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Sample records for dual functional moieties

  1. Synthesis of the fully functionalized ABCDE ring moiety of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shoji; Alizadeh, Babak H; Sasaki, Shin-ya; Oguri, Hiroki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2004-03-04

    A fully functionalized ABCDE ring moiety of ciguatoxin (CTX), the major causative agent of ciguatera poisoning, was synthesized for the first time. The present strategy involves the efficient installation of the C5-dihydroxybutenyl substituent and construction of the tetrahydrooxepin E ring using a novel alpha-chlorosulfide synthon. [structure: see text

  2. Moieties in Ancient Mesoamerica: Inferences on Teotihuacan Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marshall Joseph

    1975-01-01

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate the existence of political moieties at Teotihuacan by gathering evidence for dual organization in Mesoamerica, providing information regarding the operation and functions of political moieties, and indicating how the evidence now available conforms to a general model of moieties. (Author)

  3. 5,6-Dimethoxybenzofuran-3-one Derivatives: a Novel Series of Dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Bearing Benzyl Pyridinium Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on design and synthesis of multi-target anti Alzheimer compounds. Utilizing of the dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors has gained more interest to treat the Alzheimer’s disease. As a part of a research program to find a novel drug for treating Alzheimer disease, we have previously reported 6-alkoxybenzofuranone derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. In continuation of our work, we would like to report the synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone derivatives bearing a benzyl pyridinium moiety as dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.MethodsThe synthesis of target compounds was carried out using a conventional method. Bayer-Villiger oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde furnished 3,4-dimethoxyphenol. The reaction of 3,4-dimethoxyphenol with chloroacetonitrile followed by treatment with HCl solution and then ring closure yielded the 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone. Condensation of the later compound with pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and subsequent reaction with different benzyl halides afforded target compounds. The biological activity was measured using standard Ellman’s method. Docking studies were performed to get better insight into interaction of compounds with receptor.ResultsThe in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase activity of compounds revealed that, all of the target compounds have good inhibitory activity against both Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase enzymes in which compound 5b (IC50 = 52 ± 6.38nM was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase. The same binding mode and interactions were observed for the reference drug donepezil and compound 5b in docking study.ConclusionsIn this study, we presented a new series of benzofuranone-based derivatives having pyridinium moiety as potent dual acting Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  4. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  5. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  6. Diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as pseudostationary phase in capillary electrochromatography separation of plant auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Yue, Chun-Yue; Tang, An-Na

    2012-07-01

    A novel and simple method for the preparation of silica nanoparticles having surface-functionalized diamino moiety (dASNPs) was reported in our paper and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and thermogravimetry techniques. To test this method practically, in this contribution we describe the enhanced separation of four plant auxins - indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (dCPAA), and 2-(1-naphthyl) acetic acid (NAA) - by capillary electrochromatography using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in the running buffer. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, and diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles concentration on the selectivity of separation was investigated. A combination of the nanoparticles and running buffer reversed the electroosmotic direction making possible the rapid and efficient separation of the auxins from the auxins migrated in the same direction with the EOF under optimum experimental conditions. A good resolution of four auxins was obtained within 5.5 min under optimum experimental conditions. The precision (RSD, n = 5) was in the range of 0.72-0.91% and 1.89-2.23% for migration time and peak area response, respectively. The detection limits were 0.48, 0.44, 0.46, and 0.42 μM for NAA, IBA, IAA, and dCPAA, respectively. Furthermore, the method was successfully tested for the determination of IAA in the grapes. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Quotient functions of dual quermassintegrals | Zhao | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivated by the notion of volume difference functions, we introduce quotient functions of dual quermassintegrals and establish Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities for them, which have several recent results as special cases. Keywords: Volume difference function, dual quermassintegrals, quotient function, radial Blaschke ...

