingent upon measured or inversely estimated soil hydraulic and solute transport parameters. The difficulty in unique identification of parameters for the additional macropore- and matrix-macropore interface regions, and knowledge about requisite experimental data for DPM has not been resolved to date. Therefore, this study quantifies uncertainty in dual permeability model parameters of experimental soil columns with different macropore distributions (single macropore, and low- and high-density multiple macropores). Uncertainty evaluation is conducted using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (AMCMC) and conventional Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithms while assuming 10 out of 17 parameters to be uncertain or random. Results indicate that AMCMC resolves parameter correlations and exhibits fast convergence for all DPM parameters while MH displays large posterior correlations for various parameters. This study demonstrates that the choice of parameter sampling algorithms is paramount in obtaining unique DPM parameters when information on covariance structure is lacking, or else additional information on parameter correlations must be supplied to resolve the problem of equifinality of DPM parameters. This study also highlights the placement and significance of matrix-macropore interface in flow experiments of soil columns with different macropore densities. Histograms for certain soil hydraulic parameters display tri-modal characteristics implying that macropores are drained first followed by the interface region and then by pores of the matrix domain in drainage experiments. Results indicate that hydraulic properties and behavior of the matrix-macropore interface is not only a function of saturated hydraulic conductivity of the macroporematrix interface (Ksa) and macropore tortuosity (lf) but also of other parameters of the matrix and macropore domains.

  20. An optical channel modeling of a single mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Neda; Liu, Peng; Hall, Trevor James

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the optical channel model that accurately describes the single mode fibre as a coherent transmission medium is reviewed through analytical, numerical and experimental analysis. We used the numerical modelling of the optical transmission medium and experimental measurements to determine the polarization drift as a function of time for a fixed length of fibre. The probability distribution of the birefringence vector was derived, which is associated to the 'Poole' equation. The theory and experimental evidence that has been disclosed in the literature in the context of polarization mode dispersion - Stokes & Jones formulations and solutions for key statistics by integration of stochastic differential equations has been investigated. Besides in-depth definition of the single-mode fibre-optic channel, the modelling which concerns an ensemble of fibres each with a different instance of environmental perturbation has been analysed.

  1. Finite element modeling of trolling-mode AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has overcome many imaging problems in liquid environments by considerably reducing the liquid-resonator interaction forces. The finite element model of the TR-AFM resonator considering the effects of fluid and nanoneedle flexibility is presented in this research, for the first time. The model is verified by ABAQUS software. The effect of installation angle of the microbeam relative to the horizon and the effect of fluid on the system behavior are investigated. Using the finite element model, frequency response curve of the system is obtained and validated around the frequency of the operating mode by the available experimental results, in air and liquid. The changes in the natural frequencies in the presence of liquid are studied. The effects of tip-sample interaction on the excitation of higher order modes of the system are also investigated in air and liquid environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Murine Tumor Models of Breast Adenocarcinoma by Continuous Dual-Frequency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hoshang Barati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acoustic transient cavitation is the primary mechanism of sonochemical reaction and has potential use for tumor treatment. In this study, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of simultaneous dual-frequency ultrasound at low-level intensity (ISATA < 6 W/cm2 was investigated in a spontaneous murine model of breast adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: Forty tumor bearing mice were divided into four groups (10 in each group. The treated groups received 15 or 30 minutes of combined dual-frequency ultrasound in continuous mode (1 MHzcon + 150 kHzcon respectively. The control and the sham groups contained the untreated mice. The tumor growth delay parameters including tumor volume, relative tumor volume, T5 and T2 (the needed time for each tumor to reach 5 and 2 times the initial tumor volume, respectively, survival period and percent of tumor growth inhibition ratio were measured on different days after treatment. Results: The results showed that the 30 min treatment was effective in tumor growth delay and percent of tumor growth inhibitory ratio compared to the sham and the control groups. The tumor volume growth and relative volume of tumors in the same treated group showed an anti-tumor effect relative to the sham and the control groups. There was a significant difference in tumor volume growth between this 30 min treatment group and the sham group 12 days after treatment (p-value

  3. Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D

    2008-08-01

    Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.

  4. Cultural differences of a dual-motivation model on health risk behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohtomo, S.; Hirose, Y.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the cultural differences of a dual-motivation model of unhealthy risk behaviour in the Netherlands and Japan. Our model assumes dual motivations involved in unhealthy eating behaviour, a behavioural willingness that leads behaviour unintentionally or subconsciously and a

  5. Intracranial dual-mode IVUS and hyperthermia using circular arrays: preliminary experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Light, Edward; Herickhoff, Carl; Grant, Gerald; Britz, Gavin; Wilson, Christy; Palmeri, Mark; Smith, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using 3.5-Fr (3 Fr = 1 mm) circular phased-array intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters for minimally invasive, image-guided hyperthermia treatment of tumors in the brain. Feasibility was demonstrated in two ways: (1) by inserting a 3.5-Fr IVUS catheter through skull burr holes, for 20 MHz brain imaging in the pig model, and (2) by testing a modified circular array for therapy potential with 18.5-MHz and 9-MHz continuous wave (CW) excitation. The imaging transducer's performance was superior to our previous 9-MHz mechanical IVUS prototype. The therapy catheter transducer was driven by CW electrical power at 18.5 MHz, achieving temperature changes reaching +8°C at a depth of 2 mm in a human glioblastoma grown on the flank of a mouse with minimal transducer resistive heating of +2°C. Further hyperthermia trials showed that 9-MHz CW excitation produced temperature changes of +4.5°C at a depth of 12 mm-a sufficient temperature rise for our long-term goal of targeted, controlled drug release via thermosensitive liposomes for therapeutic treatment of 1-cm-diameter glioblastomas.

  6. Dual Mode Fluorophore-Doped Nickel Nitrilotriacetic Acid-Modified Silica Nanoparticles Combine Histidine-Tagged Protein Purification with Site-Specific Fluorophore Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeyakumar, M.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first example of a fluorophore-doped nickel chelate surface- modified silica nanoparticle that functions in a dual mode, combining histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling. Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-doped silica nanoparticles, estimated to contain 700–900 TMRs per ca. 23-nm particle, were surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), producing TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni+2. Silica-embedded TMR retains very high quantum yield, is resistant to quenc...

  7. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvili, M S; Du, L; Heck, M J R; Nötzel, R; Smit, M K; Bente, E A J M

    2012-03-26

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two lobes provide a coherent bandwidth and are verified to lead to two synchronized optical pulses. The generated optical pulses are elongated in time due to a chirp which shows opposite signs over the two spectral lobes. Self-induced mode-locking in the single-section laser shows that the dual-wavelength spectra correspond to emission from ground state. In the hybrid mode-locking regime, a map of locking range is presented by measuring the values of timing jitter for several values of power and frequency of the external electrical modulating signal. An overview of the systematic behavior of InAs/InP(100) quantum dot mode-locked lasers is presented as conclusion.

  8. Remote heterodyne millimeter-wave over fiber based OFDM-PON with master-to-slave injected dual-mode colorless FPLD pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-08-24

    A remote heterodyne millimeter-wave (MMW) carrier at 47.7 GHz over fiber synthesized with the master-to-slave injected dual-mode colorless FPLD pair is proposed, which enables the future connection between the wired fiber-optic 64-QAM OFDM-PON at 24 Gb/s with the MMW 4-QAM OFDM wireless network at 2 Gb/s. Both the single- and dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pairs are compared to optimize the proposed 64-QAM OFDM-PON. For the unamplified single-mode master, the slave colorless FPLD successfully performs the 64-QAM OFDM data at 24 Gb/s with EVM, SNR and BER of 8.5%, 21.5 dB and 2.9 × 10(-3), respectively. In contrast, the dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pair with amplified and unfiltered master can transmit 64-QAM OFDM data at 18 Gb/s over 25-km SMF to provide EVM, SNR and BER of 8.2%, 21.8 dB and 2.2 × 10(-3), respectively. For the dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pair, even though the modal dispersion occurred during 25-km SMF transmission makes it sacrifice the usable OFDM bandwidth by only 1 GHz, which guarantees the sufficient encoding bitrate for the optically generated MMW carrier to implement the fusion of MMW wireless LAN and DWDM-PON with cost-effective and compact architecture. As a result, the 47.7-GHz MMW carrier remotely beat from the dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pair exhibits an extremely narrow bandwidth of only 0.48 MHz. After frequency down-conversion operation, the 47.7-GHz MMW carrier successfully delivers 4-QAM OFDM data up to 2 Gb/s with EVM, SNR and BER of 33.5%, 9.51 dB and 1.4 × 10(-3), respectively.

  9. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eHutchins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production.

  10. Dual-mode T_1 and T_2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Ahmad, Md Wasi; Lee, Gang Ho; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    A new type of dual-mode T_1 and T_2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd"3"+ ("8S_7_/_2) plays an important role in T_1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy"3"+ ("6H_1_5_/_2) has the potential to be used in T_2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy_2O_3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd"3"+ and Dy"3"+ and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T_1 and T_2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (d_a_v_g = 1.0 nm) showed large r_1 and r_2 values (r_2/r_1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R_1 and R_2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T_1 and T_2 MR images. (paper)

  11. Dyon Condensation and Dual Superconductivity in Abelian Higgs Model of QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rajput

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the effective action for dyonic field in Abelian projection of QCD, it has been demonstrated that any charge (electrical or magnetic of dyon screens its own direct potential to which it minimally couples and antiscreens the dual potential leading to dual superconductivity in accordance with generalized Meissner effect. Taking the Abelian projection of QCD, an Abelian Higgs model, incorporating dual superconductivity and confinement, has been constructed and its representation has been obtained in terms of average of Wilson loop.

  12. Mesonic quasinormal modes of the Sakai-Sugimoto model at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nick; Threlfall, Ed

    2008-01-01

    We examine the mesonic thermal spectrum of the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD by finding the quasinormal frequencies of the supergravity dual. If flavor is added using D8-D8 branes there exist embeddings where the D-brane world volume contains a black hole. For these embeddings (the high-temperature phase of the Sakai-Sugimoto model) we determine the quasinormal spectra of scalar and vector mesons arising from the world volume Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of the D-brane. We stress the importance of a coordinate change that makes the infalling quasinormal modes regular at the horizon allowing a simple numerical shooting technique. Finally we examine the effect of finite spatial momentum on quasinormal spectra

  13. Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control - Part II: Laboratory Proof-of-Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has shown that when all loss mechanisms are neglected the constant power speed range (CPSR) of a brushless dc motor (BDCM) is infinite when the motor is driven by the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC)[1,2]. In a physical drive, losses, particularly speed-sensitive losses, will limit the CPSR to a finite value. In this paper we report the results of laboratory testing of a low-inductance, 7.5-hp BDCM driven by the DMIC. The speed rating of the test motor rotor limited the upper speed of the testing, and the results show that the CPSR of the test machine is greater than 6:1 when driven by the DMIC. Current wave shape, peak, and rms values remained controlled and within rating over the entire speed range. The laboratory measurements allowed the speed-sensitive losses to be quantified and incorporated into computer simulation models, which then accurately reproduce the results of lab testing. The simulator shows that the limiting CPSR of the test motor is 8:1. These results confirm that the DMIC is capable of driving low-inductance BDCMs over the wide CPSR that would be required in electric vehicle applications

  14. Relativistic strings and dual models of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,based on the model depicting a hardon as a one-dimentional elastic relativistic system(''string'') is considered. The relationship between this model and the concepts of quarks and partons is discussed. Presented are the principal results relating to the Veneziano dual theory, which may be considered as the consequence of the string model, and to its modifications. The classical string theory is described in detail. Attention is focused on questions of importance to the construction of the quantum theory - the Hamilton mechanisms and conformal symmetry. Quantization is described, and it is shown that it is not contradictory only in the 26-dimentional space and with a special requirement imposed on the spectrum of states. The theory of a string with a distributed spin is considered. The spin is introduced with the aid of the Grassman algebra formalism. In this case quantization is possible only in the 10-dimentional space. The strings interact by their ruptures and gluings. A method for calculating the interaction amplitudes is indicated

  15. MODELING AND INVESTIGATION OF ASYNCHRONOUS TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stationary and transient processes of an asynchronous two-machine system. A mathematical model for investigation of stationary and transient modes, static characteristics and research results of dynamic process pertaining to starting-up the asynchronous two-machine system has been given in paper.

  16. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2012-09-01

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 109 (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 106 (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 1012 (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min-1; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements has been found to increase the detection limit to 131 ppb. These elements in lower

  17. Designing a dual-mode broadband solar spectral converter: The example of Bi{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}-tridoped perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li-Tian; Wu, Xuan-Ming; Wang, Ting; Chen, Dong-Ju; Deng, Chao; Meng, Jian-Xin, E-mail: tmjx@jnu.edu.cn; Cao, Li-Wei

    2016-07-15

    A promising dual-mode broadband solar spectral converter CaTiO{sub 3}: Bi{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} was successfully developed by solid-stated reaction. The structure, photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in the UV–vis–NIR region have been systematically investigated. The results show that the as-prepared samples simultaneously exhibit two distinct spectral converting patterns, nonlinear quantum-cutting (QC) involving Bi{sup 3+}–Ti{sup 4+} metal-to-metal charge transfer state (BT-MMCTs) → Yb{sup 3+}: {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} + Yb{sup 3+}: {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and linear downshift (DS) involving Cr{sup 3+}: {sup 4}T{sub 2} → Yb{sup 3+}: {sup 2}F{sub 5/2}. It deduces that the nonlinear QC is based on a cooperative energy transfer (CET) process while the linear DS belongs to a dipole–dipole mechanism. With the present converter, broadband UV–vis (300–700 nm) photons, which are not fully utilized by the existing c-Si solar cells, can be efficiently harvested and converted into ∼1000 nm NIR photons via the dual-mode mechanism. Moreover, not only the PLE spectrum of CaTiO{sub 3}: Bi{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} matched well with that of the solar radiation, but also its NIR emission peak position fell well over the spectral response of the commercial crystalline Si (c-Si) solar cells. This as-prepared dual-mode solar spectral converter with multiple advantages can simultaneously realize high quantum yield and broadband conversion, which offers a new and effective way to boost the conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cells. We believe this novel design of dual-mode solar spectral converters can inspire a direction for the synthesis of more advanced UV–vis–NIR phosphors that can be used in Si solar cells. - Highlights: • A dual-mode broadband solar spectral converter is designed and developed. • The energy transfer mechanism relies on quantum-cutting as well as downshift. • The PLE

  18. War and peace: morphemes and full forms in a noninteractive activation parallel dual-route model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baayen, H; Schreuder, R

    This article introduces a computational tool for modeling the process of morphological segmentation in visual and auditory word recognition in the framework of a parallel dual-route model. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Reliability model for common mode failures in redundant safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.

    1974-12-01

    A method is presented for computing the reliability of redundant safety systems, considering both independent and common mode type failures. The model developed for the computation is a simple extension of classical reliability theory. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with the use of an example. The probability of failure of a typical diesel-generator emergency power system is computed based on data obtained from U. S. diesel-generator operating experience. The results are compared with reliability predictions based on the assumption that all failures are independent. The comparison shows a significant increase in the probability of redundant system failure, when common failure modes are considered. (U.S.)

  20. Analysis of Dual- and Full-Circular Polarimetric SAR Modes for Rice Phenology Monitoring: An Experimental Investigation through Ground-Based Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Izumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR is known to be insensitive to polarization mismatch losses caused by the Faraday rotation effect and antenna misalignment. Additionally, the dual-circular polarimetric (DCP mode has proven to have more polarimetric information than that of the corresponding mode of linear polarization, i.e., the dual-linear polarimetric (DLP mode. Owing to these benefits, this paper investigates the feasibility of CP-SAR for rice monitoring. A ground-based CP-radar system was exploited, and C-band anechoic chamber data of a self-cultivated Japanese rice paddy were acquired from germination to ripening stages. Temporal variations of polarimetric observables derived from full-circular polarimetric (FCP and DCP as well as synthetically generated DLP data are analyzed and assessed with regard to their effectiveness in phenology retrieval. Among different observations, the H / α ¯ plane and triangle plots obtained by three scattering components (surface, double-bounce, and volume scattering for both the FCP and DCP modes are confirmed to have reasonable capability in discriminating the relevant intervals of rice growth.

