WorldWideScience

Sample records for dual inhibition-seeding concept

  1. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yeu Wu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend

  2. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  3. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  4. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Daohui [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bx@pssci.umass.edu

    2007-11-15

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth.

  5. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Daohui; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth

  6. Control of DNA synthesis in inhibited and activated Agrostemma githago seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, M [Sektion Biologie, FG Algemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitaet Greifswald (German Democratic Republic)

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between DNA synthesis and germination capacity of Agrostemma seeds had been studied. Protein synthesis and RNA synthesis were activated at the very beginning of imbibition, whereas DNA synthesis started in the second part of the imbibition phase. Agrostemma seeds inhibited by higher temperature (30 degC), or aged seeds with a low germination capacity were characterized by a significantly reduced protein synthesis. DNA synthesis was also reduced. The inhibition of the protein synthesis of Agrostemma embryos fed with cycloheximide or actinomycin D caused a depression of DNA synthesis. The results indicated that the initiation of DNA synthesis of imbibing Agrostemma seeds depended on the synthesis of special proteins. Abscisic acid inhibited the growth as well as DNA synthesis of isolated Agrostemma embryos. Nitomycin inhibited germination and DNA synthesis to the same extent. Dormant seeds with an undiminished intensity of protein synthesis also showed a reduced incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine by DNA. It is suggested that DNA synthesis of imbibed seeds, which is a necessary prerequisite for the radicle protrusion, was involved in the mechanism of ripening of the Agrostemma seeds.

  7. Control of DNA synthesis in inhibited and activated Agrostemma githago seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between DNA synthesis and germination capacity of Agrostemma seeds had been studied. Protein synthesis and RNA synthesis were activated at the very beginning of imbibition, whereas DNA synthesis started in the second part of the imbibition phase. Agrostemma seeds inhibited by higher temperature (30 degC), or aged seeds with a low germination capacity were characterized by a significantly reduced protein synthesis. DNA synthesis was also reduced. The inhibition of the protein synthesis of Agrostemma embryos fed with cycloheximide or actinomycin D caused a depression of DNA synthesis. The results indicated that the initiation of DNA synthesis of imbibing Agrostemma seeds depended on the synthesis of special proteins. Abscisic acid inhibited the growth as well as DNA synthesis of isolated Agrostemma embryos. Nitomycin inhibited germination and DNA synthesis to the same extent. Dormant seeds with an undiminished intensity of protein synthesis also showed a reduced incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by DNA. It is suggested that DNA synthesis of imbibed seeds, which is a necessary prerequisite for the radicle protrusion, was involved in the mechanism of ripening of the Agrostemma seeds. (author)

  8. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  9. Study on dual plant concept for the next generation boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Oikawa, Hirohide

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the study results on the basic concept of dual BWRs. For the convenience, we call the concept here as Trial Study on BWR dual concept (TSBWR dual). The concept is general and applicable to all BWRs which have internal recirculation pumps (RIP). The TSBWR dual is a plant concept of dual BWRs contained in a same secondary containment building. The plant output is from 2 x l,350 MWe up to 2 x 1,700 MWe. This concept is mainly aiming at safety improvement and cost savings of the next generation BWRs. The TSBWR dual has two RPVs and two dry wells (DW). It has, however, only one wet well (WW) and only one R/B. The WW and the R/B are shared by the dual reactors. The operating floor is also shared by the two reactors. The TSBWR dual has both passive safety systems and active safety systems. They are also shared between the two reactors. A lot of sharing between the dual reactors enables significant cost savings accompanied by the power increase up to 3,400 MWe. Although the TSBWR dual consists of two reactors, the simplified cylindrical configuration of the key structures and reduction of the R/B height can minimize the plant construction period. The TSBWR dual provides a concept with which we can challenge to construct a dual BWR plant in the near future. (author)

  10. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  11. Omethoate treatment mitigates high salt stress inhibited maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Zuotong; Deng, Benliang

    2018-01-01

    Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H 2 O 2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H 2 O 2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone. Dimethylthiourea (DTMU), a specific scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, as did IMZ (imidazole), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, whereas fluridone, a specific inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, enhanced the effect of OM. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of ROS and ABA in the promotion of maize seed germination by OM under salt stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual effects of Metarhizium spp. and Clonostachys rosea against an insect and a seed-borne pathogen in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Chad A; Jensen, Birgit; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-03-01

    Crops are often prone to both insect herbivory and disease, which necessitate multiple control measures. Ideally, an efficacious biological control agent must adequately control the target organism and not be inhibited by other biological control agents when applied simultaneously. Wheat seeds infected with the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum were treated with Metarhizium brunneum or M. flavoviride and Clonostachys rosea individually and in combination, with the expectation to control both root-feeding insects and the pathogen. Emerging roots were evaluated for disease and then placed with Tenebrio molitor larvae, which were monitored for infection. Plant disease symptoms were nearly absent for seeds treated with C. rosea, both individually and in combination with Metarhizium spp. Furthermore, roots grown from seeds treated with Metarhizium spp. caused significant levels of fungal infection in larvae when used individually or combined with C. rosea. However, cotreated seeds showed reduced virulence towards T. molitor when compared with treatments using Metarhizium spp. only. This study clearly shows that seed treatments with both the entomopathogenic fungus M. brunneum and the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea can protect plant roots from insects and disease. The dual-treatment approach to biological control presented here is consistent with the ideals of IPM strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem Afzal; Ni, Jun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiaojian; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Tang, Caiguo; Fu, Songling; Wu, Lifang

    2018-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum . We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs) suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum .

  14. [Concepts of inhibition in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auroux, Y; Bourrat, M M; Brun, J P

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical approach, the authors first describe the original development of the concept of inhibition in neurophysiology and then analyze the subsequent adaptations made in psychiatry around such concept including those of: -- Pavlov, Hull, Watson and the behaviorists, -- Freud and the Freudian School, -- clinicians and psychopharmacologists. The concept of inhibition has thus various meanings in psychiatry. Although some unity is achieved on the semiological level, this aspect cannot explain the extent of the process.

  15. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  16. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Afzal Shah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum, an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen and endospermic cap (ESC contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs. Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum. We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum.

  17. Kinetics of the inhibition of cotton seeds germination by lucerne saponins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaim, U.; Birk, Y.; Dovrat, A.; Berman, T.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of inhibition of cotton-seed germination by lucerne saponins depends upon the period of pre-immersion in the saponin solution prior to germination. After 5 hr of pre-immersion in a 0.5% lucerne saponin solution, a 40% drop in germination was noted. The respiration rate decreased after 3hr of pre-immersion. The diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of seeds pre-immersed in saponins also decreased with an increasing pre-immersion time. Inhibition of germination was irreversible after pre-immersion in saponins for 6 hr or more. The effect of saponins does not appear to be biochemically specific because the germination and respiration rates of the cotton seeds which were immersed in aqueous solutions of anionic, nonionic or cationic commercial surfactants were similarly inhibited. (auth.)

  18. Organic Oils as Seed Treatments for Soybeans to Inhibit Fungal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Burgett, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Producing organic crops has become essential to satisfy the desires of the end consumer. To completely fulfill this task and meet the requirements of the National Organic Program in the U.S., the seeds planted must be organic. Seeds succumb to fungal infections without seed treatments. Organic seed treatments are not common. The purpose of this study is to test the ability of three organic oils (tea tree, coconut, and lemon) to act as organic seed treatments to inhibit fungal growth on soybea...

  19. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  20. Investigations of a Dual Seeded 1178 nm Raman Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-14

    was obtained by Raman amplification of a distributed feedback diode laser in a variably strained polarization- maintaining fiber with a record-high...Calia, D.B., “50W CW visible laser source at 589 nm obtained via frequency doubling of three coherently combined narrow-band Raman fiber amplifiers...AFRL-RD-PS- TP-2016-0009 AFRL-RD-PS- TP-2016-0009 INVESTIGATIONS OF A DUAL SEEDED 1178 NM RAMAN LASER SYSTEM Leanne Henry, et al. 14 January

  1. Reconsidering the concept of 'dual-use' in the context of neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voarino, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘dual-use’ research usually refers to research with both civilian (e.g., therapeutic and military applications. I argue here that this dichotomy can and should be reconsidered and thus that the concept of dual-use can be helpful in examining other potential misuses, such as neuroenhancement or neuromarketing.

  2. Analysis and evaluation of the Dual Fluid Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang

    2017-06-27

    The Dual Fluid Reactor is a molten salt fast reactor developed by IFK in Berlin based on the Gen-IV Molten-Salt Reactor concept and the Liquid-Metal Cooled Reactor. The design aims to combine these two concepts to improve these two concepts. The Dissertation focuses on the concept and performs diverse calculations and estimations on the subjects of neutron physics, depletion and thermal-hydraulic behaviors to validate the new features of the concept. Based on the results it is concluded that this concept is feasible to its desired purpose and with great potential.

  3. Allelopathic Effects of Plant-Derived Aerosol Smoke on Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennacchio, M.; Jefferson, L.V.; Havens, K.

    2007-01-01

    The role that plant-derived smoke plays in promoting seed germination is well documented, but little is known about its ability to inhibit seed germination. To better understand this phenomenon, we tested the effects of eight aerosol smoke treatments on the Columbia-3 ecotype of non dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seeds. Our results revealed that aerosol smoke significantly inhibits germination when seeds were exposed to prolonged periods of aerosol smoke. Short durations of smoke treatments significantly promoted the rate of germination of A. thaliana seed. We briefly discuss this dual regulation of smoke and its possible impact on conservation and restoration practices. We also propose that plant-derived smoke may be another vehicle by which allelo chemicals can be introduced into the environment.

  4. α-Synuclein aggregation, seeding and inhibition by scyllo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Tarek [Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute (Canada); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M4N 3M5, ON (Canada); McLaurin, JoAnne, E-mail: jmclaurin@sri.utoronto.ca [Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute (Canada); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M4N 3M5, ON (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Recent literature demonstrates the accelerated aggregation of α-synuclein, a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), by the presence of preformed fibrillar conformers in vitro. Furthermore, these preformed fibrillar seeds are suggested to accelerate pathological induction in vivo when injected into the brains of mice. Variation in the results of in vivo studies is proposed to be caused by α-synuclein conformational variants. To investigate the impact of amino acid sequence on seeding efficiency, human and mouse α-synuclein seeds, which vary at 7 amino acid residues, were generated and cross-seeding kinetics studied. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we confirmed that mouse α-synuclein aggregated more rapidly than human α-synuclein. Subsequently, we determined that seeding of human and mouse α-synuclein was more rapid in the presence of seeds generated from the same species. In addition, an established amyloid inhibitor, scyllo-inositol, was examined for potential inhibitory effects on α-synuclein aggregation. TEM analysis of protein:inhibitor assays demonstrated that scyllo-inositol inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein, suggesting the therapeutic potential of the small molecule in PD. - Highlights: • Mouse α-syn fibrillizes in a significantly shorter timeframe than human α-syn. • Seeding of monomers is more efficient when seeds originate from the same species. • scyllo-Inositol has anti-aggregation effects on mouse and human α-syn.

  5. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  6. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and Fatty Acid Composition in Theobroma grandiflorum Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Valentina Itriago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma grandiflorum is an important fruit tree from Sterculiaceae family, native to the Brazilian Amazon, known in the region as cupuaçu. The seeds have a high fat content (24% with characteristics that resemble those of cocoa (Theobroma cacao butter with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The main objective of this work was to explore the seed fats from T. grandiflorum that were analyzed for fatty acid composition by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID and to analyze their activity for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Chromatographic analysis provided detection of nine fatty acids. The major fatty acids found in the species were oleic (40.0%, stearic (32.7%, arachidic (10.4% and palmitic (8.0%. The acetylcholinesterase inhibition by fats from seeds was over 40.48%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.894 

  7. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  9. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  10. Phenformin-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Dual Inhibition of mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Sonia Rosa; Ge, Xuemei; Mercer, Carol A; Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Thomas, Hala Elnakat; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Zorzano, Antonio; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C

    2018-04-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second in cancer mortality and has limited therapeutic options. We recently described the synergistic effect of allosteric and ATP-site competitive inhibitors against the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) for the treatment of HCC. However, such inhibitors induce glycemia and increase mitochondrial efficiency. Here we determined whether the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor Phenformin could reverse both side effects, impose an energetic-stress on cancer cells and suppress the growth of HCC. Human HCC cell lines were used in vitro to access the signaling and energetic impact of mTOR inhibitors and Phenformin, either alone or in combination. Next, the therapeutic utility of these drugs alone or in combination was investigated pre-clinically in human orthotopic tumors implanted in mice, by analyzing their impact on the tumor burden and overall survival. We found Phenformin caused mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation, inducing a compensatory shift to glycolysis. In contrast, dual inhibition of mTOR impaired cell growth and glycolysis, while increasing mitochondrial fusion and efficiency. In a mouse model of human HCC, dual inhibition of mTOR, together with Phenformin, was highly efficacious in controlling tumor burden. However, more striking, pretreatment with Phenformin sensitized tumors to dual inhibition of mTOR, leading to a dramatic improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC cells in vitro with the biguanide Phenformin causes a metabolic shift to glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation, and dramatically sensitizes orthotopic liver tumors to dual inhibition of mTOR. We therefore propose this therapeutic approach should be tested clinically in HCC. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Inhibition of Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth by allelochemicals identified in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

    2013-10-16

    Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed.

  12. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment.

  13. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concepts, Perception and the Dual Process Theories of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Frixione

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we argue that the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception in cognitive science is blurred by the fact that the very notion of concept is rather confused. Since it is not always clear exactly what concepts are, it is not easy to say, for example, whether and in what measure concept possession involves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations, whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representations, and so on. As a paradigmatic example of this state of affairs, we will start by taking into consideration the distinction between conceptual and nonconceptual content. The analysis of such a distinction will lead us to the conclusion that concept is a heterogeneous notion. Then we shall take into account the so called dual process theories of mind; this approach also points to concepts being a heterogeneous phenomenon: different aspects of conceptual competence are likely to be ascribed to different types of systems. We conclude that without a clear specification of what concepts are, the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception is somewhat ill-posed.

  15. Dual Entwining Structures and Dual Entwined Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhlail, Jawad Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we introduce and investigate the concepts of dual entwining structures and dual entwined modules. This generalizes the concepts of dual Doi-Koppinen structures and dual Doi-Koppinen modules introduced (in the infinite case over rings) by the author is his dissertation.

  16. Safety and environmental impact of the dual coolant blanket concept. SEAL subtask 6.2, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.; Dammel, F.; Gabel, K.; Jordan, T.; Schmuck, I.

    1996-03-01

    The European Union has been engaged since 1989 in a programme to develop tritium breeding blankets for application in a fusion power reactor. There are four concepts under development, namely two of the solid breeder type and two of the liquid breeder type. At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe one blanket concept of each line has been pursued so far with the so-called dual coolant type representing the liquid breeder line. In the dual coolant concept the breeder material (Pb-17Li) is circulated to external heat exchangers to carry away the bulk of the generated heat and to extract the tritium. Additionally, the heavily loaded first wall is cooled by high pressure helium gas. The safety and environmental impact of the dual coolant blanket concept has been assessed as part of the blanket concept selection excercise, a European concerted action, aiming at selecting the two most promising concepts for futher development. The topics investigated are: (a) Blanket materials and toxic materials inventory, (b) energy sources for mobilisation, (c) fault tolerance, (d) tritium and activation products release, and (e) waste generation and management. No insurmountable safety problems have been identified for the dual coolant blanket. The results of the assessment are described in this report. The information collected is also intended to serve as input to the EU 'Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion longterm Programme' (SEAL). The unresolved issues pertaining to the dual coolant blanket which would need further investigations in future programmes are outlined herein. (orig.) [de

  17. DUAL TRAINING IN RUSSIA: FROM THE CONCEPT TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Listvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to judge and justify the conditions of system elements application of dual training at implementation of programs of professional education for increase of efficiency of functioning and quality of preparation of qualified personnel by institutions of the secondary professional education (SPE. Methods. The methods used in work involve the comparative analysis of practice of application of dual training in system of professional education of Germany and regions of Russia for the purpose of identification of the existing problems and definition of optimum organizational and legal and didactic conditions. Results. The essence of system of dual training, its strong and weaknesses reveals. Necessary and indispensable conditions of application of dual training in modern regional systems of professional education are proved. Scientific novelty. According to the author, modern publications on problems and ways of development of professional education in Russia contain enough antinomy of standard and legal and organizational and administrative character. In particular, operating by the concept «dual education», an identification of the practice-focused and dual training introduction «the list 50 of the most demanded in labor market, the new and perspective professions that demand secondary professional education» as opposed to the existing list of professions and the constitutional guarantee of public and free secondary professional education. Standard and legal, and didactic conditions of application of elements of dual training in regional systems of professional education are proved theoretically. Practical significance. Implementation of the research outcomes can be useful to pedagogical staff of institutions of secondary professional education, representatives of employers and Chambers of Commerce and Industry to the organization and use of system of dual training in training of skilled workers (serving

  18. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Bouea Macrophylla Griff Seed Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Rosniza Razali

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla Griff or locally known as kundang is one of the common fruit plant available in Malaysia. This plant from Anacardiaceae family is native to Southeast Asia particularly in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Medicinal values of this plant is not yet been explored. The present study was done to evaluate phytochemicals constituents in B. macrophylla seed extract qualitatively and quantitatively. Biological evaluations focusing on antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition were also performed. Qualitative phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugar, steroids, triterpenes, phenolic, coumarine and proteins in B. macrophylla seed extract. Quantitative determination showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains high amount of phenolic compounds (689.17±37.50 mg GAE/ g extract), but low amount of flavonoids (2.78±0.01 mg QE/ g extract), suggesting that most of the phenolics in B. macrophylla seed extract were non-flavonoids. Antioxidant assays showed that the extract possesses strong reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC_5_0: 4.73±0.51 μg/ ml). These activities were almost comparable to that of vitamin C. α-Glucosidase inhibition study showed that the extract inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity potently with the IC_5_0 value of 0.55±0.04 mg/ ml, suggesting the ability of the plant to delay glucose absorption in small intestine, hence reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic condition. Potent antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extract might be attributed to the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds. In conclusion, this study showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains various phytochemicals, possess strong antioxidant property and showed promising antidiabetic activity. These results indicate that B. macrophylla might have the potential to be developed as new pharmacological agent targeting on oxidative stress

  19. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  20. HONSU, a protein phosphatase 2C, regulates seed dormancy by inhibiting ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woohyun; Lee, Yeon; Park, Jeongmoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-04-01

    Seed dormancy, a seed status that prohibits germination even in the presence of inductive germination signals, is a poorly understood process. To identify molecular components that regulate seed dormancy, we screened T-DNA insertion lines and identified a mutant designated honsu (hon). HON loss-of-function mutants display deep seed dormancy, whereas HON-overexpressing lines display shallow seed dormancy. HON encodes a seed-specific group A phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and is one of the major negative regulators of seed dormancy among group A PP2Cs. Like other PP2C family members, HON interacts with PYR1/RCAR11 in the presence of ABA. Our analysis indicates that HON inhibits ABA signaling and activates gibberellic acid signaling, and both of these conditions must be satisfied to promote the release of seed dormancy. However, HON mRNA levels are increased in mutants displaying deep seed dormancy or under conditions that deepen seed dormancy, and decreased in mutants displaying shallow seed dormancy or under conditions that promote the release of seed dormancy. Taken together, our results indicate that the expression of HON mRNA is homeostatically regulated by seed dormancy.

  1. Karrikin-KAI2 signalling provides Arabidopsis seeds with tolerance to abiotic stress and inhibits germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Waters, Mark T; Smith, Steven M

    2018-05-04

    The control of seed germination in response to environmental conditions is important for plant success. We investigated the role of the karrikin receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) in the response of Arabidopsis seeds to osmotic stress, salinity and high temperature. Germination of the kai2 mutant was examined in response to NaCl, mannitol and elevated temperature. The effect of karrikin on germination of wild-type seeds, hypocotyl elongation and the expression of karrikin-responsive genes was also examined in response to such stresses. The kai2 seeds germinated less readily than wild-type seeds and germination was more sensitive to inhibition by abiotic stress. Karrikin-induced KAI2 signalling stimulated germination of wild-type seeds under favourable conditions, but, surprisingly, inhibited germination in the presence of osmolytes or at elevated temperature. By contrast, GA stimulated germination of wild-type seeds and mutants under all conditions. Karrikin induced expression of DLK2 and KUF1 genes and inhibited hypocotyl elongation independently of osmotic stress. Under mild osmotic stress, karrikin enhanced expression of DREB2A, WRKY33 and ERF5 genes, but not ABA signalling genes. Thus, the karrikin-KAI2 signalling system can protect against abiotic stress, first by providing stress tolerance, and second by inhibiting germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C

    2002-03-01

    According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.

  3. Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Rubiales, Diego; Motta, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Orobanche crenata is a major threat to grain legume production. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual legume that has been shown to effectively reduce O. crenata infection when intercropped with grain legumes. In this paper, we point that this can be attributed to allelopathy, through inhibition of the germination of O. crenata by fenugreek root exudates. The main inhibitory metabolite was isolated and characterized. Allelopathy was demonstrated in different bioassays, by inhibition of O. crenata seeds germination both by growing fenugreek and pea plants together (intercropped), and by application of fenugreek root exudates. Fenugreek root exudates were extracted with organic solvent and fractionated giving several fractions, two of which showed moderate (27%) and strong (54%) inhibition of O. crenata seed germination, respectively. The most active metabolite is a new monosubstituted trioxazonane, characterized by spectroscopic methods as the 2-butyl-[1,4,7,2]trioxazonane and named trigoxazonane.

  4. Dual inhibition of Ang-2 and VEGF receptors normalizes tumor vasculature and prolongs survival in glioblastoma by altering macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Teresa E.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Huang, Yuhui; Farrar, Christian T.; Marijt, Koen A.; Kloepper, Jonas; Datta, Meenal; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Seano, Giorgio; Jung, Keehoon; Kamoun, Walid S.; Vardam, Trupti; Snuderl, Matija; Goveia, Jermaine; Chatterjee, Sampurna; Batista, Ana; Muzikansky, Alona; Leow, Ching Ching; Xu, Lei; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) rapidly become refractory to anti-VEGF therapies. We previously demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) compromises the benefits of anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) treatment in murine GBM models and that circulating Ang-2 levels in GBM patients rebound after an initial decrease following cediranib (a pan-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) administration. Here we tested whether dual inhibition of VEGFR/Ang-2 could improve survival in two orthotopic models of GBM, Gl261 and U87. Dual therapy using cediranib and MEDI3617 (an anti–Ang-2–neutralizing antibody) improved survival over each therapy alone by delaying Gl261 growth and increasing U87 necrosis, effectively reducing viable tumor burden. Consistent with their vascular-modulating function, the dual therapies enhanced morphological normalization of vessels. Dual therapy also led to changes in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Inhibition of TAM recruitment using an anti–colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody compromised the survival benefit of dual therapy. Thus, dual inhibition of VEGFR/Ang-2 prolongs survival in preclinical GBM models by reducing tumor burden, improving normalization, and altering TAMs. This approach may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome the limitations of anti-VEGFR monotherapy in GBM patients by integrating the complementary effects of anti-Ang2 treatment on vessels and immune cells. PMID:27044097

  5. Insights into the molecular mechanism of RGL2-mediated inhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamm Petra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is of immense significance for agriculture and has been studied for centuries. Yet, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of dormancy and germination is still in its infancy. Gibberellins are the key phytohormones that promote germination, and the DELLA protein RGL2 is the main signalling intermediate involved in this response. Germination is completely inhibited if functional RGL2 is overexpressed and/or stabilized; however, the molecular mechanisms of RGL2 function are still largely unknown. We therefore attempted to shed light onto some of the genetic events downstream of RGL2. Results Gene ontology of the transcriptome differentially regulated by RGL2, as well as extensive cross-comparison with other available microarray data indicates that RGL2-mediated inhibition of germination causes seeds to enter a state of dormancy. RGL2 also appears to differentially regulate a number of transcription factors, many of which are known to be involved in light- or phytohormone-mediated aspects of germination. A promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes identified an enrichment of several motifs that can be bound by specific transcription factors, for example GAMYB, ARF1, or Dof-type zinc fingers. We show that Dof-binding motifs indeed play a role in RGL2-mediated transcription. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we show that RGL2 directly downregulates at least one cell wall modifying enzyme, which is predicted to constrain cell growth thereby leading to inhibition of seed germination. Conclusions Our results reveal that RGL2 controls various aspects of germination. Through the repression of cell wall modifying enzymes, cell growth is directly constrained to inhibit germination. Furthermore, RGL2 likely interacts with various types of proteins to regulate transcription, and differentially regulates several transcription factors. Collectively, our data indicate that

  6. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-Lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Oliveira, Tiago Branquinho; Faleiro, Danniela Príscylla Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Costa, Fernando Batista Da

    2015-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase are enzymes that catalyze important inflammatory pathways, suggesting that dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors should be more efficacious as anti-inflammatory medicines with lower side effects than the currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many plants from the family Asteraceae have anti-inflammatory activities, which could be exerted by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Nevertheless, only a small number of compounds from this family have been directly evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymes in cell-free assays. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated 57 Asteraceae extracts in vitro in enzyme activity experiments to determine whether any of these extracts exhibit dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detector method, and their major constituents were dereplicated. Of the 57 tested extracts, 13 (26.6 %, IC50 range from 0.03-36.2 µg/mL) of them displayed dual inhibition. Extracts from known anti-inflammatory herbs, food plants, and previously uninvestigated species are among the most active. Additionally, the extract action was found to be specific with IC50 values close to or below those of the standard inhibitors. Thus, the active extracts and active substances of these species are potent inhibitors acting through the mechanism of dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The extracts were prepared for this study using nontoxic extraction solvents (EtOH-H2O), requiring only a small amount of plant material to carry out the bioassays and the phytochemical analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated the potential of the investigated species as dual inhibitors, revealing their potential as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, Anne; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Ponard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage

  8. A novel dual inhibitor of microtubule and Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibits survival of multiple myeloma and osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj K; Gowda, Krishne; Sung, Shen-Shu; Abraham, Thomas; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin; Talamo, Giampolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu

    2017-09-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates many vital signaling pathways and plays a critical role in cell proliferation, survival, migration, and resistance. Previously, we reported that a small molecule, KS99, is an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. In the present study, we explored whether KS99 is a dual inhibitor of BTK and tubulin polymerization. Although it is known that BTK is required for clonogenic growth and resistance, and microtubules are essential for cancer cell growth, dual targeting of these two components has not been explored previously. Through docking studies, we predicted that KS99 interacts directly with the catalytic domain of BTK and inhibits phosphorylation at the Y223 residue and kinase activities. Treatment of KS99 reduces the cell viability of multiple myeloma (MM) and CD138 + cells, with an IC 50 of between 0.5 and 1.0 μmol/L. We found that KS99 is able to induce apoptosis in MM cells in a caspase-dependent manner. KS99 suppressed the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner and, importantly, inhibited the expression of cytokines associated with bone loss. Finally, we found that KS99 inhibits the in vivo tumor growth of MM cells through the inhibition of BTK and tubulin. Overall, our results show that dual inhibition of BTK and tubulin polymerization by KS99 is a viable option in MM treatment, particularly in the inhibition of refraction and relapse. Copyright © 2017 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on dual fuel operation of rubber seed oil and its bio-diesel with hydrogen as the inducted fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin Geo, V.; Nagalingam, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KCG College of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600097 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IC Engineering Division, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025 (India)

    2008-11-15

    The main problems with the use of neat vegetable oils in diesel engines are higher smoke levels and lower thermal efficiency as compared to diesel. The problem can be tackled by inducting a gaseous fuel in the intake manifold along with air. In this investigation, hydrogen is used as the inducted fuel and rubber seed oil (RSO), rubber seed oil methyl ester (RSOME) and diesel are used as main fuels in a dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine with rated output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm was converted to operate in the dual fuel mode. Dual fuel operation of varying hydrogen quantity with RSO and RSOME results in higher brake thermal efficiency and significant reduction in smoke levels at high outputs. The maximum brake thermal efficiency is 28.12%, 29.26% and 31.62% with RSO, RSOME and diesel at hydrogen energy share of 8.39%, 8.73% and 10.1%, respectively. Smoke is reduced from 5.5 to 3.5 BSU with RSOME and for RSO it is from 6.1 to 3.8 BSU at the maximum efficiency point. The peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise increase with hydrogen induction. Heat release rate indicates an increase in the combustion rate with hydrogen induction. On the whole it is concluded that hydrogen can be inducted along with air in order to reduce smoke levels and improve thermal efficiency of RSO and its bio-diesel fuelled diesel engines. (author)

  10. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Rex S; Nahal, Hardeep; Provart, Nicholas J; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-01-27

    Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP) during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is

  11. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Rex S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3 is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying

  12. Tunable narrow band difference frequency THz wave generation in DAST via dual seed PPLN OPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolasinski, Brian; Powers, Peter E; Haus, Joseph W; Cooney, Adam

    2015-02-09

    We report a widely tunable narrowband terahertz (THz) source via difference frequency generation (DFG). A narrowband THz source uses the output of dual seeded periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric generators (OPG) combined in the nonlinear crystal 4-dimthylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST). We demonstrate a seamlessly tunable THZ output that tunes from 1.5 THz to 27 THz with a minimum bandwidth of 3.1 GHz. The effects of dispersive phase matching, two-photon absorption, and polarization were examined and compared to a power emission model that consisted of the current accepted parameters of DAST.

  13. Inhibiting prenylation augments chemotherapy efficacy in renal cell carcinoma through dual inhibition on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangrong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Peng, Xiaochun; Huang, Wei

    2017-11-18

    Prenylation is a posttranslational lipid modification required for the proper functions of a number of proteins involved in cell regulation. Here, we show that prenylation inhibition is important for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) growth, survival and response to chemotherapy, and its underlying mechanism may be contributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. We first demonstrated that a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pitavastatin inhibited mevalonate pathway and thereby prenylation in RCC cells. In addition, pitavastatin is effective in inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in a panel of RCC cell lines. Combination of pitavastatin and paclitaxel is significantly more effective than pitavastatin or paclitaxel alone as shown by both in vitro cell culture system and in vivo RCC xenograft model. Importantly, pitavastatin treatment inhibits mitochondrial respiration via suppressing mitochondrial complex I and II enzyme activities. Interestingly, different from mitochondrial inhibitor phenformin that inhibits mitochondrial respiration but activates glycolytic rate in RCC cells, pitavastatin significantly decreases glycolytic rate. The dual inhibitory action of pitavastatin on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis results in remarkable energy depletion and oxidative stress in RCC cells. In addition, inhibition of prenylation by depleting Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (Icmt) also mimics the inhibitory effects of pitavastatin in RCC cells. Our work demonstrates the previously unappreciated association between prenylation inhibition and energy metabolism in RCC, which can be therapeutically exploited, likely in tumors that largely rely on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  15. Metabolites inhibiting germination of Orobanche ramosa seeds produced by Myrothecium verrucaria and Fusarium compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Antonio; Vurro, Maurizio

    2005-03-09

    Myrothecium verrucaria and Fusarium compactum were isolated from diseased Orobanche ramosa plants collected in southern Italy to find potential biocontrol agents of this parasitic weed. Both fungi grown in liquid culture produced metabolites that inhibited the germination of O. ramosa seeds at 1-10 muM. Eight metabolites were isolated from M. verrucaria culture extracts. The main metabolite was identified as verrucarin E, a disubstituted pyrrole not belonging to the trichothecene group. Seven compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods as macrocyclic trichothecenes, namely, verrucarins A, B, M, and L acetate, roridin A, isotrichoverrin B, and trichoverrol B. The main metabolite produced by F. compactum was neosoloaniol monoacetate, a trichothecene. All the trichothecenes proved to be potent inhibitors of O. ramosa seed germination and possess strong zootoxic activity when assayed on Artemia salina brine shrimps. Verrucarin E is inactive on both seed germination and zootoxic assay.

  16. AMDE-1 is a dual function chemical for autophagy activation and inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Autophagy is the process by which cytosolic components and organelles are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy plays important roles in cellular homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Small chemical molecules that can modulate autophagy activity may have pharmacological value for treating diseases. Using a GFP-LC3-based high content screening assay we identified a novel chemical that is able to modulate autophagy at both initiation and degradation levels. This molecule, termed as Autophagy Modulator with Dual Effect-1 (AMDE-1, triggered autophagy in an Atg5-dependent manner, recruiting Atg16 to the pre-autophagosomal site and causing LC3 lipidation. AMDE-1 induced autophagy through the activation of AMPK, which inactivated mTORC1 and activated ULK1. AMDE-1did not affect MAP kinase, JNK or oxidative stress signaling for autophagy induction. Surprisingly, treatment with AMDE-1 resulted in impairment in autophagic flux and inhibition of long-lived protein degradation. This inhibition was correlated with a reduction in lysosomal degradation capacity but not with autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Further analysis indicated that AMDE-1 caused a reduction in lysosome acidity and lysosomal proteolytic activity, suggesting that it suppressed general lysosome function. AMDE-1 thus also impaired endocytosis-mediated EGF receptor degradation. The dual effects of AMDE-1 on autophagy induction and lysosomal degradation suggested that its net effect would likely lead to autophagic stress and lysosome dysfunction, and therefore cell death. Indeed, AMDE-1 triggered necroptosis and was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells. In conclusion, this study identified a new class of autophagy modulators with dual effects, which can be explored for potential uses in cancer therapy.

  17. Distribution of nutrients and antinutrients in milled fractions of chickpea and horse gram: seed coat phenolics and their distinct modes of enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Neelam, Dennis A; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M

    2010-04-14

    Milled fractions of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) and horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum L. Verdc.) were evaluated for their nutritional and antinutritional characteristics. Crude protein content of these fractions ranged from 22.6-23.8 g 100(-1) g in cotyledon to 7.3-9.1 g 100(-1) g in seed coat fractions. The fat content of chickpea fractions (1.6-7.8 g 100(-1) g) was higher than that of horse gram fractions (0.6-2.6 g 100(-1) g). Crude fiber content was higher in seed coat fractions of both legumes than embryonic axe and cotyledon fractions. Seed coat fractions had high dietary fiber content (28.2-36.4 g 100(-1) g), made up of mainly insoluble dietary fiber. Most of the phytic acid and oligosaccharides were located in the cotyledon fractions, whereas phenolic compounds in higher concentrations were found in seed coats. Significantly higher concentrations of proteinaceous and phenolic inhibitors of digestive enzymes were found in cotyledon and seed coat fractions, respectively. The kinetic studies, using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk derivations, revealed that seed coat phenolics inhibit alpha-amylase activity by mixed noncompetitive (chickpea) and noncompetitive (horse gram) inhibition mechanisms. In the case of trypsin, chickpea and horse gram seed coat phenolics showed noncompetitive and uncompetitive modes of inhibition, respectively. These results suggest the wide variability in the nutrient and antinutrient composition in different milled fractions of legumes and potential utility of these fractions as ingredients in functional food product development.