  8. Dual pancreas- and lung-targeting therapy for local and systemic complications of acute pancreatitis mediated by a phenolic propanediamine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinjie; Fu, Yao; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Jiang, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-08-28

    To inhibit both the local and systemic complications with acute pancreatitis, an effective therapy requires a drug delivery system that can efficiently overcome the blood-pancreas barrier while achieving lung-specific accumulation. Here, we report the first dual pancreas- and lung-targeting therapeutic strategy mediated by a phenolic propanediamine moiety for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Using the proposed dual-targeting ligand, an anti-inflammatory compound Rhein has been tailored to preferentially accumulate in the pancreas and lungs with rapid distribution kinetics, excellent tissue-penetrating properties and minimum toxicity. Accordingly, the drug-ligand conjugate remarkably downregulated the proinflammatory cytokines in the target organs thus effectively inhibiting local pancreatic and systemic inflammation in rats. The dual-specific targeting therapeutic strategy may help pave the way for targeted drug delivery to treat complicated inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photo-responsive carbon nanomaterials functionalized by azobenzene moieties: structures, properties and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu

    2012-10-21

    The ability to tune the microstructures, bandgap, conductance, chemical environment and thermal storage of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes by optical modulation or response is important to design and fabricate advanced optoelectronic nanodevices. This review is focused on optical control and regulation of structures, properties, interface and interaction of a new generation of photo-responsive carbon nanomaterials/azobenzene moieties (Carbon-AZO) hybrids. The optical switching properties of Carbon-AZO hybrids resulting from the photo-isomerization between trans and cis isomers are highlighted and discussed in terms of photo-energy conversion devices including switches, sensors, detectors, fuels and storage. A wide range of advanced energy conversion devices using Carbon-AZO hybrids can be developed in the future by the optimization of the chemical structure, steric conformation, electrostatic environment and functionalization of specific molecules.

  10. Site-Specific Dual Functionalization of Cysteine Residue in Peptides and Proteins with 2-Azidoacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Shinya; Hayashi, Hirohito; Xing, Bengang; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2017-04-19

    Herein, we report use of 2-azidoacrylates to perform site-specific dual functionalization of the cysteine residue of peptides and bovine serum albumin (BSA), a native protein containing one free cysteine residue. The sulfhydryl group of the cysteine residue could be conjugated with 2-azidoacrylates bearing various functionalities, such as fluorescent dyes under physiological aqueous buffer conditions, to afford peptide and protein conjugates anchoring an azide moiety. Successive azide-alkyne cycloaddition enables installation of the second functionality, thus affording dual-functionalized peptide- and protein-based materials.

  11. Unraveling Executive Functioning in Dual Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijkers, Judith C L M; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-01-01

    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other's expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is associated with relapses in addiction-related behavior and a destructive lifestyle. This is due to a persistent failure to control impulses and the maintaining of inadequate self-regulatory behavior in daily life. Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. However, the number of studies on diverse aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is limited. In the present review, a systematic overview of various aspects of executive functioning in dual-diagnosis is presented, striving for a prototypical profile of patients with dual-diagnosis. Looking at empirical results, inhibitory and shifting processes appear to be impaired for SUD combined with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or cluster B personality disorders. Studies involving updating process tasks for dual-diagnosis were limited. More research that zooms in to the full diversity of these executive functions is needed in order to strengthen these findings. Detailed insight in the profile of strengths and weaknesses that underlies one's behavior and is related to diagnostic classifications, can lead to tailor-made assessment and indications for treatment, pointing out which aspects need attention and/or training in one's self-regulative abilities.

  12. Synthesis of Morpholine Containing Sulfonamides: Introduction of Morpholine Moiety on Amine Functional Group

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    D. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides have been the center of drug structures as this group is quite stable & well tolerated in human beings. The synthesis of these structures was started in search of new pharmacological active reagents. These compounds are being tested for the desired activity (ICAM-1/LFA-1 Interaction inhibitors as anti-adhesion therapeutic agents, the biological activity & structure activity relationship will be published elsewhere. Synthesis of morpholine moiety from amino group is done by using reagent 2-chloroethanol.

  13. The Dual Gap Function for Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianzhong; Wan Changyu; Xiu Naihua

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we further study the dual gap function G, which was introduced by Marcotte and Zhu, for the variational inequality problem (VIP). We characterize the directional derivative and subdifferential of G. Based on these, we get a better understanding of the concepts of a global error bound, weak sharpness, and minimum principle sufficiency property for the pseudo-monotone