  1. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  2. Self-starting and overclocking a harmonically mode-locking WRC-FPLD with a dual-loop feedback controller for 10 Gb s−1 pulse-data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    The self-starting and overclocking of a harmonically mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry–Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) with a dual-loop coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) based feedback controller is demonstrated to perform a clock-free pulsed data transmission at 10 Gb s −1 . The WRC-FPLD is considered as the preferred candidate for harmonic mode-locking due to its highly asymmetric cavity architecture, whereby the spontaneous noise can be significantly suppressed without inducing large intra-cavity loss. With the dual-loop COEO configuration, the WRC-FPLD can be boosted to four times of its original modulation bandwidth such that the pulsed carrier quality can be refined. The structure-optimizing principle with the closed-loop model is corroborated by the effective spurious-noise-suppression. The lowest phase noises as low as −100 dBc Hz −1 at 10 kHz with corresponding RMS timing jitter of 0.67 ps are measured. This is achieved by individually inserting 100 and 120 m long single mode fiber segments into two decoupled arms, the dual-loop COEO before the optical receiver pair. The BER performance reaches a minimum with the optimized SMF segment lengths. However, the spurious peaks arise to degrade the BER performance as the phase noise and jitter are inevitably enlarged when inserting longer SMF segments. After modulating the optimized output pulse train with the pseudo-random-bit-sequence data triggered by the same COEO clock, the SNR can achieve 10.9 dB and the receiving sensitivity is −19.2 dBm. (letter)

  3. Multiple-Echo Suppression Modeling and Experimental Verification for Acoustic Transmission along Periodic Drillstring Using Dual Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the oil industry, the accompanied reverberation is a major constraint in the transmission rate and distance because the drillstring is a heterogeneous assembly. Based on the transient impulse responses in uplink and downlink channels, an improved simplified echo suppression model with two acoustic receivers is presented in consideration of position optimization of single acoustic receiver. Then the acoustic receiving characteristics of transmitted signals in a length-limited periodic drillstring channel are obtained in single- and dual-receiver modes. An additive downward white Gaussian noise is also introduced in the channel. Moreover, an experimental rig is established by using a rotatable electromagnetic vibration exciter and two piezoelectric accelerometers, which are spaced one-quarter wavelength apart along a 6.3-meter simulated periodic drillstring. The ASK-, FSK-, and PSK-modulated square-wave pulse sequences at a transmission rate of 200 bit/s are applied to the simulated drillstring at a rotation speed of 0, 80, and 140 r/min, respectively. The experimental results show that the dual-receiver mode can exhibit a significantly improved average error bit ratio, which is approximately 2.5 to 3 times lower than that of the single-receiver mode, especially under the conditions of higher rotation speeds.

  4. Soft modes in the perceptron model for jamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Silvio

    I will show how a well known neural network model \\x9Dthe perceptro provides a simple solvable model of glassy behavior and jamming. The glassy minima of the energy function of this model can be studied in full analytic detail. This allows the identification of two kind of soft modes the first ones associated to the existence a marginal glass phase and a hierarchical structure of the energy landscape, the second ones associated to isostaticity and marginality of jamming. These results highlight the universality of the spectrum of normal modes in disordered systems, and open the way toward a detailed analytical understanding of the vibrational spectrum of low-temperature glasses. This work was supported by a Grant from the Simons Foundation (454941 to Silvio Franz).

  5. Research on a six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor system at dual-redundant and fault tolerant modes in aviation application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin KUANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of more/all electrical aircraft technology, an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA is more and more used in an aircraft actuation system. The motor system, as the crucial part of an EMA, usually adopts the redundancy technology or fault tolerance technology to improve the reliability. To compare the performances of these two motor systems, a 10-pole/12-slot six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is designed with the concentrated single-layer winding, which is able to operate at dual-redundant and fault tolerant modes. Furthermore, the position servo performances of the six-phase PMSM at dual-redundant and fault tolerant modes are analyzed, including the normal and fault conditions. In addition, a variable structure proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy is proposed to solve the performance degradation problem caused by phase current saturation. Simulation and experimental results show that the fault tolerant PMSM has a better position servo performance than the dual-redundant PMSM, and the variable structure PID control strategy is able to improve the performance due to phase current saturation.

  6. Modeling of Perpendicularly Driven Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyu; Sun Peng; Zhao Shuangyun; Li Yang; Jiang Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed perpendicularly configured dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP). In this configuration, two pairs of electrodes are arranged oppositely, and the discharging is perpendicularly driven by two radio frequency (RF) sources. Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) simulation showed that the configuration had some advantages as this configuration eliminated some dual frequency coupling effects. Some variation and potential application of the discharging configuration is discussed briefly. (paper)

  7. The dual-gate lumen model of renal monoamine transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Hinz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. Cape Coral, Florida, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, Florida, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, Minnesota, USAAbstract: The three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine in subjects ­simultaneously taking amino acid precursors of serotonin and dopamine has been defined.1,2 No model exists regarding the renal etiology of the three-phase response. This writing outlines a model explaining the origin of the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine. A “dual-gate lumen transporter model” for the basolateral monoamine transporters of the kidneys is proposed as being the etiology of the three-phase urinary serotonin and dopamine responses.Purpose: The purpose of this writing is to document the internal renal function model that has evolved in research during large-scale assay with phase interpretation of urinary serotonin and dopamine.Patients and methods: In excess of 75,000 urinary monoamine assays from more than 7,500 patients were analyzed. The serotonin and the dopamine phase were determined for specimens submitted in the competitive inhibition state. The phase determination findings were then correlated with peer-reviewed literature.Results: The correlation between the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine with internal renal processes of the bilateral monoamine transporter and the apical monoamine transporter of the proximal convoluted renal tubule cells is defined.Conclusion: The phase of urinary serotonin and dopamine is dependent on the status of the serotonin gate, dopamine gate, and lumen of the basolateral monoamine transporter while in the competitive inhibition state.Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, basolateral, apical, kidney, proximal

  8. Effect of curing mode on the hardness of dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Galvão Arrais

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the Knoop Hardness (KHN values of two dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials and one resin cement exposed to different curing conditions. Two dual-cured core build-up composite resins (LuxaCore®-Dual, DMG; and FluoroCore®2, Dentsply Caulk, and one dual-cured resin cement (Rely X ARC, 3M ESPE were used in the present study. The composite materials were placed into a cylindrical matrix (2 mm in height and 3 mm in diameter, and the specimens thus produced were either light-activated for 40 s (Optilux 501, Demetron Kerr or were allowed to self-cure for 10 min in the dark (n = 5. All specimens were then stored in humidity at 37°C for 24 h in the dark and were subjected to KHN analysis. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test at a pre-set alpha of 5%. All the light-activated groups exhibited higher KHN values than the self-cured ones (p = 0.00001, regardless of product. Among the self-cured groups, both composite resin core build-up materials showed higher KHN values than the dual-cured resin cement (p = 0.00001. LuxaCore®-Dual exhibited higher KHN values than FluoroCore®2 (p = 0.00001 when they were allowed to self-cure, while no significant differences in KHN values were observed among the light-activated products. The results suggest that dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials may be more reliable than dual-cured resin cements when curing light is not available.

  9. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marre Karu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ affected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren.

  10. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Brainerd, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals-that reasoning biases emerge with development -have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts both improvement and developmental reversals in reasoning and decision making. Drawing on research on logical and quantitative reasoning, as well as on risky decision making in the laboratory and in life, we illustrate how the same small set of theoretical principles apply to typical neurodevelopment, encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and to neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's disease. For example, framing effects-that risk preferences shift when the same decisions are phrases in terms of gains versus losses-emerge in early adolescence as gist-based intuition develops. In autistic individuals, who rely less on gist-based intuition and more on verbatim-based analysis, framing biases are attenuated (i.e., they outperform typically developing control subjects). In adults, simple manipulations based on fuzzy-trace theory can make framing effects appear and disappear depending on whether gist-based intuition or verbatim-based analysis is induced. These theoretical principles are summarized and integrated in a new mathematical model that specifies how dual modes of reasoning combine to produce predictable variability in performance. In particular, we show how the most popular and extensively studied model of decision making-prospect theory-can be derived from fuzzy-trace theory by combining analytical (verbatim-based) and intuitive (gist-based) processes.

  11. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals—that reasoning biases emerge with development —have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts both improvement and developmental reversals in reasoning and decision making. Drawing on research on logical and quantitative reasoning, as well as on risky decision making in the laboratory and in life, we illustrate how the same small set of theoretical principles apply to typical neurodevelopment, encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and to neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's disease. For example, framing effects—that risk preferences shift when the same decisions are phrases in terms of gains versus losses—emerge in early adolescence as gist-based intuition develops. In autistic individuals, who rely less on gist-based intuition and more on verbatim-based analysis, framing biases are attenuated (i.e., they outperform typically developing control subjects). In adults, simple manipulations based on fuzzy-trace theory can make framing effects appear and disappear depending on whether gist-based intuition or verbatim-based analysis is induced. These theoretical principles are summarized and integrated in a new mathematical model that specifies how dual modes of reasoning combine to produce predictable variability in performance. In particular, we show how the most popular and extensively studied model of decision making—prospect theory—can be derived from fuzzy-trace theory by combining analytical (verbatim-based) and intuitive (gist-based) processes. PMID:22096268

  12. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuying; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device

  13. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuying, E-mail: shuying-cao@hebut.edu.cn; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei [Province-Ministry Joint Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Field and Electrical Apparatus Reliability, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-05-07

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.

  14. Stochastic modeling of mode interactions via linear parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Wei; Zare, Armin; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Jovanovic, Mihailo

    2017-11-01

    Low-complexity approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations have been widely used in the analysis of wall-bounded shear flows. In particular, the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory have been employed to capture the evolution of primary and secondary instabilities in spatially-evolving flows. We augment linear PSE with Floquet analysis to formally treat modal interactions and the evolution of secondary instabilities in the transitional boundary layer via a linear progression. To this end, we leverage Floquet theory by incorporating the primary instability into the base flow and accounting for different harmonics in the flow state. A stochastic forcing is introduced into the resulting linear dynamics to model the effect of nonlinear interactions on the evolution of modes. We examine the H-type transition scenario to demonstrate how our approach can be used to model nonlinear effects and capture the growth of the fundamental and subharmonic modes observed in direct numerical simulations and experiments.

  15. Modelling colliding-pulse mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend

    or to determine the optimum operation conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to elucidate some of the physics of interest in the field of semiconductor laser modelling, semiconductor optics and fiber optics. To be more specific we will investigate: The Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked (CPM) Quantum Well (QW) laser...... diode; the excitonic semiconductor response for varying material thickness in the case of linear optics; and modulational instability of electromagnetic waves in media with spatially varying non-linearity....

  16. Tube Model Predictive Control with an Auxiliary Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Spasic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Tube Model Predictive Control (MPC with a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC as an auxiliary controller. It is shown how to calculate the tube widths under SMC control, and thus how much the constraints of the nominal MPC have to be tightened in order to achieve robust stability and constraint fulfillment. The analysis avoids the assumption of infinitely fast switching in the SMC controller.

  17. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-12-22

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  18. Model-based crosstalk compensation in simultaneous dual isotope SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, E.C.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Du, A.Y.; Song, X.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous dual isotope imaging has the potential of allowing imaging of two different physiological processes at the same time. Two examples are Tc-99m stress and Tl-201 rest myocardial perfusion imaging and Tc-99m perfusion and I-123 neuroreceptor brain imaging. However, for both of these cases crosstalk is a significant problem that results in degradation of the simultaneously acquired images. For the Tc-99m and Tl-201 case, the crosstalk includes downscatter and the generation of Pb x-rays detected in the Tl-201 energy window. For the Tc-99m/I-123 case, the crosstalk includes overlap of the two photopeaks, downscatter, especially of the 159 keV photons into the Tc-99m energy window, and contamination of the images of both isotopes by low abundance, high-energy I-123 photons. We have developed methods to accurately model the crosstalk in both cases. For the Tc-99m/Tl-201 case, the crosstalk model uses a previously described method for modeling scatter, effective source scatter estimation (ESSE). The scatter estimates are combined with a parameterization of the Pb x-ray response of the collimator to estimate the crosstalk. For the I-123/Tc-99m case we combine ESSE with a MC simulated collimator scatter and penetration responses to model the contamination due to the high-energy photons from I-123. In both cases the crosstalk models have been incorporated into an iterative reconstruction procedure that allows simultaneous reconstruction of the activity distributions from two isotopes including crosstalk compensation We have evaluated these methods both by Monte Carlo simulation studies and using physical phantom experiments. We find that the methods perform well and produce images with a quality and contrast approaching that of separately acquired images. However, the compensated simultaneously acquired images do have an increase in image noise. To reduce the noise we have applied ideal observer methodology to determine optimal energy windows and relative

  19. Numerical modeling of deflagration mode in coaxial plasma guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed coaxial plasma guns have been used in several applications in the field of space propulsion, nuclear fusion and materials processing. These devices operate in two modes based on the delay between gas injection and breakdown initiation. Larger delay led to the plasma detonation mode where a compression wave in the form of a luminous front propagates from the breech to the muzzle. Shorter delay led to the more efficient deflagration mode characterized by a relatively diffuse plasma with higher resistivity. The overall physics of the discharge in the two modes of operation and in particular the latter remain relatively unexplored. Here we perform a computational modeling study by solving the non-ideal Magneto-hydrodynamics equations for the quasi-neutral plasma in the coaxial plasma gun. A finite volume formulation on an unstructured mesh framework with an implicit scheme is used to do stable computations. The final work will present details of important species in the plasma, particle energies and Mach number at the muzzle. A comparison of the plasma parameters will be made with the experiments reported in ref. [1]. [4pt] [1] F. R. Poehlmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 123508 (2010)

  20. Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human­ centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...

  1. Temporal resolution measurement of 128-slice dual source and 320-row area detector computed tomography scanners in helical acquisition mode using the impulse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hoshino, Takashi; Nishimaru, Eiji; Niwa, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the temporal resolution (TR) of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners using the impulse method, and assess the actual maximum TR at respective helical acquisition modes. To assess the actual TR of helical acquisition modes of a 128-slice dual source CT (DSCT) scanner and a 320-row area detector CT (ADCT) scanner, we assessed the TRs of various acquisition combinations of a pitch factor (P) and gantry rotation time (R). The TR of the helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner continuously improved with a shorter gantry rotation time and greater pitch factor. However, for the 320-row ADCT scanner, the TR with a pitch factor of pitch factor of >1.0, it was approximately one half of the gantry rotation time. The maximum TR values of single- and dual-source helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner were 0.138 (R/P=0.285/1.5) and 0.074s (R/P=0.285/3.2), and the maximum TR values of the 64×0.5- and 160×0.5-mm detector configurations of the helical acquisition modes for the 320-row ADCT scanner were 0.120 (R/P=0.275/1.375) and 0.195s (R/P=0.3/0.6), respectively. Because the TR of a CT scanner is not accurately depicted in the specifications of the individual scanner, appropriate acquisition conditions should be determined based on the actual TR measurement. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual permeability FEM models for distributed fiber optic sensors development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Juan Pablo; Bogaard, Thom

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic cables are commonly known for being robust and reliable mediums for transferring information at the speed of light in glass. Billions of kilometers of cable have been installed around the world for internet connection and real time information sharing. Yet, fiber optic cable is not only a mean for information transfer but also a way to sense and measure physical properties of the medium in which is installed. For dike monitoring, it has been used in the past for detecting inner core and foundation temperature changes which allow to estimate water infiltration during high water events. The DOMINO research project, aims to develop a fiber optic based dike monitoring system which allows to directly sense and measure any pore pressure change inside the dike structure. For this purpose, questions like which location, how many sensors, which measuring frequency and which accuracy are required for the sensor development. All these questions may be initially answered with a finite element model which allows to estimate the effects of pore pressure change in different locations along the cross section while having a time dependent estimation of a stability factor. The sensor aims to monitor two main failure mechanisms at the same time; The piping erosion failure mechanism and the macro-stability failure mechanism. Both mechanisms are going to be modeled and assessed in detail with a finite element based dual permeability Darcy-Richards numerical solution. In that manner, it is possible to assess different sensing configurations with different loading scenarios (e.g. High water levels, rainfall events and initial soil moisture and permeability conditions). The results obtained for the different configurations are later evaluated based on an entropy based performance evaluation. The added value of this kind of modelling approach for the sensor development is that it allows to simultaneously model the piping erosion and macro-stability failure mechanisms in a time

  3. Nontopological bare solutions in the relativistic self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jongmin; Jang, Jaeduk

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence of the radially symmetric nontopological bare solutions in the relativistic self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model. We also verify the Chern-Simons limit for those solutions

  4. Model predictive control for a dual active bridge inverter with a floating bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shajjad; Wheeler, Patrick W.; Gerada, C.; Patel, Chintan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a Model Predictive Control technique applied to a dual active bridge inverter where one of the bridges is floating. The proposed floating bridge topology eliminates the need for isolation transformer in a dual inverter system and therefore reduces the size, weight and losses in the system. To achieve multilevel output voltage waveforms the floating inverter DC link capacitor is charged to the half of the main DC link voltage. A finite-set Model Predictive Control technique...

  5. Application of the dual reciprocity boundary element method for numerical modelling of solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  6. A sliding mode observer for hemodynamic characterization under modeling uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the case of physiological states reconstruction in a small region of the brain under modeling uncertainties. The misunderstood coupling between the cerebral blood volume and the oxygen extraction fraction has lead to a partial knowledge of the so-called balloon model describing the hemodynamic behavior of the brain. To overcome this difficulty, a High Order Sliding Mode observer is applied to the balloon system, where the unknown coupling is considered as an internal perturbation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated through a set of synthetic data that mimic fMRI experiments.

  7. Quark-parton model from dual topological unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; El Hassouni, A.; Kalinowski, J.; Peschanski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Topology, which occurs in the topological expansion of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and in the dual topological unitarization (DTU) schemes, allows us to establish a quantitative correspondence between QCD and the dual S-matrix approaches. This topological correspondence, proposed by Veneziano and made more explicit in a recent paper for current-induced reactions, provides a clarifying and unifying quark-parton interpretation of soft inclusive processes. Precise predictions for inclusive cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions, structure functions of hadrons, and quark fragmentation functions including absolute normalizations are shown to agree with data. On a more theoretical ground the proposed scheme suggests a new approach to the confinement problem

  8. Pricing Model for Dual Sales Channel with Promotion Effect Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Chuiri Zhou

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the pricing strategy of a dual sales channel member when his/her online retailer faces an upcoming overloaded express delivery service due to the sales peak of online shopping, especially referring to the occurring affairs in China. We characterize the pricing problem of the dual selling channel system as a two-period game. When the price discount is only provided by the online seller, we find that the prices of the traditional channel and the online channel in the two periods are...