  18. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phytohormone that induces seed dormancy. We have recently shown that germonstatin (GS), a small synthetic molecule identified by high through-put chemical genetic screenings, inhibits seed germination through up-regulating auxin signaling and inducing auxin biosynthesis. GERMOSTATIN RESISTANCE LOCUS 1 (GSR1) encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein and is responsible for GS seed germination inhibition. Its knockdown mutant gsr1 displays decreased dormancy. In this report, we show that GS is not an ABA analog and provided 2 other GS-resistant mutants related to the chemical's function in seed germination inhibition other than gsr1, suggesting that GS may have pleiotropic effects through targeting different pathway governing seed germination.

  19. Irradiation effects for the growth inhibition of weed seeds invaded from foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatani, Yasuyuki; Ito, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Weeds of foreign origin have been invaded through imported maize or dried grass which using for animal feeds, and causing serious damages to agricultural crops and farm animals in Japan. These weeds are spreading mainly through animal feeds to feces. For the purpose to decrease the damage from these weeds, we investigated the gamma-irradiation effect on 7 species of the weed seed to suppress the germination or elongation of stem and root. After the irradiation of the weed seeds, all species kept the ability of germination even at 4 kGy in petri dish cultivation, whereas decreased the germination ratio in some species. However, many species of weed decreased the ability on elongation of stem or root below l kGy irradiation. Furthermore, all of species lost the ability on the development of root hair and appearance of first leaf after germination of seeds below 1 kGy irradiation. From this study, necessary dose for growth inhibition was estimated to be 1 kGy which should be able to apply with combination treatment of the animal feeds for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as salmonellae at 3 to 5 kGy irradiation. (author)

  20. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  1. Analysis of the Inhibition Layer of Galvanized Dual-Phase Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K. K.; Wang, H. P.; Chang, L.; Gan, D.; Chen, T. R.; Chen, H. B.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the Fe-Al inhibition layer in hot-dip galvanizing is a confusing issue for a long time. This study presents a characterization result on the inhibition layer formed on C-Mn-Cr and C-Mn-Si dual-phase steels after a short time galvanizing. The samples were annealed at 800 .deg. C for 60 s in N 2 -10% H 2 atmosphere with a dew point of -30 .deg. C, and were then galvanized in a bath containing 0.2%Al. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed for characterization. The TEM electron diffraction shows that only Fe 2 Al 5 intermetallic phase was formed. No orientation relationship between the Fe 2 Al 5 phase and the steel substrate could be identified. Two peaks of Al 2p photoelectrons, one from metallic aluminum and the other from Al 3+ ions, were detected in the inhibition layer, indicating that the layer is in fact a mixture of Fe 2 Al 5 and Al 2 O 3 . TEM/EDS analysis verifies the existence of Al 2 O 3 in the boundaries of Fe 2 Al 5 grains. The nucleation of Fe 2 Al 5 and the reduction of the surface oxide probably proceeded concurrently on galvanizing, and the residual oxides prohibited the heteroepitaxial growth of Fe 2 Al 5

  2. Dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 perturbs cytoskeletal organization and impairs endothelial cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji-Tamura, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Minetaro

    2018-02-26

    Elongation of endothelial cells is an important process in vascular formation and is expected to be a therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 impaired endothelial cell elongation, although the mechanism has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the mTORC1-specific inhibitor everolimus and the mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitor KU0063794 on the cytoskeletal organization and morphology of endothelial cell lines. While both inhibitors equally inhibited cell proliferation, KU0063794 specifically caused abnormal accumulation of F-actin and disordered distribution of microtubules, thereby markedly impairing endothelial cell elongation and tube formation. The effects of KU0063794 were phenocopied by paclitaxel treatment, suggesting that KU0063794 might impair endothelial cell morphology through over-stabilization of microtubules. Although mTORC1 is a key signaling molecule in cell proliferation and has been considered a target for preventing angiogenesis, mTORC1 inhibitors have not been sufficient to suppress angiogenesis. Our results suggest that mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibition is more effective for anti-angiogenic therapy, as it impairs not only endothelial cell proliferation, but also endothelial cell elongation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition by Seeds of Phalaris canariensis Extracts of Key Enzymes Linked to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Cruz Victoria, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases are an increasing problem around the world. One hyperglycemic remedy is reduction of glucose absorption performed by suppressing digestion of carbohydrates and lipids through the use of inhibitors. Phalaris canariensis (P canariensis) is a species belonging to the Graminaceae family and is used in traditional medicine in Mexico for treatment of diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different extracts of the seeds of P canariensis on enzymes metabolizing fat and carbohydrates, obtained using 3 solvents. The seeds of P canariensis were extracted using hexane (ALH), chloroform (ALC), and methanol (ALM) and were investigated for their antiobesity potential. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Research of Natural Products in the School of Chemical Engineering at the National Polytechnic Institute and in the Research Laboratory of Enzymology in the National School of Biological Sciences. Different concentrations of the extracts were used to study the inhibition of enzymatic activity by porcine pancreatic α-amylase, with carbose as a positive control. The inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase was determined using the standard method with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Pancreatic lipase (PL) activity was measured by absorbance at 412 nm, and the data obtained were compared with orlistat. The PL activity was assessed using a second method measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was measured by released (3H)-oleic acid. Lipolytic activity in cultured, mouse, 3T3-Ll adipocytes was used as a measure of hormone-sensitive lipase activity. The inhibitory activity of rat intestinal sucrase was determined by measuring the glucose released. A Caco-2 cell assay determined the content of free glucose. The ALH extract of P canariensis showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 2.13 and 1.25 mg/mL as compared with α-amylase and

  4. Analysis of the Inhibition Layer of Galvanized Dual-Phase Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K. K.; Wang, H. P.; Chang, L.; Gan, D. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (China); Chen, T. R.; Chen, H. B. [Steel and Aluminum R and D Development, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-01-15

    The formation of the Fe-Al inhibition layer in hot-dip galvanizing is a confusing issue for a long time. This study presents a characterization result on the inhibition layer formed on C-Mn-Cr and C-Mn-Si dual-phase steels after a short time galvanizing. The samples were annealed at 800 .deg. C for 60 s in N{sub 2}-10% H{sub 2} atmosphere with a dew point of -30 .deg. C, and were then galvanized in a bath containing 0.2%Al. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed for characterization. The TEM electron diffraction shows that only Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} intermetallic phase was formed. No orientation relationship between the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} phase and the steel substrate could be identified. Two peaks of Al 2p photoelectrons, one from metallic aluminum and the other from Al{sup 3+} ions, were detected in the inhibition layer, indicating that the layer is in fact a mixture of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TEM/EDS analysis verifies the existence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the boundaries of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} grains. The nucleation of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and the reduction of the surface oxide probably proceeded concurrently on galvanizing, and the residual oxides prohibited the heteroepitaxial growth of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}.

  5. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  6. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-01

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  7. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-15

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  8. Ethanol exposure can inhibit red spruce ( Picea rubens ) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Brittany M. Verrico; Victor Vankus; Stephen R. Keller

    2018-01-01

    Flotation of seeds in solvents is a common means of separating unfilled and filled seeds. While a few protocols for processing red spruce (Picea rubens) seeds recommend ethanol flotation, delayed and reduced germination have been reported. We conducted an ethanol bioassay on seeds previously stored at -20°C to quantify the concentration required to separate red spruce...

  9. A formal account of the dual extension of knowledge and concept in C-K design theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, L.; Kazakci, A.O.; Marjanović, D.; Štorga, M.; Pavković, N.; Bojčetić, N.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a contribution to the formalization efforts of C-K design theory. First, we analyze the notion of "dual expansion of concepts and knowledge" in C-K design theory and we discuss how such a reasoning process can be modeled using first-order logic. Then, we present a basic formal

  10. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... depth control system this variability was reduced to±2 mm. The system with the active control system operated more accurately at an operational speed of 12 km h−1 than at 4 km h−1 without the activated control system.......An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...

  11. High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Goldberg, L.; Koplow, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the generation of up to 0.7 mW of narrow-linewidth (radiation at 3.3 micrometers by difference frequency mixing of a Nd:YAG-seeded 1.6-W Yb fiber amplifier and a 1.5-micrometers diode-laser-seeded 0.6-W Er/Yb fiber amplifier in periodically poled LiNbO3. A conversion efficiency of 0.09%/W (0.47 mWW-2 cm-1) was achieved. A room-air CH4 spectrum acquired with a compact 80-m multipass cell and a dual-beam spectroscopic configuration indicates an absorption sensitivity of +/-2.8 x 10(-5) (+/-1 sigma), corresponding to a sub-parts-in-10(9) (ppb) CH4 sensitivity (0.8 ppb).

  12. Ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds: its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, A N

    1972-12-01

    The germination and pregermination ethylene production of Grand Rapids lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) incubated at 20 C after a red light treatment are inhibited if the seeds are first imbibed at 30 C for 36 hours. In this study, low concentrations of ethylene were found to enhance the germination of seeds pretreated at 30 C more than that of untreated controls. In the presence of high concentrations of ethylene, pretreated seeds and controls germinated at a similar rate. These results are consistent with the view that a prolonged imbibition at 30 C inhibits germination at a lower temperature through its effect on the ethylene production of the seeds. As a further test of the hypothesis, estimates were made of the pregermination ethylene content of untreated seeds and pretreated seeds incubated in the presence of sufficient ethylene to make them germinate as rapidly as untreated seeds. The values obtained were 0.65 and 0.74 nanoliter of ethylene per gram (dry weight) of seeds, respectively.

  13. Anticancer activity of Nigella sativa (black seed) and its relationship with the thermal processing and quinone composition of the seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Riad; Gabarin, Adi; Dahan, Arik; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    The traditional preparation process of Nigella sativa (NS) oil starts with roasting of the seeds, an allegedly unnecessary step that was never skipped. The aims of this study were to investigate the role and boundaries of thermal processing of NS seeds in the preparation of therapeutic extracts and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. NS extracts obtained by various seed thermal processing methods were investigated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity in mouse colon carcinoma (MC38) cells and for their thymoquinone content. The effect of the different methods of thermal processing on the ability of the obtained NS oil to inhibit the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway was then investigated in Hodgkin's lymphoma (L428) cells. The different thermal processing protocols yielded three distinct patterns: heating the NS seeds to 50°C, 100°C, or 150°C produced oil with a strong ability to inhibit tumor cell growth; no heating or heating to 25°C had a mild antiproliferative effect; and heating to 200°C or 250°C had no effect. Similar patterns were obtained for the thymoquinone content of the corresponding oils, which showed an excellent correlation with the antiproliferative data. It is proposed that there is an oxidative transition mechanism between quinones after controlled thermal processing of the seeds. While NS oil from heated seeds delayed the expression of NF-κB transcription, non-heated seeds resulted in only 50% inhibition. The data indicate that controlled thermal processing of NS seeds (at 50°C-150°C) produces significantly higher anticancer activity associated with a higher thymoquinone oil content, and inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  14. Design of a boiling water reactor core based on an integrated blanket-seed thorium-uranium concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Carrera, Alejandro; Francois, Juan Luis; Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of a boiling water reactor (BWR) equilibrium core using thorium as a nuclear material in an integrated blanket-seed (BS) assembly. The integrated BS concept comes from the fact that the blanket and the seed rods are located in the same assembly, and are burned out in a once-through cycle. The idea behind the lattice design is to use the thorium conversion capability in a BWR spectrum, taking advantage of the 233 U build-up. A core design was developed to achieve an equilibrium cycle of 365 effective full power days in a standard BWR with a reload of 104 fuel assemblies designed with an average 235 U enrichment of 7.5 w/o in the seed sub-lattice. The main operating parameters, like power, linear heat generation rate and void distributions were obtained as well as the shutdown margin. It was observed that the analyzed parameters behave like those obtained in a standard BWR. The shutdown margin design criterion was fulfilled by addition of a burnable poison region in the fuel assembly

  15. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  16. Dual-mode plasmonic nanorod type antenna based on the concept of a trapped dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretos, Anastasios H; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-04-06

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the feasibility of creating a dual-mode plasmonic nanorod antenna. The proposed design methodology relies on adapting to optical wavelengths the principles of operation of trapped dipole antennas, which have been widely used in the low MHz frequency range. This type of antenna typically employs parallel LC circuits, also referred to as "traps", which are connected along the two arms of the dipole. By judiciously choosing the resonant frequency of these traps, as well as their position along the arms of the dipole, it is feasible to excite the λ/2 resonance of both the original dipole as well as the shorter section defined by the length of wire between the two traps. This effectively enables the dipole antenna to have a dual-mode of operation. Our analysis reveals that the implementation of this concept at the nanoscale requires that two cylindrical pockets (i.e. loading volumes) be introduced along the length of the nanoantenna, inside which plasmonic core-shell particles are embedded. By properly selecting the geometry and constitution of the core-shell particle as well as the constitution of the host material of the two loading volumes and their position along the nanorod, the equivalent effect of a resonant parallel LC circuit can be realized. This effectively enables a dual-mode operation of the nanorod antenna. The proposed methodology introduces a compact approach for the realization of dual-mode optical sensors while at the same time it clearly illustrates the inherent tuning capabilities that core-shell particles can offer in a practical framework.

  17. Inhibition of aflatoxin B production of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.

  18. Inhibiting effect of ponderosa pine seed trees on seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1976-01-01

    Ponderosa pine seed trees, numbering 4, 8, and 12 per acre, were left standing for 9 years after harvest cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Calif. Seedling heights were measured at ages 5, 9, and 14, and for all ages were poorest if within 20 feet of a seed tree. Seedlings 20 feet or less from a seed tree at the ages given lost the equivalent in years of...

  19. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  20. Study of homeopathic drugs on seed germination and fungal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Dawar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro, seeds of mungbean, sunflower, okra and mashbean were treated with homeopathic drugs namely Arnica montana and Thuja occidentalis (30C) were evaluated against root rot fungi. Different concentrations like 100, 75 and 50% v/v were tested to investigate seeds germination and inhibition of root rot fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Results indicated that treated seeds of mungbean, sunflower, okra and mashbean with pure homeopathic drugs (100% v/v) by A. montana and T. occidentalis (30C) showed complete germination (100%), greater root length and excellent inhibition of root infecting pathogens. However, tested seeds treated with 75 and 50% v/v concentrations (prepared from 30C) by homeopathic drugs, respectively recorded significant increase in germination, root length and maximum zone of inhibition. (author)

  1. RITA plus 3-MA overcomes chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiha Shin

    2017-10-01

    Condensed abstract: This study revealed a novel RITA resistant mechanism associated with the sustained induction of autophagy, p62 overexpression, and Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant system activation. The combined treatment of RITA with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine overcomes RITA resistance via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  3. Mechanism of fluridone-induced seed germination of cistanche tubulosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.L.; Tu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study disclosed that fluridone, a synthesis inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA), could stimulate seed germination in the holoparasitic plant Cistanche tubulosa . Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, an attempt was made to reveal the mechanism of fluridone breaking seed dormancy in C. tubulosa and to determine the contribution of hormones in this process. The ABA level in seeds initially decreased following fluridone treatment and was subsequently maintained at a concentration of 31 ng g/sup -1/ DW (dry weight) three days later. The contents of gibberellins (GAs) initially in creased and subsequently were maintained at a level of 40 ng g-1 DW after ten days. However, the increment of seed germination induced by fluridone was inhibited after the introduction of exogenous ABA or paclobutrazol (a synthesis inhibitor of GAs). Furthermore, inhibition from paclobutrazol was reversed by an additional treatment with exogenous GA3. When the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA reached 4:3, C. tubulosa seeds initiated germination. By contrast, although the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA content reached 2:1 by cold stratification, C. tubulosa seeds could not germinate unless exogenous GA3 was added. In summary, our current study revealed that (i) GAs and ABA play key roles for the seed germination of C. tubulosa , (ii) fluridone inhibited ABA biosynthesis but increased the concentration of GAs in seeds, and (iii) fluridone might initiate other processes associated with germination. (author)

  4. Feasibility study of a dual detector configuration concept for simultaneous megavoltage imaging and dose verification in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Shrikant; McNamara, Aimee L.; Holloway, Lois; Metcalfe, Peter; Vial, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of a dual detector concept for comprehensive verification of external beam radiotherapy. Specifically, the authors test the hypothesis that a portal imaging device coupled to a 2D dosimeter provides a system capable of simultaneous imaging and dose verification, and that the presence of each device does not significantly detract from the performance of the other. Methods: The dual detector configuration comprised of a standard radiotherapy electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioned directly on top of an ionization-chamber array (ICA) with 2 cm solid water buildup material (between EPID and ICA) and 5 cm solid backscatter material. The dose response characteristics of the ICA and the imaging performance of the EPID in the dual detector configuration were compared to the performance in their respective reference clinical configurations. The reference clinical configurations were 6 cm solid water buildup material, an ICA, and 5 cm solid water backscatter material as the reference dosimetry configuration, and an EPID with no additional buildup or solid backscatter material as the reference imaging configuration. The dose response of the ICA was evaluated by measuring the detector’s response with respect to off-axis position, field size, and transit object thickness. Clinical dosimetry performance was evaluated by measuring a range of clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams in transit and nontransit geometries. The imaging performance of the EPID was evaluated quantitatively by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Images of an anthropomorphic phantom were also used for qualitative assessment. Results: The measured off-axis and field size response with the ICA in both transit and nontransit geometries for both dual detector configuration and reference dosimetry configuration agreed to within 1%. Transit dose response as a function of object thickness agreed to within 0.5%. All

  5. Postharvest residues from grass seed crops for bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...

  6. Selective and rapid monitoring of dual platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists by using multiple electrode aggregometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor platelet inhibition by aspirin or clopidogrel has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and facile assay to measure platelet inhibition after treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is lacking. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, which is being increasingly used in clinical studies, is sensitive to platelet inhibition by aspirin and clopidogrel, but a critical evaluation of MEA monitoring of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists is missing. Design and Methods By performing in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we evaluated in healthy subjects the feasibility of using MEA to monitor platelet inhibition of P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel in vivo, cangrelor in vitro and aspirin (100 mg per day in vivo, and 1 mM or 5.4 mM in vitro alone, and in combination. Statistical analyses were performed by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, student' t-test, analysis of variance followed by the Holm-Sidak test, where appropriate. Results ADP-induced platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated blood was inhibited by 99.3 ± 1.4% by in vitro addition of cangrelor (100 nM; p 95% and 100 ± 3.2%, respectively (p in vitro or ex vivo. Oral intake of clopidogrel did not significantly reduce AA-induced aggregation, but P2Y12 blockade by cangrelor (100 nM in vitro diminished AA-stimulated aggregation by 53 ± 26% (p Conclusions Selective platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists alone and in combination can be rapidly measured by MEA. We suggest that dual anti-platelet therapy with these two types of anti-platelet drugs can be optimized individually by measuring platelet responsiveness to ADP and AA with MEA before and after drug intake.

  7. Muon Acceleration Concepts for NuMAX: "Dual-use" Linac and "Dogbone" RLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We summarize the current state of a concept for muon acceleration aimed at a future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance by exploring the interplay between the complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival for the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to an initially low RF frequency, e.g., 325 MHz, which is then increased to 650 MHz as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. We consider two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stageable Neutrino Factory: exploration of the so-called "dual-use" linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and, alternatively, an SRF-efficient design based on a multi-pass (4.5) "dogbone" RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  8. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  9. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Long branch-chains of amylopectin with B-type crystallinity in rice seed with inhibition of starch branching enzyme I and IIb resist in situ degradation and inhibit plant growth during seedling development : Degradation of rice starch with inhibition of SBEI/IIb during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ting; Lin, Lingshang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2018-01-08

    Endosperm starch provides prime energy for cereal seedling growth. Cereal endosperm with repression of starch branching enzyme (SBE) has been widely studied for its high resistant starch content and health benefit. However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain germination and seedling establishment. A high resistant starch rice line (TRS) has been developed through inhibiting SBEI/IIb, and its starch has very high resistance to in vitro hydrolysis and digestion. However, it is unclear whether the starch resists in situ degradation in seed and influences seedling growth after grain germination. In this study, TRS and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) were used to investigate the seedling growth, starch property changes, and in situ starch degradation during seedling growth. The slow degradation of starch in TRS seed restrained the seedling growth. The starch components including amylose and amylopectin were simultaneously degraded in TQ seeds during seedling growth, but in TRS seeds, the amylose was degraded faster than amylopectin and the amylopectin long branch-chains with B-type crystallinity had high resistance to in situ degradation. TQ starch was gradually degraded from the proximal to distal region of embryo and from the outer to inner in endosperm. However, TRS endosperm contained polygonal, aggregate, elongated and hollow starch from inner to outer. The polygonal starch similar to TQ starch was completely degraded, and the other starches with long branch-chains of amylopectin and B-type crystallinity were degraded faster at the early stage of seedling growth but had high resistance to in situ degradation during TRS seedling growth. The B-type crystallinity and long branch-chains of amylopectin in TRS seed had high resistance to in situ degradation, which inhibited TRS seedling growth.

  11. Studies on cannabis. III. Young plants from the seed irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays for inhibiting their development after seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, H; Kuriyama, E; Tomizawa, A [Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan)

    1976-01-01

    The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of ..gamma..-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of ..gamma..-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of ..gamma..-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Lettuce Seed Germination and Thermoinhibition by Sampling of Individual Seeds at Germination and Removal of Storage Proteins by Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

  13. The effect of FAAH, MAGL, and Dual FAAH/MAGL inhibition on inflammatory and colorectal distension-induced visceral pain models in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Y S; Dogrul, A; Ilkaya, F; Seyrek, M; Ulas, U H; Gulsen, M; Bagci, S

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies showed that the pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid degrading enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) elicit promising analgesic effects in a variety of nociceptive models without serious side effects. However, the full spectrum of activities is not observed upon inhibition of either FAAH or MAGL enzymes alone and thus dual FAAH and MAGL inhibitors have been described. Visceral pain is strongly associated with inflammation and distension of the gut. Thus, we explored the comparable effects of FAAH, MAGL, and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors on inflammatory and mechanically evoked visceral pain models. Visceral inflammatory and distension-induced pain were assessed with the 0.6% acetic acid writhing test in mice and colorectal distension (CRD) test in rats, respectively. The selective FAAH inhibitor PF 3845, MAGL inhibitor JZL 184, dual inhibitor JZL 195, and the cannabis analog CP 55,940 were given systemically 30 min prior to nociceptive testing. PF 3845 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), JZL 184 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and JZL 195 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) elicit dose-dependent antinociceptive in the acetic acid writhing test. In the CRD model, while JZL 195 (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) and PF3845 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects comparable to those of CP 55,940 (0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg), JZL 184 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) alone did not alter the visceromotor response (VMR). The selective FAAH inhibitor and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors were effective in both inflammatory and mechanically evoked visceral pain, while the MAGL inhibitor elicited an analgesic effect in inflammatory, but not in distension-induced, visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  15. The effects of Fusarium oxysporum on broomrape (Orobanche egyptiaca) seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasannejad, S; Zad, S Javad; Alizade, H Mohamad; Rahymian, H

    2006-01-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca L.), one of the most important parasitic weeds in Iran, is a root parasitic plant that can attack several crops such as tobacco, sunflower, tomato and etc. Several methods were used for Orobanche control, however these methods are inefficient and very costly. Biological control is an additional recent tool for the control of parasitic weeds. In order to study of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (biocontrol agent) effects on broomrape seed germination, two laboratory studies were conducted in Tehran University. In the first experiment, different concentration of GR60 (0, 1, 2 and 5 ppm) as stimulation factor for Orobanche seeds germination were experimented. Results showed that concentrations of GR60 had a significant effect on seed germination. The highest seed germination percent was obtained in 1 ppm. In the second experiment, the effect of Fusarium oxysporum was tested on O. aegyptiaca seeds germination. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from infested and juvenile O. aegyptiaca ower stalks in tomato field in karaj. Fungus spores suspension in different concentrations (0 (Control), 10(5) (T1), 10(6) (T2), 10(7) (T3) and 3 x 10(7) (T4)) from potato dextrose agar (PDA) prepared and together with 1ppm of GR60 concentration were tested on O. aegyptiaca seeds. Results show that the highest inhibition of seed germination obtained in 10(5) spores/ml. With increasing of suspension concentrations, inhibition percent was reduced and mortality of seeds germ tube was increased. In this investigation, Fusarium oxysporum can be used to inhibit seed germination, stimulate the "suicidal germination" of seeds and reduce the Orobanche seed bank.

  16. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing.

    OpenAIRE

    DIAS, M. A. N.; MONDO, V. H. V.; CICERO, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  17. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marcos Altomani Neves; Mondo, Vitor Henrique Vaz; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  18. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  19. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested ... fruits into plastic bag that was exposed in ambient air in the field; SFD, seeds ..... Concepts and technologies of selected.

  20. Mechanism of endocarp-imposed constraints of germination of Lannea microcarpa seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Golovina, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lannea microcarpa, a multipurpose tree species from the dry African savanna, sheds seeds that often display inhibition of germination. The underlying mechanism was investigated using seeds processed from fully matured fruits collected from natural stands in Burkina Faso. Germination of fresh seeds

  1. A Simple Density with Distance Based Initial Seed Selection Technique for K Means Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajidha Syed Azimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Open issues with respect to K means algorithm are identifying the number of clusters, initial seed concept selection, clustering tendency, handling empty clusters, identifying outliers etc. In this paper we propose a novel and a simple technique considering both density and distance of the concepts in a dataset to identify initial seed concepts for clustering. Many authors have proposed different techniques to identify initial seed concepts; but our method ensures that the initial seed concepts are chosen from different clusters that are to be generated by the clustering solution. The hallmark of our algorithm is that it is a single pass algorithm that does not require any extra parameters to be estimated. Further, our seed concepts are one among the actual concepts and not the mean of representative concepts as is the case in many other algorithms. We have implemented our proposed algorithm and compared the results with the interval based technique of Fouad Khan. We see that our method outperforms the interval based method. We have also compared our method with the original random K means and K Means++ algorithms.

  2. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  3. Concept Software Based on Kinect for Assessing Dual-Task Ability of Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Nagai, Koutatsu; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2012-10-01

    Assessment of fall risk of elderly people is a critical issue. Dual-task (DT) ability is a criterion for risk assessment. We developed new concept software based on Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect™ for assessing DT ability. The software is named "Dual-Task Tai Chi" (DTTC) and includes Tai Chi and number place (Sudoku) components. The purpose of this study is to validate the DTTC test for assessment of DT ability. Forty-five community-dwelling elderly (mean age, 74.1±6.6 years) individuals participated in this study. They performed DTTC, locomotive, cognitive, and DT tests. DT ability was evaluated with a 10-m walk under a cognitive-task condition and a 10-m walk under a manual-task condition. The correlation between the time taken to complete the DTTC test and each function test was determined using Pearson correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between the DTTC test results and results of the other tests. The time taken to complete the DTTC test was correlated with DT ability, locomotive functioning, and cognitive functioning. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis confirmed that DT, balance, and cognitive ability are statistically significant. No statistically significant association was found for the other variables. The DTTC test quantitatively evaluates a compound function including DT, balance, and cognitive abilities.

  4. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-10-20

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect.

  5. Development of anti-scale poly(aspartic acid-citric acid) dual polymer systems for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kokkarachedu, Varaprasad; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2014-01-01

    The formation of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate scale poses major problems in heat exchangers and water cooling systems, thereby affecting the performance of these types of equipment. In order to inhibit these scale formations, new types of biodegradable water soluble single polymer and dual poly(aspartic acid-citric acid) polymers were developed and tested. The effectiveness of single polymer and four different compositions of poly aspartic acid and citric acid dual polymer systems as scale inhibitors were evaluated. Details of the synthesis, thermal stability, scale inhibition and the morphological characterization of single and dual polymers are presented in this scientific paper. It was found that the calcium sulphate scale inhibition rate was in the range 76.06-91.45%, while the calcium carbonate scale inhibition rate observed was in the range 23.37-30.0% at 65-70 °C. The finding suggests that the water soluble dual polymers are very effective in sulphate scale inhibition in comparison of calcium carbonate scale inhibition.

  6. Moving toward focal therapy in prostate cancer: dual-isotope permanent seed implants as a possible solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Dorin A; Barani, Igor J; Lin, Peck-Sun; Anscher, Mitchell S

    2011-09-01

    To compare the ability of single- and dual-isotope prostate seed implants to escalate biologically effective dose (BED) to foci of disease while reducing prescription dose to the prostate. Nine plans, using 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs alone and in combination were created retrospectively for 2 patients. Ultrasound and MRI/MRS datasets were used for treatment planning. Voxel-by-voxel BED was calculated for single- and dual-isotope plans. Equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) was used to compare plans. The MRS-positive planning target volumes (PTVi) were delineated along with PTV (prostate+5 mm), rectum, and urethra. Single-isotope implants, prescribed to conventional doses, were generated to achieve good PTV coverage. The PTVi were prospectively used to generate implants using mixtures of isotopes. For mixed-radioisotope implants, we also explored the impact on EUBED of lowering prescription doses by 15%. The EUBED of PTVi in the setting of primary 125I implant increased 20-66% when 103Pd and 131Cs were used compared with 125I boost. Decreasing prescription dose by 15% in mixed-isotope implants results in a potential 10% reduction in urethral EUBED with preservation of PTV coverage while still boosting PTVi (up to 80%). When radiobiologic parameters corresponding to more-aggressive disease are assigned to foci, faster-decaying isotopes used in mixed implants have the potential to preserve the equivalent biological effect of mono-isotope implants considering less-aggressive disease distributed in the entire prostate. This is a hypothesis-generating study proposing a treatment paradigm that could be the middle ground between whole-gland irradiation and focal-only treatment. The use of two isotopes concurrent with decreasing the minimal peripheral dose is shown to increase EUBED of selected subvolumes while preserving the therapeutic effect at the level of the gland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seed treatment with an aqueous extract of Agave sisalana improves seed health and seedling growth of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Marianne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mbega, Ernest R.

    2015-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sisal agave, A. sisalana, was prepared from dried stem tissue by boiling in water. The sisal extract (SE) displayed a broad inhibition of the seed-borne mycoflora when applied to farmer-saved seeds of Sorghum bicolor. Species of Fusarium (belonging to the Gibberella......-old plants (p agave, Yucca schidigera. Both extracts were found to reduce seed-borne Fusarium and crown rot more efficiently than fungicides based on tebuconazole, enilconazole...... and fludioxonil (p agave is a waste product in fiber production. From our findings A. sisalana stem appears to represent an abundant source of antifungal activity, simple to extract, easy to store and with a promising potential in biological seed treatment....

  8. Enhancement of radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fangqing; Gu Ruiqi

    1994-01-01

    Enhancement of X-ray induced radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by heat treatment (44 degree C or 41 degree C, 20 min) has been investigated. The enhancement effect of heat treatment after irradiation was more significant than that of heat treatment before irradiation at dose range of 4.3-8.6 Gy. It was observed that germinating wheat seeds were very sensitive to heat treatment within 15 min after irradiation, which indicated that the repair of radiation damage was very active and rapid in a short period after irradiation. The repair of radiation damage in interval of fractionated irradiation was severely inhibited by heat treatment. The sensitivity of seeds to heat treatment corresponded with the levels of their repair activities. The more active the repairs of the seeds are, the more sensitive to heat treatment the seeds show. It was assumed that the enhancement of radiation damage by heat treatment in germinating wheat seeds was attributed to the inhibition of radiation damage repair by heat treatment, which is similar to the results of animal experiments

  9. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Kazachkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress, as well as providing a food source on marginal lands. However, despite being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of many halophytes will not germinate on saline soils, yet little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5 and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed state could facilitate

  10. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-04-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (Pseeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Proteome analysis reveals an energy-dependent central process for Populus×canadensis seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Ke-Xin; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan

    2017-06-01

    Poplar (Populus×canadensis) seeds rapidly germinated in darkness at 10, 15, and 20°C and reached 50% seed germination after about 22, 4.5, and 3.5h, respectively. Germination of poplar seeds was markedly inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA) at 50μM and cycloheximide (CHX) at 100μM, and these inhibitive roles were temperature-dependent. In the present study, mature poplar seeds were used to investigate the differentially changed proteome of seeds germinating in water, ABA, and CHX. A total of 130 protein spots showed a significant change (1.5-fold increase/decrease, Pgermination of poplar seeds is closely related with the increase in those proteins involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, protein synthesis and destination, cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. ABA and CHX inhibit the germination of poplar seeds by decreasing the protein abundance associated with protein proteolysis, protein folding, and storage proteins. We conclude that poplar seed germination is an energy-dependent active process, and is accompanied by increasing amino acid activation, protein synthesis and destination, as well as cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Chebet, A.; Muwanika, C.T.; Adong, C.J.; Okot, F.; Otim, G.; Birungi, J.; Kansiime, M.; Oyee, P.; Ninsiima, P.

    2015-01-01

    The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering

  13. The dual fluid reactor - a new concept for a highly effective fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huke, A.; Ruprecht, G. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); WeiBbach, D. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Szczecin, ul. Wielkopolska, Inst. Fizyki, Wydzial Matematyczno-Fizyczny, Szczecin, (Poland); Gottlieb, S. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Hussein, A. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Dept. of Physics, Prince George, BC (Canada); Czerski, K. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Szczecin, ul. Wielkopolska, Inst. Fizyki, Wydzial Matematyczno-Fizyczny, Szczecin, (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The Dual Fluid Reactor, DFR, is a novel concept of a fast heterogeneous nuclear reactor. Its key feature is the employment of two separate liquid cycles, one for fuel and one for the coolant. As opposed to other liquid-fuel concepts like the molten-salt fast reactor (MSFR), in the DFR both cycles can be separately optimized for their respective purpose, leading to advantageous consequences: A very high power density resulting in enormous cost savings, and a highly negative temperature feedback coefficient, enabling a self-regulation without any control rods or mechanical parts in the core. The fuel liquid, an undiluted actinide trichloride (consisting of isotope-purified {sup 37}Cl) in the reference design, circulates at an operating temperature of 1300 K and can be processed on-line in a small internal processing unit utilizing fractionated distillation or electro refining. Medical radioisotopes like Mo-99/Tc-99m are by-products and can be provided right away. In a more advanced design, an actinide metal alloy melt with an appropriately low solidus temperature is well possible which further compactifies the core and allows to further increase the operating temperature due to its high heat conductivity. The best choice for the coolant is pure lead which yields a very hard neutron spectrum. (author)

  14. Can dual processing theory explain physics students’ performance on the Force Concept Inventory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Wood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override system 1 thinking and to engage in reflective, system 2 thinking. Each item on the CRT has an intuitive (but wrong answer that must be rejected in order to answer the item correctly. We therefore hypothesized that performance on the CRT may give useful insights into the cognitive processes involved in learning physics, where success involves rejecting the common, intuitive ideas about the world (often called misconceptions and instead carefully applying physical concepts. This paper presents initial results from an ongoing study examining the relationship between students’ CRT scores and their performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI, which tests students’ understanding of Newtonian mechanics. We find that a higher CRT score predicts a higher FCI score for both precourse and postcourse tests. However, we also find that the FCI normalized gain is independent of CRT score. The implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination...