  14. Functionalized mesoporous silicas with crown ether moieties for selective adsorption of lithium ions in artificial sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Soo Park; Moorthy, Madhappan Santha; Song, Hyun-Jin; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Lithium ion has been increasingly recognized in a wide range of industrial applications. In this work, we studied on the adsorption of Li+ in the artificial seawater with high selectivity using methyl-crown ether (AC-SBA-15) and aza-crown ether (HMC-SBA-15) moieties-functionalized mesoporous silica materials. First, methyl-crown ether and aza-crown ether moieties-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were synthesized via two-step post-synthesis process using a grafting method. The functionalized materials were employed to the metal ion adsorption from aqueous solution (artificial seawater) containing Li+, Co2+, Cr3+ and Hg2+. The prepared hybrid material showed high selectivity for Li+ ion in the artificial seawater at pH 8.0. The absorbed amount of Li+ was 73 times higher than Cr3+ for aza-crown ether containing AC-SBA-15 as an absorbent. The absorbed amount of Co2+ (4.5 x 10(-5) mol/g), Cr3+ (1.5 x 10(-5) mol/g) and Hg2+ (2.25 x 10(-4) mol/g) were remarkably lower than the case of Li+. On the other hand, the absorbed amount of various metal ions of HMC-SBA-15 with amine groups in alky chains and crown ether moieties were 1.1 x 10(-3) mol/g for Li+, 5.0 x 10(-5) mol/g for Co2+, 2.9 x 10(-4) mol/g for Cr3+, 2.8 x 10(-4) mol/g for Hg2+ mol/g, respectively.

  15. Functionalization of Chitosan with 3,4,5-Trihydroxy Benzoic Acid Moiety for The Uptake of Chromium Species

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    Akhmad Sabarudin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-based chelating resin, the cross-linked chitosan functionalized with 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid moiety (CCTS-THBA resin, was newly synthesized and its adsorption behavior toward appropriate elements was investigated. At pH 5-9, the CCTS-THBA resin showed quantitative adsorption (87-91% for Cr (VI, while only < 15% for Cr (III. The addition of cyclohexanediamine tetraacetic acid (CyDTA to the samples resulted in a considerably increase of the adsorption of both chromium species. In this condition, Cr (III is chelated with CyDTA to form anionic complexes at pH 3-5, which was then completely adsorbed on the resin by ion exchange mechanism. Similarly, the adsorption of Cr (VI reached almost 100% in pH range of 3-6. The adsorption capacity of CCTS-THBA resin for Cr (VI was 109 mg g-1.

  16. Novel Infectivity-Enhanced Oncolytic Adenovirus with a Capsid-Incorporated Dual-Imaging Moiety for Monitoring Virotherapy in Ovarian Cancer

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    Kristopher J. Kimball

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to develop a cancer-targeted, infectivity-enhanced oncolytic adenovirus that embodies a capsid-labeling fusion for non-invasive dual-modality imaging of ovarian cancer virotherapy. A functional fusion protein composed of fluorescent and nuclear imaging tags was genetically incorporated into the capsid of an infectivity-enhanced conditionally replicative adenovirus. Incorporation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1 into the viral capsid and its genomic stability were verified by molecular analyses. Replication and oncolysis were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. Fusion functionality was confirmed by in vitro gamma camera and fluorescent microscopy imaging. Comparison of tk-mRFP virus to single-modality controls revealed similar replication efficiency and oncolytic potency. Molecular fusion did not abolish enzymatic activity of HSV-tk as the virus effectively phosphorylated thymidine both ex vivo and in vitro. In vitro fluorescence imaging demonstrated a strong correlation between the intensity of fluorescent signal and cytopathic effect in infected ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that fluorescence can be used to monitor viral replication. We have in vitro validated a new infectivity-enhanced oncolytic adenovirus with a dual-imaging modality-labeled capsid, optimized for ovarian cancer virotherapy. The new agent could provide incremental gains toward climbing the barriers for achieving conditionally replicated adenovirus efficacy in human trials.

  17. Gelatin functionalization with tyrosine derived moieties to increase the interaction with hydroxyapatite fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffe, Axel T; Loebus, Axel; Zaupa, Alessandro; Stoetzel, Christian; Müller, Frank A; Lendlein, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Combining gelatins functionalized with the tyrosine-derived groups desaminotyrosine or desaminotyrosyl tyrosine with hydroxyapatite (HAp) led to the formation of composite materials with much lower swelling ratios than those of the pure matrices. Shifts of the infra-red (IR) bands related to the free carboxyl groups could be observed in the presence of HAp, which suggested a direct interaction of matrix and filler that formed additional physical cross-links in the material. In tensile tests and rheological measurements the composites equilibrated in water had increased Young's moduli (from 200 kPa up to 2 MPa) and tensile strengths (from 57 kPa up to 1.1 MPa) compared with the matrix polymers without affecting the elongation at break. Furthermore, an increased thermal stability of the networks from 40 to 85°C could be demonstrated. The differences in the behaviour of the functionalized gelatins compared with pure gelatin as a matrix suggested an additional stabilizing bond between the incorporated aromatic groups and the HAp as supported by the IR results. The composites can potentially be applied as bone fillers. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Modified Adenosines Joined to Mono-Functional Platinum Moieties