  9. Modeling and Control of a Dual-Input Isolated Full-Bridge Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a steady-state model, a large-signal (LS) model and an ac small-signal (SS) model for a recently proposed dual-input transformer-isolated boost converter are derived respectively by the switching flow-graph (SFG) nonlinear modeling technique. Based upon the converter’s model...

  10. Cytosolic expression of functional Fab fragments in Escherichia coli using a novel combination of dual SUMO expression cassette and EnBase® cultivation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F; Davami, F; Mansouri, K; Agha Amiri, S; Fazel, R; Mahdian, R; Davoudi, N; Enayati, S; Azizi, M; Khalaj, V

    2017-05-08

    The Escherichia coli expression system is highly effective in producing recombinant proteins. However, there are some limitations in this system, especially in obtaining correctly folded forms of some complex proteins such as Fab fragments. To improve the solubility and folding quality of Fab fragments, we have examined the effect of simultaneous application of a SUMO fusion tag, EnBase ® cultivation mode and a redox mutant strain in the E. coli expression system. A bicistronic gene construct was designed to express an antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Fab fragment as a model system. The construct contained a dual SUMO fusion gene fragment to encode SUMO-tagged heavy and light chains. While the expression of the construct in batch cultures of BL21 or SHuffle ® transformants produced insoluble and unfolded products, the induction of the transformants in EnBase ® medium resulted in soluble and correctly folded Fab fragment, reaching as high as 19% of the total protein in shuffle strain. The functional assays indicated that the biological activity of the target Fab is similar to the commercial anti-VEGF, Lucentis ® . This study demonstrated that the combination of SUMO fusion technology, EnBase ® cultivation system and recruiting a redox mutant of E. coli can efficiently enhance the solubility and productivity of recombinant Fab fragments. The presented strategy provides not only a novel method to produce soluble and active form of an anti-VEGF Fab but also may use in the efficient production of other antibody fragments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. A fuzzy-stochastic power system planning model: Reflection of dual objectives and dual uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Huang, G.H.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a fuzzy stochastic dynamic fractional programming (FSDFP) method is proposed for supporting sustainable management of electric power system (EPS) under dual uncertainties. As an improvement upon the mixed-integer linear fractional programming, FSDFP can not only tackle multi-objective issues effectively without setting weights, but also can deal with uncertain parameters which have both stochastic and fuzzy characteristics. Thus, the developed method can help provide valuable information for supporting capacity-expansion planning and in-depth policy analysis of EPS management problems. For demonstrating these advantages, FSDFP has been applied to a case study of a typical regional EPS planning, where the decision makers have to deal with conflicts between economic development that maximizes the system profit and environmental protection that minimizes the carbon dioxide emissions. The obtained results can be analyzed to generate several decision alternatives, and can then help decision makers make suitable decisions under different input scenarios. Furthermore, comparisons of the solution from FSDFP method with that from fuzzy stochastic dynamic linear programming, linear fractional programming and dynamic stochastic fractional programming methods are undertaken. The contrastive analysis reveals that FSDFP is a more effective approach that can better characterize the complexities and uncertainties of real EPS management problems. - Highlights: • A fuzzy stochastic dynamic fractional programming (FSDFP) method is proposed. • FSDFP can address multiple conflicting objectives without setting weights. • FSDFP can reflect dual uncertainties with both stochastic and fuzzy characteristics. • Some reasonable solutions for a case of power system sustainable planning are generated. • Comparisons of the solutions from FSDFP with other optimization methods are undertaken.

  12. Resting State Default Mode Network Connectivity, Dual Task Performance, Gait Speed, and Postural Sway in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Hsu, Chun Liang; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of falling. In particular, older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are more vulnerable to falling compared with their healthy counterparts. Major contributors to this increased falls risk include a decline in dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. Recent evidence highlights the potential influence of the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) on dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. The DMN is active during rest and deactivates during task-oriented processes, to maintain attention and stay on task. The FPN and SMA are involved in top-down attentional control, motor planning, and motor execution. The DMN shows less deactivation during task in older adults with MCI. This lack of deactivation is theorized to increase competition for resources between the DMN and task-related brain regions (e.g., the FPN and SMA), increasing distraction from the task and reducing task performance. However, no study has yet investigated the relationship between the between-network connectivity of the DMN with these regions and dual task walking, gait speed or postural sway. We hypothesized that greater functional connectivity both within the DMN and between DMN-FPN and DMN-SMA, will be associated with poorer performance during dual task walking, slower gait speed, and greater postural sway in older adults with MCI. Forty older adults with MCI were measured on a dual task-walking paradigm, gait speed over a 4-m walk, and postural sway using a sway-meter. Greater within-DMN connectivity was significantly correlated with poorer dual task performance. Furthermore, greater inter-network connectivity between the DMN and SMA was significantly correlated with slower gait speed and greater postural sway on the eyes open floor sway task. Thus, greater resting state DMN functional connectivity may be an underlying neural mechanism for reduced dual task

  13. A MEMS and agile optics-based dual-mode variable optical power splitter with no moving parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Tariq S.; Suleman, Hamid; Reza, Syed Azer

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of an optical power splitter. Owing to the inherent variable power split ratios that the proposed design delivers, it is ideal for use in communications, sensing and signal processing applications where variable power splitting is often quintessential. The proposed power splitter module is dual mode as it combines the use of a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) and an Electronically Controlled Tunable Lens (ECTL) to split the power of an input optical signal between two output ports - the designated port and the surplus port. The use of a reflective Digital Spatial Light Modulator (DSLM) such as the DMD provides a motion-free digital control of the split ratio between the two output ports. Although the digital step between two possible successive split ratios can be fairly minimal with the use of a high resolution DMD but it is a challenge to correctly ascertain the exact image pattern on the DMD to obtain any desired specific split ratio. To counter this challenge, we propose the synchronized use of a circular pattern on the DMD, which serves as a circular clear aperture with a tunable radius, and an ECTL. The radius of the circular pattern on the DMD provides a digital control of the split ratio between the two ports whereas the ECTL, depending on its controller, can provide either an analog or a digital control by altering the beam radius which is incident at the DMD circular pattern. The radius of the circular pattern on the DMD can be minimally changed by one micro-pixel thickness. Setting the radius of the circular pattern on the DMD to an appropriate value provides the closest "ball-park" split ratio whereas further tuning the ECTL aids in slightly altering from this digitally set value to obtain the exact desired split ratio in-between any two digitally-set successive split ratios that correspond to any clear aperture radius of the DMD pattern and its incremental minimal

  14. Direct Evidence for a Dual Process Model of Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brunet, Marie-Laurence; Thompson, Valerie; Brisson, Janie

    2013-01-01

    In 2 experiments, we tested a strong version of a dual process theory of conditional inference (cf. Verschueren et al., 2005a, 2005b) that assumes that most reasoners have 2 strategies available, the choice of which is determined by situational variables, cognitive capacity, and metacognitive control. The statistical strategy evaluates inferences…

  15. Cross-mode bioelectrical impedance analysis in a standing position for estimating fat-free mass validated against dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Chun; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Hsiao, An-Chi; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to assess body composition. Cross-mode (left hand to right foot, Z(CR)) BIA presumably uses the longest current path in the human body, which may generate better results when estimating fat-free mass (FFM). We compared the cross-mode with the hand-to-foot mode (right hand to right foot, Z(HF)) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. We hypothesized that when comparing anthropometric parameters using stepwise regression analysis, the impedance value from the cross-mode analysis would have better prediction accuracy than that from the hand-to-foot mode analysis. We studied 264 men and 232 women (mean ages, 32.19 ± 14.95 and 34.51 ± 14.96 years, respectively; mean body mass indexes, 24.54 ± 3.74 and 23.44 ± 4.61 kg/m2, respectively). The DXA-measured FFMs in men and women were 58.85 ± 8.15 and 40.48 ± 5.64 kg, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to construct sex-specific FFM equations. The correlations of FFM measured by DXA vs. FFM from hand-to-foot mode and estimated FFM by cross-mode were 0.85 and 0.86 in women, with standard errors of estimate of 2.96 and 2.92 kg, respectively. In men, they were 0.91 and 0.91, with standard errors of the estimates of 3.34 and 3.48 kg, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement of -6.78 to 6.78 kg for FFM from hand-to-foot mode and -7.06 to 7.06 kg for estimated FFM by cross-mode for men, and -5.91 to 5.91 and -5.84 to 5.84 kg, respectively, for women. Paired t tests showed no significant differences between the 2 modes (P > .05). Hence, cross-mode BIA appears to represent a reasonable and practical application for assessing FFM in Chinese populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Connection between Einstein equations, nonlinear sigma models, and self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, N.; Whiting, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors analyze the connection between nonlinear sigma models self-dual Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity (self-dual and non-self-dual, with and without killing vectors), both at the level of the equations and at the level of the different type of solutions (solitons and calorons) of these theories. They give a manifestly gauge invariant formulation of the self-dual gravitational field analogous to that given by Yang for the self-dual Yang-Mills field. This formulation connects in a direct and explicit way the self-dual Yang-Mills and the general relativity equations. They give the ''R gauge'' parametrization of the self-dual gravitational field (which corresponds to modified Yang's-type and Ernst equations) and analyze the correspondence between their different types of solutions. No assumption about the existence of symmetries in the space-time is needed. For the general case (non-self-dual), they show that the Einstein equations contain an O nonlinear sigma model. This connection with the sigma model holds irrespective of the presence of symmetries in the space-time. They found a new class of solutions of Einstein equations depending on holomorphic and antiholomorphic functions and we relate some subclasses of these solutions to solutions of simpler nonlinear field equations that are well known in other branches of physics, like sigma models, SineGordon, and Liouville equations. They include gravitational plane wave solutions. They analyze the response of different accelerated quantum detector models, compare them to the case when the detectors are linterial in an ordinary Planckian gas at a given temperature, and discuss the anisotropy of the detected response for Rindler observers

  17. Comparison of prospective electrocardiography-gating high-pitch mode and without electrocardiography-synchronization high-pitch mode acquisition for the image quality and radiation doses of the aortic using dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Huan Yi; Zhao Hongliang; Wang Ying; Liu Ying; Wei Mengqi; Shi Mingguo; Zheng Minwen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application of prospective ECG-gating Flash spiral scan mode dual-source CT in aortography, and compare it's image quality and radiation dose with without ECG-synchronization high-pitch spiral scanning mode. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients (Group A) with suspected aortic dissection or after operations for the aortic dissection were scanned with prospective ECG-gated high-pitch scan and another 50 consecutive patients (Group B) were analyzed by non-ECG-gated high-pitch scan. Image quality of the aortic was assessed by two independent readers. Image noise was measured, radiation dose estimates were calculated. The imaging quality of the aortic and the radiation dose were compared with Mann-whitney U and t test. Results: The average image quality score [(1.18 ± 0.40) in group A and (1.23 ± 0.31) in group B] showed no significant difference between group A and group B (U = 1.20, P = 0.23). The mean radiation dose of group A was lower than that of group B [(1.49 ± 0.38) mSv in group A, (2.79 ± 0.54) mSv in group B, t = 13.677, P < 0.05]. Conclusion: Prospective ECG-gated dual source CT Flash spiral scanning with low radiation dose and good image quality in the aortic dissection with high value of clinical application. (authors)

  18. Large-area, uniform and low-cost dual-mode plasmonic naked-eye colorimetry and SERS sensor with handheld Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhida; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xinhao; Han, Kevin; Ameen, Abid; Khan, Ibrahim; Chang, Te-Wei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrated a highly-sensitive, wafer-scale, highly-uniform plasmonic nano-mushroom substrate based on plastic for naked-eye plasmonic colorimetry and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We gave it the name FlexBrite. The dual-mode functionality of FlexBrite allows for label-free qualitative analysis by SERS with an enhancement factor (EF) of 10(8) and label-free quantitative analysis by naked-eye colorimetry with a sensitivity of 611 nm RIU(-1). The SERS EF of FlexBrite in the wet state was found to be 4.81 × 10(8), 7 times stronger than in the dry state, making FlexBrite suitable for aqueous environments such as microfluid systems. The label-free detection of biotin-streptavidin interaction by both SERS and colorimetry was demonstrated with FlexBrite. The detection of trace amounts of the narcotic drug methamphetamine in drinking water by SERS was implemented with a handheld Raman spectrometer and FlexBrite. This plastic-based dual-mode nano-mushroom substrate has the potential to be used as a sensing platform for easy and fast analysis in chemical and biological assays.

  19. Dual-mode fluorophore-doped nickel nitrilotriacetic acid-modified silica nanoparticles combine histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeyakumar, M; Katzenellenbogen, John A

    2007-10-31

    We present the first example of a fluorophore-doped nickel chelate surface-modified silica nanoparticle that functions in a dual mode, combining histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling. Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-doped silica nanoparticles, estimated to contain 700-900 TMRs per ca. 23 nm particle, were surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), producing TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni2+. Silica-embedded TMR retains very high quantum yield, is resistant to quenching by buffer components, and is modestly quenched and only to a certain depth (ca. 2 nm) by surface-attached Ni2+. When exposed to a bacterial lysate containing estrogen receptor alpha ligand binding domain (ERalpha) as a minor component, these beads showed very high specificity binding, enabling protein purification in one step. The capacity and specificity of these beads for binding a his-tagged protein were characterized by electrophoresis, radiometric counting, and MALDI-TOF MS. ERalpha, bound to TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni++ beads in a site-specific manner, exhibited good activity for ligand binding and for ligand-induced binding to coactivators in solution FRET experiments and protein microarray fluorometric and FRET assays. This dual-mode type TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni2+ system represents a powerful combination of one-step histidine-tagged protein purification and site-specific labeling with multiple fluorophore species.

  20. Analytic modeling of the feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, Vladimir D.

    2003-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Optimal choice of the input signal for the feedback, effects related to the geometry of the feedback active coils, RWM suppression in a configuration with ITER-like double wall, are considered here. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that for an ideal feedback system the best input signal would be a combination of radial and poloidal perturbations measured inside the vessel. (author)

  1. Dynamic modelling of tearing mode stabilization by RF current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.; Gianakon, T.A.; Garbet, X.; Bernabei, S.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of tearing mode stabilization in toroidal plasmas by RF-driven currents that are modulated in phase with the island rotation is investigated. A time scale analysis of the phenomena involved indicates that transient effects, such as finite time response of the driven currents, island rotation during the power pulses, and the inductive response of the plasma, are intrinsically important. A dynamic model of such effects is developed, based on a 3-D Fokker-Planck code coupled to both the electric field diffusion and the island evolution equations. Extensive applications to both Electron Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid current drive in ITER are presented. (author)

  2. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  3. Physically based model for extracting dual permeability parameters using non-Newtonian fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Basset, C.; Stewart, R. D.; Hauswirth, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dual permeability models are effective for the assessment of flow and transport in structured soils with two dominant structures. The major challenge to those models remains in the ability to determine appropriate and unique parameters through affordable, simple, and non-destructive methods. This study investigates the use of water and a non-Newtonian fluid in saturated flow experiments to derive physically-based parameters required for improved flow predictions using dual permeability models. We assess the ability of these two fluids to accurately estimate the representative pore sizes in dual-domain soils, by determining the effective pore sizes of macropores and micropores. We developed two sub-models that solve for the effective macropore size assuming either cylindrical (e.g., biological pores) or planar (e.g., shrinkage cracks and fissures) pore geometries, with the micropores assumed to be represented by a single effective radius. Furthermore, the model solves for the percent contribution to flow (wi) corresponding to the representative macro and micro pores. A user-friendly solver was developed to numerically solve the system of equations, given that relevant non-Newtonian viscosity models lack forms conducive to analytical integration. The proposed dual-permeability model is a unique attempt to derive physically based parameters capable of measuring dual hydraulic conductivities, and therefore may be useful in reducing parameter uncertainty and improving hydrologic model predictions.