  16. Milkweed Seed Dispersal: A Means for Integrating Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbee, Gregory D.; Kaiser, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates biology and physics concepts by experimenting with the seed dispersal of common milkweed or similar wind-dispersed seeds. Student teams collect seeds and measure several parameters, review principles of trajectory motion, perform experiments, and graph data. Students examine the ideas of…

  17. The influence of light on the germination of potato seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Listowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of white and coloured Light and of the darkness on the germination of potato seeds was investigated. Potato seeds germinate in light as well as in darkness. Bed light is stimulative. Far-red and blue light depending of the origin of the seeds populations acted or inhibitive or only as a delaying factor. The after effect of R after FR or FR after R was also studied. The R-FR or FR-R photoreaction observed by potato seeds, differ from the classic pattern established by lettuce and tomato seeds.

  18. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde Derived from Prunus mume Seed Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Enhances Estradiol Secretion in Human Ovarian Granulosa Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Ryohei; Nomura, Sachiko; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Maeno, Akihiro; Kagiya, Tomoko; Tokuda, Akihiko; Inada, Ken-ichi; Matsuno, Akira; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Granulosa cells form ovarian follicles and play important roles in the growth and maturation of oocytes. The protection of granulosa cells from cellular injury caused by oxidative stress is an effective therapy for female infertility. We here investigated an effective bioactive compound derived from Prunus mume seed extract that protects granulosa cells from hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptosis. We detected the bioactive compound, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHBA), via bioactivity-guided isolation and found that it inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of granulosa cells. We also showed that 3,4-DHBA promoted estradiol secretion in granulosa cells and enhanced the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic factor 1, a promoter of key steroidogenic enzymes. These results suggest that P. mume seed extract may have clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of female infertility

  19. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  20. Dual-head gamma camera system for intraoperative localization of radioactive seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenali, B; Viergever, M A; Gilhuijs, K G A; De Jong, H W A M; Beijst, C; Dickerscheid, D B M

    2015-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard option for the treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer. This form of surgery may result in incomplete excision of the tumor. Iodine-125 labeled titanium seeds are currently used in clinical practice to reduce the number of incomplete excisions. It seems likely that the number of incomplete excisions can be reduced even further if intraoperative information about the location of the radioactive seed is combined with preoperative information about the extent of the tumor. This can be combined if the location of the radioactive seed is established in a world coordinate system that can be linked to the (preoperative) image coordinate system. With this in mind, we propose a radioactive seed localization system which is composed of two static ceiling-suspended gamma camera heads and two parallel-hole collimators. Physical experiments and computer simulations which mimic realistic clinical situations were performed to estimate the localization accuracy (defined as trueness and precision) of the proposed system with respect to collimator-source distance (ranging between 50 cm and 100 cm) and imaging time (ranging between 1 s and 10 s). The goal of the study was to determine whether or not a trueness of 5 mm can be achieved if a collimator-source distance of 50 cm and imaging time of 5 s are used (these specifications were defined by a group of dedicated breast cancer surgeons). The results from the experiments indicate that the location of the radioactive seed can be established with an accuracy of 1.6 mm  ±  0.6 mm if a collimator-source distance of 50 cm and imaging time of 5 s are used (these experiments were performed with a 4.5 cm thick block phantom). Furthermore, the results from the simulations indicate that a trueness of 3.2 mm or less can be achieved if a collimator-source distance of 50 cm and imaging time of 5 s are used (this trueness was achieved for all 14 breast phantoms which

  1. Differential radiosensitivity of seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.A.; Rao, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the effects of γ-irradiation on seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata showed striking differences in radiosensitivity as reflected in differences in mean fresh and dry weights, seedling height and morphology. Seeds subjected to low doses (4-6 kR) of irradiation showed stimulation of seedling height. Direct exposure of seedlings to high doses (10 kR) of irradiation caused inhibition in their development. Callus cultures, however, were more radioresistant compared to seeds and seedlings. Tissues grown on either an irradiated nutrient medium or on a medium in which sucrose alone had been irradiated, showed a marked inhibition in their growth potential

  2. Coherent laser radar with dual-frequency Doppler estimation and interferometric range detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onori, D.; Scotti, F.; Laghezza, F.; Scaffardi, M.; Bogoni, A.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a coherent interferometric dual frequency laser radar, that measures both the target range and velocity, is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The innovative architecture combines the dual frequency lidar concept, allowing a precise and robust Doppler estimation, with the

  3. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and structure elucidation of avocado seed (Persea americana) lipid derivatives that inhibit Clostridium sporogenes endospore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana Graciela; Pacheco, Adriana; García-Cruz, María Isabel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Benavides-Lozano, Jorge Alejandro; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-07-31

    Avocado fruit extracts are known to exhibit antimicrobial properties. However, the effects on bacterial endospores and the identity of antimicrobial compounds have not been fully elucidated. In this study, avocado seed extracts were tested against Clostridium sporogenes vegetative cells and active endospores. Bioassay-guided purification of a crude extract based on inhibitory properties linked antimicrobial action to six lipid derivatives from the family of acetogenin compounds. Two new structures and four compounds known to exist in nature were identified as responsible for the activity. Structurally, most potent molecules shared features of an acetyl moiety and a trans-enone group. All extracts produced inhibition zones on vegetative cells and active endospores. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of isolated molecules ranged from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/mL, and bactericidal effects were observed for an enriched fraction at 19.5 μg/mL. Identified molecules showed potential as natural alternatives to additives and antibiotics used by the food and pharmaceutical industries to inhibit Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria.

  6. Xanthone and Flavone Derivatives as Dual Agents with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with the elderly. The current therapy that is used to treat AD is based mainly on the administration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors. Due to their low efficacy there is a considerable need for other therapeutic strategies. Considering that the malfunctions of different, but interconnected, biochemical complex pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, a promising therapy may consist in administration of drugs that act on more than a target on biochemical scenery of AD. In this work, the synthesis and evaluation of xanthone and flavone derivatives as antioxidants with AChE inhibitory activity were accomplished. Among the obtained compounds, Mannich bases 3 and 14 showed capacity to inhibit AChE and antioxidant property, exerting dual activity. Moreover, for the most promising AChE inhibitors, docking studies on the target have been performed aiming to predict the binding mechanism. The results presented here may help to identify new xanthone and flavone derivatives as dual anti-Alzheimer agents with AChE inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  7. RITA plus 3-MA overcomes chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daiha; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Jaewang; Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2017-10-01

    Reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA) is a small molecule that blocks p53-MDM2 interaction, thereby reactivating p53 in tumors. RITA can induce exclusive apoptosis in cancer cells independently of the p53 pathway; however, the resistance of cancer cells remains a major drawback. Here, we found a novel resistance mechanism of RITA treatment and an effective combined treatment to overcome RITA resistance in head and neck cancer (HNC) cells. The effects of RITA and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were tested in different HNC cell lines, including cisplatin-resistant and acquired RITA-resistant HNC cells. The effects of each drug alone and in combination were assessed by measuring cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, glutathione, reactive oxygen species, protein expression, genetic inhibition of p62 and Nrf2, and a mouse xenograft model of cisplatin-resistant HNC. RITA induced apoptosis of HNC cells at different levels without significantly inhibiting normal cell viability. Following RITA treatment, RITA-resistant HNC cells exhibited a sustained expression of other autophagy-related proteins, overexpressed p62, and displayed activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA sensitized resistant HNC cells to RITA treatment via the dual inhibition of molecules related to the autophagy and antioxidant systems. Silencing of the p62 gene augmented the combined effects. The effective antitumor activity of RITA plus 3-MA was also confirmed in vivo in mouse xenograft models transplanted with resistant HNC cells, showing increased oxidative stress and DNA damage. The results indicate that RITA plus 3-MA can help overcome RITA resistance in HNC cells. This study revealed a novel RITA resistant mechanism associated with the sustained induction of autophagy, p62 overexpression, and Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant system activation. The combined treatment of RITA with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine overcomes RITA resistance via dual

  8. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  9. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification

  10. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  11. Arabidopsis IQM4, a Novel Calmodulin-Binding Protein, Is Involved With Seed Dormancy and Germination in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ping Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and germination are regulated by complex mechanisms controlled by diverse hormones and environmental cues. Abscisic acid (ABA promotes seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination and post-germination growth. Calmodulin (CaM signals are involved with the inhibition of ABA during seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, we showed that Arabidopsis thaliana IQM4 could bind with calmodulin 5 (CaM5 both in vitro and in vivo, and that the interaction was the Ca2+-independent type. The IQM4 protein was localized in the chloroplast and the IQM4 gene was expressed in most tissues, especially the embryo and germinated seedlings. The T-DNA insertion mutants of IQM4 exhibited the reduced primary seed dormancy and lower ABA levels compared with wild type seeds. Moreover, IQM4 plays key roles in modulating the responses to ABA, salt, and osmotic stress during seed germination and post-germination growth. T-DNA insertion mutants exhibited ABA-insensitive and salt-hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination and post-germination growth, whereas IQM4-overexpressing lines had ABA- and osmotic-hypersensitive, and salt-insensitive phenotypes. Gene expression analyses showed that mutation of IQM4 inhibited the expression of ABA biosynthetic genes NCED6 and NCED9, and seed maturation regulators LEC1, LEC2, ABI3, and ABI5 during the silique development, as well as promoted the expression of WRKY40 and inhibited that of ABI5 in ABA-regulated seed germination. These observations suggest that IQM4 is a novel Ca2+-independent CaM-binding protein, which is positively involved with seed dormancy and germination in Arabidopsis.

  12. Data sharing and dual-use issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2013-03-01

    The concept of dual-use encapsulates the potential for well-intentioned, beneficial scientific research to also be misused by a third party for malicious ends. The concept of dual-use challenges scientists to look beyond the immediate outcomes of their research and to develop an awareness of possible future (mis)uses of scientific research. Since 2001 much attention has been paid to the possible need to regulate the dual-use potential of the life sciences. Regulation initiatives fall under two broad categories-those that develop the ethical education of scientists and foster an awareness and responsibility of dual-use issues, and those which assess the regulation of information being generated by current research. Both types of initiatives are premised on a cautious, risk-adverse philosophy which advocates careful examination of all future endpoints of research endeavors. This caution advocated within initiatives such as pre-publication review of journal articles contrasts to the obligation to share underpinning data sharing discussions. As the dual-use debate has yet to make a significant impact on data sharing discussions (and vice versa) it is possible that these two areas of knowledge control may present areas of ethical conflict for scientists, and thus need to be more closely examined. This paper examines the tension between the obligation to share exemplified by data sharing principles and the concerns raised by the risk-cautious culture of the dual-use debates. The paper concludes by reflecting on the issues of responsibility as raised by dual-use as relating to data sharing, such as the chain of custody for shared data.

  13. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 represses seedling traits in Arabidopsis thaliana dry seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, Martijn; Zöll, C.; Wang, Z.; Philipp, C.; Carles, A.; Li, Y.; Kornet, N.G.; Liu, Y.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant life is characterized by major phase changes. We studied the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the transition from seed to seedling in Arabidopsis. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC stimulated germination of freshly harvested seeds. Subsequent analysis revealed that histone

  14. Evaluation of the Antifungal properties of Picralima Nitida seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since these extracts at appropriate doses inhibited and eventually killed the test fungi, they could successfully be used to control plant pathogens and in food preservation. Keywords: Picralima nitida seed, growth inhibition, fungus, plant pathogens, food preservation. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, ...

  15. Feasibility of a dual regime gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Ashwini; Jain, Prerit; Kartikeyan, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    The design concept of a 42/84 GHz, 500 kW, CW, dual-regime gyrotron for ECRH of plasma in an experimental Tokamak will be presented in this paper. Operation at 42 GHz is fundamental where as that in 84 GHz will be second harmonic so that a similar guidance system will be retained for dual regime operation. In this paper, the mode competition and mode selection procedures are presented for such a dual regime operation. Cold cavity design and self-consistent calculations will be carried out for power and efficiencies. (author)

  16. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the perspective changes of several physiological performances of rice seeds cv. KDML 105 which were coated with various seed coating substances [chemical fungicide, captan (CA) and biological coating polymers; chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E + CL)] during storage (12 months). CA significantly increased seed moisture content and seed water activity through out the storage period. The qualities and viability of the seeds were seriously declined by this treatment. Moreover, CA inhibited the shoot and root development, seedling dry weight accumulation, delayed the seed germination and seedling growth rate. CA treated seeds were susceptible to stress conditions that declined the seed germination potential under cold, high moisture and temperature stress conditions. Nevertheless, CL and E + CL coating polymer could maintain seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when compared untreated seeds.

  17. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

  18. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ... induced cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and ROS generation. Keywords: ... culture medium; therefore the stock solutions of ... acetic acid (1 %) and ethanol (50 %) to extract.

  19. Differential Reponses of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells to mTOR Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway has been observed in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, targeting of the mTOR pathway is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment and several mTOR inhibitors, including AZD8055 (AZD, a novel dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor, are currently in clinical trials. Although bone marrow (BM suppression is one of the primary side effects of anticancer drugs, it is not known if pharmacological inhibition of dual mTORC1/2 affects BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs function and plasticity. Here we report that dual inhibition of mTORC1/2 by AZD or its analogue (KU-63794 depletes mouse BM Lin−Sca-1+c-Kit+ cells in cultures via the induction of apoptotic cell death. Subsequent colony-forming unit (CFU assays revealed that inhibition of mTORC1/2 suppresses the clonogenic function of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we found that dual inhibition of mTORC1/2 markedly inhibits the growth of day-14 cobblestone area-forming cells (CAFCs but enhances the generation of day-35 CAFCs. Given the fact that day-14 and day-35 CAFCs are functional surrogates of HPCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, respectively, these results suggest that dual inhibition of mTORC1/2 may have distinct effects on HPCs versus HSCs.

  20. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of eruca sativa seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Sadiq, A.; Tariq, H.; Imran, M.; Qureshi, R.; Zeenat, A.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Eruca sativa seed as well as seed oil was investigated against Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed from seed oil followed by methanolic seed extracts from all bacterial strains compared with broad spectrum antibiotics gentamicine. MIC values of seed oil were within the ranges of 52-72 mu g/ml as compared to 56-70 mu g/ml standard antibiotic Gentamicine). Proximate and Phytochemical analysis of seed of E. sativa showed presence of all essential phyto constituents required for promising traditional medicine. Analysis of seed oil by gas chromatography revealed that there was high concentration of Erucic acid (51.2%) followed by oleic acid (15.1%) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (12.5%). In addition, minor quantities of other essential and non essential fatty acids were also present. Therefore the present study supports effectiveness of E. sativa seeds for it use in traditional medicine used in various human disorders. (author)

  1. Preclinical renal chemo-protective potential of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seed coat via alteration of multiple molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Anwar, Firoz; Al-Abbasi, Fahad; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-02-01

    Prunus amygdalus Batsch (almond) is a classical nutritive traditional Indian medicine. Along with nutritive with anti-oxidant properties, it is, clinically, used in the treatment of various diseases with underlying anti-oxidant mechanism. This study is an effort to scrutinise the renal protective effect of P. amygdalus Batsch or green almond (GA) seed coat extract and its underlying mechanism in animal model of Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RCC was induced in Swiss Albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of Fe-NTA. The rats were then treated with ethanolic extract of GA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per oral) for 22 weeks. Efficacy of GA administration was evaluated by change in biochemical, renal, macroscopical and histopathological parameters and alterations. Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inflammatory mediator including prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were also observed to explore the possible mechanisms. The oral administration of GA significantly (p Bowman capsules and inflammatory cells. Hence, it can be concluded that GA possesses observable chemo-protective action and effect on Fe-NTA induced RCC via dual inhibition mechanism one by inhibiting free radical generation and second by inhibiting inflammation.

  2. Probabilistic Modeling of Seismic Risk Based Design for a Dual System Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sidi, Indra Djati

    2017-01-01

    The dual system structure concept has gained popularity in the construction of high-rise buildings over the last decades. Meanwhile, earthquake engineering design provisions for buildings have moved from the uniform hazard concept to the uniform risk concept upon recognizing the uncertainties involved in the earthquake resistance of concrete structures. In this study, a probabilistic model for the evaluation of such risk is proposed for a dual system structure consisting of shear walls or cor...

  3. Dual Inhibition of AChE and BChE with the C-5 Substituted Derivative of Meldrum’s Acid: Synthesis, Structure Elucidation, and Molecular Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Mehfooz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD lies in the category of those diseases which are still posing challenges to medicinal chemists, and the search for super-effective drugs for the treatment of AD is a work in progress. The inhibition of cholinesterase is considered a viable strategy to enhance the level of acetylcholine in the brain. The C-5 substituted derivative of Meldrum’s acid was synthesized and screened against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE enzyme inhibition activity. The simple and unique structure of synthesized derivative 3 was found to be good for the dual inhibition of both enzymes (AChE and BChE. 2,2-Dimethyl-5-(([2-(trifluoromethyl phenyl]aminomethylidene-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (3 showed significant inhibition against AChE, with an IC50 value of 1.13 ± 0.03 µ M (Standard Neostigmine 22.2 ± 3.2 µM, and moderate inhibition against BChE, with an IC50 value of 2.12 ± 1.22 µM (Standard Neostigmine 49.6 ± 6.11 µM. The structural insights reveal that compound 3 possesses intriguing reactive groups, which can potentially evoke the non-covalent interactions and possibly assist by binding in the active site of the target protein. Docking simulations revealed that the compound 3 showed binding inside the active site gorges of both AChE and BChE. An excellent agreement was obtained, as the best docked poses showed important binding features mostly based on interactions due to oxygen atoms and the aromatic moieties of the compound. The docking computations coupled with the experimental findings ascertained that the compound 3 can serve as a scaffold for the dual inhibitors of the human acetylcholine esterases.

  4. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  5. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  6. The temperature effect of low-energy ion beam implantation on seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Shenghe; Su Mingjie; Qin Guangyong; Wu Yuping; Zhao Haizhen

    2005-01-01

    The temperature effects of low-energy ion beam implantation on the seed germination were studied. Maize dry seeds were covered with copy paper, aluminum foil and without cover, respectively. Results showed that the germination rate of the seeds covered with paper which was the bad heat transmitter was the highest among three treatments, while that covered with aluminum foil which can transmit heat energy well was the least. The germination rate of the seeds covered with nothing was the second. Temperature affected seeds germination markedly. Generally the temperature of the target room inhibited the seeds' germination. After minus the effects of the temperature in the target room, the germination rates of the seeds were modified in this paper. The modified germination rate curve was also provided. (authors)

  7. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  8. Inequalities for dual quermassintegrals of mixed intersection bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this paper, we first introduce a new concept of dual quermassintegral sum function of two star bodies and establish Minkowski's type inequality for dual quermassintegral sum of mixed intersection bodies, which is a general form of the. Minkowski inequality for mixed intersection bodies. Then, we give the ...

  9. [Reason for dormancy of Cuscuta chinensis seed and solving method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; He, Jiaqing; Cai, Jing; Dong, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    To study the reason for the deep dormancy of the aged Cuscuta chinensis seed and find the solving method. The separated and combined treatments were applied in the orthogonal designed experiments. The aged seed had well water-absorbency; the water and ethanol extracts of the seeds showed an inhibition effect on germination capacity of the seeds. The main reason for the deep dormancy of aged C. chinensis seed is the inhibitors existed in seed. There are two methods to solve the problem. The seeds is immersed in 98% of H2SO4 for 2 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 60 min, or in 100 mg x L(-1) of NaOH for 20 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 120 min.

  10. 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Accumulation during Seed Development Represses Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M. Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M.E.; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis. PMID:21335376

  11. Hybrid ICA-Seed-Based Methods for fMRI Functional Connectivity Assessment: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain functional connectivity (FC is often assessed from fMRI data using seed-based methods, such as those of detecting temporal correlation between a predefined region (seed and all other regions in the brain; or using multivariate methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA. ICA is a useful data-driven tool, but reproducibility issues complicate group inferences based on FC maps derived with ICA. These reproducibility issues can be circumvented with hybrid methods that use information from ICA-derived spatial maps as seeds to produce seed-based FC maps. We report results from five experiments to demonstrate the potential advantages of hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods, comparing results from regressing fMRI data against task-related a priori time courses, with “back-reconstruction” from a group ICA, and with five hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods: ROI-based with (1 single-voxel, (2 few-voxel, and (3 many-voxel seed; and dual-regression-based with (4 single ICA map and (5 multiple ICA map seed.

  12. Dual-specificity phosphatase 3 deficiency or inhibition limits platelet activation and arterial thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Lucia; Kuijpers, Marijke J; Gilio, Karen; Hego, Alexandre; Théâtre, Emilie; Maurissen, Lisbeth; Vandereyken, Maud; Diogo, Catia V; Lecut, Christelle; Guilmain, William; Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Eble, Johannes A; Dahl, Russell; Drion, Pierre; Rascon, Justin; Mostofi, Yalda; Yuan, Hongbin; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D Y; Thiry, Marc; Senis, Yotis; Moutschen, Michel; Mustelin, Tomas; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Tautz, Lutz; Oury, Cécile; Rahmouni, Souad

    2015-02-17

    A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is important for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function. This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2. DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism compared with wild-type mice and showed severely impaired thrombus formation on ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells. DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a protein tyrosine phosphatase, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Effect of Bacillus spp. on seed germination of selected species of the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hadizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Cuscuta are annual angiospermic rootless and leafless (achlorophyllous parasitic plants. Bacillus is an example of PGPR bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting activity. In this study the effects of bacterial suspension on germination of dodder’s seed has been determinated. Seeds of three Cuscuta species were collected from field for evaluating effects of three different Bacillus on its germination. Results show that seed germination of the C. monogyna and C. campestris is inhibited by all three bacterial species. Based on Tukey analysis, the highest inhibitory activity on seed germination of C. monogyna was shown with B. pumilus (68.88%; as well as C. campestris with B. megaterium (95.76% and B. pumilus (91.53%, whilst seed germination of C. europaea was almost identically inhibited by all three bacterial species. This paper reports the variable effects of Bacillus species on the seed germination of selected Cuscuta species.

  14. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  15. Biogenic synthesis of Zinc oxide nanostructures from Nigella sativa seed: Prospective role as food packaging material inhibiting broad-spectrum quorum sensing and biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabib, Nasser A; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmed, Faheem; Khan, Rais Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Alsharaeh, Edreese; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Hussain, Afzal; Rehman, Md Tabish; Yusuf, Mohammad; Hassan, Iftekhar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Alsalme, Ali Mohammed; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F; Tarasov, Vadim V; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-12-05

    Bacterial spoilage of food products is regulated by density dependent communication system called quorum sensing (QS). QS control biofilm formation in numerous food pathogens and Biofilms formed on food surfaces act as carriers of bacterial contamination leading to spoilage of food and health hazards. Agents inhibiting or interfering with bacterial QS and biofilm are gaining importance as a novel class of next-generation food preservatives/packaging material. In the present study, Zinc nanostructures were synthesised using Nigella sativa seed extract (NS-ZnNPs). Synthesized nanostructures were characterized hexagonal wurtzite structure of size ~24 nm by UV-visible, XRD, FTIR and TEM. NS-ZnNPs demonstrated broad-spectrum QS inhibition in C. violaceum and P. aeruginosa biosensor strains. Synthesized nanostructures inhibited QS regulated functions of C. violaceum CVO26 (violacein) and elastase, protease, pyocyanin and alginate production in PAO1 significantly. NS-ZnNPs at sub-inhibitory concentrations inhibited the biofilm formation of four-food pathogens viz. C. violaceum 12472, PAO1, L. monocytogenes, E. coli. Moreover, NS-ZnNPs was found effective in inhibiting pre-formed mature biofilms of the four pathogens. Therefore, the broad-spectrum inhibition of QS and biofilm by biogenic Zinc oxide nanoparticles and it is envisaged that these nontoxic bioactive nanostructures can be used as food packaging material and/or as food preservative.

  16. Novel mechanisms to inhibit HIV reservoir seeding using Jak inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gavegnano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment of HIV infection with ART, elucidating strategies to overcome HIV persistence, including blockade of viral reservoir establishment, maintenance, and expansion, remains a challenge. T cell homeostasis is a major driver of HIV persistence. Cytokines involved in regulating homeostasis of memory T cells, the major hub of the HIV reservoir, trigger the Jak-STAT pathway. We evaluated the ability of tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, two FDA-approved Jak inhibitors, to block seeding and maintenance of the HIV reservoir in vitro. We provide direct demonstration for involvement of the Jak-STAT pathway in HIV persistence in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro; pSTAT5 strongly correlates with increased levels of integrated viral DNA in vivo, and in vitro Jak inhibitors reduce the frequency of CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. We show that Jak inhibitors block viral production from infected cells, inhibit γ-C receptor cytokine (IL-15-induced viral reactivation from latent stores thereby preventing transmission of infectious particles to bystander activated T cells. These results show that dysregulation of the Jak-STAT pathway is associated with viral persistence in vivo, and that Jak inhibitors target key events downstream of γ-C cytokine (IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 ligation to their receptors, impacting the magnitude of the HIV reservoir in all memory CD4 T cell subsets in vitro and ex vivo. Jak inhibitors represent a therapeutic modality to prevent key events of T cell activation that regulate HIV persistence and together, specific, potent blockade of these events may be integrated to future curative strategies.

  17. Dual Numbers Approach in Multiaxis Machines Error Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Hrdina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxis machines error modeling is set in the context of modern differential geometry and linear algebra. We apply special classes of matrices over dual numbers and propose a generalization of such concept by means of general Weil algebras. We show that the classification of the geometric errors follows directly from the algebraic properties of the matrices over dual numbers and thus the calculus over the dual numbers is the proper tool for the methodology of multiaxis machines error modeling.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chemical properties of Aspergillus flavus-infected soybean seeds exposed to gamma-irradiation during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the chemical properties of Aspergillus flavus-infected soybean seeds exposed to different levels of gamma-irradiation; 0 1, 3 and 5 kGy, during storage. The results revealed that there was no effect of irradiation at different dose levels on moisture, protein, total lipids and amino acids content of the seeds for overall 60 days of storage under ambient temperature. At zero time, irradiation of A. flavus- infected-soybean seeds at 5.0 kGy caused a slight increase in peroxide value, no change in acid value, a slight decrease in saponification and iodine values in the crude oil extracted from the seeds. An increase in saturated fatty acids associated with a decrease in un-saturated fatty acids was also observed in the oil extracted from the seeds. Furthermore, at dose level 5 kGy the fungus growth was completely inhibited and there was no detection of aflatoxin B1 after 60 days of storage. It is concluded that gamma-irradiation of A. flavus-infected soybean seeds at dose level 5 kGY is sufficient to inhibit fungus growth and aflatoxin production over a storage period of 60 days without changes in major chemical properties of the seeds and the oil extracted from seeds

  20. Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Michelle A; Pennington, Bruce F; Willcutt, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test three competing theories of ADHD: the inhibition theory, the motivational theory, and a dual deficit theory. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings about the effects of incentives on executive processes in ADHD. In the present study of 25 children with ADHD and 30 typically developing controls, motivation was manipulated within the Stop Task. Stop signal reaction time was examined, as well as reaction time, its variability, and the number of errors in the primary choice reaction time task. Overall, the pattern of results supported the inhibition theory over the motivational or dual deficit hypotheses, as main effects of group were found for most key variables (ADHD group was worse), whereas the group by reward interaction predicted by the motivational and dual deficit accounts was not found. Hence, as predicted by the inhibition theory, children with ADHD performed worse than controls irrespective of incentives.

  1. Characterization of antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Salas, Patricia A; Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Martínez-Cuevas, Pedro P; González, Carmen; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2014-01-15

    Canary grass is used as traditional food for diabetes and hypertension treatment. The aim of this work is to characterize the biological activity of encrypted peptides released after gastrointestinal digestion of canary seed proteins. Canary peptides showed 43.5% inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and 73.5% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. An isolated perfused rat heart system was used to evaluate the canary seed vasoactive effect. Nitric oxide (NO), a major vasodilator agent, was evaluated in the venous effluent from isolated perfused rat heart. Canary seed peptides (1 μg/mL) were able to induce the production of NO (12.24 μM) in amounts similar to those induced by captopril (CPT) and bradykinin (BK). These results show that encrypted peptides in canary seed have inhibitory activity against DPPIV and ACE, enzymes that are targets for diabetes and hypertension treatments.

  2. Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Microstrip Antenna Development for High-Resolution, Airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, N.

    2000-01-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The dual-frequency array concept adopted relies on the use of probe-fed perforated, stacked patches for L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz). Inside these perforations probe-fed, wideband stacked microstrip patches for C-band (4.9-5.7 GHz) are placed. Measured impedance and radiation...

  3. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  4. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  5. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT ON BREAST CANCER (MCF7) OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Ismail Abiola; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohd Razip

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera belongs to plant family, Moringaceae and popularly called "wonderful tree", for it is used traditionally to cure many diseases including cancer in Africa and Asia, however, there is limited knowledge on cytotoxic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds on MCF7 breast cancer cell. The present study evaluated antiproliferative effect on MCF7 of the seed. Seeds of Moringa oleifera were grinded to powder and its phytochemicals were extracted using water and 80% ethanol solvents, part of the ethanolic extract were sequentially partitioned to fractions with four solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and n-butanol). Antiproliferative effects on MCF7 of the samples were determined. Finally, potent samples that significantly inhibited MCF7 growth were tested on MCF 10A. Crude water extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions of the seeds inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 with the following IC 50 values 280 μg/ml, 130 μg/ml and 26 μg/ml respectively, however, of the 3 samples, only hexane fraction had minimal cytotoxic effect on MCF 10A (IC 50 > 400μg/ml). Moringa oleifera seed has antiproliferative effect on MCF7.

  6. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  7. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Altomani Neves Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS for this purpose. The experiment was performed using four seed lots of bell pepper hybrids in two periods, and the evaluations involved germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, saturated salt accelerated aging and image analysis. The use of seedling imaging analysis by SVISis a new approach for bell pepper seed vigor evaluation. Both the software and traditional tests provided sufficient information for seed vigor analysis, enabling the segregation of the analyzed seed lots. Thus, the new method fulfills the requirement for an efficient, rapid, cost-effective and standardized method that allows comparisons among laboratories and avoids human influence on the interpretation of the results. SVIS can be considered a feasible option to be included in quality assurance programs of the bell pepper seed industry.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  9. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  11. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  12. Effect of 125I seeds and 103Pd stents on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhu Ruisen

    2004-01-01

    To establish the theoretical and practical base for implementing radioactive stents aft PTCA in order to prevent restenosis, in vitro observation was taken over the effects of 12 '5I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. In vitro VSMC model from guinea-pig aortic arteries was established using adherent cell culture methods. The effects of 125 I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents on the VSMC proliferation, with or without fetal bovine serum (FCS), were investigated through cell counting methods and 3 H-TDR implementation tests. It was shown that (1) 10% FCS significantly promoted the DNA synthesis of VSMC (P 125 I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents inhibited the VSMC DNA synthesis in dose-dependent manner, regardless of 10% FCS inducement. At lower radioactive doses, neither 125 I-seeds (18.5-74 kBq) nor 103 Pd-implanted stents (1.48-2.96 MBq) exhibited distinctive effects on the VSMC DNA synthesis (P>0.05); and (3) 48 hour exposure from 125 I-seeds at 128 kBq or 10 '3Pd-implanted stents at 7.4 MBq did not result in VSMC morphological alteration, but 125 I-seeds at 370 kBq caused cells' morphological changes. Therefore both 125 I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents inhibit the in vitro VSMC DNA synthesis, and the inhibition effects are significantly related to their exposure duration and doses. (authors)

  13. Purification and partial characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris seed aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aminopeptidase activity of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was measured using L-Leu-p-nitroanilide and the L-aminoacyl-ß-naphthylamides of Leu, Ala, Arg and Met. A single peak of aminopeptidase activity on Leu-ß-naphthylamide was eluted at 750 µS after gradient elution chromatography on DEAE-cellulose of the supernatant of a crude seed extract. The effluent containing enzyme activity was applied to a Superdex 200 column and only one peak of aminopeptidase activity was obtained. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10% presented only one protein band with molecular mass of 31 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions. The aminopeptidase has an optimum pH of 7.0 for activity on all substrates tested and the highest Vmax/KM ratio for L-Leu-ß-naphthylamide. The enzyme activity was increased 40% by 0.15 M NaCl, inhibited 94% by 2.0 mM Zn2+, inhibited 91% by sodium p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and inhibited 45% by 0.7 mM o-phenanthroline and 30 µM EDTA. Mercaptoethanol (3.3 mM, dithioerythritol (1.7 mM, Ala, Arg, Leu and Met (70 µM, p-nitroaniline (0.25 mM and ß-naphthylamine (0.53 mM had no effect on enzyme activity when assayed with 0.56 mM of substrate. Bestatin (20 µM inhibited 18% the enzyme activity. The aminopeptidase activity in the seeds decayed 50% after two months when stored at 4oC and room temperature. The enzyme is leucyl aminopeptidase metal- and thiol group-dependent.

  14. Antidiarrheal and Antispasmodic Activities of Buddleja polystachya are Mediated Through Dual Inhibition of Ca(++) Influx and Phosphodiesterase Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Najeeb-ur; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Khan, Aslam; Nazneen, Maryam; El Gamal, Ali A; Fawzy, Ghada A; Al-Ati, Hanan Y; Abdel-kader, Maged S

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Buddleja polystachya (Bp.Cr) with possible mode of action explored along with activity-directed fractionation. Bp.Cr and its aqueous (Bp.Aq) and organic fractions, petroleum ether (Bp.Pet), dichloromethane (Bp.DCM), ethylacetate (Bp.EtAc) and butanol (Bp.But), were tested using the in-vivo and in-vitro assays. The crude extract (100-300 mg/kg) showed 20 and 60% protection of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. In isolated rabbit jejunum, Bp.Cr like papaverine inhibited spontaneous and high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions equi-potently. In guinea-pig ileum, Bp.Cr showed a moderate spasmogenic effect. The activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity was concentrated in the organic fractions and spasmogenic component in the aqueous fraction. Amongst the organic fractions, BP.DCM and Bp.Pet inhibited spontaneous and high K(+) -induced contractions equi-potently, while Bp.But, like verapamil was more potent against high K(+) . The crude extract and its organic fractions caused rightward shift in the Ca(++) -concentration response curves (CRCs), similar to verapamil, and all except Bp.But potentiated the isoprenaline-inhibitory CRCs to the left, similar to papaverine. The results of this study indicate that the crude extract of B. polystachya possesses antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities, mediated possibly through dual inhibition of Ca(++) influx and phospodiesterase enzyme. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O'Dell, Kazuko A; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F

    2010-12-15

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance GABA(A) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors [translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO)] and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ, with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectively. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, increased neurosteroid levels in CA1 pyramidal neurons without changing TSPO immunostaining. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, also augmented a form of spike inhibition after stimulation adjacent to the pyramidal cell layer and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation. These effects were prevented by finasteride, an inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, or 17PA [17-phenyl-(3α,5α)-androst-16-en-3-ol], a blocker of neurosteroid effects on GABA(A) receptors. Moreover, the synaptic effects were mimicked by a combination of clonazepam with FGIN (2-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-N,N-dihexylacetamide), a selective TSPO agonist, or a combination of clonazepam with exogenous allopregnanolone. Consistent with these in vitro results, finasteride abolished the effects of midazolam on contextual fear learning when administrated 1 d before midazolam injection. Thus, dual activation of CBRs and TSPO appears to result in unique actions of clinically important BDZs. Furthermore, endogenous neurosteroids are shown to be important regulators of pyramidal neuron function and synaptic plasticity.