  4. Microgeneration of electricity with producer gas in dual fuel mode operation Microgeração de eletricidade com gás de gaseificação num motor gerador dual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the alternatives to meet the increasing of world demand for energy, the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a technological process of biomass energy production of a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas has a low calorific value that can be used in Diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil Diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 7.36 kW (10 HP coupled to an electric generator 5.5 kW. Diesel oil mixed with intake air was injected, as the oil was injected via an injector of the engine (dual mode. The fuel gas was produced in a downdraft gasifier. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through a set of electrical resistances. Diesel oil consumption was measured with a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood decreased Diesel consumption by up to 57%.Dentre as alternativas à crescente demanda energética mundial, o uso da biomassa como fonte de energia é uma das formas mais promissoras, pois contribui para a redução das emissões de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera. A gaseificação é uma tecnologia de transformação energética da biomassa num biocombustível gasoso. O gás de gaseificação é um combustível de baixo poder calorífico que pode ser utilizado em motor ciclo Diesel no modo dual para geração de energia elétrica em comunidades isoladas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a redução no consumo de Diesel num motor gerador, com a utilização de gás da gaseificação da madeira. O motor avaliado foi da marca BRANCO, com injeção direta e potência de 7,36 kW (10 cv acoplado a um gerador elétrico de 5

  5. High-temperature superconducting coplanar-waveguide quarter-wavelength resonator with odd- and even-mode resonant frequencies for dual-band bandpass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kei; Takagi, Yuta; Narahashi, Shoichi [Research Laboratories, NTT DOCOMO, INC., 3-6 Hikari-no-oka Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 Japan (Japan); Nojima, Toshio, E-mail: satokei@nttdocomo.co.j [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0814 Japan (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature superconducting coplanar-waveguide quarter-wavelength resonator that has two different resonant modes for use in a dual-band bandpass filter (DBPF). An RF filter with multiple passbands such as the DBPF is a basic element that is expected to achieve broadband transmission by using separated frequency bands aggregately and simultaneously in future mobile communication systems. The proposed resonator has a folded center conductor and two open stubs that are aligned close to it. The odd- and even-mode resonant frequencies are configured using the space between the folded center conductor and the open stubs. It is easy to configure the odd- and even-mode coupling coefficients independently because the two resonant modes have different current density distributions. Consequently, a DBPF with two different bandwidths can be easily designed. This paper presents three design examples for a four-pole Chebyshev DBPF with different combinations of fractional bandwidths in order to investigate the validity of the proposed resonator. This paper also presents measured results of the DBPF based on the design examples from the standpoint of experimental investigation. The designed and measured frequency responses confirm that the proposed resonator is effective in achieving DBPFs not only with two of the same bandwidths but also with two different bandwidths.

  6. A dual-mode nanosensor based on carbon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles for discriminative detection of glutathione in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yupeng; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Zhaomin; Li, Mei-Jin; Yi, Changqing; Yang, Mengsu

    2014-06-15

    Glutathione (GSH) plays key roles in biological systems and serves many cellular functions. Since biothiols all incorporate thiol, carboxylic and amino groups, discriminative detection of GSH over cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy) is still challenging. We herein report a dual-mode nanosensor with both colorimetric and fluorometric readout based on carbon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles for discriminative detection of GSH over Cys/Hcy. The proposed sensing system consists of AuNPs and fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs), where CQDs function as fluorometric reporter, and AuNPs serve a dual function as colorimetric reporter and fluorescence quencher. The mechanism of the nanosensor is based on two distance-dependent phenomenons, color change of AuNPs and FRET. Through controlling the surface properties of as-prepared nanoparticles, the addition of CQDs into AuNPs colloid solution might induce the aggregation of AuNPs and CQDs, leading to AuNPs color changing from red to blue and CQDs fluorescence quench. However, the presence of GSH can protect AuNPs from being aggregated and enlarge the inter-particle distance, which subsequently produces color change and fluorescent signal recovery. The nanosensor described in this report reflects on its simplicity and flexibility, where no further surface functionalization is required for the as-prepared nanoparticles, leading to less laborious and more cost-effective synthesis. The proposed dual-mode nanosensor demonstrated highly selectivity toward GSH, and allows the detection of GSH as low as 50 nM. More importantly, the nanosensor could not only function in aqueous solution for GSH detection with high sensitivity but also exhibit sensitive responses toward GSH in complicated biological environments, demonstrating its potential in bioanalysis and biodection, which might be significant in disease diagnosis in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic Modeling of Seismic Risk Based Design for a Dual System Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sidi, Indra Djati

    2017-01-01

    The dual system structure concept has gained popularity in the construction of high-rise buildings over the last decades. Meanwhile, earthquake engineering design provisions for buildings have moved from the uniform hazard concept to the uniform risk concept upon recognizing the uncertainties involved in the earthquake resistance of concrete structures. In this study, a probabilistic model for the evaluation of such risk is proposed for a dual system structure consisting of shear walls or cor...

  8. Modeling and simulation of a dual-junction CIGS solar cell using Silvaco ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Fotis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The potential of designing a dual-junction Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) photovoltaic cell is investigated in this thesis. Research into implementing a dual-junction solar cell, using a CIGS bottom cell and different thin-film designs as a top cell, was conducted in order to increase the current record efficiency of 20.3% for a single CIGS cell. This was accomplished through modeling and simulation using Silvaco ATLASTM, an ad...

  9. Estimating dual deposit insurance premium rates and forecasting non-performing loans: Two new models

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Risky banks that endanger the stability of the financial system should pay higher deposit insurance premiums than healthy banks and other financial institutions that have shown good financial performance. It is necessary, therefore, to have at least a dual fair premium rate system. In this paper, we develop a model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Our definition of a fair premium rate in this paper is a rate that could cover the operational expenditures of the deposit insuring organiz...

  10. The dual-electrode DC arc furnace-modelling brush arc conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Q.G.

    2012-01-01

    The dual-electrode DC arc furnace, an alternative design using an anode and cathode electrode instead of a hearth anode, was studied at small scale using computational modelling methods. Particular attention was paid to the effect of two key design variables, the arc length and the electrode separation, on the furnace behaviour. It was found that reducing the arc length to brush arc conditions was a valid means of overcoming several of the limitations of the dual-electrode design, namely high...

  11. Accurate Energy Consumption Modeling of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH Using Dual-BandOpenMote Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneels, Glenn; Municio, Esteban; Van de Velde, Bruno; Ergeerts, Glenn; Weyn, Maarten; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen

    2018-02-02

    The Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode of the IEEE 802.15.4e amendment aims to improve reliability and energy efficiency in industrial and other challenging Internet-of-Things (IoT) environments. This paper presents an accurate and up-to-date energy consumption model for devices using this IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH mode. The model identifies all network-related CPU and radio state changes, thus providing a precise representation of the device behavior and an accurate prediction of its energy consumption. Moreover, energy measurements were performed with a dual-band OpenMote device, running the OpenWSN firmware. This allows the model to be used for devices using 2.4 GHz, as well as 868 MHz. Using these measurements, several network simulations were conducted to observe the TSCH energy consumption effects in end-to-end communication for both frequency bands. Experimental verification of the model shows that it accurately models the consumption for all possible packet sizes and that the calculated consumption on average differs less than 3% from the measured consumption. This deviation includes measurement inaccuracies and the variations of the guard time. As such, the proposed model is very suitable for accurate energy consumption modeling of TSCH networks.

  12. The dual exo/endo-type mode and the effect of ionic strength on the mode of catalysis of chitinase 60 (CHI60) from Serratia sp. TU09 and its mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyawong, K; Nakapong, S; Pichyangkura, R

    2008-11-03

    Mutations of the tryptophan residues in the tryptophan-track of the N-terminal domain (W33F/Y and W69F/Y) and in the catalytic domain (W245F/Y) of Serratia sp. TU09 Chitinase 60 (CHI60) were constructed, as single and double point substitutions to either phenylalanine or tyrosine. The enzyme-substrate interaction and mode of catalysis, exo/endo-type, of wild type CHI60 and mutant enzymes on soluble (partially N-acetylated chitin), amorphous (colloidal chitin), and crystalline (β-chitin) substrates were studied. All CHI60 mutants exhibited a reduced substrate binding activity on colloidal chitin. CHI60 possesses a dual mode of catalysis with both exo- and endo-type activities allowing the enzyme to work efficiently on various substrate types. CHI60 preferentially uses the endo-type mode on soluble and amorphous substrates and the exo-type mode on crystalline substrate. However, the prevalent mode of hydrolysis mediated by CHI60 is regulated by ionic strength. Slightly elevated ionic strength, 0.1-0.2M NaCl, which promotes enzyme-substrate interactions, enhances CHI60 hydrolytic activity on amorphous substrate and, interestingly, on partially N-acetylated chitin. High ionic strength, 0.5-2.0M NaCl, prevents the enzyme from dissociating from amorphous substrate, occupying the enzyme in an enzyme-substrate non-productive complex. However, on crystalline substrates, the activity of CHI60 was only inhibited approximately 50% at high ionic strength, suggesting that the enzyme hydrolyzes crystalline substrates with an exo-type mode processively while remaining tightly bound to the substrate. Moreover, substitution of Trp-33 to either phenylalanine or tyrosine reduced the activity of the enzyme at high ionic strength, suggesting an important role of Trp-33 on enzyme processivity.

  13. Models of color confinement based on dual superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Georges; Hosek, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the relatively old speculation that the physical QCD vacuum might be a kind of dual superconductor, in which color-magnetic monopoles have condensed, seems to have received some 'experimental' confirmation in lattice calculations. The lattice calculations do not dictate, however, the form of the effective low-energy theory. And indeed, a rather wide panoply of possible effective theories has been proposed. The purpose of this talk is to review them in order to contrast their properties

  14. Modeling of dual cylinder wind-up extensional rheometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Marin, Jose; Jensen, Mette

    measurements are useful for polymer characterization. The Sentmanat extensional Rheometer[1] is an new testing platform for the study of polymers and elastomers in extensional flow. This technique employs a dual wind-up drum technique to perform an uni-axial extensional deformation during experiments......). *The title of this submission has been modified to remove the name of a commercial product or company to bring the title into compliance with SOR policy....

  15. Linking density functional and mode coupling models for supercooled liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, Leishangthem; Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-03-28

    We compare predictions from two familiar models of the metastable supercooled liquid, respectively, constructed with thermodynamic and dynamic approaches. In the so called density functional theory the free energy F[ρ] of the liquid is a functional of the inhomogeneous density ρ(r). The metastable state is identified as a local minimum of F[ρ]. The sharp density profile characterizing ρ(r) is identified as a single particle oscillator, whose frequency is obtained from the parameters of the optimum density function. On the other hand, a dynamic approach to supercooled liquids is taken in the mode coupling theory (MCT) which predict a sharp ergodicity-non-ergodicity transition at a critical density. The single particle dynamics in the non-ergodic state, treated approximately, represents a propagating mode whose characteristic frequency is computed from the corresponding memory function of the MCT. The mass localization parameters in the above two models (treated in their simplest forms) are obtained, respectively, in terms of the corresponding natural frequencies depicted and are shown to have comparable magnitudes.

  16. Linking density functional and mode coupling models for supercooled liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Leishangthem; Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P

    2016-03-28

    We compare predictions from two familiar models of the metastable supercooled liquid, respectively, constructed with thermodynamic and dynamic approaches. In the so called density functional theory the free energy F[ρ] of the liquid is a functional of the inhomogeneous density ρ(r). The metastable state is identified as a local minimum of F[ρ]. The sharp density profile characterizing ρ(r) is identified as a single particle oscillator, whose frequency is obtained from the parameters of the optimum density function. On the other hand, a dynamic approach to supercooled liquids is taken in the mode coupling theory (MCT) which predict a sharp ergodicity-non-ergodicity transition at a critical density. The single particle dynamics in the non-ergodic state, treated approximately, represents a propagating mode whose characteristic frequency is computed from the corresponding memory function of the MCT. The mass localization parameters in the above two models (treated in their simplest forms) are obtained, respectively, in terms of the corresponding natural frequencies depicted and are shown to have comparable magnitudes.

  17. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  18. Logical Reasoning versus Information Processing in the Dual-Strategy Model of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2017-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model, proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b), which suggests that people might have access to both…

  19. A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths

  20. Pemikiran Islam Kontemporer , Antara Mode Pemikiran dan Model Pembacaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines mode of Islamic thought is developing today ,which was then known as Contemporary Islamic Thought, by searching the role of logic and reasoning behind the idea. Three main issues are addressed: first, the project of contemporary Islamic thought, which is a radical reading of the construction of epistemology of sciences and building of logical basic of traditions, culture and civilization, by taking the authentic (al-ashâlah and inner structure (bunyah,so that it can be transformed to the present.  Second,the mode of contemporary Islamic thought, related to attitudes toward tradition (turâts on the one hand and attitudes towards modernity (hadâtsah on the other. In contrast to the traditional thought that addressing modernity with a priori for conservation,are also different from modern thought that response to the tradition as something that must be eliminated for the sake of progress; Contemporary Islamic thought involved a critical reading of tradition and modernity ,before bringing them within the framework of contemporary challenges. And third,the model of contemporary readings, by indicate methodological tools of scientific work. Hermeneutics, criticism, and deconstruction are three species of readings that be able to break through the scarcity of methodological for reading complexity of culture and problems of humanity in general, which has not been available instrument for that.

  1. Accurate Sliding-Mode Control System Modeling for Buck Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that classical sliding mode theory fails to correctly predict the output impedance of the highly useful sliding mode PID compensated buck converter. The reason for this is identified as the assumption of the sliding variable being held at zero during sliding mode, effectively...... approach also predicts the self-oscillating switching action of the sliding-mode control system correctly. Analytical findings are verified by simulation as well as experimentally in a 10-30V/3A buck converter....

  2. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    of the process plant, its function and its structural elements. The paper explains how the means-end concepts of MFM can be used to provide formalized definitions of plant operation modes. The paper will introduce the mode types defined by MFM and show how selected operation modes can be represented...

  3. Multipurpose, dual-mode imaging in the 3-5 μm range (MWIR) for artwork diagnostics: A systematic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, Claudia; Parisotto, Simone; Ambrosini, Dario

    2018-05-01

    We present a multi-purpose, dual-mode imaging method in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) range (from 3 μm to 5 μm) for a more efficient nondestructive analysis of artworks. Using a setup based on a MWIR thermal camera and multiple radiation sources, two radiometric image datasets are acquired in different acquisition modalities, the image in quasi-reflectance mode (TQR) and the thermal sequence in emission mode. Here, the advantages are: the complementarity of the information; the use of the quasi-reflectance map for calculating the emissivity map; the use of TQR map for a referentiation to the visible of the thermographic images. The concept of the method is presented, the practical feasibility is demonstrated through a custom imaging setup, the potentiality for the nondestructive analysis is shown on a notable application to cultural heritage. The method has been used as experimental tool in support of the restoration of the mural painting "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci. Feedback from the operators and a comparison with some conventional diagnostic techniques is also given to underline the novelty and potentiality of the method.

  4. A Dual Coding Theoretical Model of Decoding in Reading: Subsuming the LaBerge and Samuels Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; McTigue, Erin M.; Paivio, Allan

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a detailed Dual Coding Theory (DCT) model of decoding. The DCT model reinterprets and subsumes The LaBerge and Samuels (1974) model of the reading process which has served well to account for decoding behaviors and the processes that underlie them. However, the LaBerge and Samuels model has had little to say about…

  5. A dual-mode secure UHF RFID tag with a crypto engine in 0.13-μm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Linghao, Zhu; Xi, Tan; Junyu, Wang; Lirong, Zheng; Hao, Min

    2016-07-01

    An ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) secure tag chip with a non-crypto mode and a crypto mode is presented. During the supply chain management, the tag works in the non-crypto mode in which the on-chip crypto engine is not enabled and the tag chip has a sensitivity of -12.8 dBm for long range communication. At the point of sales (POS), the tag will be switched to the crypto mode in order to protect the privacy of customers. In the crypto mode, an advanced encryption standard (AES) crypto engine is enabled and the sensitivity of the tag chip is switched to +2 dBm for short range communication, which is a method of physical protection. The tag chip is implemented and verified in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS process. Project supported by the National Science & Technology Pillar Program of China (No. 2015BAK36B01).

  6. Pricing Model for Dual Sales Channel with Promotion Effect Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuiri Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the pricing strategy of a dual sales channel member when his/her online retailer faces an upcoming overloaded express delivery service due to the sales peak of online shopping, especially referring to the occurring affairs in China. We characterize the pricing problem of the dual selling channel system as a two-period game. When the price discount is only provided by the online seller, we find that the prices of the traditional channel and the online channel in the two periods are higher while the overloaded degree of express delivery is lower and the overloaded delivery services can decrease the profits of both channels. When the price discounts are provided by both traditional and online sellers, we find that the derived Nash price equilibrium of both channels includes five possible combinations of prices. Both traditional and online sellers will choose their price strategies, respectively, according to their cost advantages which are affected by the overloaded degree of express delivery.

  7. Goldstone mode singularities in O(n models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaupužs

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo (MC analysis of the Goldstone mode singularities for the transverse and the longitudinal correlation functions, behaving as G⊥ (k ≅ a k-λ⊥ and G|| (k ≅ b k-λ|| in the ordered phase at k → 0, is performed in the three-dimensional O(n models with n=2, 4, 10. Our aim is to test some challenging theoretical predictions, according to which the exponents λ⊥ and λ|| are non-trivial (3/2⊥||2/a2 (where M is a spontaneous magnetization is universal. The trivial standard-theoretical values are λ⊥=2 and λ||=1. Our earlier MC analysis gives λ⊥=1.955 ± 0.020 and λ|| about 0.9 for the O(4 model. A recent MC estimation of λ||, assuming corrections to scaling of the standard theory, yields λ|| = 0.69 ± 0.10 for the O(2 model. Currently, we have performed a similar MC estimation for the O(10 model, yielding λ⊥ = 1.9723(90. We have observed that the plot of the effective transverse exponent for the O(4 model is systematically shifted down with respect to the same plot for the O(10 model by Δ λ⊥ = 0.0121(52. It is consistent with the idea that 2-λ⊥ decreases for large n and tends to zero at n → ∞. We have also verified and confirmed the expected universality of b M2/a2 for the O(4 model, where simulations at two different temperatures (couplings have been performed.

  8. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear

  9. The Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health: Further Study of the Determinants of Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael D.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with a positive psychology framework, this study examined the contributions of personality, environmental, and perceived social support variables in classifying adolescents using Greenspoon and Saklofske's Dual-Factor model of mental health. This model incorporates information about positive subjective well-being (SWB), along with…

  10. The dual pathway model of overeating. Replication and extension with actual food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, M.A.; Strien, T. van; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2009-01-01

    van Strien et al. [van Strien, T., Engels, R. C. M. E., van Leeuwe, J., Snoek, H. M. (2005). The Stice model of overeating: tests in clinical and non-clinical samples. Appetite, 45, 205–213] extended the negative affect pathway of Stice's dual pathway model of overeating Stice [Stice, E. (1994).

  11. The dual pathway model of overeating. Replication and extension with actual food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, Machteld A; van Strien, T; Leeuwe, J.F.J.; van der Staak, C P F

    van Strien et al. [van Strien, T., Engels, R. C. M. E., van Leeuwe, J., Snoek, H. M. (2005). The Stice model of overeating: tests in clinical and non-clinical samples. Appetite, 45, 205-213] extended the negative affect pathway of Stice's dual pathway model of overeating Stice [Stice, E. (1994).

  12. Dual-Extrusion 3D Printing of Anatomical Models for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L.; Jones, James F. X.

    2018-01-01

    Two material 3D printing is becoming increasingly popular, inexpensive and accessible. In this paper, freely available printable files and dual extrusion fused deposition modelling were combined to create a number of functional anatomical models. To represent muscle and bone FilaFlex[superscript 3D] flexible filament and polylactic acid (PLA)…

  13. A Dual-Stage Two-Phase Model of Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubner, Ronald; Steinhauser, Marco; Lehle, Carola

    2010-01-01

    The dual-stage two-phase (DSTP) model is introduced as a formal and general model of selective attention that includes both an early and a late stage of stimulus selection. Whereas at the early stage information is selected by perceptual filters whose selectivity is relatively limited, at the late stage stimuli are selected more efficiently on a…

  14. Forward-backward correlations in pp interactions in a dual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkowsky, K.; Kotanski, A.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow

    1982-01-01

    Forward-backward correlations in lepton and hadron induced processes are compared according to the dual model. It is indicated that the effect of the chain energy spread in hadron processes is important. After including this effect the model is shown to explain the forward-backward correlations in pp data assuming no dynamical correlations within a single chain. (orig.)

  15. Critical evaluation of analytical models for stochastic heating in dual-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S; Turner, M M

    2013-01-01

    Dual-frequency capacitive discharges are widespread in the semiconductor industry and are used, for example, in etching of semiconductor materials to manufacture microchips. In low-pressure dual radio-frequency capacitive discharges, stochastic heating is an important phenomenon. Recent theoretical work on this problem using several different approaches has produced results that are broadly in agreement insofar as scaling with the discharge parameters is concerned, but there remains some disagreement in detail concerning the absolute size of the effect for the case of dual-frequency capacitive discharges. In this work, we investigate the dependence of stochastic heating on various discharge parameters with the help of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The dual-frequency analytical models are in fair agreement with PIC results for values of the low-frequency current density amplitude J lf (or dimensionless control parameter H lf ∼ 5) typical of many modern experiments. However, for higher values of J lf (or higher H lf ), new physical phenomena (like field reversal, reflection of ions, etc) appear and the simulation results deviate from existing dual-frequency analytical models. On the other hand, for lower J lf (or lower H lf ) again the simulation results deviate from analytical models. So this research work produces a relatively extensive set of simulation data that may be used to validate theories over a wide range of parameters. (paper)

  16. Prospectively Electrocardiogram-Gated High-Pitch Spiral Acquisition Mode Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with High Heart Rates: Comparison with Retrospective Electrocardiogram-Gated Spiral Acquisition Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kai; Ma, Rui; Wang, Li Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Baotou Central Hospital, Baotou (China); Li, Li Gang; Chen, Jiu Hong [CT BM Clinic Marketing, Siemens Healthcare, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    To assess the image quality and effective radiation dose of prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (flash mode) of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with high heart rates (HRs) as compared with retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode. Two hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients (132 female, mean age: 55 {+-} 11 years) with mean HR > 65 beats per minute (bpm) were prospectively included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Collection was performed in group A CTCA using flash mode setting at 20-30% of the R-R interval, and retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode in group B. The image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), image quality scores, effective radiation dose and influencing factors on image quality between the two groups were assessed. There were no significant differences in image quality scores and proportions of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments between two groups (image quality scores: 1.064 {+-} 0.306 [group A] vs. 1.084 {+-} 0.327 [group B], p = 0.063; proportion of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments: segment-based analysis 1.52% (group A) vs. 1.74% (group B), p = 0.345; patient-based analysis 7.5% (group A) vs. 6.7% (group B), p = 0.812). The estimated radiation dose was 1.0 {+-} 0.16 mSv in group A and 7.1 {+-} 1.05 mSv in group B (p = 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with HRs > 65 bpm without cardiac arrhythmia, the prospectively high-pitch spiral-acquisition mode with image-acquired timing set at 20-30% of the R-R interval provides a similar image quality and low rate of non-diagnostic coronary segments to the retrospectively ECG-gated low-pitch spiral acquisition mode, with significant reduction of radiation exposure.

  17. Prospectively Electrocardiogram-Gated High-Pitch Spiral Acquisition Mode Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with High Heart Rates: Comparison with Retrospective Electrocardiogram-Gated Spiral Acquisition Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kai; Ma, Rui; Wang, Li Jun; Li, Li Gang; Chen, Jiu Hong

    2012-01-01

    To assess the image quality and effective radiation dose of prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (flash mode) of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with high heart rates (HRs) as compared with retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode. Two hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients (132 female, mean age: 55 ± 11 years) with mean HR > 65 beats per minute (bpm) were prospectively included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Collection was performed in group A CTCA using flash mode setting at 20-30% of the R-R interval, and retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition mode in group B. The image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), image quality scores, effective radiation dose and influencing factors on image quality between the two groups were assessed. There were no significant differences in image quality scores and proportions of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments between two groups (image quality scores: 1.064 ± 0.306 [group A] vs. 1.084 ± 0.327 [group B], p = 0.063; proportion of non-diagnostic coronary artery segments: segment-based analysis 1.52% (group A) vs. 1.74% (group B), p = 0.345; patient-based analysis 7.5% (group A) vs. 6.7% (group B), p = 0.812). The estimated radiation dose was 1.0 ± 0.16 mSv in group A and 7.1 ± 1.05 mSv in group B (p = 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with HRs > 65 bpm without cardiac arrhythmia, the prospectively high-pitch spiral-acquisition mode with image-acquired timing set at 20-30% of the R-R interval provides a similar image quality and low rate of non-diagnostic coronary segments to the retrospectively ECG-gated low-pitch spiral acquisition mode, with significant reduction of radiation exposure.

  18. Normal mode approach to modelling of feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Chance, M.S.; Okabayashi, M.; Glasser, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) of a plasma in a general feedback configuration is formulated in terms of the normal modes of the plasma-resistive wall system. The growth/damping rates and the eigenfunctions of the normal modes are determined by an extended energy principle for the plasma during its open (feedback) loop operation. A set of equations are derived for the time evolution of these normal modes with currents in the feedback coils. The dynamics of the feedback system is completed by the prescription of the feedback logic. The feasibility of the feedback is evaluated by using the Nyquist diagram method or by solving the characteristic equations. The elements of the characteristic equations are formed from the growth and damping rates of the normal modes, the sensor matrix of the perturbation fluxes detected by the sensor loops, the excitation matrix of the energy input to the normal modes by the external feedback coils, and the feedback logic. (The RWM is also predicted to be excited by an external error field to a large amplitude when it is close to marginal stability.) This formulation has been implemented numerically and applied to the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that feedback with poloidal sensors is much more effective than feedback with radial sensors. Using radial sensors, increasing the number of feedback coils from a central band on the outboard side to include an upper and a lower band can substantially increase the effectiveness of the feedback system. The strength of the RWM that can be stabilized is increased from γτ w = 1 to 30 (γ is the growth rate of the RWM in the absence of feedback and τ w is the resistive wall time constant) Using poloidal sensors, just one central band of feedback coils is sufficient for the stabilization of the RWM with γτ w = 30. (author)

  19. Quality Factor and Radiation Efficiency of Dual-Mode Self-Resonant Spherical Antennas With Lossy Magnetodielectric Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    For spherical antennas consisting of a solid magnetodielectric lossy core with an impressed surface current density exciting a superposition of the ${\\rm TE}_{mn}$ and ${\\rm TM}_{mn}$ spherical modes, we analytically determine the radiation quality factor $Q$ and radiation efficiency $e$ . Also, we...

  20. Modeling the interdependent network based on two-mode networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feng; Gao, Xiangyun; Guan, Jianhe; Huang, Shupei; Liu, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Among heterogeneous networks, there exist obviously and closely interdependent linkages. Unlike existing research primarily focus on the theoretical research of physical interdependent network model. We propose a two-layer interdependent network model based on two-mode networks to explore the interdependent features in the reality. Specifically, we construct a two-layer interdependent loan network and develop several dependent features indices. The model is verified to enable us to capture the loan dependent features of listed companies based on loan behaviors and shared shareholders. Taking Chinese debit and credit market as case study, the main conclusions are: (1) only few listed companies shoulder the main capital transmission (20% listed companies occupy almost 70% dependent degree). (2) The control of these key listed companies will be more effective of avoiding the spreading of financial risks. (3) Identifying the companies with high betweenness centrality and controlling them could be helpful to monitor the financial risk spreading. (4) The capital transmission channel among Chinese financial listed companies and Chinese non-financial listed companies are relatively strong. However, under greater pressure of demand of capital transmission (70% edges failed), the transmission channel, which constructed by debit and credit behavior, will eventually collapse.

  1. Mode I Failure of Armor Ceramics: Experiments and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Christopher; Leavy, Brian

    2017-06-01

    The pre-notched edge on impact (EOI) experiment is a technique for benchmarking the damage and fracture of ceramics subjected to projectile impact. A cylindrical projectile impacts the edge of a thin rectangular plate with a pre-notch on the opposite edge. Tension is generated at the notch tip resulting in the initiation and propagation of a mode I crack back toward the impact edge. The crack can be quantitatively measured using an optical method called Digital Gradient Sensing, which measures the crack-tip deformation by simultaneously quantifying two orthogonal surface slopes via measuring small deflections of light rays from a specularly reflective surface around the crack. The deflections in ceramics are small so the high speed camera needs to have a very high pixel count. This work reports on the results from pre-crack EOI experiments of SiC and B4 C plates. The experimental data are quantitatively compared to impact simulations using an advanced continuum damage model. The Kayenta ceramic model in Alegra will be used to compare fracture propagation speeds, bifurcations and inhomogeneous initiation of failure will be compared. This will provide insight into the driving mechanisms required for the macroscale failure modeling of ceramics.

  2. Two-dimensional modeling of conduction-mode laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    WELD2D is a two-dimensional finite difference computer program suitable for modeling the conduction-mode welding process when the molten weld pool motion can be neglected. The code is currently structured to treat butt-welded geometries in a plane normal to the beam motion so that dissimilar materials may be considered. The surface heat transfer models used in the code include a Gaussian beam or uniform laser source, and a free electron theory reflectance calculation. Temperature-dependent material parameters are used in the reflectance calculation. Measured cold reflection data are used to include surface roughness or oxide effects until melt occurs, after which the surface is assumed to be smooth and clean. Blackbody reradiation and a simple natural convection model are also included in the upper surface boundary condition. Either an implicit or explicit finite-difference representation of the heat conduction equation in an enthalpy form is solved at each time step. This enables phase transition energies to be easily and accurately incorporated into the formulation. Temperature-dependent 9second-order polynominal dependence) thermal conductivities are used in the conduction calculations. Constant values of specific heat are used for each material phase. At present, material properties for six metals are included in the code. These are: aluminium, nickel, steel, molybdenum, copper and silicon

  3. Modeling bidirectionally coupled single-mode semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulet, Josep; Masoller, Cristina; Mirasso, Claudio R.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a dynamical model suitable for the description of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers in a face-to-face configuration. Our study considers the propagation of the electric field along the compound system as well as the evolution of the carrier densities within each semiconductor laser. Mutual injection, passive optical feedback, and multiple reflections are accounted for in this framework, although under weak to moderate coupling conditions. We systematically describe the effect of the coupling strength on the spectrum of monochromatic solutions and on the respective dynamical behavior. By assuming single-longitudinal-mode operation, weak mutual coupling and slowly varying approximation, the dynamical model can be reduced to rate equations describing the mutual injection from one laser to its counterpart and vice versa. A good agreement between the complete and simplified models is found for small coupling. For larger coupling, higher-order terms lead to a smaller threshold reduction, reflected itself in the spectrum of the monochromatic solutions and in the dynamics of the optical power

  4. New Higgs transitions between dual N=2 string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, P.; Katz, S.; Klemm, A.; Mayr, P.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new kind of transition between topologically distinct N=2 type II Calabi-Yau vacua through points with enhanced non-abelian gauge symmetries together with fundamental charged matter hyper multiplets. We connect the appearance of matter to the local geometry of the singularity and discuss the relation between the instanton numbers of the Calabi-Yau manifolds taking part in the transition. In a dual heterotic string theory on K3 x T 2 the process corresponds to Higgsing a semi-classical gauge group or equivalently to a variation of the gauge bundle. In special cases the situation reduces to simple conifold transitions in the Coulomb phase of the non-abelian gauge symmetries. (orig.)

  5. Liquid-phase sample preparation method for real-time monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers by dual-mode high-throughput microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Kim, Jung Kyung; Han, Hwataik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos that had been used widely as a construction material is a first-level carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organization. It can be accumulated in body by inhalation causing virulent respiratory diseases including lung cancer. In our previous study, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) system that can minimize human intervention accompanied by the conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) through automated counting of fibrous materials and thus significantly reduce analysis time and labor. Also, we attempted selective detection of chrysotile using DksA protein extracted from Escherichia coli through a recombinant protein production technique, and developed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) by upgrading the HTM device. We demonstrated that fluorescently-labeled chrysotile asbestos fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically among other types of asbestos fibers or non-asbestos particles in a high-throughput manner through a newly modified HTM system for both reflection and fluorescence imaging. However there is a limitation to apply DM-HTM to airborne sample with current air collecting method due to the difficulty of applying the protein to dried asbestos sample. Here, we developed a technique for preparing liquid-phase asbestos sample using an impinger normally used to collect odor molecules in the air. It would be possible to improve the feasibility of the dual-mode HTM by integrating a sample preparation unit for making collected asbestos sample dispersed in a solution. The new technique developed for highly sensitive and automated asbestos detection can be a potential alternative to the conventional manual counting method, and it may be applied on site as a fast and reliable environmental monitoring tool.

  6. The Dual Half-Edge—A Topological Primal/Dual Data Structure and Construction Operators for Modelling and Manipulating Cell Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Boguslawski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for building models that permit interior navigation, e.g., for escape route analysis. This paper presents a non-manifold Computer-Aided Design (CAD data structure, the dual half-edge based on the Poincaré duality that expresses both the geometric representations of individual rooms and their topological relationships. Volumes and faces are expressed as vertices and edges respectively in the dual space, permitting a model just based on the storage of primal and dual vertices and edges. Attributes may be attached to all of these entities permitting, for example, shortest path queries between specified rooms, or to the exterior. Storage costs are shown to be comparable to other non-manifold models, and construction with local Euler-type operators is demonstrated with two large university buildings. This is intended to enhance current developments in 3D Geographic Information Systems for interior and exterior city modelling.

  7. Dual mode emission and harmonic generation in ZnO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Er{sup 3+} nano-composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, R.K. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, K. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Nano-technology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India); Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.i [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped ZnO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-composite phosphor has been synthesized through combustion method and its emission and harmonic generation properties have been studied. The X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques have been used to prove the dual phase (ZnO and CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nature of the phosphor. The phosphor has shown up-conversion emission on near-infra-red (976 nm) excitation and down-conversion emission on 355 nm excitation in presence of Er{sup 3+} and thus behaves as a dual mode phosphor. On excitation with 976 nm diode laser, material shows color tunability (calcination of composite material at different temperatures). Formation of ZnO nanocrystals on heat treatment of as-synthesized sample has shown its characteristic emission at 388 nm and also the energy transfer from ZnO to Er{sup 3+} ions. The low temperature emission measurements have been carried out and the results have been discussed. Phosphor has shown strong second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm on 1064 nm and at 266 nm on 532 nm excitation. - Research highlights: {yields} We have synthesized Er{sup 3+} doped composite material by combustion method. The two phases of composites are ZnO and CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. {yields} The phosphor has shown up-conversion emission on near-infra-red (976 nm) excitation and down-conversion emission on 355 nm excitation in presence of Er{sup 3+} and thus behaves as a dual mode phosphor. This material also shows colour tenability on excitation of 976 nm diode laser at different temperature calcinations (i.e., As-synthesized to calcinated at 1473 K). {yields} Low temperature effects on Er{sup 3+} as well as ZnO emission have been carried out. We observed that at low temperature the efficiency of Er{sup 3+} increases while in the case of ZnO its intensity increases and also 12 nm shifting observed. {yields} Composite material has shown strong second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm on 1064 nm and at 266 nm on 532 nm

  8. Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control -- Part I: Theory and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    An inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance, surface-mounted permanent magnet motors over the wide constant power speed range required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC)[1]. The DMIC can drive either the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) with sinusoidal back emf, or the brushless dc machine (BDCM) with trapezoidal emf in the motoring and regenerative braking modes. In this paper we concentrate on the BDCM under high-speed motoring conditions. Simulation results show that if all motor and inverter loss mechanisms are neglected, the constant power speed range of the DMIC is infinite. The simulation results are supported by closed form expressions for peak and rms motor current and average power derived from analytical solution to the differential equations governing the DMIC/BDCM drive for the lossless case. The analytical solution shows that the range of motor inductance that can be accommodated by the DMIC is more than an order of magnitude such that the DMIC is compatible with both low- and high-inductance BDCMs. Finally, method is given for integrating the classical hysteresis band current control, used for motor control below base speed, with the phase advance of DMIC that is applied above base speed. The power versus speed performance of the DMIC is then simulated across the entire speed range

  9. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  10. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Yeol [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  11. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu-Whan; Ham, Soo-Youn; Kang, Eun-Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 ± 0.9%, and 1.7 ± 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 ± 7.4%) was significantly greater (p volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  12. Modeling laser beam diffraction and propagation by the mode-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James J

    2007-08-01

    In the mode-expansion method for modeling propagation of a diffracted beam, the beam at the aperture can be expanded as a weighted set of orthogonal modes. The parameters of the expansion modes are chosen to maximize the weighting coefficient of the lowest-order mode. As the beam propagates, its field distribution can be reconstructed from the set of weighting coefficients and the Gouy phase of the lowest-order mode. We have developed a simple procedure to implement the mode-expansion method for propagation through an arbitrary ABCD matrix, and we have demonstrated that it is accurate in comparison with direct calculations of diffraction integrals and much faster.