  16. Synthetic (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual actions against insulin resistance by triggering AMP kinase and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Sulake, R S; Huang, P-K; Shih, H-Y; Sie, H-W; Lai, Y-K; Chen, C; Weng, C F

    2015-01-01

    The fungal product (+)-antroquinonol activates AMP kinase (AMPK) activity in cancer cell lines. The present study was conducted to examine whether chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibited beneficial metabolic effects in insulin-resistant states by activating AMPK and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity. Effects of (+)-antroquinonol on DPP IV activity were measured with a DPPIV Assay Kit and effects on GLP-1-induced PKA were measured in AR42J cells. Translocation of the glucose transporter 4, GLUT4, induced either by insulin-dependent PI3K/AKT signalling or by insulin-independent AMPK activation, was assayed in differentiated myotubes. Glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were assayed in L6 myocytes. Mice with diet-induced obesity were used to assess effects of acute and chronic treatment with (+)-antroquinonol on glycaemic control in vivo. The results showed that of (+)-antroquinonol (100 μM ) inhibited the DPP IV activity as effectively as the clinically used inhibitor, sitagliptin. The phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) in differentiated myotubes was significantly increased by (+)-antroquinonol. In cells simultaneously treated with S961 (insulin receptor antagonist), insulin and (+)-antroquinonol, the combination of (+)-antroquinonol plus insulin still increased both GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Further, (+)-antroquinonol and sitagliptin reduced blood glucose, when given acutely or chronically to DIO mice. Chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual effects to ameliorate insulin resistance, by increasing AMPK activity and GLUT4 translocation, along with inhibiting DPP IV activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Development of design technology for dual-cooled fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho

    2010-03-01

    Primary purpose of the project is to complete a basic design of the power uprating dual-cooled fuel's structural components for an actual use in the existing nuclear power plants. It also includes a basic design of the components of a dual-cooled fuel rod. To this end, during the three years of the first stage (2007.03.∼2010.02.), concepts and technical issues of the structural components such as a supporting structure, guide thimbles and instrumentation tube and the top and bottom end pieces were derived in order to comply with the functional requirements and design criteria of them. Basic design was carried out to resolve the issues by using analytical methods as well as experiments, and observed finally is that a structural compatibility of the designed dual-cooled fuel to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (OPR-1000). As for the dual-cooled fuel rod's components such as a plenum spring, a spacer and end plugs, a concept of them was established by using the basic dimension and array produced by other sub-projects. In turn, the basic design was completed by using the finite element analysis and conventional mechanical design formulae. Additionally, a welding method and equipment for a dual-cooled fuel rod specimen was also successfully developed to prepare for the irradiation tests at the HANARO. It was shown that a dual-cooed fuel for the OPR-1000 can be designed after manufacturing the partial assembly with the designed components and their drawings. The first stage was completed with passing the Gate checks proposed at the beginning. During the second stage(2010.03.∼2012.02.), researches on the mechanical behavior and structural integrity of the designed dual-cooled fuel will be conducted for preparing a license of it, which should be done when the dual-cooled fuel is commercialized

  18. Seed germination of Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc. in response to light regimes caused by shading and seed positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.; Zhu, J.; Yan, Q.

    2012-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc. (Korean pine), the dominant tree species in the mixed broadleaved Korean pine forests (regional climax), is severely restricted by its regeneration failure. To determine the effects of light regimes on P. koraiensis regeneration, the seed germination process was examined in shade houses and forest stands (before and after leaf expansion) with various light levels created by shading and seed positions. Despite the large size of P. koraiensis seeds (500-600 mg), both light intensity and quality significantly affected the germination percentage in both shade houses and forests. Substantial changes in light intensity and quality led the majority of seeds (80%) to germinate in leafless forests and shade houses, while only a minority ({<=}20%) germinated after leaf expansion in the forests. Moreover, seed germination in shade houses and leafless forests exhibited similar patterns; they consistently reached a 70% shading degree, which was optimal for the seed germination of P. koraiensis on topsoil. Seed positioning significantly affected germination for each shading degree, especially when litter and soil coverings drastically inhibited germination. In conclusion, (1) when seeds were not stressed by temperature and moisture, light irradiance played a critical role in the seed germination of P. koraiensis; (2) seed positioning, in relation to alterations in light intensity and quality, affected the germination of P. koraiensis; (3) a shade house experiment using neutral cloth provided an applicable and controllable way to monitor the P. koraiensis seed germination in early spring before leaf expansion. The light requirement for the germination of P. koraiensis played a key role in the regeneration of P. koraiensis throughout the temperate secondary forests. (Author) 41 refs.

  19. Longitudinal space charge assisted echo seeding of a free-electron laser with laser-spoiler noise suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hacker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed lasers are employed to improve the temporal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL light. However, when these seed pulses are short relative to the particle bunch, the noisy, temporally incoherent radiation from the unseeded electrons can overwhelm the coherent, seeded radiation. In this paper, a technique to seed a particle bunch with an external laser is presented in which a new mechanism to improve the contrast between coherent and incoherent free electron laser radiation is employed together with a novel, simplified echo-seeding method. The concept relies on a combination of longitudinal space charge wakes and an echo-seeding technique to make a short, coherent pulse of FEL light together with noise background suppression. Several different simulation codes are used to illustrate the concept with conditions at the soft x-ray free-electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH.

  20. Dual inhibition of γ-oryzanol on cellular melanogenesis: inhibition of tyrosinase activity and reduction of melanogenic gene expression by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Bo-Ram; Seo, Woo-Duck; Kang, Hang-Won; Kim, Dong-Woo; Cho, Kang-Jin; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-10-26

    The in vitro effects on melanogenesis of γ-oryzanol (1), a rice bran-derived phytosterol, were investigated. The melanin content in B16F1 cells was significantly and dose-dependently reduced (-13% and -28% at 3 and 30 μM, respectively). Tyrosinase enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 both in a cell-free assay and when analyzed based on the measurement of cellular tyrosinase activity. Transcriptome analysis was performed to investigate the biological pathways altered by 1, and it was found that gene expression involving protein kinase A (PKA) signaling was markedly altered. Subsequent analyses revealed that 1 stimulation in B16 cells reduced cytosolic cAMP concentrations, PKA activity (-13% for cAMP levels and -40% for PKA activity), and phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element binding protein (-57%), which, in turn, downregulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF; -59% for mRNA and -64% for protein), a key melanogenic gene transcription factor. Accordingly, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1; -69% for mRNA and -82% for protein) and dopachrome tautomerase (-51% for mRNA and -92% for protein) in 1-stimulated B16F1 cells were also downregulated. These results suggest that 1 has dual inhibitory activities for cellular melanogenesis by inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme activity and reducing MITF and target genes in the PKA-dependent pathway.

  1. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  2. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  3. Limitations to postfire seedling establishment: The role of seeding technology, water availability, and invasive plant abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony Svejcar

    2010-01-01

    Seeding rangeland following wildfire is a central tool managers use to stabilize soils and inhibit the spread of invasive plants. Rates of successful seeding on arid rangeland, however, are low. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which water availability, invasive plant abundance, and seeding technology influence postfire seedling establishment...

  4. Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds (Avena sativa L. exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT. Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H2O2 scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase, and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that the

  5. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  6. Seed irradiation with continuously increasing doses of thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlik, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Pittermann, P.

    1977-01-01

    In the 'Raman' pea cv. the biological activity of thermal neutrons was investigated after irradiation of a 780 mm column of seeds for 3000 and 4167 seconds with a flux of 5.607 x 10 9 n.cm -2 per second. For different fractions of the seed column the average density of the neutron flux was calculated. It was proved that for the described method of seed irradiation it was sufficient to determine only the dose approaching the lethal dose. If a sufficiently high column of seeds is used part of the column of seeds will be irradiated with the optimum range of doses. The advantages of the suggested method of irradiation are not only smaller time and technological requirements resulting from the need for the determination of only the critical lethal dose of radiation by means of inhibition tests performed with seedlings, but also a simpler irradiation procedure. The suggested method of irradiation is at least nine times cheaper. (author)

  7. Physiological and proteomic analyses on artificially aged Brassica napus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingfang eYang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to long term storage or controlled deterioration treatments, by a process known as seed ageing. Based on previous studies, artificially ageing treatments have been developed to accelerate the process of seed ageing in order to understand its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used Brassica napus seeds to investigate the mechanisms of ageing initiation. B. napus seeds were exposed to artificially ageing treatment (40 oC and 90% relative humidity and their physio-biochemical characteristics were analyzed. Although the treatment delayed germination, it did not increase the concentration of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted among the control and treated seeds at different stages of germination. The proteins responded to the treatment were mainly involved in metabolism, protein modification and destination, stress response, development and miscellaneous enzymes. Except for peroxiredoxin, no changes were observed in the accumulation of other antioxidant enzymes in the artificially aged seeds. Increased content of ABA was observed in the artificially treated seeds which might be involved in the inhibition of germination. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of ABA in the initiation of seed ageing in addition to the ROS which was previously reported to mediate the seed ageing process.

  8. Seed recovery and regeneration in coal-fired, open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.C.; Jackson, D.M.; Attig, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems not only have high cycle efficiency, but they also have an inherent sulfur removal capability. The potassium compound uses as ''seed'' plays a dual role. It 1) increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma needed to produce power in the MHD electrical topping cycle, and 2) reacts with sulfur dioxide to form potassium sulfate, thereby eliminating most of the sulfur oxides from the gaseous effluent. For economical reasons, the spent seed must be recovered, desulfurized and recycled to the MHD power plant. This paper reviews some of the available experimental results and literature relating to SO 2 removal and seed recovery, and will also discuss several potential seed regeneration processes. Three methods of potassium extraction are discussed, i.e., hot aqueous digestion with CA(OH) 2 /NaOH, acid washing, and aqueous extraction. The selected candidate regeneration systems are discussed from the viewpoint of energy and process water requirements and environmental considerations such as waste discharges and emissions of gaseous, particulate and trace element pollutants

  9. Optimized batteries for cars with dual electrical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douady, J. P.; Pascon, C.; Dugast, A.; Fossati, G.

    During recent years, the increase in car electrical equipment has led to many problems with traditional starter batteries (such as cranking failure due to flat batteries, battery cycling etc.). The main causes of these problems are the double function of the automotive battery (starter and service functions) and the difficulties in designing batteries well adapted to these two functions. In order to solve these problems a new concept — the dual-concept — has been developed with two separate batteries: one battery is dedicated to the starter function and the other is dedicated to the service function. Only one alternator charges the two batteries with a separation device between the two electrical circuits. The starter battery is located in the engine compartment while the service battery is located at the rear of the car. From the analysis of new requirements, battery designs have been optimized regarding the two types of functions: (i) a small battery with high specific power for the starting function; for this function a flooded battery with lead-calcium alloy grids and thin plates is proposed; (ii) for the service function, modified sealed gas-recombinant batteries with cycling and deep-discharge ability have been developed. The various advantages of the dual-concept are studied in terms of starting reliability, battery weight, and voltage supply. The operating conditions of the system and several dual electrical architectures have also been studied in the laboratory and the car. The feasibility of the concept is proved.

  10. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  11. In vitro health beneficial activities of Pumpkin seeds from Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Lemnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai Sakka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seeds are commonly consumed in Greece. Although Cucurbita moschata is locally grown in Lemnos and is traditionally used in pumpkin pies, the seeds are currently discarded after consumption of the fruit flesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nutritional functionality of pumpkin seeds from Cucurbita moschata grown in Lemnos.Cucurbita moschatas’ seeds, raw or roasted, were appropriately extracted and the results are presented for raw versus (vs roasted seed extracts. The phenolic content was expressed as μg gallic acid/g of seeds according to Folin-Ciocalteau assay (370.3 ± 19.1 vs 551.0 ± 22.0. Antioxidant capacity was expressed as equivalent amount for 50% scavenging in mg of seeds for DPPH (50.03 ± 5.91 vs 25.82 ± 6.77 and ABTS (17.85 ± 0.77 vs 12.77 ± 0.76 assays, and as μmol of trolox/g of seeds for FRAP (1.19 ± 0.05 vs 2.50 ± 0.23 and CUPRAC (2.13 ±0.11 vs 3.25 ± 0.06 assays. Anti-inflammatory/anti-thrombotic and anti-diabetic activities were expressed as mg of seeds for 50% inhibition of platelet activating factor (0.62 vs 0.15 and as μg of seeds for 25% inhibition of alpha-glycosidase (40.0 vs 61.0 activities respectively. Moreover, anti-atherogenic activity was expressed as the % increase in lag time of human plasma oxidation (62.7 versus 163.2Raw and roasted pumpkin seed extracts exert anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic/anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and antidiabetic activities. Cucurbita moschata seeds may represent a novel opportunity for development of functional foods, with a local interest in Lemnos that would contribute also to the regional public health improvement.

  12. Studies on sampling and homogeneous dual readout calorimetry with meta-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromanolakis, G; Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    The meta-crystals concept is an approach that consists of using both undoped and properly doped heavy crystal fibers of identical material as the active medium of a calorimeter. The undoped fibers behave as Cherenkov radiators while the doped ones behave as scintillators. A dual readout calorimeter can be built with its sensitive volume composed of a mixture of both types of crystals. In addition if the calorimeter is adequately finely segmented it can also function as a particle flow calorimeter at the same time. In this way one could possibly combine the advantages of both the particle flow concept and the dual readout scheme. We discuss the approach of dual readout calorimetry with meta-crystals made of Lutetium Aluminium Garnet (LuAG). We brie fly present studies on the material development and first testbeam activities and then focus on performance expectation studies based on simulation. We discuss in more detail the results from generic systematic scannings of the design parameters of a dual readout ca...

  13. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  14. Dual inhibition of Wnt and Yes-associated protein signaling retards the growth of triple-negative breast cancer in both mesenchymal and epithelial states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Andrew; McGarry, Sarah; Li, Li; Jia, Deyong; Ooi, Sarah; Addison, Christina; Dimitroulakos, Jim; Arnaout, Angel; Nessim, Carolyn; Yao, Zemin; Ji, Guang; Song, Haiyan; Gadde, Suresh; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Lisheng

    2018-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most refractory subtype of breast cancer to current treatments, accounts disproportionately for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths. This is largely due to cancer plasticity and the development of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently, distinct yet interconvertible mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like states have been revealed in breast CSCs. Thus, strategies capable of simultaneously inhibiting bulk and CSC populations in both mesenchymal and epithelial states have yet to be developed. Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP pathways are crucial in tumorigenesis, but importantly also possess tumor suppressor functions in certain contexts. One possibility is that TNBC cells in epithelial or mesenchymal state may differently affect Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP signaling and CSC phenotypes. In this report, we found that YAP signaling and CD44 high /CD24 -/low CSCs were upregulated while Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ALDH+ CSCs were downregulated in mesenchymal-like TNBC cells, and vice versa in their epithelial-like counterparts. Dual knockdown of YAP and Wnt/β-catenin, but neither alone, was required for effective suppression of both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC populations in mesenchymal and epithelial TNBC cells. These observations were confirmed with cultured tumor fragments prepared from patients with TNBC after treatment with Wnt inhibitor ICG-001 and YAP inhibitor simvastatin. In addition, a clinical database showed that decreased gene expression of Wnt and YAP was positively correlated with decreased ALDH and CD44 expression in patients' samples while increased patient survival. Furthermore, tumor growth of TNBC cells in either epithelial or mesenchymal state was retarded, and both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC subpopulations were diminished in a human xenograft model after dual administration of ICG-001 and simvastatin. Tumorigenicity was also hampered after secondary transplantation. These data suggest a new

  15. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam Mani, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  16. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  17. Development and Validation of a Novel Dual Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay to Quantify Ebola Virus VP24 Inhibition of IFN Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fanunza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24 is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development. Since no drugs target VP24, the identification of molecules able to inhibit VP24, restoring and possibly enhancing the IFN response, is a goal of concern. Accordingly, we developed a dual signal firefly and Renilla luciferase cell-based drug screening assay able to quantify IFN-mediated induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs and its inhibition by VP24. Human Embryonic Kidney 293T (HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct driven by the promoter of ISGs, Interferon-Stimulated Response Element (ISRE. Stimulation of cells with IFN-α activated the IFN cascade leading to the expression of ISRE. Cotransfection of cells with a plasmid expressing VP24 cloned from a virus isolated during the last 2014 outbreak led to the inhibition of ISRE transcription, quantified by a luminescent signal. To adapt this system to test a large number of compounds, we performed it in 96-well plates; optimized the assay analyzing different parameters; and validated the system by calculating the Z′- and Z-factor, which showed values of 0.62 and 0.53 for IFN-α stimulation assay and VP24 inhibition assay, respectively, indicative of robust assay performance.

  18. SENSITIVITY OF THE CUMIN SEEDS ASSOCIATED FUNGI TO GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOTROS, H.W.; HELAL, I.M.; EL TOBGY, K.M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the sensitivity of fungi associated to cumin seeds for gamma radiation. In this regard, the isolated seed associated fungi from the cumin seeds were fifteen fungal species belonging to five genera. The fungal species concerning, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporium and Aspergillus flavus were the predominant fungi in percentages of 17.8, 15.83 and 12.78 %, respectively. Aspergillus ochraceus was the most effective prevalent fungi on the seed germination causing highest percentage of seed invasion followed by Fusarium oxysporium and Aspergillus flavus. The amylolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activity and mycotoxin production of the three predominant fungi were negatively influenced by gamma radiation when exposed to doses of 1.0 , 1.5 , 2.5 , 3.5 , 5.0 and 7.5 kGy a behaviour which was parallel to the inhibition in the amount of growth by gamma irradiation

  19. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by NADPH Oxidases Promote Radicle Protrusion and Root Elongation during Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulation through various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Although it has been recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS regulate radicle emergence and root elongation in a non-enzymatic manner during dicot seed germination, the role of ROS in monocot seed germination remains unknown. NADPH oxidases (NOXs are the major ROS producers in plants; however, whether and how NOXs regulate rice seed germination through ROS generation remains unclear. Here, we report that diphenyleneiodinium (DPI, a specific NOX inhibitor, potently inhibited embryo and seedling growth—especially that of the radicle and of root elongation—in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the DPI-mediated inhibition of radicle and root growth could be eliminated by transferring seedlings from DPI to water. Furthermore, ROS production/accumulation during rice seed germination was quantified via histochemistry. Superoxide radicals (O2−, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (•OH accumulated steadily in the coleorhiza, radicle and seedling root of germinating rice seeds. Expression profiles of the nine typical NOX genes were also investigated. According to quantitative PCR, OsNOX5, 7 and 9 were expressed relatively higher. When seeds were incubated in water, OsNOX5 expression progressively increased in the embryo from 12 to 48 h, whereas OsNOX7 and 9 expressions increased from 12 to 24 h and decreased thereafter. As expected, DPI inhibits the expression at predetermined time points for each of these genes. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS produced by NOXs are involved in radicle and root elongation during rice seed germination, and OsNOX5, 7 and 9 could play crucial roles in rice seed germination. These findings will facilitate further studies of the roles of ROS generated by NOXs during seed germination and seedling establishment and also provide valuable information for the

  1. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  2. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1998-01-01

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  3. Glucose metabolism in gamma-irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of 30 kR in rice seeds caused marked inhibition in seedling growth, and prevented the release of reduced sugar during the period of 25 to 76hr after soaking. The C 6 /C 1 ratio following irradiation continued to decrease up to the 76th hour of soaking; the control's ratio tended to increase with comparable soaking time. The percentage recovery of 14 C in carbon dioxide from glucose -1- 14 C was lower in irradiated than in control seeds. These results indicate that gamma-irradiation reduces the participation of the pentose phosphate pathway in glucose catabolism during an early period of germination. (author)

  4. Seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. depending on the presowing gamma irradiation and postradiational temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.

    1977-01-01

    In field experiments the seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. of the Big White 48/4 cultivar was determined after presowing gamma irradiation with 4000 R and 50000 R and postradiational temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes. The presowing gamma irradiation was carried out at the IRI-200O nuclear reactor with dose capacity of 630 R/min (1968 and 1969) and 504 R/min (1970), and the postradiational heating of the seeds in a drying oven at the laboratory. It is established that the presowing gamma radiation with 4000 R stimulates the seed yield of the large-fruited pumpkin (137.06%), and the 50000 R inhibits them (25.50%). The presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes is stimulating or indicates tendency towards seed yield stimulation. The postradiational presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 9Odeg C in the course of 30 minutes of the 4000 R stimulative variant decrease the seed yield stimulation, and with the 50000 R inhibitive variant - repairs or displays tendency towards seed yield reparation. (author)

  5. On R-Duals and the Duality Principle in Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeva, Diana T.; Christensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The concept of R-duals of a frame was introduced by Casazza, Kutyniok and Lammers in 2004, with the motivation to obtain a general version of the duality principle in Gabor analysis. For tight Gabor frames and Gabor Riesz bases the three authors were actually able to show that the duality principle...... these classes coincide with the R-duals by Casazza et al., which is desirable in the sense that the motivating case of tight Gabor frames already is well covered by these R-duals. On the other hand, all the introduced types of R-duals generalize the duality principle for larger classes of Gabor frames than just...

  6. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh B Ishnava

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria.The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0. Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract.The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50 value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein.Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

  7. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  8. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  9. Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic seeds under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang eLi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs and abscisic acid (ABA in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA

  10. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  11. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  12. Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Events which occurred over the past years have shown how the threat related to both intentional and natural disasters could bring the civil and the miliary worlds closer in the conception and deployment of countermeasures, as well as in the identification of effective strategies for enhancing...... the Planet safety and security. In this frame, the concept of dual use - the set of technologies and applications that can be exploied for both civil and military purposes - becomes a key-topic. In addition, the aerospace is a strategic building block in the deployment of a network centric environment...... that aims at the global protection of the mankind. Aeropsace is also a natural environment for dual use: many of the related enabling technologies have been first developed for the military world and then applied to civil - including commercial - purposes....

  13. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  14. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah; Storey, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling. Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination. PMID:16662104

  15. Dual arm master controller concept: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features result in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  16. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Huixian [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Shi, Zhenqi [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Qiao, Ping [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Norman Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); McCoy, Erin M. [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Mao, Ping [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Xu, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Shunqing, E-mail: shqwang_cn@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generates a population of hematopoietic cells. •IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. •Osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are functional. •IL-3 promotes the development of osteoclast progenitors. •IL-3 inhibits the osteoclastogenic process. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis remains controversial; whereas early studies showed that IL-3 stimulates osteoclastogenesis, recent investigations demonstrated that IL-3 inhibits osteoclast formation. The objective of this work is to further address the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generated a population of cells capable of differentiating into osteoclasts in tissue culture dishes in response to the stimulation of the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were able to further proliferate and differentiate in response to M-CSF stimulation and the resulting cells were also capable of forming osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL treatment. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits M-CSF-/RANKL-induced differentiation of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells into osteoclasts. The flow cytometry analysis indicates that while IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells slightly affected the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the surviving populations, it considerably increased the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the populations after subsequent M-CSF treatment. Moreover, osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were fully functional. Thus, we conclude that IL-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the

  17. DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL AND DUAL TIMELIKE SPHERICAL CURVES IN DUAL MINKOWSKI SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we give characterizations of dual timelike normal and dual timelike spherical curves in the dual Minkowski 3-space and we show that every dual timelike normal curve is also a dual timelike spherical curve. Keywords: Normal curves, Dual Minkowski 3-Space, Dual Timelike curves. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2000): 53C50, 53C40. DUAL MINKOWSKI UZAYINDA DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL VE DUAL TIMELIKE KÜRESEL EĞRİLER Özet: Bu çalışmada, dual Minkowski 3-...

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential of standardized Mucuna pruriens seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar; De, Apurba; Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2015-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (Fabaceae) is a tropical legume, traditionally used for controlling blood pressure. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the successful strategies for controlling hypertension. The present study evaluated the ACE inhibition potential of the standardized extract of M. pruriens seeds. Standardization of the extract and its fractions were carried out by RP-HPLC method [methanol and 1% v/v acetic acid in water (5:95 v/v)] using levodopa as a marker. The ACE inhibition activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL) using the HPLC-DAD and the UV spectrophotometric method. The liberation of hippuric acid (HA) from hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) was estimated in the spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC assay at 228 nm. Methanol extract and aqueous fraction showed a maximum activity with IC50 values of 38.44 ± 0.90 and 57.07 ± 2.90 µg/mL (RP-HPLC), and 52.68 ± 2.02 and 67.65 ± 2.40 µg/mL (spectrophotometry), respectively. The study revealed that the aqueous extract contains the highest amount of levodopa. Eventually the methanol extract showed highest ACE inhibition activity except levodopa alone. It was further observed that the inhibition was altered with respect to the change in the content of levodopa in the extract. Thus, it can be assumed that levodopa may be responsible for the ACE inhibition activity of M. pruriens seeds. It can be concluded that M. pruriens seed is a potential ACE inhibitor can be explored further as an effective antihypertensive agent.

  19. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  20. Dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept for mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept based on the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) to support future manned missions to Mars. The system uses proven Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines to partially convert the reactor thermal power to electricity. The electric power generated is kept the same during the propulsion and the power modes, but the reactor thermal power in the former could be several times higher, while maintaining the reactor temperatures almost constant. During the propulsion mode, the electric power of the system, minus ∼1-5 kW e for house keeping, is used to operate a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). In addition, the reactor thermal power, plus more than 85% of the head load of the CBC engine radiators, are used to heat hydrogen. The hot hydrogen is mixed with the high temperature plasma in a VASIMR to provide both high thrust and I sp >35,000 N.s/kg, reducing the travel time to Mars to about 3 months. The electric power also supports surface exploration of Mars. The fuel temperature and the inlet temperatures of the He-Xe working fluid to the nuclear reactor core and the CBC turbine are maintained almost constant during both the propulsion and power modes to minimize thermal stresses. Also, the exit temperature of the He-Xe from the reactor core is kept at least 200 K below the maximum fuel design temperature. The present system has no single point failure and could be tested fully assembled in a ground facility using electric heaters in place of the nuclear reactor. Operation and design parameters of a 40-kW e prototype are presented and discussed to illustrate the operation and design principles of the proposed system

  1. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  2. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  3. Analysis and measurement of the stability of dual-resonator oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaed, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of oscillators with dual-resonating tanks. After deriving oscillator models, it is shown that contrary to prior belief, there can be only one stable oscillating state. Sufficient conditions for stable oscillating states are derived and silicon measurement results are used to prove their validity. A fully integrated transmitter for intraocular pressure sensing that leverages the dual-resonator tank is designed and fabricated based on the derived models. An unstable version of the transmitter is also demonstrated to prove the concept of instability in dual-resonator oscillators © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  5. A Notion of Total Dual Integrality for Convex, Semidefinite, and Extended Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Marcel K. de Carli; Tunçel, Levent

    2018-01-01

    Total dual integrality is a powerful and unifying concept in polyhedral combinatorics and integer programming that enables the refinement of geometric min-max relations given by linear programming Strong Duality into combinatorial min-max theorems. The definition of total dual integrality (TDI) revolves around the existence of optimal dual solutions that are integral, and thus naturally applies to a host of combinatorial optimization problems that are cast as integer programs whose LP relaxat...

  6. Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhi; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-07-30

    We demonstrate new technique for generation of programmable-pitch, wideband frequency combs with low phase noise. The comb generation was achieved using cavity-less, multistage mixer driven by two tunable continuous-wave pump seeds. The approach relies on phase-correlated continuous-wave pumps in order to cancel spectral linewidth broadening inherent to parametric comb generation. Parametric combs with over 200-nm bandwidth were obtained and characterized with respect to phase noise scaling to demonstrate linewidth preservation over 100 generated tones.

  7. Novel package for inhibition of aluminium corrosion in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M., E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Khamis, E.; Abo-Eldahab, H.; Adeel, Sh. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2010-11-01

    Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 2 M sodium hydroxide solution by a package composed of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lupine seed extract has been investigated employing different electrochemical techniques and chemical gasometry measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements showed that lupine seed extract controls both the anodic dissolution of aluminium and the hydrogen gas evolved at the cathodic sites of aluminium surface. Nyquist plots showed two capacitive semicircles in the high and low frequency regions separated by an inductive loop at intermediate frequencies. The inductive loop may be explained by the occurrence of adsorbed intermediates on the surface. A proposed equivalent circuit was used to analyse the impedance spectra for aluminium in NaOH solutions. The corrosion inhibition data have been analysed using different isotherms. The results showed excellent agreement between the kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins isotherm. Gasometry measurements showed that the Inhibitive effect of the surfactant increases at a composition around its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The presence of both the surfactant and lupine seed extract did not indicate synergistic action between them. The mode of adsorption of the surfactant molecules corresponding to their structure is also discussed.

  8. Novel package for inhibition of aluminium corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M.; Khamis, E.; Abo-Eldahab, H.; Adeel, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 2 M sodium hydroxide solution by a package composed of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lupine seed extract has been investigated employing different electrochemical techniques and chemical gasometry measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements showed that lupine seed extract controls both the anodic dissolution of aluminium and the hydrogen gas evolved at the cathodic sites of aluminium surface. Nyquist plots showed two capacitive semicircles in the high and low frequency regions separated by an inductive loop at intermediate frequencies. The inductive loop may be explained by the occurrence of adsorbed intermediates on the surface. A proposed equivalent circuit was used to analyse the impedance spectra for aluminium in NaOH solutions. The corrosion inhibition data have been analysed using different isotherms. The results showed excellent agreement between the kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins isotherm. Gasometry measurements showed that the Inhibitive effect of the surfactant increases at a composition around its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The presence of both the surfactant and lupine seed extract did not indicate synergistic action between them. The mode of adsorption of the surfactant molecules corresponding to their structure is also discussed.

  9. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  10. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  11. Evaluación de Trichoderma sobre hongos contaminantes de semillas de palma híbrida interespecífica OxG (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Ladino Rey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination process of hybrid palm interspecific OxG (E. oleifera x E guineensis. seeds in the company Indupalma ltda has filed a decrease in production, which is reflected in economic losses due to the existence of filamentous fungi that affect seeds. Previous studies have shown the potential controller Trichoderma sp. on these fungi. Commercial and native strains of T. harzianum and T. viride were evaluated against prevalent fungal contaminants of interspecific hybrid palm seeds. They were isolated and identified eleven strains of pathogenic fungi from interspecific hybrid palm seeds that were removed from the different stages of germination. Dual plate tests were conducted at prevalent fungi and the percent inhibition of radial growth (PICO and mycoparasitism were determined. These fungi were inhibited in growth by the antagonistic effect of T. harzianum and T viride. Similarly, T.viride showed a great potential as a biocontrol agent to inhibit over 60% seven out of eleven strains of contaminating fungi.

  12. Hsp104 Overexpression Cures Saccharomyces cerevisiae [PSI+] by Causing Dissolution of the Prion Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yang-Nim; Zhao, Xiaohong; Yim, Yang-In; Todor, Horia; Ellerbrock, Robyn; Reidy, Michael; Eisenberg, Evan; Masison, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The [PSI+] yeast prion is formed when Sup35 misfolds into amyloid aggregates. [PSI+], like other yeast prions, is dependent on the molecular chaperone Hsp104, which severs the prion seeds so that they pass on as the yeast cells divide. Surprisingly, however, overexpression of Hsp104 also cures [PSI+]. Several models have been proposed to explain this effect: inhibition of severing, asymmetric segregation of the seeds between mother and daughter cells, and dissolution of the prion seeds. First, we found that neither the kinetics of curing nor the heterogeneity in the distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Sup35 foci in partially cured yeast cells is compatible with Hsp104 overexpression curing [PSI+] by inhibiting severing. Second, we ruled out the asymmetric segregation model by showing that the extent of curing was essentially the same in mother and daughter cells and that the fluorescent foci did not distribute asymmetrically, but rather, there was marked loss of foci in both mother and daughter cells. These results suggest that Hsp104 overexpression cures [PSI+] by dissolution of the prion seeds in a two-step process. First, trimming of the prion seeds by Hsp104 reduces their size, and second, their amyloid core is eliminated, most likely by proteolysis. PMID:24632242

  13. Hsp104 overexpression cures Saccharomyces cerevisiae [PSI+] by causing dissolution of the prion seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yang-Nim; Zhao, Xiaohong; Yim, Yang-In; Todor, Horia; Ellerbrock, Robyn; Reidy, Michael; Eisenberg, Evan; Masison, Daniel C; Greene, Lois E

    2014-05-01

    The [PSI(+)] yeast prion is formed when Sup35 misfolds into amyloid aggregates. [PSI(+)], like other yeast prions, is dependent on the molecular chaperone Hsp104, which severs the prion seeds so that they pass on as the yeast cells divide. Surprisingly, however, overexpression of Hsp104 also cures [PSI(+)]. Several models have been proposed to explain this effect: inhibition of severing, asymmetric segregation of the seeds between mother and daughter cells, and dissolution of the prion seeds. First, we found that neither the kinetics of curing nor the heterogeneity in the distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Sup35 foci in partially cured yeast cells is compatible with Hsp104 overexpression curing [PSI(+)] by inhibiting severing. Second, we ruled out the asymmetric segregation model by showing that the extent of curing was essentially the same in mother and daughter cells and that the fluorescent foci did not distribute asymmetrically, but rather, there was marked loss of foci in both mother and daughter cells. These results suggest that Hsp104 overexpression cures [PSI(+)] by dissolution of the prion seeds in a two-step process. First, trimming of the prion seeds by Hsp104 reduces their size, and second, their amyloid core is eliminated, most likely by proteolysis.

  14. Assessment of the integration of a He-cooled divertor system in the power conversion system for the dual-coolant blanket concept (TW2-TRP-PPCS12D8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Kruessmann, R.; Malang, S.; Reimann, G.

    2002-12-01

    Application of a helium-cooled divertor together with the dual-coolant blanket concept is considered favourable for achieving a high thermal efficiency of the power plant due to its relatively high coolant outlet temperature. A new FZK He-cooled modular divertor concept with integrated pin arrays (HEMP) is introduced. Its main features and function are described in detail. The result of the thermalhydraulic analysis shows that the HEMP divertor concept has the potential of resisting, a heat flow density of at least 10-15 MW/m 2 at a reachable heat transfer coefficient of approx. 60 kW/m 2 K and a reasonable pumping power. Integration of this divertor concept into the power conversion system using a closed Brayton gas turbine system with three-stage compression leads to a net efficiency of the blanket/divertor cycle of about 43%. (orig.)

  15. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH 4 )SO 4 , glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl 2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32 P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  16. Dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin synergistically suppressed the growth of human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Meng; He, Hong-wei; Sun, Huan-xing; Ren, Kai-huan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050 (China); Shao, Rong-guang, E-mail: shaor@bbn.cn [Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2009-09-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major challenge because of its resistance to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multi-targeted therapy might be a new option for HCC treatment. Our previous study showed that N-ras gene was activated in HCC and was inhibited by RNA interference. In the present study, we investigated the alternation of gene expression by microarray in N-Ras-siRNA-treated HepG2 cells. The results revealed that the EREG gene, encoding epiregulin, was dramatically up-regulated in response to silence of N-ras. We speculated that the up-regulation of epiregulin was involved in the compensatory mechanism of N-ras knockdown for cell growth. Therefore, we evaluated whether dual silence of N-ras and epiregulin display a greater suppression of cell growth. The results confirmed that dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin synergistically inhibited cell growth. Our results also showed that dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin significantly induced cell arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, Western blot assay showed that dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin markedly reduced the phosphorylations of ERK1/2, Akt and Rb, and inhibited the expression of cyclin D1. Our findings imply that multi-targeted silence of oncogenes might be an effective treatment for HCC.

  17. VIGOR TESTS ASSOCIATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRECISE AND EFFICIENT ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ALTOMANI NEVES DIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate two concepts of seed vigor testing, the aging and seedling growth using image analysis, providing a feasible and time-saving way to evaluate maize seed vigor in large scale. For this purpose, five seed lots with different vigor levels from two single hybrids were used. The seeds were characterized by moisture content, germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, accelerated aging and cold tests. The treatments were composed by varying the accelerated aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96h and seedling growth periods (48 and 72h, before submitting the seedlings to image analysis for seedling root length measurement. Considering the results obtained, the adaptation of accelerated aging test by reducing the aging duration from 96h to 48h, and the replacement of the germination test by seedling root length measurement using image analysis could be considered a potential tool for maize seed vigor assessment. The treatments composed of 48h of seed aging followed by seedlings root length measurements using image analysis provided reliable data, compared to traditional vigor tests and it could be considered an efficient and timesaving approach, associating two different concepts of seed vigor analysis.

  18. Biohydrogen production from dual digestion pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge by anaerobic self-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittijunda, Sureewan [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added Agricultural Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); O-thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    Poultry slaughterhouse sludge from chicken processing wastewater treatment plant was tested for their suitability as a substrate and inoculum source for fermentation hydrogen production. Dual digestion of poultry slaughterhouse sludge was employed to produce hydrogen by batch anaerobic self-fermentation without any extra-seeds. The sludge (5% TS) was dual digested by aerobic thermophilic digestion at 55 C with the varying retention time before using as substrate in anaerobic self-fermentation. The best digestion time for enriching hydrogen-producing seeds was 48 h as it completely repressed methanogenic activity and gave the maximum hydrogen yield of 136.9 mL H{sub 2}/g TS with a hydrogen production rate of 2.56 mL H{sub 2}/L/h. The hydrogen production of treated sludge at 48 h (136.9 mL H{sub 2}/g TS) was 15 times higher than that of the raw sludge (8.83 mL H{sub 2}/g TS). With this fermentation process, tCOD value in the activated sludge could be reduced up to 30%. (author)

  19. Dual-channel amplification in a single-mode diode laser for multi-isotope laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, James L.; Van Dongen, Janelle; Lebel, Paul; Klappauf, Bruce G.; Madison, Kirk W.

    2007-01-01

    The output from two grating-stabilized external-cavity diode lasers were injected into a single-mode diode laser. Operating at a wavelength of 780 nm, this laser produced ∼50 mW of power with two main frequency components of the same spectral characteristics of the seed lasers. The power ratio of the amplified components was freely adjustable due to gain saturation, and amplification was observed for frequency differences of the two seed lasers in the range from 73 MHz to 6.6 GHz. This system was used to realize a dual isotope magneto-optic trap (MOT) for rubidium ( 85 Rb and 87 Rb). The resulting position and cloud size of the dual isotope MOT was the same as that of the single species MOTs to within ±10 and ±20 μm, respectively. We also characterized the additional spectral components produced by four wave mixing (FWM) in the diode laser amplifier and utilized a particular FWM sideband to realize hyperfine pumping and subsequent laser trapping of 85 Rb in the absence of a 'repump' laser dedicated to hyperfine pumping

  20. Dual fan, dual-duct system meets air quality, energy-efficiency needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, M. [Pageau Morel and Associates, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    Canada`s Space Centre in Saint-Hubert Quebec is a 300,000 ft{sup 2} (27,871 m{sup 2}) complex that houses the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Astronaut Training Centre, mission ground control installations, research facilities, offices and the required support facilities. A comfortable, pleasant research environment was a primary concern for the Space Centre, given its elite clientele. The objectives were high indoor-air quality, design flexibility, energy efficiency and low capital costs. Dual duct systems which are the heart of the mechanical concept allowed the designers to meet these objectives. The Space Centre`s offices, laboratories and conference center are all served by dual-duct systems. All operate using an air economizer cycle. Gas boilers provide them with hot water for heating and steam for humidification while centrifugal chillers provide chilled water for cooling. This article describes the design.

  1. Novel biological properties of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seed extracts: effects on metallopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Anna K; Derwińska, Małgorzata; Dawidowska, Anna; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2008-09-10

    In this study, for the first time, we used the in vitro metallopeptidase model for the identification of a potential novel activity of defatted evening primrose seed extracts. Prepared extracts of different polarity (aqueous, 60% ethanolic, isopropanolic, and 30% isopropanolic) at concentrations of 1.5-100 microg/mL exhibited a significant and dose dependent inhibition of three tested enzymes. The 50% inhibition of enzymes activity showed that aminopeptidase N (APN) was the enzyme affected to the greatest extent with IC50 at the level of 2.8 microg/mL and 2.9 microg/mL for aqueous and 30% isopropanolic extracts, respectively. The activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was quite strongly inhibited by the extracts as well. The HPLC-DAD analysis and bioguided fractionation led to the identification of four active compounds: (-)-epicatechin gallate, proanthocyanidin B3, oenothein B, and penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG). Oenothein B has been shown previously to inhibit metallopeptidases. The three other compounds are known to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but they have not been previously reported to inhibit the NEP and APN activity. PGG and procyanidins with different degrees of polymerization, as the dominating compounds in O. paradoxa seeds, seemed to play a role in the crude extract activity.

  2. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding.

  3. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  4. Control of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: post-imbibition abscisic acid synthesis imposes dormancy maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappin, P; Bouinot, D; Sotta, B; Miginiac, E; Jullien, M

    2000-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. are described. The level of seed dormancy is defined by the delay in seed germination (i.e the time required prior to germination) under favourable environmental conditions. A wild-type line shows a clear primary dormancy, which is suppressed by afterripening, whereas an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant shows a non-dormant phenotype. We have investigated the role of ABA and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) in the control of dormancy maintenance or breakage during imbibition in suitable conditions. It was found that fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, is almost as efficient as GA(3) in breaking dormancy. Dry dormant seeds contained more ABA than dry afterripened seeds and, during early imbibition, there was an accumulation of ABA in dormant seeds, but not in afterripened seeds. In addition, fluridone and exogenous GA(3) inhibited the accumulation of ABA in imbibed dormant seeds. This reveals an important role for ABA synthesis in dormancy maintenance in imbibed seeds.

  5. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Malang, S.; Sawan, M.; Dagher, Mohamad; Smolentsev, S.; Merrill, Brad; Youssef, M.; Reyes, Susanna; Sze, Dai Kai; Morley, Neil B.; Sharafat, Shahran; Calderoni, P.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Fogarty, Paul J.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Abdou, Mohamed A.

    2006-02-01

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17LI is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Ph-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure.

  6. Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandiah N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nagaendran Kandiah,1,2 Ming-Chyi Pai,3,4 Vorapun Senanarong,5 Irene Looi,6,7 Encarnita Ampil,8 Kyung Won Park,9 Ananda Krishna Karanam,10 Stephen Christopher11 1Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Duke-NUS, Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 3Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 4Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan; 5Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Clinical Research Centre, 7Department of Medicine, Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia; 8Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; 9Department of Neurology and Cognitive Disorders and Dementia Center, Institute of Convergence Bio-Health, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea; 10Novartis Healthcare Private Limited, Hyderabad, India; 11Novartis (Singapore Pte. Ltd., Singapore Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of sustained cholinesterase inhibition with rivastigmine in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD. Unlike donepezil and galantamine that selectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7, rivastigmine is a unique cholinesterase inhibitor with both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8 inhibitory activity. Rivastigmine is also available as transdermal patch that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe AD as well as mild-to-moderate PDD. In this review, we explore the role of BuChE inhibition in addition to AChE inhibition with rivastigmine in the outcomes of cognition, global function, behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily living. Additionally, we review the evidence supporting the use of dual

  7. Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) overexpression increases reactive oxygen species production and inhibits murine muscle satellite cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Shelley D E; Kennedy, Karen A M; Xie, Xiaojun; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Li, Shawn S C

    2014-01-11

    Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) has been associated with the maturation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzyme, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) in the adult thyroid. However, ROS have also been implicated in the development of several tissues. We found that activated muscle satellite cells and primary myoblasts isolated from mice express robust levels of DUOXA1 and that its levels are altered as cells differentiate. To determine whether DUOXA1 levels affect muscle differentiation, we used an adenoviral construct (pCMV5-DUOXA1-GFP) to drive constitutive overexpression of this protein in primary myoblasts. High levels of DUOXA1 throughout myogenesis resulted in enhanced H2O2 production, fusion defects, reduced expression of early (myogenin) and late (myosin heavy chain) markers of differentiation, and elevated levels of apoptosis compared to control cells infected with an empty adenoviral vector (pCMV5-GFP). DUOXA1 knockdown (using a DUOXA1 shRNA construct) resulted in enhanced differentiation compared to cells subjected to a control shRNA, and subjecting DUOXA1 overexpressing cells to siRNAs targeting DUOX1 or apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) rescued the phenotype. This study represents the first to demonstrate the importance of DUOXA1 in skeletal muscle myoblasts and that DUOXA1 overexpression in muscle stem cells induces apoptosis and inhibits differentiation through DUOX1 and ASK1.

  8. Impacts of adding different components of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germiantion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xue; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Qian

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, wood vinegar has been widely used in the agricultural production. It can be used as the soil amendment, antibacterial agent and organic fertilizer. This study investigated the effect of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germination. The results in this study showed that 1% (v/v) wood vinegar had the greatest inhibition effect on the seed germination of rape (Brassica napus L.). The wood vinegar (WV) and the distilled wood vinegar at 98 - 130 °C (D2) significantly inhibited seed germination by 100%, compared to the control treatment. However, the distilled wood vinegar (D1) had significantly increased the shoot length and root length by 58.4% and 31.7%, respectively. These positive effects could be attributed to the improved soil fertility, increased nutrient supply, and further stimulated plant growth. Overall, the D1 could be a promising soil amendment to promote plants growth and enhance crop yields. Effect of adding different components of distilled wood vinegar on the seed germination of rape

  9. The Explicit Determinations Of Dual Plane Curves And Dual Helices In Terms Of Its Dual Curvature And Dual Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae Won; Choi Jin Ho; Jin Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give the explicit determinations of dual plane curves, general dual helices and dual slant helices in terms of its dual curvature and dual torsion as a fundamental theory of dual curves in a dual 3-space

  10. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  11. Regulation of wheat seed dormancy by after-ripening is mediated by specific transcriptional switches that induce changes in seed hormone metabolism and signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Liu

    Full Text Available Treatments that promote dormancy release are often correlated with changes in seed hormone content and/or sensitivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening (seed dry storage in triggering hormone related changes and dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum, temporal expression patterns of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellin (GA, jasmonate and indole acetic acid (IAA metabolism and signaling, and levels of the respective hormones were examined in dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. After-ripening mediated developmental switch from dormancy to germination appears to be associated with declines in seed sensitivity to ABA and IAA, which are mediated by transcriptional repressions of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, ABA INSENSITIVE5 and LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHTASE2, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR and RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1 genes. Transcriptomic analysis of wheat seed responsiveness to ABA suggests that ABA inhibits the germination of wheat seeds partly by repressing the transcription of genes related to chromatin assembly and cell wall modification, and activating that of GA catabolic genes. After-ripening induced seed dormancy decay in wheat is also associated with the modulation of seed IAA and jasmonate contents. Transcriptional control of members of the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE, 3-KETOACYL COENZYME A THIOLASE, LIPOXYGENASE and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE gene families appears to regulate seed jasmonate levels. Changes in the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, GA 20-OXIDASE and GA 3-OXIDASE, in response to after-ripening implicate this hormone in enhancing dormancy release and germination. These findings have important implications in the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy in cereals.

  12. Changes in the activity of the alternative oxidase in Orobanche seeds during conditioning and their possible physiological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Nun, Nurit; Plakhine, Dina; Joel, Daniel M; Mayer, Alfred M

    2003-09-01

    The appearance of the activity of the cyanide insensitive, alternative oxidase (AOX), pathway of oxygen uptake was followed in seeds of Orobanche aegyptiaca during conditioning. The pathway becomes operative during conditioning, up to day three as determined by inhibition of oxygen uptake of the seeds by propyl gallate. At the same time an increasing percentage of oxygen uptake is insensitive to cyanide and an increased oxygen uptake, responsive to propyl gallate, is induced by brief salicylic acid treatment of seeds. By day six of conditioning, these responses decrease and the AOX pathway could not be detected in germinating seeds, after treatment with a germination stimulant. These results were confirmed by following the reaction of extracts of fractions enriched with mitochondria from the conditioned seeds, using a specific antibody against AOX. Treatment of the seeds with inhibitors of AOX during conditioning significantly inhibited their subsequent germination. Addition of hydrogen peroxide after 4 and 7 days of conditioning resulted in reduced germination. In addition treatment of seed with propyl or octyl gallate during conditioning reduced the infection of tomato plants by Orobanche seeds and the development of tubercles of the parasite on the host roots. These results together indicate that the operation of AOX during conditioning has a significant function on the subsequent germination behaviour and pathogenicity of the root parasite. Some potential practical applications of these findings are discussed.

  13. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Momordica dioica seeds in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sailaja Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Momordica dioica Roxb. Commonly known as “Kakora” in Telugu, is used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of M. dioica seeds (MEMD in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. The in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity of the MEMD was done by spectrophotometric method. Diabetes was induced by STZ (45 mg/kg; i.p, MEMD (100 & 200 mg/kg; b.wt and standard drug metformin (50 mg/kg; b.wt were administered to the diabetic rats. Blood glucose was estimated on the 11th day and the level of MDA, SOD and CAT was estimated in the liver tissue homogenate after the 15 days of experimental period. MEMD showed significant inhibition of alpha amylase activity and the IC50 was found to be 48 μg/ml. Oral administration of MEMD significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.05, diminished the MDA level and refurbished depleted antioxidant enzymes and Insulin level to normalcy. These findings revealed that M. dioica seeds possess antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti lipid peroxidative activity and thus mitigate STZ-induced oxidative damage.

  14. European orchid cultivation – from seed to mature plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for growing orchids of the genera Dactylorhiza and Ophrys, two European members of the subfamily Orchidoideae, from seeds to mature plants using asymbiotic in vitro cultures and glasshouse pot cultures. Four media were used: two new media 1/4–2 and Mo2 and two modifications of Michl medium (Michl 1988. We also describe a highly efficient technique for seed disinfection using a syringe. We tested the effects of ethanol treatment on Anacmaptis morio (L R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. seeds, sugar media composition on Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb. P. F. Hunt & Summerh., Oeceoclades decaryana (H. Perrier ex Guillaumin & Manguin Garay & Taylor and Ophrys lojaconoi P. Delforge and the effect of kinetin on Dactylorhiza majalis protocorm growth. Sucrose was the best carbon source, while hexose resulted in the inhibition of protocorm development at early stages. The addition of kinetin at 10 mg/l resulted in the formation of the largest protocorms. Ethanol can have positive effect on seed germination when applied for a short time (2 min, while long-time ethanol exposure (60 min can kill the seeds.

  15. Intrinsically radiolabelled [59Fe]-SPIONs for dual MRI/radionuclide detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, David; Sun, Minghao; Yang, Likun; McDonagh, Philip R; Corwin, Frank; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Wang, Li; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Thadigiri, Celina; Lamichhane, Narottam; Zweit, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Towards the development of iron oxide nanoparticles with intrinsically incorporated radionuclides for dual Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and more recently of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (SPECT/MRI), we have developed intrinsically radiolabeled [59Fe]-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles ([59Fe]-SPIONs) as a proof of concept for an intrinsic dual probe strategy. 59Fe was incorporated into Fe3O4 nanoparticle cry...

  16. Regulatory-associated protein of TOR (RAPTOR) alters the hormonal and metabolic composition of Arabidopsis seeds, controlling seed morphology, viability and germination potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A; Li, Yan; Wiszniewski, Andrew; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is a positive regulator of growth and development in all eukaryotes, which positively regulates anabolic processes like protein synthesis, while repressing catabolic processes, including autophagy. To better understand TOR function we decided to analyze its role in seed development and germination. We therefore performed a detailed phenotypic analysis using mutants of the REGULATORY-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF TOR 1B (RAPTOR1B), a conserved TOR interactor, acting as a scaffold protein, which recruits substrates for the TOR kinase. Our results show that raptor1b plants produced seeds that were delayed in germination and less resistant to stresses, leading to decreased viability. These physiological phenotypes were accompanied by morphological changes including decreased seed-coat pigmentation and reduced production of seed-coat mucilage. A detailed molecular analysis revealed that many of these morphological changes were associated with significant changes of the metabolic content of raptor1b seeds, including elevated levels of free amino acids, as well as reduced levels of protective secondary metabolites and storage proteins. Most of these observed changes were accompanied by significantly altered phytohormone levels in the raptor1b seeds, with increases in abscisic acid, auxin and jasmonic acid, which are known to inhibit germination. Delayed germination and seedling growth, observed in the raptor1b seeds, could be partially restored by the exogenous supply of gibberellic acid, indicating that TOR is at the center of a regulatory hub controlling seed metabolism, maturation and germination. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  18. Effect of Estrogen and Progeterone on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy detection in dairy cattle is an integral part of a successful animal husbandry practice. A simple seed germination technique (Punyakoti test comprises observation of differential seed germination response of wheat seeds to diluted fresh urine samples as reflected by significant inhibition of germination percentage in pregnant cow urine when compared to non pregnant cow urine. Hormone metabolites excreted through urine might affect the seed germination in pregnant cow urine. In the present study an attempt was made to test the effect of hormones (in their natural forms at different concentrations of estrogen (17-ß estradiol and progesterone on wheat and green gram germination. Stock solutions of estrogen and progesterone were prepared in alcohol (1mg/ml and serial dilutions made using distilled water to get the concentrations of T1=10, T2=1, T3=0.1 and T4=0.01 μg/ml respectively in treatment groups. About 15 seeds each of wheat and green gram were taken in sterile Petri dishes into which 15ml of each test preparation was poured. The treatments were compared with distilled water and alcohol controls. The study was conducted for a period of five days during which seed germination was observed after 48 hrs and shoot lengths were also measured by the end of study. The average seed germination and shoot length in treatment groups did not vary significantly (P>0.05 when compared with that of control groups. Thus from the present study, it can be concluded that estrogen and progesterone in their natural form will not affect seed germination and shoot length. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 241-242

  19. A case study of analyzing student teachers' concept images of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Definite integral, concept images, process conceptions, object .... led me to conceive a three dimensional matrix with process-object layers in rows, ...... Conference on Psychology of Mathematics Education, Norwich. ... On the Dual Nature of Mathematical Conceptions: Reflections on Processes and Objects as.

  20. Inhibitory effects of constituents of Morinda citrifolia seeds on elastase and tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Fukuhama, Akiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Fujita, Tadashi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    A 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) from seeds of Morinda citrifolia ("noni" seeds) showed more potent in vitro inhibition of elastase and tyrosinase, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than extracts of M. citrifolia leaves or flesh. Activity-guided fractionation of MCS-ext using in vitro assays led to the isolation of ursolic acid as an active constituent of elastase inhibitory activity. 3,3'-Bisdemethylpinoresinol, americanin A, and quercetin were isolated as active constituents having both tyrosinase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities. Americanin A and quercetin also showed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. These active compounds were isolated from noni seeds for the first time.

  1. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  2. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Malang, S.; Sawan, M.; Dagher, Mohamad; Smolentsev, S.; Merrill, Brad; Youssef, M.; Reyes, Susanna; Sze, Dai Kai; Morley, Neil B.; Sharafat, Shahran; Calderoni, P.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Fogarty, Paul J.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Abdou, Mohamed A.

    2006-07-05

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17Li is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Pb-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure. For the reference tokamak power reactor design, this blanket concept has the potential of satisfying the design limits of RAFS while allowing the feasibility of having a high Pb-17Li outlet temperture of 700C. We have identified critical issues for the concept, some of which inlude the first wall design, the assessment of MHD effectrs with the SiC-composite flow coolant insert, and the extraction and control of the bred tritium from the Pb-17Li breeder. R&D programs have been proposed to address these issues. At the same time, we have proposed a test plan for the DCLL ITER-Test Blanket Module program.

  3. Theoretical and simulation studies of seeding methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Claudio [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    We report the theoretical and experimental studies done with the support of DOE-Grant DE-SC0009983 to increase an X-ray FEL peak power from the present level of 20 to 40 GW to one or more TW by seeding, undulator tapering and using the new concept of the Double Bunch FEL.

  4. Effects if 60Co γ rays radiation on seed vigor and young seedling growth of phyllostachys edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunju; Gao Jian; Mu Shaohua

    2007-01-01

    The dry seeds of Phyllostachys edulis were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ rays, the effects of the radiation on seed vigor and seedling growth characters were investigated by four testing methods, i.e. germination testing indoor, electrical conductivity, TTC vigor testing and growth classification of saddling. Results showed that the germination process and germination rate could be accelerated by doses of 60 Co γ rays (≤100 Gy), and higher doses of 60 Co γ rays (>100 Gy) could obviously inhibit the germination process and reduce seed vigor, while induce seed embryo broken, cell division, growth restrained, the height of young seedling and length of root decreasing. The inhibition effects were significantly increased with radiation dose increase. The optimal range of radiation dose for radiation breeding of Phyllostachys edulis dry seeds was 100 to 175 Gy. Linear relationships were existed in electrical conductivity after dipping in water for 24h in germination rate (G), germination index (GI), vigor index (VI), height of seedlings and length of root. EC after 24h and height of seedlings were chosen to test the change of seeds vigor and the effect of the radiation of 60 Co γ rays on Phyllostachys edulis. (authors)

  5. Improving Control Efficiency of Dynamic Street Lighting by Utilizing the Dual Graph Grammar Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a definition of dual graph grammar. It enables two graphs to share information in a synchronized way. A smart city example application, which is an outdoor lighting control system utilizing the dual graph grammar, is also demonstrated. The system controls dimming of street lights which is based on traffic intensity. Each luminaire’s light level is adjusted individually to comply with the lighting norms to ensure safety. Benefits of applying the dual graph grammar are twofold. First, it increases expressive power of the mathematical model that the system uses. It becomes possible to take into account complex geographical distribution of sensors and logical dependencies among them. Second, it increases the system’s efficiency by reducing the problem size during run-time. Experimental results show a reduction of the computation time by a factor of 2.8. The approach has been verified in practice.

  6. Apple scab control with grapefruit seed extract: no alternative to chemical fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    Spitaler, Renate; Marschall, Klaus; Zidorn, Christian; Kelderer, Markus; Zelger, Roland; Stuppner, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    The growth inhibiting effect of four commercially available grapefruit seed extracts on the causal organism of apple scab Venturia inaequalis was tested. Germination of the conidia of Venturia inaequalis was pronouncedly inhibited by all tested extracts. The commercial products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. All samples contained at least one preserving agent. These substances were identified as either benzethonium chloride,...

  7. Overcoming dormancy and enhancing germination of Sphaeralcea munroana seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis

    2011-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments involving a variety of dormancy-breaking treatments indicate that Munro's globemallow [Sphaeralcea munroana (Douglas) Spach] seeds are physically dormant, possess a cap-like structure in the occlusion of the water gap, which inhibits imbibition, and can be artificially dislodged through boiling water scarification. The...

  8. Dual orexin receptor antagonist 12 inhibits expression of proteins in neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, R J; Denson, J E; Sullivan, L Q; Durham, P L

    2014-06-06

    Sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptors is implicated in prevalent and debilitating orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides that function to regulate many physiological processes and are reported to modulate nociception. To determine the role of orexins in an inflammatory model of trigeminal activation, the effects of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA-12) on levels of proteins that promote peripheral and central sensitization and changes in nocifensive responses were investigated. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, mRNA for orexin receptor 1 (OX₁R) and receptor 2 (OX₂R) were detected in trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). OX₁R immunoreactivity was localized primarily in neuronal cell bodies in the V3 region of the ganglion and in laminas I-II of the STN. Animals injected bilaterally with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsule exhibited increased expression of P-p38, P-ERK, and lba1 in trigeminal ganglia and P-ERK and lba1 in the STN at 2 days post injection. However, levels of each of these proteins in rats receiving daily oral DORA-12 were inhibited to near basal levels. Similarly, administration of DORA-12 on days 3 and 4 post CFA injection in the TMJ effectively inhibited the prolonged stimulated expression of protein kinase A, NFkB, and Iba1 in the STN on day 5 post injection. While injection of CFA mediated a nocifensive response to mechanical stimulation of the orofacial region at 2h and 3 and 5 days post injection, treatment with DORA-12 suppressed the nocifensive response on day 5. Somewhat surprisingly, nocifensive responses were again observed on day 10 post CFA stimulation in the absence of daily DORA-12 administration. Our results provide evidence that DORA-12 can inhibit CFA-induced stimulation of trigeminal sensory neurons by inhibiting expression of proteins associated with sensitization of peripheral and central

  9. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  10. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences. PMID:24572636

  11. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2014-02-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences.

  12. Universal Superspace Unitary Operator and Nilpotent (Anti-)Dual-BRST Symmetries: Superfield Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R. P.; Srinivas, N.; Bhanja, T.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the key concepts of the augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism to derive the superspace (SUSP) dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate and demonstrate their utility in the derivation of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)dual-BRST symmetry transformations for a set of interesting models of the Abelian 1-form gauge theories. These models are the one (0+1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor and modified versions of the two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca as well as anomalous gauge theories and 2D model of a self-dual bosonic field theory. We show the universality of the SUSP dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate in the cases of all the Abelian models under consideration. These SUSP dual unitary operators, besides maintaining the explicit group structure, provide the alternatives to the dual horizontality condition (DHC) and dual gauge invariant restrictions (DGIRs) of the superfield formalism. The derivations of the dual unitary operators and corresponding (anti-)dual-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.

  13. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  14. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  15. Conception and realization of a PV system provided with a sun tracker operating at dual axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kassmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the conception, the realization and the experimentation of  a photovoltaic (PV system provided with a sun tracker reliable and low cost operating at dual axis. The tracker's role is to orient the PV generator, whose weight may reach 9 Kg, perpendicular to the sun with very good accuracy. This tracking  based on the use of four LDR sensors, which detect the intensity of light scattered by the sun a processing unit, from  command and control (UTCC, which manages all of the sun tracking tasks (the end detection of parcours, regulation of the power supplied by the PV panels (Command MPPT, ... . The results obtained show a significant improvement of the energy produced, compared to conventional PV installations where generators are fixed and oriented south at a  tilt 45°. During a day of operation, improvement could reach 41% and consumption of the tracking does not exceed 0.55% of the energy production produced by the PV generator (an improvement of 5 % compared to existing trackers.

  16. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Investigation of naphthofuran moiety as potential dual inhibitor against BACE-1 and GSK-3β: molecular dynamics simulations, binding energy, and network analysis to identify first-in-class dual inhibitors against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Srivastava, Gaurava; Srivastava, Swati; Verma, Seema; Negi, Arvind S; Sharma, Ashok

    2017-08-01

    BACE-1 and GSK-3β are potential therapeutic drug targets for Alzheimer's disease. Recently, both the targets received attention for designing dual inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Until now, only two-scaffold triazinone and curcumin have been reported as BACE-1 and GSK-3β dual inhibitors. Docking, molecular dynamics, clustering, binding energy, and network analysis of triazinone derivatives with BACE-1 and GSK-3β was performed to get molecular insight into the first reported dual inhibitor. Further, we designed and evaluated a naphthofuran series for its ability to inhibit BACE-1 and GSK-3β with the computational approaches. Docking study of naphthofuran series showed a good binding affinity towards both the targets. Molecular dynamics, binding energy, and network analysis were performed to compare their binding with the targets and amino acids responsible for binding. Naphthofuran series derivatives showed good interaction within the active site residues of both of the targets. Hydrogen bond occupancy and binding energy suggested strong binding with the targets. Dual-inhibitor binding was mostly governed by the hydrophobic interactions for both of the targets. Per residue energy decomposition and network analysis identified the key residues involved in the binding and inhibiting BACE-1 and GSK-3β. The results indicated that naphthofuran series derivative 11 may be a promising first-in-class dual inhibitor against BACE-1 and GSK-3β. This naphthofuran series may be further explored to design better dual inhibitors. Graphical abstract Naphthofuran derivative as a dual inhibitor for BACE-1 and GSK-3β.

  18. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eOsuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repon Kumer Saha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the health benefits of Syzgium cumin to discover functional components present in the seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of this fruit grown in Bangladesh. Methods: Thin layer chromatography and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compound in seeds and juice. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay and total reducing assay. Receptor binding activities was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Anti-inflammatory assay and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay was also investigated. Disc diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect using Gram positive, Gram negative strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Methanolic extract of the seeds showed stronger antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis activities, hemagglutination inhibition activities and membrane stabilization activities than those of fresh juice. However, fresh juice showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities than those of methanolic seed extract. The seed contains higher amount of polyphenols and flavanoids than those of fruit juice. Conclusions: Therefore, fruit juice, fruit pulp and seed of Syzygium cumini contain medicinal active components in different ratios.

  20. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  1. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  2. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  3. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  4. Technology seed Sebastiania membranifolia Mull Arg (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidiquele Maria Silveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiania membranifolia, popularly known as sarandi, is a tree species native to Brazil, usually found in land of alluvial floodplains and river banks, suitable for restoration of degraded areas. Despite the commercial importance of this species, little is known about its mechanisms of propagation. This research evaluated the germinating seeds under different conditions of temperature, substrate and light, and determined methods of scarification in order to establish a suitable protocol for sexual propagation. The study was conducted in chambers with BOD and thermal control photoperiod, testing the following treatments: temperatures of 25, 30 and alternating 20/30º C; substrates (sand-EA, on paper-SP and from paper -EP, four solutions gibberellin (50, 100, 200, 400 mgL-1; potassium nitrate (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% in the presence (12 h photoperiod and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds each. We found that the average degree of seed moisture was 10.4% and the weight of a thousand seeds (PMS of 3.16 g. The highest percentage of germination was obtained with photoperiod at 25 º C, on paper (SP and between role (EP. The concentrations of 100 mg L-1 gibberellin and 0.1% potassium nitrate showed higher germination and vigor. Seed treatment with a gibberellin solution of 100 mgL-1 favored the growth of seedlings, unlike potassium nitrate that inhibit the growth even at low concentration.

  5. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H 2 O 2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  6. Terahertz-wave differential detection based on simultaneous dual-wavelength up-conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Takida

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a terahertz (THz-wave differential detection based on simultaneous dual-wavelength up-conversion in a nonlinear optical MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with optical and electronic THz-wave sources. The broadband parametric gain and noncollinear phase-matching of MgO:LiNbO3 provide efficient conversion from superposed THz waves to spatially distributed near-infrared (NIR beams to function as a dispersive THz-wave spectrometer without any additional dispersive element. We show that the μW-level THz waves from two independent sources, a 0.78-THz injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generator (is-TPG and a 1.14-THz resonant tunneling diode (RTD, are simultaneously up-converted to two NIR waves and then detected with two NIR photodetectors. By applying a balanced detection scheme to this dual-frequency detection, we demonstrate THz-wave differential imaging of maltose and polyethylene pellets in the transmission geometry. This dual-wavelength detection is applicable to more than three frequencies and broadband THz-wave radiation for real-time THz-wave spectroscopic detection and imaging.

  7. Preventing thermoinhibition in a thermosensitive lettuce genotype by seed imbibition at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed germination is strongly temperature dependent and under high temperatures, germination of most of genotypes can be erratic or completely inhibited. Lettuce seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB were incubated at temperatures ranging from 15degrees to 35degreesC at light and dark conditions. Other seeds were imbibed in dark at 20degrees; 25degrees; 30degrees; and 35degreesC for 8 and 16 hours and then transferred to 20 or 35degreesC, in dark. Seeds were also incubated at constant temperature of 20degrees and 35 degreesC, in the dark, as control. In another treatment, seeds were primed for 3 days at 15degreesC with constant light. DGB lettuce seeds required light to germinate adequately at temperatures above 25degreesC. Seeds incubated at 20degreesC had 97% germination, whereas seeds incubated at 35degreesC did not germinate. Seeds imbibed at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours had germination. At 35degreesC, seeds imbibed initially at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours, had 89 and 97% germination, respectively. Seeds imbibed at 25degreesC for 16 hours, germinated satisfactory at 35degreesC. High temperatures of imbibition led to no germination. Primed and non-primed seeds had 100% germination at 20degreesC. Primed seeds had 100% germination at 35degreesC, whereas non-primed seeds germinate only 4%. The first hours of imbibition are very critical for lettuce seed germination at high temperatures.

  8. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The seeds of Telfairia occidentalis have been known to possess different biological properties and are used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia to treat many ailments. The plant is particularly noted traditionally for its healing properties and is usually consumed in the form of herbal decoctions/concoctions as a blood tonic, to treat sudden attacks of convulsions, pain, malaria and anaemia. Aims: In the present study, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies were done on the methanolic extract of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis to evaluate its antioxidant and antinociceptive properties to substantiate its traditional use. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done according to standard procedures. Antioxidant potential was ascertained using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays. Analgesic activity was analyzed using formalin induced paw licking test in albino rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. Statistical Analysis Used: All results extrapolated from the experiments were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using ANOVA (one-way followed by Dennett's posthoc test. Results: Phytochemicals present in the extract were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroid and anthraquinones. The extract significantly inhibited DPPH scavenging activity with percentage inhibition of 147.3%. The methanolic seed extract of T. occidentalis significantly reduced (P < 0.05 formalin induced paw licking in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin induced paw licking test, with 35.59 and 78.51% inhibition at 400 mg/kg, in albino rats in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The seed extract in this study significantly reduced formalin induced hind paw licking, and could be used as an analgesic for treatment of pain and also showed marked antioxidant potential.