  13. Computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. The second volume describes the computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of the system.

  14. Exchange mechanisms for single photo- and electroproduction using the dual fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, L.; Weigt, G.

    1976-01-01

    Single pion real and virtual photoproduction data are compared with phenomenological dual fermion amplitudes, which were previously applied to quasi-two body vector and tensor meson production. The similar structures of the photon and the corresponding vector meson data (in the s-channel helicity system) such as spikes and dips, usually described by Regge pole/Regge cut interferences, are reproduced by the dual Born amplitudes. Predictions of the model for the differential cross sections, in particular their parts for natural and unnatural spin-parity t-channel exchanges as well as their mass dependence, and photon and target asymmetries are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  15. Rural-urban migration: policy simulations in a dual economy model of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S

    1986-03-01

    The process of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh is analyzed using a dual economy model. The focus is on the period 1976-1985. The main purpose of the paper is to examine alternative policies designed to reduce the level of such migration without adversely affecting the country's economy.

  16. Description of inelastic nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy using dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanski, A.; Shmakov, S.Yu.; Uzhinskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the dual parton model taking into account the processes of diffraction dissociation to the low mass states and finite energy corrections to the asymptotic Abramovski-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules allows satisfactory description of existing experimental data on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy. (orig.)

  17. Acting in solidarity : Testing an extended dual pathway model of collective action by bystander group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee

    We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach,

  18. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  19. Personality and creativity : The dual pathway to creativity model and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the relation between personality traits and creativity, we invoke the Dual-Pathway to Creativity model (DPCM) that identifies two pathways to creative outcomes: (1) flexible processing of information (cognitive flexibility) and (2) persistent probing, and systematically and

  20. Elaborations on the Socioegocentric and Dual-Level Connectionist Models of Group Interaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the author's contribution to this colloquy was to spark conversation on the theoretical nature of communication processes and the evidentiary requirements for testing their relationship to group outcomes. Co-discussants have raised important issues concerning the philosophical basis of the socioegocentric model (SM) and dual-level…

  1. Protesters as "passionate economists" : A dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping with collective disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell

    To explain the psychology behind individuals' motivation to participate in collective action against collective disadvantage (e.g., protest marches), the authors introduce a dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping that integrates many common explanations of collective action (i.e., group

  2. On a relation between massive Yang-Mills theories and dual string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The relations between mass terms in Yang-Mills theories, projective representations of the group of gauge transformations, boundary conditions on vector potentials and Schwinger terms in local charge algebra commutation relations are discussed. The commutation relations (with Schwinger terms) are similar to the current algebra commutation relations of the SU(N) extended dual string model. (orig.)

  3. The dual pathway to creativity model: creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Rietzschel, E.F.; Baas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dual pathway to creativity model argues that creativity—the generation of original and appropriate ideas—is a function of cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence, and that dispositional or situational variables may influence creativity either through their effects on flexibility, on

  4. The dual pathway to creativity model : Creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; De Dreu, C.K.W.; Rietzschel, E.F.; Baas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dual pathway to creativity model argues that creativity-the generation of original and appropriate ideas-is a function of cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence, and that dispositional or situational variables may influence creativity either through their effects on flexibility, on

  5. An effective streamflow process model for optimal reservoir operation using stochastic dual dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Raso , L.; Malaterre , P.O.; Bader , J.C.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an innovative streamflow process model for use in reservoir operational rule design in stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). Model features, which can be applied independently, are (1) a multiplicative process model for the forward phase and its linearized version for the backward phase; and (2) a nonuniform time-step length that is inversely proportional to seasonal variability. The advantages are (1) guaranteeing positive streamflow values...

  6. Dual lattice representations for O(N and CP(N−1 models with a chemical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Bruckmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We derive dual representations for O(N and CP(N−1 models on the lattice. In terms of the dual variables the partition sums have only real and positive contributions also at finite chemical potential. Thus the complex action problem of the conventional formulation is overcome and using the dual variables Monte Carlo simulations are possible at arbitrary chemical potential.

  7. Prediction of the binding mode and resistance profile for a dual-target pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold against HIV-1 integrase and reverse-transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Zheng, Guoxun; Fu, Tingting; Li, Xiaofeng; Tu, Gao; Li, Ying Hong; Yao, Xiaojun; Xue, Weiwei; Zhu, Feng

    2018-06-27

    The rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants is one of the most common causes of highly active antiretroviral therapeutic (HAART) failure in patients infected with HIV-1. Compared with the existing HAART, the recently developed pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold targeting both HIV-1 integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an efficient approach to counteract the failure of anti-HIV treatment due to drug resistance. However, the binding mode and potential resistance profile of these inhibitors with important mechanistic principles remain poorly understood. To address this issue, an integrated computational method was employed to investigate the binding mode of inhibitor JMC6F with HIV-1 IN and RNase H. By using per-residue binding free energy decomposition analysis, the following residues: Asp64, Thr66, Leu68, Asp116, Tyr143, Gln148 and Glu152 in IN, Asp443, Glu478, Trp536, Lys541 and Asp549 in RNase H were identified as key residues for JMC6F binding. And then computational alanine scanning was carried to further verify the key residues. Moreover, the resistance profile of the currently known major mutations in HIV-1 IN and 2 mutations in RNase H against JMC6F was predicted by in silico mutagenesis studies. The results demonstrated that only three mutations in HIV-1 IN (Y143C, Q148R and N155H) and two mutations in HIV-1 RNase H (Y501R and Y501W) resulted in a reduction of JMC6F potency, thus indicating their potential role in providing resistance to JMC6F. These data provided important insights into the binding mode and resistance profile of the inhibitors with a pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold in HIV-1 IN and RNase H, which would be helpful for the development of more effective dual HIV-1 IN and RNase H inhibitors.

  8. ELMs and constraints on the H-mode pedestal: A model based on peeling-ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, P.B.; Ferron, J.R.; Wilson, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a model for Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and pedestal constraint based upon theoretical analysis of instabilities which can limit the pedestal height and drive ELMs. The sharp pressure gradients, and resulting bootstrap current, in the pedestal region provide free energy to drive peeling and ballooning modes. The interaction of peeling-ballooning coupling, ballooning mode second stability, and finite-Larmor-radius effects results in coupled peeling-ballooning modes of intermediate wavelength generally being the limiting instability. A highly efficient new MHD code, ELITE, is used to calculate quantitative stability constraints on the pedestal, including con straits on the pedestal height. Because of the impact of collisionality on the bootstrap current, these pedestal constraints are dependant on the density and temperature separately, rather than simply on the pressure. A model of various ELM types is developed, and quantitatively compared to data. A number of observations agree with predictions, including ELM onset times, ELM depth and variation in pedestal height with collisionality and discharge shape. Stability analysis of series of model equilibria are used both o predict and interpret pedestal trends in existing experiments and to project pedestal constraints for future burning plasma tokamak designs. (author)

  9. Phase-field modeling of corrosion kinetics under dual-oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, You-Hai; Chen, Long-Qing; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2012-04-01

    A phase-field model is proposed to simulate corrosion kinetics under a dual-oxidant atmosphere. It will be demonstrated that the model can be applied to simulate corrosion kinetics under oxidation, sulfidation and simultaneous oxidation/sulfidation processes. Phase-dependent diffusivities are incorporated in a natural manner and allow more realistic modeling as the diffusivities usually differ by many orders of magnitude in different phases. Simple free energy models are then used for testing the model while calibrated free energy models can be implemented for quantitative modeling.

  10. Perceiving pain in others: validation of a dual processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystal, Kalie N; Craig, Kenneth D; Versloot, Judith; Fashler, Samantha R; Jones, Daniel N

    2011-05-01

    Accurate perception of another person's painful distress would appear to be accomplished through sensitivity to both automatic (unintentional, reflexive) and controlled (intentional, purposive) behavioural expression. We examined whether observers would construe diverse behavioural cues as falling within these domains, consistent with cognitive neuroscience findings describing activation of both automatic and controlled neuroregulatory processes. Using online survey methodology, 308 research participants rated behavioural cues as "goal directed vs. non-goal directed," "conscious vs. unconscious," "uncontrolled vs. controlled," "fast vs. slow," "intentional (deliberate) vs. unintentional," "stimulus driven (obligatory) vs. self driven," and "requiring contemplation vs. not requiring contemplation." The behavioural cues were the 39 items provided by the PROMIS pain behaviour bank, constructed to be representative of the diverse possibilities for pain expression. Inter-item correlations among rating scales provided evidence of sufficient internal consistency justifying a single score on an automatic/controlled dimension (excluding the inconsistent fast vs. slow scale). An initial exploratory factor analysis on 151 participant data sets yielded factors consistent with "controlled" and "automatic" actions, as well as behaviours characterized as "ambiguous." A confirmatory factor analysis using the remaining 151 data sets replicated EFA findings, supporting theoretical predictions that observers would distinguish immediate, reflexive, and spontaneous reactions (primarily facial expression and paralinguistic features of speech) from purposeful and controlled expression (verbal behaviour, instrumental behaviour requiring ongoing, integrated responses). There are implicit dispositions to organize cues signaling pain in others into the well-defined categories predicted by dual process theory. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by

  11. DUAL STATE-PARAMETER UPDATING SCHEME ON A CONCEPTUAL HYDROLOGIC MODEL USING SEQUENTIAL MONTE CARLO FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seong Jin; Tachikawa, Yasuto; Shiiba, Michiharu; Kim, Sunmin

    Applications of data assimilation techniques have been widely used to improve upon the predictability of hydrologic modeling. Among various data assimilation techniques, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) filters, known as "particle filters" provide the capability to handle non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space models. This paper proposes a dual state-parameter updating scheme (DUS) based on SMC methods to estimate both state and parameter variables of a hydrologic model. We introduce a kernel smoothing method for the robust estimation of uncertain model parameters in the DUS. The applicability of the dual updating scheme is illustrated using the implementation of the storage function model on a middle-sized Japanese catchment. We also compare performance results of DUS combined with various SMC methods, such as SIR, ASIR and RPF.

  12. Vertically-Integrated Dual-Continuum Models for CO2 Injection in Fractured Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer leads to a two-phase flow system, with supercritical CO2 and brine being the two fluid phases. Various modeling approaches, including fully three-dimensional (3D) models and vertical-equilibrium (VE) models, have been used to study the system. Almost all of that work has focused on unfractured formations. 3D models solve the governing equations in three dimensions and are applicable to generic geological formations. VE models assume rapid and complete buoyant segregation of the two fluid phases, resulting in vertical pressure equilibrium and allowing integration of the governing equations in the vertical dimension. This reduction in dimensionality makes VE models computationally more efficient, but the associated assumptions restrict the applicability of VE model to formations with moderate to high permeability. In this presentation, we extend the VE and 3D models for CO2 injection in fractured aquifers. This is done in the context of dual-continuum modeling, where the fractured formation is modeled as an overlap of two continuous domains, one representing the fractures and the other representing the rock matrix. Both domains are treated as porous media continua and can be modeled by either a VE or a 3D formulation. The transfer of fluid mass between rock matrix and fractures is represented by a mass transfer function connecting the two domains. We have developed a computational model that combines the VE and 3D models, where we use the VE model in the fractures, which typically have high permeability, and the 3D model in the less permeable rock matrix. A new mass transfer function is derived, which couples the VE and 3D models. The coupled VE-3D model can simulate CO2 injection and migration in fractured aquifers. Results from this model compare well with a full-3D model in which both the fractures and rock matrix are modeled with 3D models, with the hybrid VE-3D model having significantly reduced computational cost. In

  13. Stability of radial and non-radial pulsation modes of massive ZAMS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, A.P.; Pausenwein, A.; Weiss, W.W.; Hajek, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have computed non-adiabatic eigenvalues for radial and non-radial pulsation modes of star models between 80 and 120 M solar with composition of chi=0.70 and Z=0.02. The radial fundamental mode is unstable in models with mass greater than 95 M solar , but the first overtone mode is always stable. The non-radial modes are all stable for all models, but the iota=2 f-mode is the closest to being driven. The non-radial modes are progressively more stable with higher iota and with higher n (for both rho- and g-modes). Thus, their results indicate that radial pulsation limits the upper mass of a star

  14. Rational misbehavior? Evaluating an integrated dual-process model of criminal decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, J.L.; de Vries, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Test the hypothesis that dispositional self-control and morality relate to criminal decision making via different mental processing modes, a 'hot' affective mode and a 'cool' cognitive one. Methods: Structural equation modeling in two studies under separate samples of undergraduate

  15. Multiresonance modes in sine–Gordon brane models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-540 Juazeiro do Norte-Ceará (Brazil); Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza - CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Dantas, D.M., E-mail: davi@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza - CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza - CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine–Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine–Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  16. Multiresonance modes in sine–Gordon brane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.T.; Maluf, R.V.; Dantas, D.M.; Almeida, C.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine–Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine–Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  17. The effect of inclusion of inlets in dual drainage modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Wang, Chia-Ho; Chen, Albert S.; Djordjević, Slobodan

    2018-04-01

    In coupled sewer and surface flood modelling approaches, the flow process in gullies is often ignored although the overland flow is drained to sewer network via inlets and gullies. Therefore, the flow entering inlets is transferred to the sewer network immediately, which may lead to a different flood estimation than the reality. In this paper, we compared two modelling approach with and without considering the flow processes in gullies in the coupled sewer and surface modelling. Three historical flood events were adopted for model calibration and validation. The results showed that the inclusion of flow process in gullies can further improve the accuracy of urban flood modelling.

  18. Improving the theoretical foundations of the multi-mode transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Redd, A.J.; Erba, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Weiland, J.; Strand, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Scott, B.

    1999-01-01

    A new version of the Multi-Mode transport model, designated MMM98, is being developed with improved theoretical foundations, in an ongoing effort to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. For transport near the edge of the plasma, MMM98 uses a new model based on 3-D nonlinear simulations of drift Alfven mode turbulence. Flow shear stabilization effects have been added to the Weiland model for Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes, which usually dominates in most of the plasma core. For transport near the magnetic axis at high beta, a new kinetic ballooning mode model has been constructed based on FULL stability code computations. (author)

  19. Improving the theoretical foundations of the multi-mode transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Redd, A.J.; Erba, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Weiland, J.; Strand, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Scott, B.

    2001-01-01

    A new version of the Multi-Mode transport model, designated MMM98, is being developed with improved theoretical foundations, in an ongoing effort to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. For transport near the edge of the plasma, MMM98 uses a new model based on 3-D nonlinear simulations of drift Alfven mode turbulence. Flow shear stabilization effects have been added to the Weiland model for Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes, which usually dominates in most of the plasma core. For transport near the magnetic axis at high beta, a new kinetic ballooning mode model has been constructed based on FULL stability code computations. (author)

  20. Response mode, compatibility, and dual-processes in the evaluation of simple gambles: An eye-tracking investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Slovic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We employed simple gambles to investigate information processing in relation to the compatibility effect. Subjects should be more likely to engage in a deliberative thinking strategy when completing a pricing task rather than a rating task. We used eye-tracking methodology to measure information acquisition and processing in order to test the above hypothesis as well as to show that losses and alternatives with uncertain outcomes are more likely than gains and alternatives with sure outcomes to be processed through a deliberative thinking process. Results showed that pupil dilations, fixation duration and number of fixations increased when subjects evaluated the gambles with a pricing task. Additionally, the number of fixations increased as the gamble outcome became increasingly negative and when the outcome was uncertain (vs. sure. Fixations were also predictive of subjects' final evaluations of the gambles. We discuss our results in light of the cognitive processes underlying different response modes in economic preferences.