  9. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    design and construction included: cost, ease of performance, portability, use of local equipment, the planter’s capacity as well as the style of picking single seeds (In Fig.1, the original scheme of the device is presented. The planter consists of several parts operating harmoniously to yield the desired results. These parts include a chassis and conveyor belt mechanism, primary and secondary fertilizer tanks, squashing unit, seed metering device and vibrating reservoir of the seed (The main text of modeling the device with SolidWorks software is shown in Fig.2. This device is designed in such a way that the position of the nozzle, the suction pressure, the height of removing seeds and the vibration frequency of the seeding tray are adjustable. Evaluation of the device was carried out by single seeding of tomato seeds in trays with 105 cells (7 × 15. Suction pressure and nozzle size were calculated for tomato seeds. Scaling distances were considered equal, based on the 30.5-mm intervals of the cells. Single seed picking efficiency of seeds was calculated by the system, as the single percentage of seeding and the total percentage of seeded cells. Seed consumption efficiency is the ratio of the total seeded cells to the total number of existing seeds in the cells. Seeding efficiency also refers to single, dual, and multiple harvested seeds. Furthermore, the device capacity is defined as the number of seeded tray cells per hour. In order to design and build a precise robot planter, an experiment including the designed planter and planting speed of workers in 10 repetitions was designed and implemented to estimate the seeding time and compare with automated and manual planting methods. Seedling trays with four replications were cultivated by the designed robot and the number of cultivated seeds per tray at each stage were correctly counted. After that, the spent planting time by a worker was determined with four replications. Results and Discussion: The planting rate of

  10. Effect of different processing methods on antioxidant activity of underutilized legumes, Entada scandens seed kernel and Canavalia gladiata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2012-08-01

    The present study is proposed to determine the antioxidant activity of raw and processed samples of underutilized legumes, Entada scandens seed kernel and Canavalia gladiata seeds. The indigenous processing methods like dry heating, autoclaving and soaking followed by autoclaving in different solutions (plain water, ash, sugar and sodium bicarbonate) were adopted to seed samples. All other processing methods than dry heat showed significant reduction in phenolics (2.9-63%), tannins (26-100%) and flavonoids (14-67%). However, in processed samples of E. scandens, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity were increased, whereas, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS·(+)), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating and superoxide anion scavenging activity were similar to unprocessed ones. In contrary, except dry heating in C. gladiata, all other processing methods significantly (Pprocessing methods in E. scandens and dry heating in C. gladiata would be a suitable method for adopting in domestic or industrial processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seed ecology and regeneration in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teketay, D. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Various aspects of seed and regeneration ecology: germination requirements of seeds, seed longevity in the soil, soil seed banks in forests, gaps and arable land as well as density, survival and growth of seedlings were investigated within the dry Afromontane region in Ethiopia. In laboratory germination tests, 60% of the species studied exhibited some degree of initial dormancy and the optimum constant temperature for germination was between 20 and 25 deg C in the majority of the species. A few species showed a requirement for fluctuating temperatures and germination was suppressed or completely inhibited in several, mainly small-seeded, species when they were incubated in darkness or in light filtered through green leaves. Hard-seeded species required scarification treatments to improve germination, indicating seed-coat imposed dormancy. Dry storage reduced the germinability of seeds in a few species, suggesting a recalcitrant behaviour, while seeds of many species remained unaffected. During four years of storage in forest soils, seeds of 2 out of 8 species germinated in the soil almost completely within a year, 2 of the species maintained nearly full viability, while 4 were intermediate. The generally high levels of dormancy and somewhat extended viability of seeds in the soil may have been selected for under a climate of seasonal drought and unreliable rainfall that characterizes the dry Afromontane region. Dry Afromontane forests have a potential to recover in relatively short time after natural and man-made disturbances, e.g. after carefully managed selective cutting. However, the common practice of clearing forests and converting them into permanent arable land destroys the sources of regrowth thereby preventing regeneration of the forest vegetation. Therefore, the fate of dry Afromontane forests depends on the protection, careful management and conservation of the remaining patches. 102 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  12. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  13. Flight Demonstration of Novel Atmospheric Satellite Concept

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual-Aircraft Platform (DAP) is a novel concept for achieving a low-cost atmospheric satellite in the lower stratosphere which utilizes a combination of wind and...

  14. Concept of dual-resolution light field imaging using an organic photoelectric conversion film for high-resolution light field photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Suguru; Hamamoto, Takayuki

    2017-11-01

    Light field imaging is an emerging technique that is employed to realize various applications such as multi-viewpoint imaging, focal-point changing, and depth estimation. In this paper, we propose a concept of a dual-resolution light field imaging system to synthesize super-resolved multi-viewpoint images. The key novelty of this study is the use of an organic photoelectric conversion film (OPCF), which is a device that converts spectra information of incoming light within a certain wavelength range into an electrical signal (pixel value), for light field imaging. In our imaging system, we place the OPCF having the green spectral sensitivity onto the micro-lens array of the conventional light field camera. The OPCF allows us to acquire the green spectra information only at the center viewpoint with the full resolution of the image sensor. In contrast, the optical system of the light field camera in our imaging system captures the other spectra information (red and blue) at multiple viewpoints (sub-aperture images) but with low resolution. Thus, our dual-resolution light field imaging system enables us to simultaneously capture information about the target scene at a high spatial resolution as well as the direction information of the incoming light. By exploiting these advantages of our imaging system, our proposed method enables the synthesis of full-resolution multi-viewpoint images. We perform experiments using synthetic images, and the results demonstrate that our method outperforms other previous methods.

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  16. ABA Inhibits Embryo Cell Expansion and Early Cell Division Events During Coffee (Coffea arabica 'Rubi') Seed Germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: Coffee seed germination represents an interplay between the embryo and the surrounding endosperm. A sequence of events in both parts of the seed determines whether germination will be successful or not. Following previous studies, the aim here was to further characterize the

  17. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment.

  18. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Michelle; Bouzid, Hana; Soares, Daniele G; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Larsen, Annette K; Escargueil, Alexandre E

    2016-05-03

    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors.

  19. Dual resonance models and their currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown how dual resonance models were rederived from the concept of a string tracing out a surface in space-time. Thus, interacting strings reproduce the dual amplitudes. A scheme for tackling the unitarity problem began to develop. As a consistent theory of hadronic processes began to be built, workers at the same time were naturally led to expect that leptons could be included with hadrons in a unified dual theory. Thus, there is a search for dual amplitudes which would describe interactions between hadrons and currents (for example, electrons), as well as interactions involving only hadrons. Such amplitudes, it is believed, will be the correct ones, describing the real world. Such amplitudes will provide valuable information concerning such things as hadronic form factors. The great difficulties in building current-amplitudes with the required properties of proper factorization on a good spectrum, duality, current algebra, and proper asymptotic behavior are described. Dual models at the present time require for consistency, an intercept value of α 0 = 1 and a dimension value of d = 26 (or d = 10). There have been speculations that the unphysical dimension may be made physical by associating the ''extra dimensions'' with certain internal degrees of freedom. However, it is desired that the theory itself, force the dimension d = 4. It is quite possible that the dimension problem and the intercept problem are tied together and that resolving either problem will resolve the other. Order by order, a new dual current is constructed that is manifestly factorizable and which appears to be valid for arbitrary space-time dimension. The fact that this current is not bound at d = 26, leads to interesting speculations on the nature of dual currents

  20. In-vessel maintenance concepts for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, V.P.; Berger, J.D.; Yount, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts for rail-mounted and guided in-vessel handling machines (IVM) for remote maintenance inside tokamak fusion reactors are described. The IVM designs are based on concepts for tethered remotely operated vehicles and feature the use of multiple manipulator arms for remote handling and remote-controlled TV cameras for remote viewing. The concepts include IVMs for both single or dual rail systems located in the top or bottom of the reactor vessel

  1. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)]. E-mail: wongc@fusion.gat.com; Malang, S. [Fusion Nuclear Technology Consulting, Linkenheim (Germany); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Dagher, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smolentsev, S. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Merrill, B. [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youssef, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Sze, D.K. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Morley, N.B. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sharafat, S. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Calderoni, P. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sviatoslavsky, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Kurtz, R. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Fogarty, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zinkle, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdou, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-02-15

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17Li is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC{sub f}/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Pb-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure. For the reference tokamak power reactor design, this blanket concept has the potential of satisfying the design limits of RAFS while allowing the feasibility of having a high Pb-17Li outlet temperature of 700 deg. C. We have identified critical issues for the concept, some of which include the first wall design, the assessment of MHD effects with the SiC-composite flow coolant insert, and the extraction and control of the bred tritium from the Pb-17Li breeder. R and D programs have been proposed to address these issues. At the same time we have proposed a test plan for the DCLL ITER-Test Blanket Module program.

  2. A Telfairia Occidentalis Seed-incorporated Diet May Be Useful in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Andropause, a prevalent pathology of men, results from an imbalance in steroid hormone concentrations that often is associated with aging, and reduces the quality of life of the sufferer. This study investigates the usefulness of a diet containing 15% Telfairia occidentalis seeds in the inhibition of the induction of ...

  3. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  4. Can Seeding in the Clinic Reach a Wide Audience? A Proof of Concept Study on Spreading a Health Message About Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Using a Shareable Online Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Michaela; Rapley, Tim; Foster, Helen; Pain, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Background Shareable online video offers the potential for spreading a health message across online and real world social networks. Seeding a message in a clinical setting may be advantageous. Objective To investigate the potential of an online video to spread a health message about juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) when delivered or seeded in a clinical setting and investigate factors that influence sharing behavior. Methods Multimethod proof of concept study. Concepts for two different styles of video were developed using focus groups and interviews and reviewed by an online market research panel. We compared dissemination of the two videos from two specialist pediatric rheumatology clinics in NHS Hospitals. Participants were 15 patients, family members, and clinical staff with knowledge of JIA at concept stage; 300 market research panel members in development stage; and 38 patients and their parents or guardians in the seeding stage. Newly diagnosed patients with JIA and/or parents or guardians were invited to view and share an online video with a health message about JIA across real-life and electronic social networks. Main outcome measures were viewing statistics, sharing behavior and patterns, and participant feedback. Results Of 38 patients and/or their parents or guardians given links, 26 visited the video webpage and shared the link, 2 visited and did not share, and 10 did not visit. Most links were viewed and shared within a few days. A total of 3314 pageviews were recorded with a mean of 89.6 pageviews per link (range 0-1245). Links were accessed from 26 countries, with most viewers in the United Kingdom (82.5%). Mothers were the most active group of sharers. Conclusions Distribution of a video link in a clinical setting may be an effective way to spread a health message. Parents or guardians of children with JIA are more likely to share a link than young people. Dissemination depends on a small number of active sharers, the content of the video, and

  5. Can Seeding in the Clinic Reach a Wide Audience? A Proof of Concept Study on Spreading a Health Message About Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Using a Shareable Online Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Michaela; Rapley, Tim; Foster, Helen; Pain, Clare; Gerrand, Craig

    2016-02-22

    Shareable online video offers the potential for spreading a health message across online and real world social networks. Seeding a message in a clinical setting may be advantageous. To investigate the potential of an online video to spread a health message about juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) when delivered or seeded in a clinical setting and investigate factors that influence sharing behavior. Multimethod proof of concept study. Concepts for two different styles of video were developed using focus groups and interviews and reviewed by an online market research panel. We compared dissemination of the two videos from two specialist pediatric rheumatology clinics in NHS Hospitals. Participants were 15 patients, family members, and clinical staff with knowledge of JIA at concept stage; 300 market research panel members in development stage; and 38 patients and their parents or guardians in the seeding stage. Newly diagnosed patients with JIA and/or parents or guardians were invited to view and share an online video with a health message about JIA across real-life and electronic social networks. Main outcome measures were viewing statistics, sharing behavior and patterns, and participant feedback. Of 38 patients and/or their parents or guardians given links, 26 visited the video webpage and shared the link, 2 visited and did not share, and 10 did not visit. Most links were viewed and shared within a few days. A total of 3314 pageviews were recorded with a mean of 89.6 pageviews per link (range 0-1245). Links were accessed from 26 countries, with most viewers in the United Kingdom (82.5%). Mothers were the most active group of sharers. Distribution of a video link in a clinical setting may be an effective way to spread a health message. Parents or guardians of children with JIA are more likely to share a link than young people. Dissemination depends on a small number of active sharers, the content of the video, and the willingness of participants to share health

  6. Inhibition of Mineralization of Urinary Stone Forming Minerals by Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Mohamed Farook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals by medicinal plants i.e. Achyranthes aspera Linn, Passiflora leschenaultii DC, Solena amplexicaulis (Lam. Gandhi, Scoparia dulcis Linn and Aerva lanata (Linn. been investigated. The inhibition efficiency was studied. Increased intake of fruits juice and seed extract of our plants would be helpful in urinary stone prophylaxis.

  7. Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-ah Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to 20 mg/ml. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at 10 mg/ml. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH. However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than 10 mg/ml of ClO2. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and 10 mg/ml at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as ClO2 concentration increased to 20 mg/ml. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous ClO2 was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of ClO2 strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

  8. Comparison of Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of a Salt Marsh Halophyte Halopeplis Perfoliata to Osmotic and Ionic Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S. G.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition. In order to partition salinity effects, we studied seed germination and recovery responses of a coastal salt marsh halophyte halopeplis perfoliata to different isotonic treatments (Psi/sub S/: -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5, MPa) of various salts and polythylene glycol (PEG) under two light regimes (12-h light photo period and 24-h complete darkness). Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under 12-h light photo period and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. perfoliata could germinate in as low as -2.5 MPa (600 mM NaCl), which is equivalent to seawater salinity. Sea-salt treatment was more inhibitory than isotonic NaCl at the lowest osmotic potential (Psi/sub S/ -2.5 MPa). Generally, chloride salts with lowest Psi/sub S/ inhibited germination more than the isotonic sulfate salts. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. perfoliata could tolerate high levels of a wide variety of salts found in soil. (author)

  9. Initiator of carcinogenesis selectively and stably inhibits stem cell differentiation: a concept that initiation of carcinogenesis involves multiple phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.E.; Maercklein, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    A concept of carcinogenesis was recently devised in our laboratory that suggests the development of defects in the control of cell differentiation is associated with an early phase of carcinogenesis. To test this proposal directly, the effects of an initiator of carcinogenesis (i.e., UV irradiation) on proadipocyte stem cell differentiation and proliferation was assayed. In this regard, 3T3 T proadipocytes represent a nontransformed mesenchymal stem cell line that possesses the ability to regulate its differentiation at a distinct state in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle as well as the ability to regulate its proliferation at two additional G 1 states. The results establish that a slow dosage of 254 nm UV irradiation selectivity and stably inhibits the differentiation of a high percentage of proadipocyte stem cells without significantly altering their ability to regulate cellular proliferation in growth factor-deficient or nutrient-deficient culture conditions. Differentiation-defect proadipocyte stem cells are demonstrated not to be completely transformed but to show an increased spontaneous transformation rate, as evidenced by the formation of type III foci in high density cell cultures. These data support the role of defects in the control of differentiation in the inhibition of carcinogenesis. These observations support a concept that the initiation of carcinogenesis involves multiple phases

  10. Peasant seeds in Europe: stakes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The myth of technological progress in agriculture and then modern plant breeding have resulted in a separation of farming from breeding activities. Seed laws have also contributed to this outcome (e.g. by imposing strict rules for the entry of varieties in the official catalogue. Nowadays, some pioneers, among them farmers rejecting industrialized agriculture and more often practising organic agriculture, are proposing a different option. In Europe, since the beginning of this century, they have been organizing themselves in networks: the Réseau Semences Paysannes in France, the Red de Semillas in Spain and the Rete Semi Rurali in Italy. Their members are farmers, consumers and scientists working together in order to reconsider the scientific, technical and legal aspects of seed production. These new varieties are designated ‘peasant varieties’, a concept that encompasses two main aspects: the seed, the reproductive part of the plant linked to its terroir, and the variety, shaped by history and coevolved with farmers. Scientists working with these networks are developing participatory plant breeding projects, which aim to broaden agrobiodiversity by creating so called new peasant varieties. The basis of these projects comes from old local varieties and landraces conserved in seed banks. In Europe, the legal framework has evolved since the establishment of ‘conservation varieties’ by directive 98/95. The European research project Farm Seed Opportunities is under way to support new seed policies, in the light also of the different national contexts. The debate in Europe now offers a range of seed systems models. It is time to enlarge this debate to southern countries through the sharing of knowledge between farmers of the North and the South, aiming at conserving agrobiodiversity and promoting rural innovation.

  11. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter as potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio; Kogen, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    We have designed and synthesized a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT) as a novel class of treatment drugs for Alzheimer's disease on the basis of a hypothetical model of the AChE active site. Dual inhibitions of AChE and SERT would bring about greater therapeutic effects than AChE inhibition alone and avoid adverse peripheral effects caused by excessive AChE inhibition. Compound (S)-6j exhibited potent inhibitory activities against AChE (IC(50)=101 nM) and SERT (IC(50)=42 nM). Furthermore, (S)-6j showed inhibitory activities of both AChE and SERT in mice brain following oral administration.

  12. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  13. Influence of postradiation moisture alteration on biological after-effect in Crepis seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atayan, R R; Gabrielian, J Y [AN Armyanskoj SSR, Erevan. Inst. Fiziki

    1978-02-01

    A series of X-ray exposures was given to Crepis capillaris seeds of different water contents. Cytogenetic changes in the seeds were determined immediately after irradiation and after storage at different relative humidities. The amount of damage that developed during postirradiation storage as well as the initial radiobiological effect decreased as seed water content increased from 2.4% to 7.6 to 12.6%. Differences in postirradiation damage were revealed within four hours of storage and manifest as a fast component to the curve of storage versus damage. In seeds of 7.6 and 12.6% water content, both the amount of biological after-effect and the rate of injury progression did not depend markedly on relative humidity of storage atmosphere. These seeds demonstrated only a slow after-effect, which appeared to be the same at any seed-moisture level, thus indicating that only the fast component is subject to postirradiation modification. With dry irradiated seeds demonstrating fast postirradiation injury progression, the following results were obtained: (a) after-effect in seeds of 2.4% water content decreased with increasing humidity of storage atmosphere; no after-effect developed when the seeds were stored at 100% relative humidity; (b) after-effect in seeds of 6% water content was significantly increased if they were stored at 0% relative humidity. These results are consistent with the pattern expected of a free radical concept.

  14. The complex patient: A concept clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Eli; Gagnon, Marilou

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decade, the concept of the "complex patient" has not only been more widely used in multidisciplinary healthcare teams and across various healthcare disciplines, but it has also become more vacuous in meaning. The uptake of the concept of the "complex patient" spans across disciplines, such as medicine, nursing, and social work, with no consistent definition. We review the chronological evolution of this concept and its surrogate terms, namely "comorbidity," "multimorbidity," "polypathology," "dual diagnosis," and "multiple chronic conditions." Drawing on key principles of concept clarification, we highlight disciplinary usage in the literature published between 2005 and 2015 in health sciences, attending to overlaps and revealing nuances of the complex patient concept. Finally, we discuss the implications of this concept for practice, research, and theory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Experimental Investigation of a Large-Scale Low-Boom Inlet Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Vyas, Manan A.; Wayman, Thomas R.; Conners, Timothy R.; Reger, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale low-boom inlet concept was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 8- x 6- foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose of this test was to assess inlet performance, stability and operability at various Mach numbers and angles of attack. During this effort, two models were tested: a dual stream inlet designed to mimic potential aircraft flight hardware integrating a high-flow bypass stream; and a single stream inlet designed to study a configuration with a zero-degree external cowl angle and to permit surface visualization of the vortex generator flow on the internal centerbody surface. During the course of the test, the low-boom inlet concept was demonstrated to have high recovery, excellent buzz margin, and high operability. This paper will provide an overview of the setup, show a brief comparison of the dual stream and single stream inlet results, and examine the dual stream inlet characteristics.

  16. Seeded quantum FEL at 478 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Thirolf, Peter; Seggebrock, Thorben [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present for the first time a concept for a seeded {gamma} quantum Free Electron Laser (QFEL) at 478 keV (transition in {sup 7}Li). To produce a highly intense and coherent {gamma} beam, we intend to use a seeded FEL scheme. Important for the production of a highly brilliant and coherent {gamma} beam are novel refractive {gamma} lenses for focusing and an efficient monochromator, allowing to generate a very intense and coherent seed beam. To realize such a coherent {gamma} beam at 478 keV (1/38 A), it is suitable to use a quantum FEL design based on a new ''asymmetric'' laser-electron Compton back scattering scheme as pursued for the MeGaRay and ELI-NP facilities. Here the pulse length of the laser is much longer than the electron bunch length, equivalent to a {gamma}-FEL with laser wiggler. The coherence of a seeded QFEL can open up totally new areas of fundamental physics and applications. Especially, 478 keV can be attractive for ''green energy'' and life-science research, such as the detection of Li deposition in the brain for manic-depressive psychosis treatment with high spatial resolution or isotope-specific nuclear waste management and treatment.

  17. Efficient color-tunable multiexcitonic dual wavelength emission from Type II semiconductor tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ya; Li, Mingjie; Lian, Jie; Wu, Xiangyang; Yeow, Edwin K L; Jhon, Mark H; Chan, Yinthai

    2014-09-23

    We synthesized colloidal InP/ZnS seeded CdS tetrapods by harnessing the structural stability of the InP/ZnS seed nanocrystals at the high reaction temperatures needed to grow the CdS arms. Because of an unexpected Type II band alignment at the interface of the InP/ZnS core and CdS arms that enhanced the occurrence of radiative excitonic recombination in CdS, these tetrapods were found to be capable of exhibiting highly efficient multiexcitonic dual wavelength emission of equal intensity at spectrally distinct wavelengths of ∼485 and ∼675 nm. Additionally, the Type II InP/ZnS seeded CdS tetrapods displayed a wider range of pump-dependent emission color-tunability (from red to white to blue) within the context of a CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram and possessed higher photostability due to suppressed multiexcitonic Auger recombination when compared to conventional Type I CdSe seeded CdS tetrapods. By employing time-resolved spectroscopy measurements, we were able to attribute the wide emission color-tunability to the large valence band offset between InP and CdS. This work highlights the importance of band alignment in the synthetic design of semiconductor nanoheterostructures, which can exhibit color-tunable multiwavelength emission with high efficiency and photostability.

  18. Improvement of oil-seed and industrial crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 22 papers presented, seven dealing with the genetic improvement of crops using ionizing radiations, fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics covered were oil-seed quality requirements for industrial processing and concepts of improving biomass production from higher plants

  19. A New Concept of Dual Fuelled SI Engines Run on Gasoline and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Zdzisław

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses tests results of dual-fuel spark ignition engine with multipoint injection of alcohol and gasoline, injected in area of inlet valve. Fuelling of the engine was accomplished via prototype inlet system comprising duplex injectors controlled electronically. Implemented system enables feeding of the engine with gasoline only or alcohol only, and simultaneous combustion of a mixture of the both fuels with any fraction of alcohol. The tests were performed on four cylinders, spark ignition engine of Fiat 1100 MPI type. The paper presents comparative results of dual-fuel engine test when the engine runs on changing fraction of methyl alcohol. The tests have demonstrated an advantageous effect of alcohol additive on efficiency and TCH and NOx emission of the engine, especially in case of bigger shares of the alcohol and higher engine loads.

  20. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  2. The power-sharing formula for a seed/blanket core-resolution of a paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Segev, M.; Galperin, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ''classical'' formula for the sharing of power between a seed and blanket was based on the two-group diffusion theory model and gave good agreement with experiments conducted in the original Shippingport program and with transport theory. Recently an extensive series of calculations on seed/blanket assemblies showed that the power sharing deviates widely from the classical formula but paradoxically is in good agreement with the one-group formula, which neglects the back leakage of thermal neutrons from the blanket to the seed. The power-sharing formula has now been rederived, and the paradox is resolved by taking into account epithermal absorptions in the seeds. The diffusion theory model is important as a guide to formulating innovative concepts for improved core designs

  3. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  4. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    . Although archaeobotanical records of oil plants are in most cases found in small numbers, they are often abundant at excavations in southern Scandinavia. This paper presents a diachronic review of plant records of fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), both known for the dual use...... as to whether corn spurrey had been a cultivar or if the seeds had been collected from wild populations. KEYWORDS: Archaeobotany, oil-rich seeds, fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, corn spurrey, southern Scandinavia...

  5. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed.

  6. SEED 2: a user-friendly platform for amplicon high-throughput sequencing data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrovský, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr; Morais, Daniel; Berger, Bonnie

    2018-02-14

    Modern molecular methods have increased our ability to describe microbial communities. Along with the advances brought by new sequencing technologies, we now require intensive computational resources to make sense of the large numbers of sequences continuously produced. The software developed by the scientific community to address this demand, although very useful, require experience of the command-line environment, extensive training and have steep learning curves, limiting their use. We created SEED 2, a graphical user interface for handling high-throughput amplicon-sequencing data under Windows operating systems. SEED 2 is the only sequence visualizer that empowers users with tools to handle amplicon-sequencing data of microbial community markers. It is suitable for any marker genes sequences obtained through Illumina, IonTorrent or Sanger sequencing. SEED 2 allows the user to process raw sequencing data, identify specific taxa, produce of OTU-tables, create sequence alignments and construct phylogenetic trees. Standard dual core laptops with 8 GB of RAM can handle ca. 8 million of Illumina PE 300 bp sequences, ca. 4GB of data. SEED 2 was implemented in Object Pascal and uses internal functions and external software for amplicon data processing. SEED 2 is a freeware software, available at http://www.biomed.cas.cz/mbu/lbwrf/seed/ as a self-contained file, including all the dependencies, and does not require installation. Supplementary data contain a comprehensive list of supported functions. daniel.morais@biomed.cas.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  8. Dual targeting of EGFR and focal adhesion kinase in 3D grown HNSCC cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eke, Iris; Cordes, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) show frequent overexpression and hyperactivity in various human malignancies including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To examine effects of dual EGFR/FAK inhibition on cellular radiosensitivity of HNSCC cells in a more physiological environment, we employed a previously established laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) based three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model. Materials and methods: UTSCC15 and SAS HNSCC cell lines stably transfected with EGFR-CFP or CFP were used. Single or combined EGFR (Cetuximab, siRNA) and FAK (TAE226, siRNA) inhibition were accomplished prior to measuring clonogenic survival and protein expression and phosphorylation. Immunofluorescence enabled visualization of EGFR-CFP and FAK. Results: Cetuximab resulted in higher radiosensitization in EGFR-CFP overexpressing cell lines than CFP controls. Single EGFR or FAK inhibition mediated radiosensitization, while dual EGFR/FAK targeting further augmented this effect. Despite signaling alterations upon Cetuximab and siRNA knockdown, analysis of protein expression and phosphorylation indicates EGFR and FAK signaling coexistence without obvious overlap. Conclusions: Combined EGFR/FAK targeting yielded stronger radiosensitization than either approach alone, which might be based on non-overlapping downstream signaling. Whether dual targeting of EGFR and FAK can reasonably be combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy needs clarification.

  9. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  10. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  11. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  12. ABA, GA(3), and nitrate may control seed germination of Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Abdallah; Debez, Ahmed; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-08-01

    Impaired germination is common among halophyte seeds exposed to salt stress, partly resulting from the salt-induced reduction of the growth regulator contents in seeds. Thus, the understanding of hormonal regulation during the germination process is a main key: (i) to overcome the mechanisms by which NaCl-salinity inhibit germination; and (ii) to improve the germination of these species when challenged with NaCl. In the present investigation, the effects of ABA, GA(3), NO(-)(3), and NH(+)(4) on the germination of the oilseed halophyte Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) were assessed under NaCl-salinity (up to 200 mM NaCl). Seeds were collected from Tabarka rocky coasts (N-W of Tunisia). The exogenous application of GA(3), nitrate (either as NaNO(3) or KNO(3)), and NH(4)Cl enhanced germination under NaCl salinity. The beneficial impact of KNO(3) on germination upon seed exposure to NaCl salinity was rather due to NO(-)(3) than to K(+), since KCl failed to significantly stimulate germination. Under optimal conditions for germination (0 mM NaCl), ABA inhibited germination over time in a dose dependent manner, but KNO(3) completely restored the germination parameters. Under NaCl salinity, the application of fluridone (FLU) an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, stimulated substantially seed germination. Taken together, our results point out that NO(-)(3) and GA(3) mitigate the NaCl-induced reduction of seed germination, and that NO(-)(3) counteracts the inhibitory effect of ABA on germination of C. maritimum.

  13. Radiosensitivity in seeds of Coix lachryma-jobi TOURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A C [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Medina Filho, H P [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (Brazil)

    1979-04-01

    Radiosensitivity in seeds of Coix lachryma-jobi Tourn. Seeds of Coix lachryma-jobi Tourn., containing 9% humidity were irradiated with 0 to 70 Krad doses of gama-radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. The zero-time was set to be the time of sowing. At high doses of radiation, germination after 15 days was little affected, but after 21 days survival rate decreased. Our results show that the LD/sub 50/ is about 60 Krad and the GR/sub 50/ is approximately 30 Krad. The morphological alterations which were observed in some plants, as well as the effects of gama-radiation on growth inhibition and survival rate of the seedlings, suggest that doses between 30 and 50 Krad could be useful to obtain genetic variability in adapted cultivars of this species.

  14. Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on final germination percentage and germination rate of four desert plants recorded as weeds in the United Arab Emirates farms ...

  15. Allelochemical regulation of reproduction and seed germination of two BrazilianBaccharis species by phytotoxic trichothecenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, J O; Jarvis, B B; Mokhtari-Rejali, N; Bean, G A

    1990-12-01

    The potent phytotoxic trichothecene roridins and baccharinoids occur naturally in the Brazilian plants,Baccharis coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Biosynthesis of roridins inB. coridifolia appears to be linked to pollination, and the phytotoxins then accumulate in the seed. The roles of the phytotoxins in pollination, seed maturation, and germination of theBaccharis species were investigated. The high production of roridins occurred only in seeds resulting from intraspecific pollination, and the concentration of the toxins in the seeds generally increased with seed maturity. Removal of seed coats from trichothecene-producing BrazilianBaccharis species (B. coridifolia andB. megapotamica) and non-trichothecene-producing AmericanBaccharis species (B. halimifolia andB. glutinosa) resulted in improved seed germination ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa but complete inhibition of seed germination ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Addition of seed coat extracts of the BrazilianBaccharis species of dilute solutions (10(-6)μg/ml) of roridins or baccharinoids to the decoated seeds ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica resulted in germination, while seeds ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa were killed by the phytotoxins. Roridins interacted with gibberellic acid, a germination promoter, but not with abscisic acid, a germination inhibitor. The results from this study suggest that macrocyclic trichothecenes have a regulatory role(s) on reproduction and germination of BrazilianBaccharis species in their natural habitat.

  16. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. EFFECTS OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON JASMONIC ACID INDUCED INHIBITION OF SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat ÇAVUŞOĞLU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effects of gibberellic acid, kinetin, benzyladenine, ethylene, 24-epibrassinolide and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine on jasmonic acid inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of barley were studied. All of the plant growth regulators studied were determined to have a succesful performance in reversing of the inhibitory effects of jasmonic acid on the seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover, the above mentioned growth regulators overcame the inhibitory effect of JA on the percentages of germination and coleoptile emergence in the same ratio, while GA3 was the most successful hormone on the fresh weight and radicle and coleoptile elongation in comparison with the other growth regulators. Key words: Barley, jasmonic acid, plant growth regulator, seed germination, seedling growth ARPANIN TOHUM ÇİMLENMESİ VE FİDE BÜYÜMESİNİN JASMONİK ASİT TEŞVİKLİ İNHİBİSYONU ÜZERİNE BAZI BİTKİ BÜYÜME DÜZENLEYİCİLERİNİN ETKİLERİ Özet: Arpanın tohum çimlenmesi ve fide büyümesinin jasmonik asit inhibisyonu üzerine gibberellik asit, kinetin, benziladenin, etilen, 24-epibrassinolit ve poliaminlerin (spermin, spermidin, putressin, kadaverin etkileri araştırılmıştır. Çalışılan bitki büyüme düzenleyicilerinin tümünün tohum çimlenmesi ve fide büyümesi üzerinde jasmonik asitin engelleyici etkisini tersine çevirmede başarılı bir performansa sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir. Dahası, yukarıda sözü edilen büyüme düzenleyicileri çimlenme ve koleoptil çıkış yüzdeleri üzerinde aynı oranda etkili olurken, taze ağırlık ve radikula ve koleoptil uzaması üzerinde diğer büyüme düzenleyicileri ile karşılaştırıldığında en başarılı hormon GA3 olmuştur. Anahtar kelimeler: Arpa, jasmonik asit, bitki büyüme düzenleyicisi, tohum çimlenmesi, fide büyümesi

  18. Design of parallel dual-energy X-ray beam and its performance for security radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Myoung, Sung Min; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of dual-energy X-ray beam generation and acquisition of dual-energy security radiography is proposed. Erbium (Er) and rhodium (Rh) with a copper filter were positioned in front of X-ray tube to generate low- and high-energy X-ray spectra. Low- and high-energy X-rays were guided to separately enter into two parallel detectors. Monte Carlo code of MCNPX was used to derive an optimum thickness of each filter for improved dual X-ray image quality. It was desired to provide separation ability between organic and inorganic matters for the condition of 140 kVp/0.8 mA as used in the security application. Acquired dual-energy X-ray beams were evaluated by the dual-energy Z-map yielding enhanced performance compared with a commercial dual-energy detector. A collimator for the parallel dual-energy X-ray beam was designed to minimize X-ray beam interference between low- and high-energy parallel beams for 500 mm source-to-detector distance.

  19. Dual mTORC1/C2 inhibitors suppress cellular geroconversion (a senescence program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontieva, Olga V; Demidenko, Zoya N; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2015-09-15

    In proliferating cells, mTOR is active and promotes cell growth. When the cell cycle is arrested, then mTOR converts reversible arrest to senescence (geroconversion). Rapamycin and other rapalogs suppress geroconversion, maintaining quiescence instead. Here we showed that ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors (Torin1 and PP242), which inhibit both mTORC1 and TORC2, also suppressed geroconversion. Despite inhibition of proliferation (in proliferating cells), mTOR inhibitors preserved re-proliferative potential (RP) in arrested cells. In p21-arrested cells, Torin 1 and PP242 detectably suppressed geroconversion at concentrations as low as 1-3 nM and 10-30 nM, reaching maximal gerosuppression at 30 nM and 300 nM, respectively. Near-maximal gerosuppression coincided with inhibition of p-S6K(T389) and p-S6(S235/236). Dual mTOR inhibitors prevented senescent morphology and hypertrophy. Our study warrants investigation into whether low doses of dual mTOR inhibitors will prolong animal life span and delay age-related diseases. A new class of potential anti-aging drugs can be envisioned.

  20. TEMPERATURE STRESS AND THERMO DORMANCY OF VEGETABLE SEEDS OF UMBELLIFERAE CROPS. FEATURES OF INDUCTION; MANIR FESTATION AND OVERCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Buharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The high6temperature stress  during 5620 days has a negative impact on activity of growth of embryo and inhibits the seeds germination of the Umbelliferae crops. The germination of the studied seeds  of different species at low temperature contributes to the recovery of the embryo growth; however; growth is less intensive in comparison  with the control. All studied Umbelliferae crops showed the differences in seed germination and development of embryos at various temperatures and duration of heat treatment.

  1. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  2. ID3 contributes to cerebrospinal fluid seeding and poor prognosis in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Ah; Lim, Sang-Hee; Lee, Joongyub; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitor of differentiation (ID) genes have been implicated as promoters of tumor progression and metastasis in many human cancers. The current study investigated the expression and functional roles of ID genes in seeding and prognosis of medulloblastoma. ID gene expression was screened in human medulloblastoma tissues. Knockdown of ID3 gene was performed in medulloblastoma cells in vitro. The expression of metastasis-related genes after ID3 knockdown was assessed. The effect of ID3 knockdown on tumor seeding was observed in an animal model in vivo. The survival of medulloblastoma patients was plotted according to the ID3 expression levels. Significantly higher ID3 expression was observed in medulloblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid seeding than tumors without seeding. Knockdown of ID3 decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and suppressed the migration of D283 medulloblastoma cells in vitro. In a seeding model of medulloblastoma, ID3 knockdown in vivo with shRNA inhibited the growth of primary tumors, prevented the development of leptomeningeal seeding, and prolonged animal survival. High ID3 expression was associated with shorter survival of medulloblastoma patients, especially in Group 4 medulloblastomas. High ID3 expression is associated with medullolbastoma seeding and is a poor prognostic factor, especially in patients with Group 4 tumors. ID3 may represent the metastatic/ aggressive phenotype of a subgroup of medulloblastoma

  3. Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Xu, Zhi-wei; Wang, Meng; Chen, Hai-yan

    2014-11-01

    A novel dual-wavelength fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A couple of uniform FBGs are used as the cavity mirrors, and the third FBG is used as intracavity wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. Experimental results show that by adjusting the operation temperature of the intracavity wavelength selector, a tunable dual-wavelength laser emission can be achieved. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength lasing with asymmetric FBG FP resonator and its technical feasibility.

  4. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity.

  5. Antiproliferative Activities of Bouea Macrophylla Seed Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapoc, D.J.; Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Zainah Adam; Rosniza Razali; Shafii Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla or commonly known as kundang fruit in Malaysia is a tropical fruit tree native to Southeast Asia. This plant belongs to the family Anacardiaceae which are cultivated for their edible fruits, seeds and medicinal compounds. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti proliferation activities of aqueous, methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts from the seed of B. macrophylla. The extracts were screened on human squamous cell carcinoma (HTB-43), breast cancer (MCF7) and (MDA-MB-231) cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most effective concentration were screened for apoptosis induction in cells using Hoechst stain. Our present study has shown that aqueous, methanolic, chloroform dan hexane extracts exhibited promising inhibition activity against HTB43 cell lines with the IC50 values were 29.32±5.80, 18.65±2.94, 21.14±6.97 and 34.36±16.50 μg/ mL, respectively. Meanwhile, only hexane extract showed inhibition against MCF7 (59.07±5.76) and MDA-MB-231(123.35±28.65). Besides that, the results also indicate that promising anticancer activity and causes loss in cancer cell viability by activating the apoptotic process. These findings suggest that B. macrophylla may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types. (author)

  6. Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the Neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Escobar Escobar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae. Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n=1 400, and moisture content of seeds (n=252. Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n=200, followed by imbibition (n=252 and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n=300 seeds. Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n=100 seeds. We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44% and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests.

  7. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation

  8. An extended dual input dual output three level Z source inverter with improved switch loss reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Deshmukh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverter (MLI is a proven technology used for industrial applications due to low output total harmonic distortion (THD, high power handling capability and low active device rating. Dual output inverter is a recent trend associated with inverter topologies for specialized applications. This paper deals with three phase three level dual input dual output inverter topology with minimum active device count. Reduction in switch count leads to reduction in losses and improves reliability. Both the input sources share power equally as neutral point current ripple is maintained low. For further reduction in switching losses at higher switching frequencies, the concept of “no switching zone” or discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM has been put forth recently. This paper proposes modification in the placement of “no switching zone” in order to optimize switching losses and output THD (output filtering requirements for low power factor load. This study also proposes novel graphical approach to analyze the loss reduction along with its effect on output THD. The sinusoidal PWM (SPWM is used which gives satisfactory switching loss reduction without complex calculations. Moreover, the proposed topology is generalized to provide dual output at higher voltage levels. It is seen that the components reduction phenomenon becomes more pronounced as number of levels goes on increasing. The proposed converter is simulated in MATLAB software environment and results are obtained.

  9. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    -based systems. The second scenario allows for the production of electrical power, which is then available for electric-based propulsion. Additionally, once at location the production of electrical power can be dedicated to the payload’s communication system for data transfer. Ultimately, the proposed dual-mode propulsion platform capitalizes on the benefits of two types of propulsion methods – the thrust of thermal propulsion ideal for quick orbital maneuvers and the specific impulse of electric propulsion ideal for efficient inter-planetary travel. Previous versions of this RTR-based concept have been studied for various applications [NETS 1-3]. The current version of this concept is being matured through a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I grant, awarded for FY 2014. In this study the RTR concept is being developed to deliver a 6U CubeSat payload to the orbit of the Saturnian moon - Enceladus. Additionally, this study will develop an entire mission architecture for Enceladus targeting a total allowable launch mass of 1,000 kg.

  10. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  11. Fluridone and norflurazon, carotenoid-biosynthesis inhibitors, promote seed conditioning and germination of the holoparasite Orobanche minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Heon; Yoneyama, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Joel, Daniel M.

    2004-02-01

    Fluridone and norflurazon, two carotenoid-biosynthesis inhibitors, shortened the conditioning period required by seeds of Orobanche minor in order to respond to the germination stimulant strigol. Neither fluridone nor norflurazon alone induced seed germination of O. minor, they promoted strigol-induced germination. In addition, these compounds restored the conditioning and germination of seeds at a supraoptimal temperature (30 degrees C) as well as in the light. Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) showed similar promotive and protective effects on the conditioning and germination of O. minor seeds. Although fluridone and norflurazon are known to prevent abscisic acid (ABA)-biosynthesis, and stresses such as supraoptimal temperatures have been reported to induce ABA accumulation in plants, the amount of ABA in the seeds or that released from the seeds into the conditioning media was not affected by the fluridone treatment and by exposure to the supraoptimal temperature. These results indicate that the promotive and protective effects of fluridone and norflurazon on the conditioning and germination of O. minor seeds would be attributed to other perturbations rather than the inhibition of ABA-biosynthesis.

  12. Numerical simulation of air flow through turbocharger compressors with dual volute design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kui; Li, Xianguo; Wu, Hao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Sun, Harold; Schram, Tim [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48126 (United States); Krivitzky, Eric; Larosiliere, Louis M. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VT 05001 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, turbocharger centrifugal compressors with dual volute design were investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The numerical simulation focused on the air flow from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, and the overall performance level and range are predicted. The numerical investigation revealed that the dual volute design could separate the compressor into two operating regions: ''high efficiency'' and ''low efficiency'' regions with different air flow characteristics, and treating these two regions separately with dual diffuser design showed extended stable operating range and improved efficiency by comparing with conventional single volute design. The ''dual sequential volute'' concept also showed the potential to further extend the stable operating range by closing one of the volutes at low air flow rates. Furthermore, by comparing with other alternate designs such as variable diffuser vanes and variable inlet guide vanes, the operation of the dual sequential volute also features relatively simple control and calibration. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  14. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok; Hyun, Wooyoung; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Jeong, Chanyoung; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Sukwhan; Lee, Hojoung

    2014-01-01

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok

    2014-08-27

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  17. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  18. Power Split Based Dual Hemispherical Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe Dresscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new continuously variable transmission concept: the Dual-Hemi Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT. It is designed to have properties we believe are required to apply continuously variable transmissions in robotics to their full potential. These properties are a transformation range that includes both positive and negative ratios, back-drivability under all conditions, kinematically decoupled reconfiguration, high efficiency of the transmission, and a reconfiguration mechanism requiring little work for changing the transmission ratio. The design of the Dual-Hemi CVT and a prototype realisation are discussed in detail. We show that the Dual-Hemi CVT has the aforementioned desired properties. Experiments show that the efficiency of the CVT is above 90% for a large part of the range of operation of the CVT. Significant stiction in the transmission, combined with a relatively low bandwidth for changing the transmission ratio, may cause problems when applying the DH-CVT as part of an actuator in a control loop.

  19. Dual use and the ethical responsibility of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The main normative problem in the context of dual use is to determine the ethical responsibility of scientists especially in the case of unintended, harmful, and criminal dual use of new technological applications of scientific results. This article starts from an analysis of the concepts of responsibility and complicity, examining alternative options regarding the responsibility of scientists. Within the context of the basic conflict between the freedom of science and the duty to avoid causing harm, two positions are discussed: moral skepticism and the ethics of responsibility by Hans Jonas. According to these reflections, four duties are suggested and evaluated: stopping research, systematically carrying out research for dual-use applications, informing public authorities, and not publishing results. In the conclusion it is argued that these duties should be considered as imperfect duties in a Kantian sense and that the individual scientist should be discharged as much as possible from obligations which follow from them by the scientific community and institutions created for this purpose.

  20. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spaced Seed Data Structures for De Novo Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanç Birol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo assembly of the genome of a species is essential in the absence of a reference genome sequence. Many scalable assembly algorithms use the de Bruijn graph (DBG paradigm to reconstruct genomes, where a table of subsequences of a certain length is derived from the reads, and their overlaps are analyzed to assemble sequences. Despite longer subsequences unlocking longer genomic features for assembly, associated increase in compute resources limits the practicability of DBG over other assembly archetypes already designed for longer reads. Here, we revisit the DBG paradigm to adapt it to the changing sequencing technology landscape and introduce three data structure designs for spaced seeds in the form of paired subsequences. These data structures address memory and run time constraints imposed by longer reads. We observe that when a fixed distance separates seed pairs, it provides increased sequence specificity with increased gap length. Further, we note that Bloom filters would be suitable to implicitly store spaced seeds and be tolerant to sequencing errors. Building on this concept, we describe a data structure for tracking the frequencies of observed spaced seeds. These data structure designs will have applications in genome, transcriptome and metagenome assemblies, and read error correction.

  2. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  3. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  4. Antibacterial activity of anthraquinone from cassia seed on spiced pig head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. Y.; Li, X.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    [Objective] To optimize the extraction of anthraquinone from cassia seed by ultrasonic extraction and its antibacterial activity. [Method] The influences of different extraction time and ethanol concentration, on anthraquinone content were evaluated by a single factor experiment. And anthraquinone content was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The bacteriostasis of anthraquinone on spiced pig head’s common putrefying bacteria: Staphylococcus, Serratieae, Bacillus, Proteus and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were studied by oxford plate assay system. [Result] The best extraction time was 30 minutes and the best ethanol concentration was 80%. The antibacterial activity of the cassia seed anthraquinone on Staphylococcus Aureus, Bacillus Proteus is obviously, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.125 g/mL, 0.125 g/mL, 1 g/mL respectively and no inhibitory effect on Serratieae. [Conclusions] The anthraquinones from Cassia seed can inhibit a part of spoilage bacteria in spiced pig heads.

  5. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F.

  6. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  7. Regulation of Picea abies seed dormancy by red and far-red light at various moisture contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, K.; Chantal, M. de [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1998-04-01

    The effects of red (R), far-red (FR) and R+FR light on Norway spruce seed dormancy were studied at five different moisture contents (MC) between 5 and 20%. The degree of dormancy was studied by germinating seeds over a wide range of temperatures in the dark. The non-irradiated control seeds were shallowly dormant, only a proportion of them germinated and within a limited temperature range. Red light progressively stimulated germination between 5 and 17% MC, but this effect was reversed if a FR treatment followed, although all germination could not be inhibited by one FR pulse. Far-red light had a slightly stimulating effect at 19% MC. To generate seeds able to germinate over a wide range of temperatures in darkness, an artificial light pretreatment should be given to seeds at MC above 17% in order to receive maximum response 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. [Dynamics of seed rain of Tripterygium hypoglaucum and soil seed bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Su, Shu; Qu, Xian-You; Wang, Chang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Tripterygium hypoglaucum is an endangered species in arid areas of Xiannvshan Chongqing, China. The dynamic characteristics of seed rain and soil seed bank of T. hypoglaucum were studied in this paper.Results showed that T. hypoglaucum years of mature seeds distribution number up to October; the seed rain occurred from the last ten-day of September to in the first ten-day of November and the peak of scattered seed rain concentrated in the October.The numbers of soil seed bank at 2-5 cm soil layer,mainly concentrated in the 1.5-3.5 m range. T. hypoglaucum seeds to the wind as a force for transmission, the transmission ability is strong, but in the process of natural reproduction, full mature seed rate is low, the soil seed bank seeds seed short-lived factors these were unfavorable for the natural reproduction of T. hypoglaucum population. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  10. The UK approach to desalination and nuclear power dual purpose operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, O.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a particular example of dual purpose operation and the majority of desalting units installed around the world are operated in this way. A nuclear dual purpose concept has to be very large if present economic reactor designs are utilised. It is the size which has defeated the concept to date. Present fossil fired dual purpose installations are either in an economic situation (generally low fuel cost) where the inefficiencies introduced by operating away from the optimum water/power ratio are acceptable or, if optimised, the water and power blocks are small enough to allow introduction into the existing utility networks. As part of the United Kingdom, Water Resources Board (WRB) report 'Desalination 1972' the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and WRB identified nine coastal sites in the United Kingdom where nuclear power stations might be built during the next 15 years. The difficulties of dual purpose operation were recognised in the report, including additional water storage to cover the summer shutdown (turbine overhaul) period, modification of station design to facilitate the extraction of steam, etc. More seriously, as a given power station had higher fuelling costs relative to the newer station, the electrical utility might require compensation for continuing to operate it because of the associated desalting plant. Taking account of these factors and the replacement of the lost electricity production from other, maybe less efficient stations on the system

  11. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  12. The ascorbate peroxidase APX1 is a direct target of a zinc finger transcription factor ZFP36 and a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 interacts with ZFP36 to co-regulate OsAPX1 in seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Jia, Jing; Zhao, Xixi; Zhang, MengYao; Huang, Xingxiu; E Ji; Ni, Lan; Jiang, Mingyi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is a vital developmental process. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination, while ROS (reactive oxygen species) also plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. ABA could inhibit the production of ROS in seed germination, but the mechanism of ABA reduced ROS production in seed germination was hitherto unknown. Here, by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq, we found that ZFP36, a rice zinc finger transcription factor, could directly bind to the promoter of OsAPX1, coding an ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which has the most affinity for H 2 O 2 (substrate; a type of ROS), and act as a transcriptional activator of OsAPX1 promoter. Moreover, ZFP36 could interact with a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 to co-regulate the promoter activity of OsAPX1. The seed germination is highly inhibited in ZFP36 overexpression plants under ABA treatment, while an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of OsLEA5 rice seeds were less sensitive to ABA, and exogenous ASC (ascorbate acid) could alleviate the inhibition induced by ABA. Thus, our conclusion is that OsAPX1 is a direct target of ZFP36 and OsLEA5 could interact with ZFP36 to co-regulate ABA-inhibited seed germination by controlling the expression of OsAPX1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the seed-feeding bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Lopes, Angela H; Dias, Felipe A; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2007-09-01

    The salivary transcriptome of the seed-feeding hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), is described following assembly of 1025 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) into 305 clusters of related sequences. Inspection of these sequences reveals abundance of low complexity, putative secreted products rich in the amino acids (aa) glycine, serine or threonine, which might function as silk or mucins and assist food canal lubrication and sealing of the feeding site around the mouthparts. Several protease inhibitors were found, including abundant expression of cystatin transcripts that may inhibit cysteine proteases common in seeds that might injure the insect or induce plant apoptosis. Serine proteases and lipases are described that might assist digestion and liquefaction of seed proteins and oils. Finally, several novel putative proteins are described with no known function that might affect plant physiology or act as antimicrobials.

  14. Platelet-camouflaged nanococktail: Simultaneous inhibition of drug-resistant tumor growth and metastasis via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lijia; Qu, Haijing; Wu, Dongqi; Zhu, Chaojian; Yang, Yongbo; Jin, Xing; Zheng, Jian; Shi, Xiangsheng; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a great challenge to cancer therapy. It is difficult to inhibit the growth of MDR cancer due to its chemoresistance. Furthermore, MDR cancers are more likely to metastasize, causing a high mortality among cancer patients. In this study, a nanomedicine RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was developed by encapsulating melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) and doxorubicin (DOX) inside RGD peptide (c(RGDyC))-modified nanoscale platelet vesicles (RGD-NPVs) to efficiently inhibit the growth and metastasis of drug-resistant tumors via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy. Methods: The in vitro immune evasion potential and the targeting performance of RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX were examined using RAW264.7, HUVECs, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231/ADR cells lines. We also evaluated the pharmacokinetic behavior and the in vivo therapeutic performance of RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX using a MDA-MB-231/ADR tumor-bearing nude mouse model. Results: By taking advantage of the self-recognizing property of the platelet membrane and the conjugated RGD peptides, RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was found to evade immune clearance and target the αvβ3 integrin on tumor vasculature and resistant breast tumor cells. Under irradiation with a NIR laser, RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX produced a multipronged effect, including reversal of cancer MDR, efficient killing of resistant cells by chemo-photothermal therapy, elimination of tumor vasculature for blocking metastasis, and long-lasting inhibition of the expressions of VEGF, MMP2 and MMP9 within the tumor. Conclusion: This versatile nanomedicine of RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX integrating unique biomimetic properties, excellent targeting performance, and comprehensive therapeutic strategies in one formulation might bring opportunities to MDR cancer therapy.

  15. Dual-chamber/dual-anode proportional counter incorporating an intervening thin-foil solid neutron converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Neal, John S.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Kolopus, James A.; Ramey, Joanne O.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-chamber/dual-anode gas proportional counter utilizing thin solid 6 LiF or 10 B neutron converters coated on a 2-micon-thick Mylar film that is positioned between the two counter chambers and anodes has been designed, fabricated, and tested using a variety of fill gases—including naturally abundant helium. In this device, neutron conversion products emitted from both sides of the coated converter foil are detected—rather than having half of the products absorbed in the wall of a conventional tube-type counter where the solid neutron converter is deposited on the tube wall. Geant4-based radiation transport calculations were used to determine the optimum neutron converter coating thickness for both isotopes. Solution methods for applying these optimized-thickness coatings on a Mylar film were developed that were carried out at room temperature without any specialized equipment and that can be adapted to standard coating methods such as silk screen or ink jet printing. The performance characteristics of the dual-chamber/dual-anode neutron detector were determined for both types of isotopically enriched converters. The experimental performance of the 6 LiF-converter-based detector was described well by modeling results from Geant4. Additional modeling studies of multiple-foil/multiple-chamber/anode configurations addressed the basic issue of the relatively longer absorption range of neutrons versus the shorter range of the conversion products for 6 LiF and 10 B. Combined with the experimental results, these simulations indicate that a high-performance neutron detector can be realized in a single device through the application of these multiple-foil/solid converter, multiple-chamber detector concepts.

  16. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guang-Lin; Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin; Chen, Shi-Cui; Wei, Shao-Hua; Gong, Zhu-Nan; Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting; Ao, Gui-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE 2 , LTB 4 in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE 2 and LTB 4 and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway

  17. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  18. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL).

  19. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  20. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  1. Some properties of dual and approximate dual of fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar; Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of approximate dual to fusion frames and present some approaches to obtain dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames. Also, we study the stability of dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames.

  2. Seed priming with KNO3 mediates biochemical processes to inhibit lead toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Akram, Asim; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Ahmad, Khawaja S; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Sardar, Hasan; Shabbir, Rana N; Majeed, Sadia; Shehzad, Muhammad A; Anwar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Accumulation of lead (Pb) in agricultural soils has become a major factor for reduced crop yields and poses serious threats to humans consuming agricultural products. The present study investigated the effects of KNO 3 seed priming (0 and 0.5% KNO 3 ) on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to Pb toxicity (0, 1300 and 2550 mg kg -1 Pb). Pb exposure markedly reduced the growth of maize seedlings and resulted in higher Pb accumulation in roots than shoots. Pretreatment of seeds with KNO 3 significantly improved the germination percentage and increased physiological indices. A stimulating effect of KNO 3 seed priming was also observed on pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents) of Pb-stressed plants. Low translocation of Pb from roots to shoots caused an increased accumulation of total free amino acids and higher activities of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in roots as compared to shoot, which were further enhanced by exogenous KNO 3 supply to prevent Pb toxicity. Maize accumulates more Pb in roots than shoot at early growth stages. Priming of seeds with KNO 3 prevents Pb toxicity, which may be exploited to improve seedling establishment in crop species grown under Pb contaminated soils. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Biological activity of sedaxane---a novel broad-spectrum fungicide for seed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeun, Ronald; Scalliet, Gabriel; Oostendorp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sedaxane is a new broad-spectrum seed treatment fungicide developed by Syngenta Crop Protection for control of seed- and soil-borne diseases in a broad range of crops. Its physicochemical properties and activity spectrum have been optimised for use as a seed treatment providing both local and systemic protection of the seed and roots of target crops. Sedaxane inhibits respiration by binding to the succinate dehydrogenase complex in the fungal mitochondrium. Its activity spectrum covers seed-borne fungi such as Ustilago nuda, Tilletia caries, Monographella nivalis and Pyrenophora graminea, as well as the soil-borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, R. cerealis and Typhula incarnata. Under greenhouse conditions, sedaxane showed high levels and consistent protection against U. nuda, P. graminea and Rhizoctonia spp. Under field conditions, efficacy against Rhizoctonia spp. resulted in increased yield compared with the untreated check. Efficacy against snow mould has been shown under very high disease pressure conditions. The combination of sedaxane plus fludioxonil against snow mould can provide resistance management for sustainable use. The broad spectrum and high level of activity in combination with excellent crop tolerance allow the use of sedaxane as a seed treatment in a wide variety of crops. It is a potential tool for precautionary resistance management when combined with other fungicides, especially against pathogens showing a potential for resistance development, such as M. nivalis. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the α-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 μM), but it did not inhibit β-glucosidase, α- or β-mannosidase, or α- or β-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc 3 Man 7-9 (GlcNAc) 2 -oligosaccharides

  5. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  6. Allelopathic activity of Leonurus siribicus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and identification of 4- hydroxy benzoic acid as an allelochemical by chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M. A.; Imam, R.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of L. siribicus extract on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat as well as to identify potential allelochemical. The different concentration (5, 10 and 15%) of aqueous extract were applied during the time of sowing and at 5 days after sowing of wheat seed. L. siribicus extract showed concentration and time - depending activity. Different concentration of aqueous extract inhibited seed germination, seedlings growth, when extracts were applied during the time of seed sowing. The stimulatory effect of seedlings growth were found for 5 % aqueous extract, in contrast 10 and 15% extract inhibited seedlings growth, when extracts were applied at 5 days after sowing. Apart from, 4-hydroxy benzoic acids affected seedlings growth irrespective of application time. The weight of dry matter of wheat seedlings were increased for 5% than 10 and 15% extracts. Thin layer chromatography suggested that the presence of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid including other allelopathic and growth regulatory compounds inhibited germination and seedlings growth. Mineral composition was determined and its might have some stimulatory effect on seedlings growth. It was interesting that 5% extract inhibited germination and seedlings growth, when it was applied during the time of seed sowing, but stimulated seedling growth, when it was applied at 5 days after sowing. The extract of this plants can be used either for bioherbicide as well as growth stimulatory agents for the organic farming system. To find out molecular mechanism behind it, further research is to be done. (author)

  7. Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development.

  8. Moderately inhibitory effects of N-dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylpiperidinium and N-dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylmorpholinium chlorides on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław J. Knypl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylpiperidinium chloride (DMMP and N-dodecyloxyme-thylene-N-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMMM retarded germination of seeds of 9 cultivated plant species when applied at a concentration of 10-3 M, and inhibited germination at a concentration of 10-2 M. The exceptions were represented by Lepidium sativum L. and Linum usitatissimum L. seeds which germinated well even in 10-2 M solutions of either DMMP or DMMM.

  9. Dual pressurized light water reactor producing 2000 M We

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The dual unit optimizer 2000 M We (Duo2000) is proposed as a new design concept for large nuclear power plant. Duo is being designed to meet economic and safety challenges facing the 21 century green and sustainable energy industry. Duo2000 has two nuclear steam supply systems (NSSS) of the unit nuclear optimizer (Uno) pressurized water reactor (PWR) in a single containment so as to double the capacity of the plant. Uno is anchored to the optimized power reactor 1000 M We (OPR1000) of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. The concept of Duo can be extended to any number of PWRs or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR s), or even boiling water reactor (BWRs). Once proven in water reactors, the technology may even be expanded to gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and molten salt cooled reactors. In particular, since it is required that the small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) be built as units, the concept of Duo2000 will apply to SMRs as well. With its in-vessel retention as severe accident management strategy, Duo can not only put the single most querulous PWR safety issue to end, but also pave ways to most promising large power capacity dispensing with huge redesigning cost for generation III + nuclear systems. The strengths of Duo2000 include reducing the cost of construction by decreasing the number of containment buildings from two to one, minimizing the cost of NSSS and control systems by sharing between the dual units, and lessening the maintenance cost by uniting NSSS. The technology can further be extended to coupling modular reactors as dual, triple, or quadruple units to increase their economics, thus accelerating the commercialization as well as the customization of SMRs. (Author)

  10. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  11. Dual pancreas- and lung-targeting therapy for local and systemic complications of acute pancreatitis mediated by a phenolic propanediamine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinjie; Fu, Yao; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Jiang, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-08-28

    To inhibit both the local and systemic complications with acute pancreatitis, an effective therapy requires a drug delivery system that can efficiently overcome the blood-pancreas barrier while achieving lung-specific accumulation. Here, we report the first dual pancreas- and lung-targeting therapeutic strategy mediated by a phenolic propanediamine moiety for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Using the proposed dual-targeting ligand, an anti-inflammatory compound Rhein has been tailored to preferentially accumulate in the pancreas and lungs with rapid distribution kinetics, excellent tissue-penetrating properties and minimum toxicity. Accordingly, the drug-ligand conjugate remarkably downregulated the proinflammatory cytokines in the target organs thus effectively inhibiting local pancreatic and systemic inflammation in rats. The dual-specific targeting therapeutic strategy may help pave the way for targeted drug delivery to treat complicated inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. THE DUAL CONTROL – A REQUIREMENT OF THE CURRENT BANK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA MATIȘ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Security is a major problem of the banking industry, which bases its whole system on the reputation the bank manages to establish and then maintain among its customers. With the manifestation of information security issues and in interdependence with them, the need for internal control also developed, both of them being associated with modern risk management practices. As the concept of internal control has been rising as a major concern of management and corporate governance, there are attempts to classify it and distinguish it in different categories, dual control being a result of this process. The authors of this study attempt to present the concept of dual control as it is currently applied in the banking system, trying to analyze contextually its capacities of fraud detection, its consequences in terms of risk and costs as well as its effects on bank performance.

  13. IMPACT OF LIQUID NITROGEN EXPOSURE ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF HYDRATED Phaseolus vulgaris L. SEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Inaudis; Rivas, Maribel; Nápoles, Lelurlys; Marrero, Pedro; Yabor, Lourdes; Aragón, Carlos; Pérez, Aurora; Engelmann, Florent; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cryopreserving seeds with high water content is detrimental to survival, but biochemical and structural parameters of cryostored hydrated common bean seeds have not been published. The objective of this work was to study the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on selected biochemical and structural parameters of hydrated Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. We cryopreserved seeds at various moisture contents and evaluated: germination; electrolyte leakage; fresh seed weight; levels of chlorophyll pigments, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, phenolics and proteins; thickness of cotyledon epidermis, parenchyma, and starch storage parenchyma; and radicle and plumule lengths. Germination was totally inhibited when seeds were immersed in water for 50 min (moisture content of 38%, FW basis) before cryopreservation. The combined effects of seed water imbibition and cryostorage decreased phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total), chlorophyll a and protein content. By contrast, electrolyte leakage and levels of chlorophyll b and other aldehydes increased as a result of the combination of these two experimental factors. These were the most significant effects observed during exposure of humid seed to liquid nitrogen. Further studies are still required to clarify the molecular events taking place in plant cells during cryostorage.

  14. Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonai, Takeru; Kawahara, Shusuke; Tougou, Makoto; Satoh, Shigeru; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yoshioka, Toshihito

    2004-01-01

    Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high temperatures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 degrees C was prevented by the application of fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. At 33 degrees C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluridone and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogenous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabolism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 degrees C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endogenous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.

  15. Effect of fungal and plant metabolites on broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which cause heavy yield losses on important crops. The development of herbicides based on natural metabolites from microbial and plant origin, targeting early stages on parasitic plant development, might contribute to the reduction of broomrape seed bank in agricultural soils. Therefore, the effect of metabolites belonging to different classes of natural compounds on broomrape seed germination and radicle development was assayed in vitro. Among the metabolites tested, epi-sphaeropsidone, cyclopaldic acid, and those belonging to the sesquiterpene class induced broomrape germination in a species-specific manner. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidin A, and cytochalasans inhibited germination of GR24-treated broomrape seeds. The growth of broomrape radicle was strongly inhibited by sphaeropsidin A and compounds belonging to cyclohexene epoxide and cytochalasan classes. Broomrape radicles treated with epi-sphaeropsidone developed a layer of papillae while radicles treated with cytochalasans or with sphaeropsidin A turned necrotic. These findings allow new lead natural herbicides for the management of parasitic weeds to be identified.

  16. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  17. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Blocking the chaperone kinome pathway: Mechanistic insights into a novel dual inhibition approach for supra-additive suppression of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Abhinav [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shandilya, Ashutosh [Supercomputing Facility for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Agrawal, Vibhuti; Pratik, Piyush; Bhasme, Divya; Bisaria, Virendra S. [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sundar, Durai, E-mail: sundar@dbeb.iitd.ac.in [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Withaferin A and 17-DMAG synergistically inhibit the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone pair. {yields} Binding of WA to Cdc37 cleft suppresses its kinase binding activity. {yields} 17-DMAG binding to the association complex results in H-bonds with 60% clustering. {yields} The ligands' bound complex was found structurally and thermodynamically stable. -- Abstract: The chaperone Hsp90 is involved in regulating the stability and activation state of more than 200 'client' proteins and takes part in the cancer diseased states. The major clientele-protein kinases depend on Hsp90 for their proper folding and functioning. Cdc37, a kinase targeting co-chaperone of Hsp90, mediates the interactions between Hsp90 and protein kinases. Targeting of Cdc37 has the prospect of delivering predominantly kinase-selective molecular responses as compared to the current pharmacologic Hsp90 inhibitors. The present work reports a bio-computational study carried out with the aim of exploring the dual inhibition of Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone/co-chaperone association complex by the naturally occurring drug candidates withaferin A and 17-DMAG along with their possible modes of action. Our molecular docking studies reveal that withaferin A in combination with 17-DMAG can act as potent chaperone system inhibitors. The structural and thermodynamic stability of the ligands' bound complex was also observed from molecular dynamics simulations in water. Our results suggest a novel tumor suppressive action mechanism of herbal ligands which can be looked forward for further clinical investigations for possible anticancer drug formulations.

  19. Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoli; Tang, Jiajing; dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia Avello; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2015-12-16

    Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed. Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, and IR as well as by comparison with the literature data. Lignanamides 2, 7, and 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Pharbitin, Isolated from the Seeds of Pharbitis nil, against Various Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Yu, Nan Hee; Park, Ae Ran; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-10-28

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize antibacterial metabolites from Pharbitis nil seeds and investigate their antibacterial activity against various plant pathogenic bacteria. The methanol extract of P. nil seeds showed the strongest activity against Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 250 μg/ml. Among the three solvent layers obtained from the methanol extract of P. nil seeds, only the butanol layer displayed the activity with an MIC value of 125 μg/ml against Xap. An antibacterial fraction was obtained from P. nil seeds by repeated column chromatography and identified as pharbitin, a crude resin glycoside, by instrumental analysis. The antibacterial activity of pharbitin was tested in vitro against 14 phytopathogenic bacteria, and it was found to inhibit Ralstonia solanacearum and four Xanthomonas species. The minimum inhibitory concentration values against the five bacteria were 125-500 μg/ml for the n-butanol layer and 31.25-125 μg/ml for pharbitin. In a detached peach leaf assay, it effectively suppressed the development of bacterial leaf spot, with a control value of 87.5% at 500 μg/ml. In addition, pharbitin strongly reduced the development of bacterial wilt on tomato seedlings by 97.4% at 250 μg/ml, 7 days after inoculation. These findings suggest that the crude extract of P. nil seeds can be used as an alternative biopesticide for the control of plant diseases caused by R. solanacearum and Xanthomonas spp. This is the first report on the antibacterial activity of pharbitin against phytopathogenic bacteria.

  1. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  2. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  3. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on long-storage seeds of Oryza sativa (cv. 2233) and their surface infecting fungal diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.P.; Kar, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Santra, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    We have reported an effective 60 Co gamma irradiation method for the removal and long-time prevention of contaminating fungi of Oryza sativa cv-2233, without the losses of seed viabilities. The fungal growth and their population on gamma treated seeds was found to decrease significantly (p 50%) at 2 kGy, whereas total inhibition was noticed at 3 kGy after 1.5 month.

  5. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  6. Report on seed born diseases in organic seed and propagation material

    OpenAIRE

    Micheloni, C.; Plakolm, G.; Schärer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The key questions which will be addressed in this report are: • Are seed born diseases an important factor that prevents seed companies from producing organic seeds and organic farmers from using them? • Which seed treatments are available in organic farming? Which treatments are or will be acceptable? To which degree are they effective? • Are the thresholds for seed born diseases different among Member States? Can this cause unfair competition among farmers and seed producers? • ...

  7. Can Dual Processing Theory Explain Physics Students' Performance on the Force Concept Inventory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override…

  8. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  9. Building a Framework for a Dual Task Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. McIsaac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of dual task interference has gained increasing attention in the literature for the past 35 years, with six MEDLINE citations in 1979 growing to 351 citations indexed in 2014 and a peak of 454 cited papers in 2013. Increasingly, researchers are examining dual task cost in individuals with pathology, including those with neurodegenerative diseases. While the influence of these papers has extended from the laboratory to the clinic, the field has evolved without clear definitions of commonly used terms and with extreme variations in experimental procedures. As a result, it is difficult to examine the interference literature as a single body of work. In this paper we present a new taxonomy for classifying cognitive-motor and motor-motor interference within the study of dual task behaviors that connects traditional concepts of learning and principles of motor control with current issues of multitasking analysis. As a first step in the process we provide an operational definition of dual task, distinguishing it from a complex single task. We present this new taxonomy, inclusive of both cognitive and motor modalities, as a working model; one that we hope will generate discussion and create a framework from which one can view previous studies and develop questions of interest.

  10. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  11. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  12. Design of Wideband Dual-Polarized Planar Antenna Using Multimode Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wideband dual-polarized planar antenna is designed and analyzed by using the theory of characteristic modes (TCM. The eigenvalue, eigencurrent, characteristic pattern, and modal weighting coefficient are analyzed to bring physical insight to this kind of antenna. The results demonstrate that there are two modes resonant in the operating band for each polarization, which have been combined to form a wider frequency band. A bandwidth of 60.2% (1.72–3.2 GHz for VSWR < 1.5 with high isolation of 32 dB is achieved simultaneously. The size of the radiator structure is 0.33λ0 × 0.33λ0 × 0.22λ0 (λ0 refers to the center operating frequency.

  13. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  14. The inhibitory effect of metals and other ions on acid phosphatase activity from Vigna aconitifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds to metal ions, fluoride, and phosphate was examined. All the effectors had different degree of inhibitory effect on the enzyme. Among metal ions, molybdate and ferric ion were observed to be most potent inhibitors and both exhibited mixed type of inhibition. Acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by Cu2+ in a noncompetitive manner. Zn and Mn showed mild inhibition on the enzyme activity. Inhibition kinetics analysis explored molybdate as a potent inhibitor for acid phosphatase in comparison with other effectors used in this study. Fluoride was the next most strong inhibitor for the enzyme activity, and caused a mixed type of inhibition. Phosphate inhibited the enzyme competitively, which demonstrates that inhibition due to phosphate is one of the regulatory factors for enzyme activity.