  1. A modulation model for mode splitting of magnetic perturbations in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, M J; Appel, L C

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of magnetic fluctuation activity in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) reveal the presence of plasmas with bands of both low and high frequency magnetic fluctuations. Such plasmas exhibit a spectrum of low frequency modes with adjacent toroidal mode numbers, for which the measured frequency is near the Doppler shifted rotation frequency of the plasma. These are thought to be tearing modes. Also present are a spectrum of high frequency modes (e.g. Alfven, fishbone and/or ICE). The frequency and mode number of the tearing mode and its harmonics is identical to the frequency and mode number splitting of the high frequency MHD activity, strongly suggesting that the high frequency splitting is produced by modulation of the high and low frequency modes. We describe a strong modulation model, in which the nonlinear terms are fitted to produce the amplitude envelope profile of the tearing mode. A bispectral analysis proves that the low frequency modes are indeed in phase with the fundamental, while Fourier-SVD mode analysis confirms the mode numbers are toroidal harmonics. Employing this model, the sideband amplitude profile of the high frequency modes is predicted, and found to be in good agreement with experimental observations. Also, toroidal mode number splitting of the high frequency activity matches the mode number of the tearing mode. Weak evidence is found to indicate the Alfvenic sidebands are in phase with the Alfven eigenmode fundamental. The findings support predictions of a strong modulation model, and suggest a need to further develop nonlinear MHD theory to predict the amplitude of coupled sidebands, and so corroborate the observed nonlinear plasma response.

  2. Dual-mode photoacoustic and ultrasound system for real-time in-vivo ovarian cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Nandy, Sreyankar; Amidi, Eghbal; Zhu, Quing

    2018-02-01

    More than 80% of the ovarian cancers are diagnosed at late stages and the survival rate is less than 50%. Currently, there is no effective screening technique available and transvaginal US can only tell if the ovaries are enlarged or not. We have developed a new real-time co-registered US and photoacoustic system for in vivo imaging and characterization of ovaries. US is used to localize ovaries and photoacoustic imaging provides functional information about ovarian tissue angiogenesis and oxygenation saturation. The system consists of a tunable laser and a commercial US system from Alpinion Inc. The Alpinion system is cable of providing channel data for both US pulse-echo and photoacoustic imaging and can be programmed as a computer terminal for display US and photoacoustic images side by side or in coregistered mode. A transvaginal ultrasound probe of 6-MHz center frequency and bandwidth of 3-10 MHz is coupled with four optical fibers surrounded the US probe to deliver the light to tissue. The light from optical fibers is homogenized to ensure the power delivered to the tissue surface is below the FDA required limit. Physicians can easily navigate the probe and use US to look for ovaries and then turn on photoacoustic mode to provide real-time tumor vasculature and So2 saturation maps. With the optimized system, we have successfully imaged first group of 7 patients of malignant, abnormal and benign ovaries. The results have shown that both photoacoustic signal strength and spatial distribution are different between malignant and abnormal and benign ovaries.

  3. A Novel Approach to Synthesise a Dual-Mode Luminescent Composite Pigment for Uncloneable High-Security Codes to Combat Counterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanika; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2017-12-01

    A strategy is demonstrated to protect valuable items, such as currency, pharmaceuticals, important documents, etc. against counterfeiting, by marking them with luminescent security codes. These luminescent security codes were printed by employing luminescent ink formulated from a cost effective dual-mode luminescent composite pigment of Gd 1.7 Yb 0.2 Er 0.1 O 3 and Zn 0.98 Mn 0.02 S phosphors using commercially available PVC Gold medium. In the composite, Gd 1.7 Yb 0.2 Er 0.1 O 3 and Zn 0.98 Mn 0.02 S account for upconversion and downconversion processes, respectively. The synthesis procedure of the composite involves the admixing of Gd 1.7 Yb 0.2 Er 0.1 O 3 nanorods and Zn 0.98 Mn 0.02 S phosphor, synthesised by hydrothermal and facile solid-state reaction methods, respectively. The structural, morphological, microstructural, and photoluminescent features of Gd 1.7 Yb 0.2 Er 0.1 O 3 nanorods, Zn 0.98 Mn 0.02 S phosphor and composite were characterised by using XRD, SEM, TEM, and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, respectively. The distribution of PL intensity of the printed pattern was examined by using confocal PL mapping microscopy. The obtained results reveal that security codes printed using ink formulated from this bi-luminescent composite pigment provide dual-stage security against counterfeiting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analysis of a combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a CNG-B20 fuelled diesel engine under dual fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj S. Shelke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the primary greenhouse gases emitted by various human activities. CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of carbon cycle. Human activities are altering the carbon cycle by adding or removing CO2 to the atmosphere. The main human activity that emits the CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels for energy and transportation. Compression ignition (CI engines emit high amount of CO2 emission as it is the end product of complete combustion of hydro carbon fuels. Moreover, they emit higher NOx (nitrogen oxides and PM (particulate matter emissions and have higher fuel consumption. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on a CI engine under dual fuel mode with biodiesel as a pilot fuel and compressed natural gas (CNG as a main fuel. The effects of 10 % and 20 % CNG energy shares on performance and emission characteristics of the engine at rated (100% loads were studied. Experimental results indicate the beneficial of CNG addition on improvement in the engine efficiency, and reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions. The NOx and CO2 emissions decreased by 14.24 % and 30 % respectively at the rated load with biodiesel + CNG (20 % energy share as compared to base diesel. No knocking combustion was observed during the tests which confirm the smooth operation. The dual fuel operation with combination of CNG-biodiesel is an effective method to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions with an additional benefit of lower specific energy consumption.

  5. Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+}-codoped YVO{sub 4} material for bioimaging with dual mode excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thao, Chu Thi Bich [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Huy, Bui The [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Sharipov, Mirkomil [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Ik. [Department of Biochemistry and Health Science, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Dao, Van-Duong [Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Ja-Young [Department of Biochemistry and Health Science, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Ill, E-mail: yilee@changwon.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We propose an efficient bioimaging strategy using Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+}-triplet doped YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles which were synthesized with polymer as a template. The obtained particles possess nanoscale, uniform, and flexible excitation. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} ions on the luminescence properties of YVO{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} was investigated. The upconversion mechanism of the prepared material was also discussed. The structure and optical properties of the prepared material were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) upconversion and photoluminescence spectra. The Commission International de I′Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates was investigated to confirm the performance of color luminescent emission. The prepared YVO{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles could be easily dispersed in water by surface modification with cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH). The aqueous dispersion of the modified YVO{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} exhibits bright upconversion and downconversion luminescence and has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cells. Our developed material with dual excitation offers a promising advance in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Prepared particles possess nanoscale size, uniform, and larger scale. • The material exhibits strong emission under dual mode excitations. • The surface material has been applied for bioimaging of HeLa cell. • Low cytotoxicity, no auto-fluorescence.

  6. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Feng; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Ling; Peng, Yun

    2017-04-05

    Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors. Forty-five patients with solid tumors who had initial CT (Group B) and follow-up CT (Group A) after chemotherapy were enrolled. The initial diagnostic CT scan (Group B) was performed using the standard two-phase enhanced CT with 320 mgI/ml concentration contrast, and the follow-up scan (Group A) was performed using a single-phase enhanced CT at 45 s after the beginning of the 270 mgI/ml contrast injection using spectral mode. Forty percent ASiR was used for the images in Group B and monochromatic images with energy levels ≥60 keV in Group A. In addition, filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction was used for monochromatic images hounsfield unit (HU). The abdominal organs of Groups A and B had similar degrees of absolute and relative enhancement (t = 0.36 and -1.716 for liver, -0.153 and -1.546 for pancreas, and 2.427 and 0.866 for renal cortex, all P> 0.05). Signal-to-noise ratio of the abdominal organs was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (t = -8.11 for liver, -7.83 for pancreas, and -5.38 for renal cortex, all P 3, indicating clinically acceptable image quality. Single-phase, dual-energy spectral CT used for children with solid abdominal tumors can reduce contrast dose and radiation dose and can also maintain clinically acceptable image quality.

  7. An integrated treatment model for dual diagnosis of psychosis and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, K

    1989-10-01

    A model that integrates the treatment of patients with a dual diagnosis of psychosis and addiction has been developed on a general hospital psychiatric unit. The model emphasizes the parallels between the standard biopsychosocial illness-and-rehabilitation model for treatment of serious psychiatric disorders and the 12-step disease-and-recovery model of Alcoholics Anonymous for treatment of addiction. Dual-diagnosis patients are viewed as having two primary, chronic, biologic mental illnesses, each requiring specific treatment to stabilize acute symptoms and engage the patient in a recovery process. An integrated treatment program is described, as are the steps taken to alleviate psychiatric clinicians' concerns about patient involvement in AA and addiction clinicians' discomfort with patients' use of medication.

  8. The EPED pedestal model and edge localized mode-suppressed regimes: Studies of quiescent H-mode and development of a model for edge localized mode suppression via resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T. H.; Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Wade, M. R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Orlov, D. M. [University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Schmitz, O. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association FZJ-EURATOM, Juelich (Germany); Wilson, H. R. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The EPED model predicts the H-mode pedestal height and width based upon two fundamental and calculable constraints: (1) onset of non-local peeling-ballooning modes at low to intermediate mode number, (2) onset of nearly local kinetic ballooning modes at high mode number. We present detailed tests of the EPED model in discharges with edge localized modes (ELMs), employing new high resolution measurements, and finding good quantitative agreement across a range of parameters. The EPED model is then applied for the first time to quiescent H-mode (QH), finding a similar level of agreement between predicted and observed pedestal height and width, and suggesting that the model can be used to predict the critical density for QH-mode operation. Finally, the model is applied toward understanding the suppression of ELMs with 3D resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP). Combining EPED with plasma response physics, a new working model for RMP ELM suppression is developed. We propose that ELMs are suppressed when a 'wall' associated with the RMP blocks the inward penetration of the edge transport barrier. A calculation of the required location of this 'wall' with EPED is consistent with observed profile changes during RMP ELM suppression and offers an explanation for the observed dependence on safety factor (q{sub 95}).

  9. Dual Education: The Win-Win Model of Collaboration between Universities and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pogatsnik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the new experiences of the dual training model in engineering education in Hungary. This new model has been introduced recently in the higher education and has become a focus of interest. This is a fa-vorable program for the students to experience the real industry environment pri-or to graduation and it is a good tool to motivate them to study harder. The dual education students study in the institutional academic period together with the regular full-time students at their higher education institute, and parallel to their academic education they participate in the practical training. It gives the students an opportunity to join a specific training program at an enterprise. Being involved in specific "operational" practical tasks and project-oriented work enhances inde-pendent work, learning soft skills and experiencing the culture of work. Our ob-jectives are to analyze the benefits of the dual training for all three parties: the stu-dent, the company and university. The study confirms earlier results from prior studies which show, for example, that students who choose the dual option achieve better program outcomes.

  10. ELM triggering conditions for the integrated modeling of H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankin, A.Y.; Schnack, D.D.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Brennan, D.P.; Snyder, P.B.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Kruger, S.; Janeschitz, G.; Onjun, T.; Pacher, G.W.; Pacher, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the integrated modeling of ELMy H-mode plasmas are presented. A new model for the H-mode pedestal and for the triggering of ELMs predicts the height, width, and shape of the H-mode pedestal and the frequency and width of ELMs. The model for the pedestal and ELMs is used in the ASTRA integrated transport code to follow the time evolution of tokamak discharges from L-mode through the transition from L-mode to H-mode, with the formation of the H-mode pedestal, and, subsequently, to the triggering of ELMs. Turbulence driven by the ion temperature gradient mode, resistive ballooning mode, trapped electron mode, and electron temperature gradient mode contributes to the anomalous thermal transport at the plasma edge in this model. Formation of the pedestal and the L-H transition is the direct result of E(vector) r x B(vector) flow shear suppression of anomalous transport. The periodic ELM crashes are triggered by MHD instabilities. Two mechanisms for triggering ELMs are considered: ELMs are triggered by ballooning modes if the pressure gradient exceeds the ballooning threshold or by peeling modes if the edge current density exceeds the peeling mode threshold. The BALOO, DCON, and ELITE ideal MHD stability codes are used to derive a new parametric expression for the peeling-ballooning threshold. The new dependence for the peeling-ballooning threshold is implemented in the ASTRA transport code. Results of integrated modeling of DIII-D like discharges are presented and compared with experimental observations. The results from the ideal MHD stability codes are compared with results from the resistive MHD stability code NIMROD. (author)

  11. Multiple Model Adaptive Control Using Dual Youla-Kucera Factorisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-model adaptive control scheme for uncertain linear plants based on the concept of model unfalsification. The approach relies on examining the ability of a pre-computed set of plant-controller candidates and choosing the one that is best able to reproduce observed in- and output...

  12. Heat transport in two-dimensional materials by directly solving the phonon Boltzmann equation under Callaway's dual relaxation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yangyu; Wang, Moran

    2017-10-01

    The single mode relaxation time approximation has been demonstrated to greatly underestimate the lattice thermal conductivity of two-dimensional materials due to the collective effect of phonon normal scattering. Callaway's dual relaxation model represents a good approximation to the otherwise ab initio solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation. In this work we develop a discrete-ordinate-method (DOM) scheme for the numerical solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation under Callaway's model. Heat transport in a graphene ribbon with different geometries is modeled by our scheme, which produces results quite consistent with the available molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, and experimental measurements. Callaway's lattice thermal conductivity model with empirical boundary scattering rates is examined and shown to overestimate or underestimate the direct DOM solution. The length convergence of the lattice thermal conductivity of a rectangular graphene ribbon is explored and found to depend appreciably on the ribbon width, with a semiquantitative correlation provided between the convergence length and the width. Finally, we predict the existence of a phonon Knudsen minimum in a graphene ribbon only at a low system temperature and isotope concentration so that the average normal scattering rate is two orders of magnitude stronger than the intrinsic resistive one. The present work will promote not only the methodology for the solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation but also the theoretical modeling and experimental detection of hydrodynamic phonon transport in two-dimensional materials.

  13. Self-dual form of Ruijsenaars–Schneider models and ILW equation with discrete Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabrodin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a self-dual form or the Bäcklund transformations for the continuous (in time variable glN Ruijsenaars–Schneider model. It is based on the first order equations in N+M complex variables which include N positions of particles and M dual variables. The latter satisfy equations of motion of the glM Ruijsenaars–Schneider model. In the elliptic case it holds M=N while for the rational and trigonometric models M is not necessarily equal to N. Our consideration is similar to the previously obtained results for the Calogero–Moser models which are recovered in the non-relativistic limit. We also show that the self-dual description of the Ruijsenaars–Schneider models can be derived from complexified intermediate long wave equation with discrete Laplacian by means of the simple pole ansatz likewise the Calogero–Moser models arise from ordinary intermediate long wave and Benjamin–Ono equations.

  14. Theoretical Model of Professional Competence Development in Dual-Specialty Students (On the Example of the "History, Religious Studies" Specialty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, A. E.; Amanova, A. S.; Sadykova, A. M.; Kuzembaev, N. E.; Makisheva, A. T.; Kurmangazina, G. Zh.; Sakenov, Janat

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the significant problem of developing a theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the "History, Religious studies" specialty). In order to validate the specifics of the professional competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the…

  15. Urethane anesthesia depresses activities of thalamocortical neurons and alters its response to nociception in terms of dual firing modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeowool eHuh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are often used to characterize the activity of single neurons in-vivo for its advantages such as reduced noise level and convenience in noxious stimulations. Of the anesthetics, urethane had been widely used in some thalamic studies under the assumption that sensory signals are still relayed to the thalamus under urethane anesthesia and that thalamic response would therefore reflect the response of the awake state. We tested whether this assumption stands by comparing thalamic activity in terms of tonic and burst firing modes during ‘the awake state’ or under ‘urethane anesthesia’ utilizing the extracellular single unit recording technique. First we have tested how thalamic relay neurons respond to the introduction of urethane and then tested how urethane influences thalamic discharges under formalin-induced nociception. Urethane significantly depressed overall firing rates of thalamic relay neurons, which was sustained despite the delayed increase of burst activity over the 4 hour recording period. Thalamic response to nociception under anesthesia was also similar overall except for the slight and transient increase of burst activity. Overall, results demonstrated that urethane suppresses the activity of thalamic relay neurons and that, despite the slight fluctuation of burst firing, formalin-induced nociception cannot significantly change the firing pattern of thalamic relay neurons that was caused by urethane.

  16. A three-dimensional model for calculating the micro disk laser resonant-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetjoo, H.; Bahrampor, A.; Farrahi-Moghaddam, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a semi-analytical model for theoretical analysis of micro disk lasers is presented. Using this model, the necessary conditions for the existence of loss less and low-loss modes of micro-resonators are obtained. The resonance frequency of the resonant modes and also the attenuation of low-loss modes are calculated. By comparing the results with results of finite difference method, their validity is certified.

  17. Shape descriptors for mode-shape recognition and model updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Mottershead, J E; Mares, C

    2009-01-01

    The most widely used method for comparing mode shapes from finite elements and experimental measurements is the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC), which returns a single numerical value and carries no explicit information on shape features. New techniques, based on image processing (IP) and pattern recognition (PR) are described in this paper. The Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD), Fourier descriptor (FD), and wavelet descriptor (WD), presented in this article, are the most popular shape descriptors having properties that include efficiency of expression, robustness to noise, invariance to geometric transformation and rotation, separation of local and global shape features and computational efficiency. The comparison of mode shapes is readily achieved by assembling the shape features of each mode shape into multi-dimensional shape feature vectors (SFVs) and determining the distances separating them.