  15. A dual-specificity isoform of the protein kinase inhibitor PKI produced by alternate gene splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Walsh, Donal A

    2002-03-15

    We have previously shown that the protein kinase inhibitor beta (PKIbeta) form of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor exists in multiple isoforms, some of which are specific inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas others also inhibit the cGMP-dependent enzyme [Kumar, Van Patten and Walsh (1997), J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20011-20020]. We have now demonstrated that the switch from a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific inhibitor to one with dual specificity arises as a consequence of alternate gene splicing. We have confirmed using bacterially produced pure protein that a single inhibitor species has dual specificity for both PKA and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibiting each with very high and closely similar inhibitory potencies. The gene splicing converted a protein with 70 amino acids into one of 109 amino acids, and did not change the inhibitory potency to PKA, but changed it from a protein that had no detectable PKG inhibitory activity to one that now inhibited PKG in the nanomolar range.

  16. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  17. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiraoka, Miho; Kawada, So; Iiyoshi, Ryota; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sonoki, Tomonori; Maeda, Hayato; Kawasaki, Michio

    2017-03-01

    Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking. In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

  18. Dual- and triple-acting agents for treating core and co-morbid symptoms of major depression: novel concepts, new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The past decade of efforts to find improved treatment for major depression has been dominated by genome-driven programs of rational drug discovery directed toward highly selective ligands for nonmonoaminergic agents. Selective drugs may prove beneficial for specific symptoms, for certain patient subpopulations, or both. However, network analyses of the brain and its dysfunction suggest that agents with multiple and complementary modes of action are more likely to show broad-based efficacy against core and comorbid symptoms of depression. Strategies for improved multitarget exploitation of monoaminergic mechanisms include triple inhibitors of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline reuptake, and drugs interfering with feedback actions of monoamines at inhibitory 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and possibly 5-HT(5A) and 5-HT(7) receptors. Specific subsets of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors mediating antidepressant actions are under study (e.g., 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(6)). Association of a clinically characterized antidepressant mechanism with a nonmonoaminergic component of activity is an attractive strategy. For example, agomelatine (a melatonin agonist/5-HT(2C) antagonist) has clinically proven activity in major depression. Dual neurokinin(1) antagonists/5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and melanocortin(4) antagonists/SRIs should display advantages over their selective counterparts, and histamine H(3) antagonists/SRIs, GABA(B) antagonists/SRIs, glutamatergic/SRIs, and cholinergic agents/SRIs may counter the compromised cognitive function of depression. Finally, drugs that suppress 5-HT reuptake and blunt hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocorticotrophic axis overdrive, or that act at intracellular proteins such as GSK-3beta, may abrogate the negative effects of chronic stress on mood and neuronal integrity. This review discusses the discovery and development of dual- and triple-acting antidepressants, focusing on novel concepts and new drugs disclosed over the last 2 to 3 years.

  19. Abscisic acid regulates seed germination of Vellozia species in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, B C; Bicalho, E M; Munné-Bosch, S; Garcia, Q S

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) and light and temperature on seed germination is still not well understood. We aimed to investigate the role of the ABA and GA on seed germination of Vellozia caruncularis, V. intermedia and V. alutacea in response to light/dark conditions on different temperature. Seeds were incubated in GA (GA 3 or GA 4 ) or ABA and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors (paclobutrazol - PAC, and fluridone - FLU) solutions at two contrasting temperatures (25 and 40 °C). Furthermore, endogenous concentrations of active GAs and those of ABA were measured in seeds of V. intermedia and V. alutacea during imbibition/germination. Exogenous ABA inhibited the germination of Vellozia species under all conditions tested. GA, FLU and FLU + GA 3 stimulated germination in the dark at 25 °C (GA 4 being more effective than GA 3 ). PAC reduced seed germination in V. caruncularis and V. alutacea, but did not affect germination of V. intermedia at 40 °C either under light or dark conditions. During imbibition in the dark, levels of active GAs decreased in the seeds of V. intermedia, but were not altered in those of V. alutacea. Incubation at 40 °C decreased ABA levels during imbibition in both V. caruncularis and V. alutacea. We conclude that the seeds of Vellozia species studied here require light or high temperature to germinate and ABA has a major role in the regulation of Vellozia seed germination in response to light and temperature. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Bancos de semillas en el suelo Soil seed banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Souza Maia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades vegetales, el banco de semillas en el suelo (BSS constituye el potencial regenerativo. La reposición de los individuos a partir del BSS puede tener un efecto marcado en la composición y en los patrones de vegetación de la comunidad. Numerosas investigaciones se han llevado a cabo en bancos de semillas en hábitats agrícolas o en comunidades naturales. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar los conceptos relacionados a BSS, los procesos de formación de éstos, las implicancias agrícolas y cómo esta información puede ser usada para la conservación de los sistemas productivos.In plant communities, the soil seed bank (SSB represents their regenerative potential. The replacement of individuals from the seed bank may have profound effects on the composition and patterns of the vegetation within the community. Many investigations about seed banks have been made within agricultural habitats or in natural communities. The attempt of this review about the seed banks in the soil is to analyze the concepts related to SSBs, their formation, the agricultural implications and how this information might be used for the conservation of the productive systems.

  1. Towards dual recycling with the aid of time and frequency domain simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, M; Grote, H; Freise, A; Heinzel, G; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling, the combination of the interferometric techniques of power and signal recycling, allows the improvement of the shot noise limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. GEO 600 is the first km-scale gravitational wave detector using dual recycling. The hardware installation is completed and dual recycling has become a great challenge in terms of commissioning of GEO 600. Simulations show that lock acquisition of the optical system can only be achieved in certain detector states. Thus as we need to start with a locked detector in such a specific state, an appropriate strategy is needed to change the state of detector operation without losing lock. The basic concepts and first results based on time and frequency domain simulations will be presented in this paper

  2. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  4. Simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S., E-mail: s.murugan@nitrkl.ac.in

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation.

  5. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  6. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  7. Flavanols from evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) defatted seeds inhibit prostate cells invasiveness and cause changes in Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Urszula; Szewczyk, Karolina; Owczarek, Katarzyna; Hrabec, Zbigniew; Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria; Hrabec, Elżbieta

    2013-03-27

    In this study, we assessed the influence of an evening primrose flavanol preparation (EPFP) on proliferation and invasiveness of human prostate cancer cells (DU 145) and immortalized prostate epithelial cells (PNT1A). We report for the first time that EPFP reduces DU 145 cell proliferation (IC50 = 97 μM GAE for 72 h incubation) and invasiveness (by 24% versus control at 75 μM GAE). EPFP strongly inhibited PNT1A invasiveness in a concentration-dependent manner (by 67% versus control at 75 μM GAE) and did not cause a reduction in their proliferation. Furthermore, EPFP inhibited the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secreted to culture medium by PNT1A cells by 84% and 34% versus control at 100 μM GAE, respectively. In the case of DU 145, MMP-9 activity at 100 μM GAE was reduced by 37% versus control. Moreover, the evening primrose seed flavanols suppressed the expression of selected genes (MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-14, c-Fos, c-Jun, and VEGF) and also caused favorable changes in Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio which render DU 145 cells more sensitive to apoptosis-triggering agents. An additional confirmation of the proapoptotic activity of EPFP toward DU 145 was visualization of characteristic apoptotic bodies by DAPI staining. In conclusion, this study suggests that EPFP may increase apoptosis and reduce angiogenesis of prostate cancer cells.

  8. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  9. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  10. (Glyco)-protein drug carriers with an intrinsic therapeutic activity : The concept of dual targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D.K F; Molema, Ingrid; Moolenaar, Frits; de Zeeuw, D; Swart, P.J

    Dual targeting can in principle be achieved by using intrinsically active carriers that not only deliver the conjugated drug but also otherwise influence the pathological process. Potential carriers of this kind are monoclonal antibodies, certain interferons and interleukins, as well as certain

  11. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  12. Passive Maple-Seed Robotic Fliers for Education, Research and Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, D. M.; Abu-Ageel, A.; Alfatlawi, M.; Varney, M. W.; Thompson, C. M.; Aslam, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    As inspirations from flora and fauna have led to many advances in modern technology, the concept of drawing ideas from nature for design should be reflected in engineering education. This paper focuses on a maple-seed robotic flier (MRF) with various complexities, a robotic platform modeled after the samaras of maple or ash trees, to teach STEM…

  13. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  14. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr old seeds had a maximum germination percentage (50% when they were scarified with sulphuric acid for 90 min prior to sowing and when laboratory light (0.5 µmol m-2 s-1 was maintained during the diurnal period. Without scarification, only about 3% of the seeds germinated. Light in laboratory resulted in an increased seed germination as compared to darkness condition. In the field experiment 1 yr old seeds were used testing the following treatments: (a seed scarification (seeds scarified by 30 min immersion in sulphuric acid vs. not scarified, (b presence or absence of plants of L. campestris in plots before field experiments, and (c sowing depth (on soil surface and at 3 cm deep. The scarified seeds showed a germination percentage range between 50 and 64%, whereas non-scarified seeds had 9 to 16% germination. The seeds sowed in plots with or without plants of L. campestris (before the experiment germinated similarly, indicating no evidence of self-inhibition of germination. Three conclusions come out: (1 Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid effectively breaks dormancy in L. campestris seeds; (2 Direct sowing of scarified seeds (on the soil surface or at 3 cm depth resulted in a range of 50-64% of germination under field conditions; and (3 no evidence was obtained for self-inhibition or a positive interaction between preceding vegetation and seed germination of L. campestris.Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. crece en campos en descanso y

  15. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  16. Antibacterial properties of grapefruit seed extract against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients.

  17. Bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on weed seed germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishan, R.; Lee, I.J.

    2017-01-01

    Weeds are major challenges in crop cultivation and cause yield loss. The bacteria based bio-herbicides are emerging against chemical herbicides. This study was aimed to explore the bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on various weed species. The efficacy of I-3 bacterial isolates against weed growth was compared with I-4-5 bacterial strain. The bacterial strains, I-3 and I-4-5 inhibited the seed germination of Cyperus microiria Maxim. Enterobacter sp. I-3 showed higher weed control activity than I-4-5. It was confirmed with growth reduction of C. microiria Maxim. The seed germination of Digitaria sanguinalis L. weed was accelerated during the interaction of I-4-5 and it was drastically declined by I-3 bacterial culture. However, Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. seeds treated with either I-3 or I-4-5 bacterial culture showed no significant germination inhibition. The results of this study suggested that salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 can be applied as bacterial herbicides to control weeds in agricultural fields. (author)

  18. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  19. Effects of salinity, temperature, light and dormancy regulating chemicals on seed germination of salsola drummondii ulbr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, A.; Hameed, A.; Khan, M.A.; Gul, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salsola drummondii Ulbr. is a perennial halophyte found in salt deserts of southern Balochistan, Pakistan. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of salinity (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mM NaCl), thermoperiod (10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 degree C), light (12-h photoperiod and dark) and dormancy regulating chemicals (DRCs) on germination, recovery and viability of the seeds of S. drummondii. Seeds of S. drummondii germinated quickly in distilled water at different temperature regimes and increases in salinity decreased seed germination. Interestingly, few seeds could even germinate in 1000 mM NaCl treatment, which is about twice as high as seawater salinity. Seeds were partially photoblastic and showed relatively higher germination under 12-h photoperiod than in dark. Seeds showed poor recovery of germination from salinity and particularly when germinated in dark. Germination inhibition at high salinity (800 mM NaCl) under 12-h photoperiod was partially alleviated by the exogenous application of different DRCs, particularly fusicoccin. Moreover, all the DRCs, except GA4+7, ameliorated germination of salt stressed seeds under complete darkness and GA4 and fusicoccin were most effective. Our study shows that seeds of S. drummondii are highly tolerant to salinity and variation in temperature but partially photoblastic nature indicate that seeds will not germinate if buried under the soil. Seed germination under saline conditions can be improved by the use of DRCs particularly by application of fusicoccin. (author)

  20. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  1. Novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives act as dual binding site AChE inhibitors with metal-complexing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wei [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); NPFPC Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Juan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Qiu, Zhuibai [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xia, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Lining; Chen, Hailin; Chen, Jianxing [NPFPC Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Yan; Hu, Zhuqin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Biyun; Cui, Yongyao [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xie, Qiong, E-mail: xiejoanxq@gmail.com [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Hongzhuan, E-mail: yaoli@shsmu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-10-01

    The strategy of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition along with metal chelation may represent a promising direction for multi-targeted interventions in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, two derivatives (ZLA and ZLB) of a potent dual binding site AChE inhibitor bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol (bis-MEP) were designed and synthesized by introducing metal chelating pharmacophores into the middle chain of bis-MEP. They could inhibit human AChE activity with IC{sub 50} values of 9.63 μM (for ZLA) and 8.64 μM (for ZLB), and prevent AChE-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation with IC{sub 50} values of 49.1 μM (for ZLA) and 55.3 μM (for ZLB). In parallel, molecular docking analysis showed that they are capable of interacting with both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE. Furthermore, they exhibited abilities to complex metal ions such as Cu(II) and Zn(II), and inhibit Aβ aggregation triggered by these metals. Collectively, these results suggest that ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency, and may be potential leads of value for further study on disease-modifying treatment of AD. -- Highlights: ► Two novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives are designed and synthesized. ► ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency. ► They are potential leads for disease-modifying treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives act as dual binding site AChE inhibitors with metal-complexing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Juan; Qiu, Zhuibai; Xia, Zheng; Li, Wei; Yu, Lining; Chen, Hailin; Chen, Jianxing; Chen, Yan; Hu, Zhuqin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Biyun; Cui, Yongyao; Xie, Qiong; Chen, Hongzhuan

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition along with metal chelation may represent a promising direction for multi-targeted interventions in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, two derivatives (ZLA and ZLB) of a potent dual binding site AChE inhibitor bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol (bis-MEP) were designed and synthesized by introducing metal chelating pharmacophores into the middle chain of bis-MEP. They could inhibit human AChE activity with IC 50 values of 9.63 μM (for ZLA) and 8.64 μM (for ZLB), and prevent AChE-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation with IC 50 values of 49.1 μM (for ZLA) and 55.3 μM (for ZLB). In parallel, molecular docking analysis showed that they are capable of interacting with both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE. Furthermore, they exhibited abilities to complex metal ions such as Cu(II) and Zn(II), and inhibit Aβ aggregation triggered by these metals. Collectively, these results suggest that ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency, and may be potential leads of value for further study on disease-modifying treatment of AD. -- Highlights: ► Two novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives are designed and synthesized. ► ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency. ► They are potential leads for disease-modifying treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinonen, K.; Rita, H.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model was used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5 °C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16 °C), osmotically induced water stress (–0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds: the effect of osmotic stress being stronger at +16 °C than at +12 °C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12 °C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16 °C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light

  4. A novel and exploitable antifungal peptide from kale (Brassica alboglabra) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and characterize antifungal peptides from kale seeds in view of the paucity of information on antifungal peptides from the family Brassicaceae, and to compare its characteristics with those of published Brassica antifungal peptides. A 5907-Da antifungal peptide was isolated from kale seeds. The isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and Mono S, and gel filtration on Superdex Peptide. The peptide was adsorbed on the first three chromatographic media. It inhibited mycelial growth in a number of fungal species including Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Valsa mali, with an IC(50) of 4.3microM, 2.1microM, 2.4microM, and 0.15microM, respectively and exhibited pronounced thermostability and pH stability. It inhibited proliferation of hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC(50) of 2.7microM and 3.4microM, and the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4.9microM. Its N-terminal sequence differed from those of antifungal proteins which have been reported to date.

  5. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-05-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study, we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, whereas application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Further results show that production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice.

  6. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·– and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·– and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·–, H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·–, peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination. PMID:24744430

  7. Flavonoids from leaves of Derris urucu: assessment of potential effects on seed germination and development of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWERTON A.S. DA SILVA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In some previous studies, we described the isolation of nine compounds from leaves of Derris urucu, a species found widely in the Amazon rainforest, identified as five stilbenes and four dihydroflavonols. In this work, three of these dihydroflavonols [urucuol A (1, urucuol B (2 and isotirumalin (3] were evaluated to identify their potential as allelochemicals, and we are also reporting the isolation and structural determination of a new flavonoid [5,3′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-(7,6:5″,6″-2″,2″-dimethylpyranoflavanone (4]. We investigated the effects of the dihydroflavonols 1-3 on seed germination and radicle and hypocotyl growth of the weed Mimosa pudica, using solutions at 150 mg.L–1. Urucuol B, alone, was the substance with the greatest potential to inhibit seed germination (26%, while isotirumalin showed greater ability to reduce the development of the hypocotyl (25%, but none of the three substances showed the potential to inhibit radicle. When combined in pairs, the substances showed synergism for the development of root and hypocotyl and effects on seed germination that could be attributed to antagonism. When tested separately, the trend has become more intense effects on seed germination, while for the substances tested in pairs, the intensity of the effect was greater on development of weed.

  8. Antagonistic effects of high and low temperature pretreatments on the germination and pregermination ethylene synthesis of lettuce seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, A N

    1972-08-01

    Red light-induced germination of Grand Rapids lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) incubated at 20 C was inhibited if the seeds were first imbibed at 30 C for 36 hours. This effect was counteracted by exogenous ethylene and associated with a reduction in the rate at which the seeds produced ethylene throughout the pregermination period. A chilling treatment reversed the effect of a prior imbibition at 30 C on both germination and ethylene production. The possibility that the pretreatments influence germination through their effects on ethylene production is discussed.Other evidence presented indicates that the inability of seeds to germinate at supraoptimal temperature is not due either to a rapid loss of far red-absorbing phytochrome or to an inadequate capacity for ethylene synthesis. It was also shown that a chilling treatment potentiated germination at high temperature without affecting the ethylene synthetic capacity of the seeds.

  9. Dual income tax: An option for the reform of personal income tax in Serbia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tax theory and practice provides two fundamental concepts for taxation of personal income: scheduler and global. Several systems have been derived from these basic models, including combined, flat, dual and negative income tax. Dual income tax, the subject of this paper, requires progressive taxation of income from employment and proportional taxation of income from capital. However, strict application of this system significantly violates the principle of equitability of taxation, both horizontally and vertically.

  10. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  11. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  12. Environmental effects of nanosilver: impact on castor seed germination, seedling growth, and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasur, Jyothsna; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2013-12-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in daily products is of great concern today, especially when their positive and negative impact on environment is not known. Hence, in current research, we have studied the impact of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) application on seed germination, root, and shoot length of castor bean, Ricinus communis L. plant. Silver nanoparticles had no significant effects on seedling growth even at higher concentration of 4,000 mg L(-1), while the silver in bulk form as AgNO3 applied on the castor bean seeds inhibited the seed germination. Silver uptake in seedlings of the castor seeds on treatment with both the forms of silver was confirmed through atomic absorption spectroscopy studies. The silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate application to castor seeds also caused an enhanced enzymatic activity of ROS enzymes and phenolic content in castor seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of individual phenols indicated enhanced content of parahydroxy benzoic acid. These kinds of studies are of great interest in order to unveil the movement and accumulation of nanoparticles in plant tissues for assessing future applications in the field or laboratory.

  13. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  14. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  16. Seeds of hope, seeds of despair: towards a political economy of the seed industry in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, N

    2001-01-01

    The seed industry in Southern Africa has been radically transformed by a policy of liberalisation and privatisation started under structural adjustment. Traditionally under the domain of parastatals, seed research, production and distribution has been criticised for failing to provide modern variety seed to smallholder farmers. However, the private companies which have stepped in to replace seed parastatals in southern Africa have proven no more effective in meeting the demands of smallholders. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, concluded in 1994 as part of the Uruguay Rounds of GATT negotiations, as well as certain biotechnological innovations such as Terminator or Traitor technologies, threaten to further undermine local seed production and consumption by destroying the informal seed sector so central to agricultural production in the region. What alternatives exist? The success of Zimbabwe's maize seed network offers some insight. Resting on a unique relationship between government and nationally based producer co-operatives, Zimbabwe's maize programme was able to provide nearly every farmer in the country with hybrid maize suited for local growing conditions.

  17. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  18. The effect of growth conditions on the seed size/number trade-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Paul-Victor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available If the amount of resources allocated to reproduction (K is fixed, then an increase in seed mass (S can only be achieved by a decrease in seed number (n = K/S. Thus, log(n = log(K-log(S producing a slope of -1 when seed mass and number are plotted on log-log axes. However, in comparative studies, empirical support for a slope of -1 is limited and contentious, leading some to question the utility of this concept.First, we show that the expected slope depends on whether genotypes and species producing seeds of different mass are expected to reach the same adult size and that this in turn depends partly on the nature of growth. Second, we present experimental results using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs of Arabidopsis thaliana. When these RILs are grown in large pots with plentiful nutrients, they exhibit a trade-off between seed size and number with a slope of -1.68 (+/-0.18 on log-log axes. This occurs because of genetic correlations between seed mass and adult size so that, under the right growth conditions, lines producing lighter seeds have the genetic potential to produce larger rosettes and hence a greater total mass of seeds. We re-grew lines in small pots (10 and 40 mm diameter in a nutrient-poor substrate so that final adult size was heavily restricted by pot size.Under our growth conditions, small-seeded lines were unable to produce a greater total mass of seeds. Hence a trade-off emerged between seed mass and seed number with a slope of -1.166+/-0.319 on log-log axes in 40-mm diameter pots (close to the expected value of -1, although the slope was 0.132+/-0.263 in 10-mm diameter pots, demonstrating that the nature of the trade-off is sensitive to the growth conditions.

  19. Substrate uptake, phosphorus repression, and effect of seed culture on glycopeptide antibiotic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Singh, Kamaleshwar P.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    may experience catabolite repression by one or more of the substrates. Availability of reliable process models is a key bottleneck in optimization of such processes. Here we present a structured kinetic model to describe the growth, substrate uptake and product formation for the glycopeptide....... The model is also able to predict key phenomena such as simultaneous uptake of glucose and glycerol but with different specific uptake rates, and inhibition of glycopeptide production by high intracellular phosphate levels. The model is successfully applied to both production and seed medium with varying....... The model may have applications in optimizing seed transfer, medium composition, and feeding strategy for maximizing production....

  20. Effects of fungicides and bactericides on orchid seed germination and shoot tip cultures in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, DM; Groom, CL; Cvitanik, M; Brown, M; Cooper, JL; Arditti, J

    1981-01-01

    Amphotericin B, benomyl, gentamycin, nystatin, quintozene penicillin G, sodium omadine, and vancomycin singly and in several combinations have no deleterious effects on the germination of orchid seeds, but inhibit the growth in vitro of shoot tip explants. © 1981 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  1. On Anticipatory Development of Dual Education Based on the Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshynbayeva, Zhuldyz; Sarbassova, Karlygash; Galiyeva, Temir; Kaltayeva, Gulnara; Bekmagambetov, Aidos

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses separate theoretical and methodical aspects of the anticipatory development of dual education in the Republic of Kazakhstan based on the systemic approach. It states the need to develop orientating basis of prospective professional activities in students. We define the concepts of anticipatory cognition and anticipatory…

  2. SU-F-19A-11: Retrospective Evaluation of Thermal Coverage by Thermobrachytherapy Seed Arrangements of Clinical LDR Prostate Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrell, G; Shvydka, D; Chen, C; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The superiority of a properly-administered combination of radiation therapy and hyperthermia over radiation alone in treatment of human cancers has been demonstrated in multiple studies examining radiobiology, local control, and survival. Unfortunately, hyperthermia is not yet a common modality in oncology practice, due in part to the technical difficulty of heating a deep-seated target volume to sufficient temperature. To address this problem, our group has invented a thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed based on a commonly-used low dose-rate permanent brachytherapy seed for implant in solid tumors. Instead of the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard seed, the TB seed contains one of a self-regulating ferromagnetic alloy. Placement of a patient implanted with such seeds in an oscillating magnetic field generates heat via induction of eddy currents. We present the results of studies of the capability of clinically-realistic TB seed arrangements to adequately heat defined target volumes. Methods: Seed distributions for several past LDR prostate permanent implant brachytherapy patients were reproduced in the finite element analysis software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4, with the difference that TB seeds were modelled, rather than the radiation-only seeds actually used for their treatments. The implant geometries were mainly of the modified peripheral loading type; a range of prostatic volumes and blood perfusion rates likely to be seen in a clinical setting were examined. Results: According to the simulations, when distributed to optimize radiation dose, TB seeds also produce sufficient heat to provide thermal coverage of the target given proper selection of the magnetic field strength. However, the thermal distributions may be improved by additional use of hyperthermia-only seeds. Conclusion: A dual-modality seed intended as an alternative to and using the same implantation apparatus and technique as the standard LDR permanent implant seed has been

  3. "Compromises That We Make": Whiteness in the Dual Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Meg

    2017-01-01

    This case study of a two-way dual language school explores the role of whiteness in a bilingual space, specifically with regards to parent involvement. I ask how whiteness operates in this setting and how the school's response to parent involvement reflects and/or challenges white supremacy. Using the concept of "interest convergence"…

  4. Design of dual action antibiotics as an approach to search for new promising drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevyashova, A N; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the latest achievements in the design of dual action antibiotics — heterodimeric (chimeric) structures based on antibacterial agents of different classes (fluoroquinolones, anthracyclines, oxazolidines, macrolides and so on). Covalent binding can make the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these molecules more predictable and improve the penetration of each component into the cell. Consequently, not only does the drug efficacy increase owing to inhibition of two targets but also the resistance to one or both antibiotics can be overcome. The theoretical grounds of elaboration, design principles and methods for the synthesis of dual action antibiotics are considered. The structures are classified according to the type of covalent spacer (cleavable or not) connecting the moieties of two agents. Dual action antibiotics with a spacer that can be cleaved in a living cell are considered as dual action prodrugs. Data on the biological action of heterodimeric compounds are presented and structure–activity relationships are analyzed. The bibliography includes 225 references

  5. A dual-band reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna with diverse radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurav, Kushmanda; Sarkar, Debdeep; Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a dual-band pattern reconfigurable antenna is proposed. The antenna comprises of a dual-band complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) loaded dipole as the driven element and two copper strips with varying lengths as parasitic segments on both sides of the driven dipole. PIN diodes are used with the parasitic elements to control their electrical length. The CSRRs loading provide a lower order mode in addition to the reference dipole mode, while the parasitic elements along with the PIN diodes are capable of switching the omni-directional radiation of the dual-band driven element to nine different configurations of radiation patterns which include bi-directional end-fire, broadside, and uni-directional end-fire in both the operating bands. A prototype of the designed antenna together with the PIN diodes and DC bias lines is fabricated to validate the concept of dual-band radiation pattern diversity. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement. The proposed antenna can be used in wireless access points for PCS and WLAN applications.

  6. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  7. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  8. Multifunctions of dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium on osteogenesis, angiogenesis and bacteria inhibition for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqiang; Jin, Guodong; Xue, Yang; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Jiao

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the osseointegration and long-term survival of dental implants, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional titanium surface which would simultaneously have osteogeneic, angiogeneic and antibacterial properties. In this study, a potential dental implant material-dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium (Zn/Mg-PIII) was developed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The Zn/Mg-PIII surfaces were found to promote initial adhesion and spreading of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) via the upregulation of the gene expression of integrin α1 and integrin β1. More importantly, it was revealed that Zn/Mg-PIII could increase Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations in rBMSCs by promoting the influx of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ and inhibiting the outflow of Zn 2+ , and then could enhance the transcription of Runx2 and the expression of ALP and OCN. Meanwhile, Mg 2+ ions from Zn/Mg-PIII increased Mg 2+ influx by upregulating the expression of MagT1 transporter in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then stimulated the transcription of VEGF and KDR via activation of hypoxia inducing factor (HIF)-1α, thus inducing angiogenesis. In addition to this, it was discovered that zinc in Zn/Mg-PIII had certain inhibitory effects on oral anaerobic bacteria (Pg, Fn and Sm). Finally, the Zn/Mg-PIII implants were implanted in rabbit femurs for 4 and 12weeks with Zn-PIII, Mg-PIII and pure titanium as controls. Micro-CT evaluation, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis and push-out test consistently demonstrated that Zn/Mg-PIII implants exhibit superior capacities for enhancing bone formation, angiogenesis and osseointegration, while consequently increasing the bonding strength at bone-implant interfaces. All these results suggest that due to the multiple functions co-produced by zinc and magnesium, rapid osseointegration and sustained biomechanical stability are enhanced by the novel Zn/Mg-PIII implants, which have the potential

  9. Dual Inhibition of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK Pathways Induces Synergistic Antitumor Effects in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Linda Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG is a devastating disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR and its downstream effector pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, are frequently amplified in DIPG, and potential therapies targeting this pathway have emerged. However, the addition of targeted single agents has not been found to improve clinical outcomes in DIPG, and targeting this pathway alone has produced insufficient clinical responses in multiple malignancies investigated, including lung, endometrial, and bladder cancers. Acquired resistance also seems inevitable. Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which shares many nodes of cross talk with the PI3K/AKT pathway, has been implicated in the development of resistance. In the present study, perifosine, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, and trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, were combined, and their therapeutic efficacy on DIPG cells was assessed. Growth delay assays were performed with each drug individually or in combination. Here, we show that dual inhibition of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways synergistically reduced cell viability. We also reveal that trametinib induced AKT phosphorylation in DIPG cells that could not be effectively attenuated by the addition of perifosine, likely due to the activation of other compensatory mechanisms. The synergistic reduction in cell viability was through the pronounced induction of apoptosis, with some effect from cell cycle arrest. We conclude that the concurrent inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways may be a potential therapeutic strategy for DIPG.

  10. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  11. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  12. Dual-scale topology optoelectronic processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, G C; Krishnamoorthy, A V; Esener, S C; Lee, S H

    1991-12-15

    The dual-scale topology optoelectronic processor (D-STOP) is a parallel optoelectronic architecture for matrix algebraic processing. The architecture can be used for matrix-vector multiplication and two types of vector outer product. The computations are performed electronically, which allows multiplication and summation concepts in linear algebra to be generalized to various nonlinear or symbolic operations. This generalization permits the application of D-STOP to many computational problems. The architecture uses a minimum number of optical transmitters, which thereby reduces fabrication requirements while maintaining area-efficient electronics. The necessary optical interconnections are space invariant, minimizing space-bandwidth requirements.

  13. Involvement of Polyamine Oxidase-Produced Hydrogen Peroxide during Coleorhiza-Limited Germination of Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Xian Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulated enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. The action of polyamine oxidase (PAO produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which promotes dicot seed germination. However, whether and, if so, how PAOs regulate monocot seed germination via H2O2 production is unclear. Herein, we report that the coleorhiza is the main physical barrier to radicle protrusion during germination of rice seed (a monocot seed and that it does so in a manner similar to that of dicot seed micropylar endosperm. We found that H2O2 specifically and steadily accumulated in the coleorhizae and radicles of germinating rice seeds and was accompanied by increased PAO activity as the germination percentage increased. These physiological indexes were strongly decreased in number by guazatine, a PAO inhibitor. We also identified 11 PAO homologs (OsPAO1–11 in the rice genome, which could be classified into four subfamilies (I, IIa, IIb, and III. The OsPAO genes in subfamilies I, IIa, and IIb (OsPAO1–7 encode PAOs, whereas those in subfamily III (OsPAO8–11 encode histone lysine-specific demethylases. In silico-characterized expression profiles of OsPAO1–7 and those determined by qPCR revealed that OsPAO5 is markedly upregulated in imbibed seeds compared with dry seeds and that its transcript accumulated to a higher level in embryos than in the endosperm. Moreover, its transcriptional abundance increased gradually during seed germination in water and was inhibited by 5 mM guazatine. Taken together, these results suggest that PAO-generated H2O2 is involved in coleorhiza-limited rice seed germination and that OsPAO5 expression accounts for most PAO expression and activity during rice seed germination. These findings should facilitate further study of PAOs and provide valuable information for functional validation of these proteins during seed germination of monocot cereals.

  14. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Eman M.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2018-01-01

    The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays) against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum). The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays) for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169) exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73) of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169) of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl) and 62% (104/169) secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated cucurbits

  15. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  16. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanidermatum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  17. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  18. Injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chu; Shan, Meng; Li, Bingqiang; Wu, Guolin

    2017-09-01

    An injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel was successfully developed by combining the conceptions of injectable hydrogels and dual redox responsive diselenides. In the first step, four-armed PEG was modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated esters and thereafter, crosslinked by selenocystamine crosslinkers to form injectable hydrogels via the rapid reaction between NHS-activated esters and amino groups. The cross-sectional morphology, mechanical properties, and crosslinking modes of hydrogels were well characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheological measurements, and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. In addition, the oxidation- and reduction-responsive degradation behaviors of hydrogels were observed and analyzed. The model drug, rhodamine B, was encapsulated in the hydrogel. The drug-loaded hydrogel exhibited a dual redox responsive release profile, which was consistent with the degradation experiments. The results of all experiments indicated that the formulated injectable dual redox responsive diselenide-containing PEG hydrogel can have potential applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and stimuli-responsive drug release. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2451-2460, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu; Sendilvelan Subramanian; Nagarajan Govindan; Sampath Santhanam

    2017-01-01

    The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The ex...

  20. [Mineral elements analysis of Momordica charantiap seeds by ICP-AES and fatty acid profile identification of seed oil by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ru; Deng, Ze-yuan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-han

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.

  1. Purification of a lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds and its potential antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M D L; Andrade, C A S; Santos-Magalhães, N S; Coelho, L C B B; Teixeira, J A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Correia, M T S

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the antimicrobial properties of a purified lectin from Eugenia uniflora L. seeds. The E. uniflora lectin (EuniSL) was isolated from the seed extract and purified by ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sephadex with a purification factor of 11.68. The purified lectin showed a single band on denaturing electrophoresis, with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. EuniSL agglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes with a higher specificity for rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutination was not inhibited by the tested carbohydrates but glycoproteins exerted a strong inhibitory action. The lectin proved to be thermo resistant with the highest stability at pH 6.5 and divalent ions did not affect its activity. EuniSL demonstrated a remarkable nonselective antibacterial activity. EuniSL strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.5 microg ml(-1), and moderately inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp. and Escherichia coli with a MIC of 16.5 microg ml(-1). EuniSL was found to be effective against bacteria. The strong antibacterial activity of the studied lectin indicates a high potential for clinical microbiology and therapeutic applications.

  2. Preliminary studies on ribonucleases from Poa pratensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease was extracted from Poa pratensis seeds with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.1, and then precipitated with alcohol. The enzyme was separated into 5 fractions (I-V after chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH 5.1. The enzymes were stable at 50°C, at pH 7.1. The activity of ribonucleases I, II, III and V were optimal at pH 7.1-7.3, and that of ribonuclease IV at pH 8.1. Ali enzymes were inhibited by Ca2+ and EDTA. Mg2+ inhibited the activity of ribonucleases II, III, IV, and had no influence on that of ribonucleases I and V. Ribonucleases IV and V showed only one activity band in disc electrophoresis, whereas ribonucleases, I, II and III were found to be heterogenous.

  3. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

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    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enh