  18. Lumped Mass Modeling for Local-Mode-Suppressed Element Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joung, Young Soo; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-01-01

    connectivity parameterization (ECP) is employed. On the way to the ultimate crashworthy structure optimization, we are now developing a local mode-free topology optimization formulation that can be implemented in the ECP method. In fact, the local mode-freeing strategy developed here can be also used directly...... experiencing large structural changes, appears to be still poor. In ECP, the nodes of the domain-discretizing elements are connected by zero-length one-dimensional elastic links having varying stiffness. For computational efficiency, every elastic link is now assumed to have two lumped masses at its ends....... Choosing appropriate penalization functions for lumped mass and link stiffness is important for local mode-free results. However, unless the objective and constraint functions are carefully selected, it is difficult to obtain clear black-and-white results. It is shown that the present formulation is also...

  19. Self-dual configurations in Abelian Higgs models with k-generalized gauge field dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R.; Cavalcante, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão,65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Hora, E. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão,65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Coordenadoria Interdisciplinar de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão,65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil)

    2016-12-14

    We have shown the existence of self-dual solutions in new Maxwell-Higgs scenarios where the gauge field possesses a k-generalized dynamic, i.e., the kinetic term of gauge field is a highly nonlinear function of F{sub μν}F{sup μν}. We have implemented our proposal by means of a k-generalized model displaying the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon. We implement consistently the Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield formalism providing highly nonlinear self-dual equations whose solutions are electrically neutral possessing total energy proportional to the magnetic flux. Among the infinite set of possible configurations, we have found families of k-generalized models whose self-dual equations have a form mathematically similar to the ones arising in the Maxwell-Higgs or Chern-Simons-Higgs models. Furthermore, we have verified that our proposal also supports infinite twinlike models with |ϕ|{sup 4}-potential or |ϕ|{sup 6}-potential. With the aim to show explicitly that the BPS equations are able to provide well-behaved configurations, we have considered a test model in order to study axially symmetric vortices. By depending of the self-dual potential, we have shown that the k-generalized model is able to produce solutions that for long distances have a exponential decay (as Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices) or have a power-law decay (characterizing delocalized vortices). In all cases, we observe that the generalization modifies the vortex core size, the magnetic field amplitude and the bosonic masses but the total energy remains proportional to the quantized magnetic flux.

  20. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  1. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data are assimilated in the model. Assuming perfect flow, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used for direct data assimilation into the transport model. This is, however, a crude assumption as flow models can be subject to many sources of uncertainty. If the flow is not accurately simulated, contaminant predictions will likely be inaccurate even after successive Kalman updates of the contaminant model with the data. The problem is better handled when both flow and contaminant states are concurrently estimated using the traditional joint state augmentation approach. In this paper, we introduce a dual estimation strategy for data assimilation into a one-way coupled system by treating the flow and the contaminant models separately while intertwining a pair of distinct EnKFs, one for each model. The presented strategy only deals with the estimation of state variables but it can also be used for state and parameter estimation problems. This EnKF-based dual state-state estimation procedure presents a number of novel features: (i) it allows for simultaneous estimation of both flow and contaminant states in parallel; (ii) it provides a time consistent sequential updating scheme between the two models (first flow, then transport); (iii) it simplifies the implementation of the filtering system; and (iv) it yields more stable and accurate solutions than does the standard joint approach. We conducted synthetic numerical experiments based on various time stepping and observation strategies to evaluate the dual EnKF approach and compare its performance with the joint state augmentation approach. Experimental results show that on average, the dual strategy could reduce the estimation error of the coupled states by 15% compared with the

  2. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  3. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  4. Perovskite photodetectors with both visible-infrared dual-mode response and super-narrowband characteristics towards photo-communication encryption application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Yi; Gu, Yu; Zeng, Haibo

    2017-12-21

    Photo-communication has attracted great attention because of the rapid development of wireless information transmission technology. However, it is still a great challenge in cryptography communications, where it is greatly weakened by the openness of the light channels. Here, visible-infrared dual-mode narrowband perovskite photodetectors were fabricated and a new photo-communication encryption technique was proposed. For the first time, highly narrowband and two-photon absorption (TPA) resultant photoresponses within a single photodetector are demonstrated. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the photoresponse is as narrow as 13.6 nm in the visible range, which is superior to state-of-the-art narrowband photodetectors. Furthermore, these two merits of narrowband and TPA characteristics are utilized to encrypt the photo-communication based on the above photodetectors. When sending information and noise signals with 532 and 442 nm laser light simultaneously, the perovskite photodetectors only receive the main information, while the commercial Si photodetector responds to both lights, losing the main information completely. The final data are determined by the secret key through the TPA process as preset. Such narrowband and TPA detection abilities endow the perovskite photodetectors with great potential in future security communication and also provide new opportunities and platforms for encryption techniques.

  5. A 200-Channel Area-Power-Efficient Chemical and Electrical Dual-Mode Acquisition IC for the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Ng, Waichiu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Suwen; Chan, Mansun

    2016-06-01

    Microelectrode array (MEA) can be used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases by monitoring the chemical neurotransmitter release and the electrical potential simultaneously at the cellular level. Currently, the MEA technology is migrating to more electrodes and higher electrode density, which raises power and area constraints on the design of acquisition IC. In this paper, we report the design of a 200-channel dual-mode acquisition IC with highly efficient usage of power and area. Under the constraints of target noise and fast settling, the current channel design saves power by including a novel current buffer biased in discrete time (DT) before the TIA (transimpedance amplifier). The 200 channels are sampled at 20 kS/s and quantized by column-wise SAR ADCs. The prototype IC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Silicon measurements show the current channel has 21.6 pArms noise with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 0.48 pArms noise with constant amperometry (CA) while consuming 12.1 μW . The voltage channel has 4.07 μVrms noise in the bandwidth of 100 kHz and 0.2% nonlinearity while consuming 9.1 μW. Each channel occupies 0.03 mm(2) area, which is among the smallest.

  6. Report on preliminary study for promoting joint implementation in fiscal 1999. Feasibility study on introduction of dual mode bus system for reducing greenhouse effect gases in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to discuss the possibility of adoption as the COP3 clean development mechanism, discussions were given in fiscal 1999 on the dual mode bus system (DMBS) in Malaysia. The DMBS combines the advantages of the track system such as monorails and the road system such as buses. On the dedicated roads, the DMBS forms ranks of buses which travel automatically. On ordinary roads, the ranks are separated into independent buses to cover an area in terms of a plane, with buses travelling for their respective destinations. Reduction in air resistance because of travelling at economic speeds and in ranks can save fuel and reduce CO2 emission. The DMBS can work effectively also in forming complementary relationship with the existing public transportation systems. Two routes have been set in the urban area of Kuala Lumpur, and discussions were given on the new town of Putra Jaya as the object. From the viewpoint of financial internal profitability, the possibility of establishing the system as a private business is low if it relies only on income from ticket sales because of high initial cost including development of infrastructures. The effects of CO2 reduction and energy conservation, and economic benefits would be brought about from the viewpoint of modal shift from privately owned automobiles to public transportation systems. (NEDO)

  7. Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Dual-Porosity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Rafael; Doster, Florian; Geiger, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFR's) have received little attention as potential CO2 storage sites. Two main facts deter from storage projects in fractured reservoirs: (1) CO2 tends to be nonwetting in target formations and capillary forces will keep CO2 in the fractures, which typically have low pore volume; and (2) the high conductivity of the fractures may lead to increased spatial spreading of the CO2 plume. Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to understand the physics behind brine-CO2 flow in NFR's. Dual-porosity models are typically used to simulate multiphase flow in fractured formations. However, existing dual-porosity models are based on crude approximations of the matrix-fracture fluid transfer processes and often fail to capture the dynamics of fluid exchange accurately. Therefore, more accurate transfer functions are needed in order to evaluate the CO2 transfer to the matrix. This work presents an assessment of CO2 storage potential in NFR's using dual-porosity models. We investigate the impact of a system of fractures on storage in a saline aquifer, by analyzing the time scales of brine drainage by CO2 in the matrix blocks and the maximum CO2 that can be stored in the rock matrix. A new model to estimate drainage time scales is developed and used in a transfer function for dual-porosity simulations. We then analyze how injection rates should be limited in order to avoid early spill of CO2 (lost control of the plume) on a conceptual anticline model. Numerical simulations on the anticline show that naturally fractured reservoirs may be used to store CO2.

  8. Photoproduction within the two-component Dual Parton Model: amplitudes and cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the Dual Parton Model an approximation scheme to describe high energy photoproduction processes is presented. Based on the distinction between direct, resolved soft, and resolved hard interaction processes we construct effective impact parameter amplitudes. In order to treat low mass diffraction within the eikonal formalism in a consistent way a phenomenological ansatz is proposed. The free parameters of the model are determined by fits to high energy hadro- and photoproduction cross sections. We calculate the partial photoproduction cross sections and discuss predictions of the model at HERA energies. Using hadro- and photoproduction data together, the uncertainties of the model predictions are strongly reduced. (orig.)

  9. Cross sections and multiparticle production at supercollider energies in the dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.

    1993-01-01

    The dual parton model (DPM) describes soft and semihard multiparticle production and treats diffractive processes for the first time in a consistent way. The model is formulated in the form of a Monte-Carlo event generator, DTUJET for hadron-hadron collisions at collider energies. The uncertainties in the model predictions in the TeV energy range due to the unknown parton structure functions at x≤0.02 is explored. The behaviour of the model studied in the forward fragmentation region, which is especially relevant for the interaction of Cosmic Rays

  10. Sedimentary mode and reservoir genesis of dual grain banks at the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm carbonate ramp in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas reservoir of the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm in the Sichuan Basin is a supergiant integral marine carbonate gas reservoir whose single scale is currently the largest in China. In order to figure out its sedimentary model and reservoir genesis, its geological structures and sedimentary settings and facies were analyzed comprehensively and the lithofacies paleographic map was plotted. It is revealed that the following sedimentary facies are successively developed in the Longwangmiao Fm from West Sichuan to Southeast Chongqing: diamictic tidal flat at the back ramp, grain bank (the upper bank at the inner/shallow ramp – interbank sea (depression, deeper open bay at the platform depression of inner ramp → evaporative lagoon → evaporative tidal flat, tempestite at the middle ramp – barrier beach – mud mound beach (the lower bank, and outer ramp – basin. Accordingly, the specific sedimentary model of dual grain banks in the Longwangmiao Fm carbonate ramp was established as follows. Firstly, in this model, dual grain banks are symmetrically developed with Wanzhou–Yibin platform depression as the axis, on whose dual sides the paleohighs have shallow water bodies with strong energy. Compared with the classical model, the new one has a new upper bank which is developed around the paleohighs covering an area of about 8 × 104 km2. Secondly, the upper bank is large for its paleogeomorphology being located at the highest position with the strongest water energy during deposition. Therefore, it is prone to dolomitization and meteoric dissolution respectively during contemporaneous–penecontemporaneous hot-dry and hot-humid periods, and especially the Caledonian–Early Hercynian denudation wedge out tends to undergo post-supergene multiphase karstification. Therefore, quality reservoirs are more developed on scale. Thirdly, the intergranular pores and vermes moldic pores were dissolved and enlarged due to the multiphase

  11. A Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Multigranulation Rough Set over Two-Universe Model for Medical Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Deyu; Yan, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In medical science, disease diagnosis is one of the difficult tasks for medical experts who are confronted with challenges in dealing with a lot of uncertain medical information. And different medical experts might express their own thought about the medical knowledge base which slightly differs from other medical experts. Thus, to solve the problems of uncertain data analysis and group decision making in disease diagnoses, we propose a new rough set model called dual hesitant fuzzy multigranulation rough set over two universes by combining the dual hesitant fuzzy set and multigranulation rough set theories. In the framework of our study, both the definition and some basic properties of the proposed model are presented. Finally, we give a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and the effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by a numerical example. PMID:26858772

  12. Dual process interaction model of HIV-risk behaviors among drug offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated dual process interaction models of HIV-risk behavior among drug offenders. A dual process approach suggests that decisions to engage in appetitive behaviors result from a dynamic interplay between a relatively automatic associative system and an executive control system. One synergistic type of interplay suggests that executive functions may dampen or block effects of spontaneously activated associations. Consistent with this model, latent variable interaction analyses revealed that drug offenders scoring higher in affective decision making were relatively protected from predictive effects of spontaneous sex associations promoting risky sex. Among drug offenders with lower levels of affective decision making ability, spontaneous sexually-related associations more strongly predicted risky sex (lack of condom use and greater number of sex partners). These findings help elucidate associative and control process effects on appetitive behaviors and are important for explaining why some individuals engage in risky sex, while others are relatively protected.

  13. Mothers Coping With Bereavement in the 2008 China Earthquake: A Dual Process Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Fu, Fang; Sha, Wei; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the grief experiences of mothers after they lost their children in the 2008 China earthquake. Informed by the Dual Process Model, this study conducted in-depth interviews to explore how six bereaved mothers coped with such grief over a 2-year period. Right after the earthquake, these mothers suffered from intensive grief. They primarily coped with loss-oriented stressors. As time passed, these mothers began to focus on restoration-oriented stressors to face changes in life. This coping trajectory was a dynamic and integral process, which bereaved mothers oscillated between loss- and restoration-oriented stressors. This study offers insight in extending the existing empirical evidence of the Dual Process Model.

  14. Simulation and experimental validation of the dynamical model of a dual-rotor vibrotactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklós, Á.; Szabó, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a novel design for small vibrotactors called the Dual Excenter is presented, which makes it possible to produce vibrations with independently adjustable frequency and amplitude. This feature has been realized using two coaxially aligned eccentric rotors, which are driven by DC motors independently. The prototype of the device has been built, where mechanical components are integrated on a frame with two optical sensors for the measurement of angular velocity and phase angle. The system is equipped with a digital controller. Simulations confirm the results of analytical investigations and they allow us to model the sampling method of the signals of the angular velocity and the phase angle between the rotors. Furthermore, we model the discrete behavior of the controller, which is a PI controller for the angular velocities and a PID controller for the phase angle. Finally, simulation results are compared to experimental ones, which show that the Dual Excenter concept is feasible.

  15. A Sliding Mode LCO Regulation Strategy for Dual-Parallel Underactuated UAV Systems Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramos-Pedroza

    2015-01-01

    careful algebraic manipulation in the regulation error system development, along with innovative design of the sliding surface. A detailed model of the UAV LCO dynamics is utilized, and a rigorous analysis is provided to prove asymptotic regulation of the pitching and plunging displacements. Numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the control law.

  16. An Innovative Structural Mode Selection Methodology: Application for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Homero, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An innovative methodology for determining structural target mode selection and mode selection based on a specific criterion is presented. An effective approach to single out modes which interact with specific locations on a structure has been developed for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model (FEM). We presented Root-Sum-Square (RSS) displacement method computes resultant modal displacement for each mode at selected degrees of freedom (DOF) and sorts to locate modes with highest values. This method was used to determine modes, which most influenced specific locations/points on the X-33 flight vehicle such as avionics control components, aero-surface control actuators, propellant valve and engine points for use in flight control stability analysis and for flight POGO stability analysis. Additionally, the modal RSS method allows for primary or global target vehicle modes to also be identified in an accurate and efficient manner.

  17. THE LOW FREQUENCY OF DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VERSUS THE HIGH MERGER RATE OF GALAXIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingjuan; Lu Youjun; Mohayaee, Roya; Colin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are natural byproducts of hierarchical mergers of galaxies in the ΛCDM cosmogony. Recent observations have shown that only a small fraction (∼0.1%-2.5%) of AGNs at redshift z ∼< 0.3 are dual with kpc-scale separations, which is rather low compared to the high merger rate of galaxies. Here we construct a phenomenological model to estimate the number density of dual AGNs and its evolution according to the observationally estimated major merger rates of galaxies and various scaling relations on the properties of galaxies and their central massive black holes. We show that our model reproduces the observed frequency and separation distribution of dual AGNs provided that significant nuclear activities are triggered only in gas-rich progenitor galaxies with central massive black holes and only when the nuclei of these galaxies are roughly within the half-light radii of their companion galaxies. Under these constraints, the observed low dual AGN frequency is consistent with the relatively high merger rate of galaxies and supports the hypothesis that major mergers lead to AGN/QSO activities. We also predict that the number of kpc-scale dual AGNs decreases with increasing redshift and only about 0.02%-0.06% of AGNs are dual AGNs with double-peaked narrow line features at redshifts of z ∼ 0.5-1.2. Future observations of high-redshift dual AGNs would provide a solid test for this prediction.

  18. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René

    2014-09-01

    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the `modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a `Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations.

  19. Yukawa couplings and the nature of zero modes in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarabayashi, K.

    1989-01-01

    Several issues related, directly or indirectly, to the Yukawa coupling in the Skyrme model are discussed. The authors try to shed a new light on the physical nature of the zero modes associated with translation (rotation) invariance of the model

  20. Cooperative Rendezvous and Docking for Underwater Robots Using Model Predictive Control and Dual Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Johansen, Tor Arne; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of rendezvous and docking with visual constraints in the context of underwater robots with camera-based navigation. The objective is the convergence of the vehicles to a common point while maintaining visual contact. The proposed solution includes the design of a ...... of a distributed model predictive controller based on dual decomposition, which allows for optimization in a decentralized fashion. The proposed distributed controller enables rendezvous and docking between vehicles while maintaining visual contact....