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    Stefano D'Errico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of four novel platinum complexes, bearing N6-(6-amino-hexyladenosine or a 1,6-di(adenosin-N6-yl-hexane respectively, as ligands of mono-functional cisplatin or monochloro(ethylendiamineplatinum(II, is reported. The chemistry exploits the high affinity of the charged platinum centres towards the N7 position of the adenosine base system and a primary amine of an alkyl chain installed on the C6 position of the purine. The cytotoxic behaviour of the synthesized complexes has been studied in A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial and MCF7 human breast adenocarcinomic cancer cell lines, in order to investigate their effects on cell viability and proliferation.

  19. Unraveling executive functioning in dual diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other's expression. Forming a threat to health and society, dual-diagnosis is

  20. The Regularity of Functions on Dual Split Quaternions in Clifford Analysis

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    Ji Eun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some properties of dual split quaternion numbers and expressions of power series in dual split quaternions and provides differential operators in dual split quaternions and a dual split regular function on Ω⊂ℂ2×ℂ2 that has a dual split Cauchy-Riemann system in dual split quaternions.

  1. Executive functioning in dual-diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In mental health, the term dual-diagnosis (DD) is used for the co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorder (SUD: alcohol/drugs) with another mental disorder. These co-occurring disorders can have a shared cause, and can cause/intensify each other's expression. Forming a threat to health and

  2. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  3. Reactive fillers based on SWCNTs functionalized with matrix-based moieties for the production of epoxy composites with superior and tunable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jose M; Martínez-Rubí, Yadienka; Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Ansón-Casaos, A; Gómez-Fatou, Marian; Simard, Benoit; Martínez, M Teresa

    2012-07-20

    Composite materials based on epoxy matrix and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are able to exhibit outstanding improvements in physical properties when using a tailored covalent functionalization with matrix-based moieties containing terminal amines or epoxide rings. The proper choice of grafted moiety and integration protocol makes it feasible to tune the composite physical properties. At 0.5 wt% SWCNT loading, these composites exhibit up to 65% improvement in storage modulus, 91% improvement in tensile strength, and 65% improvement in toughness. A 15 °C increase in the glass transition temperature relative to the parent matrix was also achieved. This suggests that a highly improved interfacial bonding between matrix and filler, coupled to improved dispersion, are achieved. The degradation temperatures show an upshift in the range of 40-60 °C, which indicates superior thermal performance. Electrical conductivity ranges from ~10(-13) to ~10(-3) S cm(-1), which also shows the possibility of tuning the insulating or conductive behaviour of the composites. The chemical affinity of the functionalization moieties with the matrix and the unchanged molecular structure at the SWCNT/matrix interface are responsible for such improvements.

  4. Functionalization of Cyclodextrins with N-Hydroxyphthalimide Moiety: A New Class of Supramolecular Pro-Oxidant Organocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melone, Lucio; Petroselli, Manuel; Pastori, Nadia; Punta, Carlo

    2015-08-31

    N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) is an organocatalyst for free-radical processes able to promote the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of organic substrates. In particular, NHPI can catalyze the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This property could be of interest for biological applications. This work reports the synthesis of two β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CD5 and CD6) having a different degree of methylation and bearing a NHPI moiety. These compounds, having different solubility in water, have been successfully tested for the hydroperoxidation of methyl linoleate, chosen as the PUFA model molecule.

  5. Amino(oxo)acetate moiety: A new functional group to improve the cytotoxicity of betulin derived carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lucie; Perl, Vincent; Wiemann, Jana; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Csuk, René

    2016-06-15

    While 3-O-acetylated betulin derivatives carrying a carbamate moiety at position C-28 are of rather low cytotoxicity for human tumor cell lines, the corresponding C-3 amino(oxo) acetates show good cytotoxicity. For example, an EC50 as low as 2.0μM was found for (3β) 28-{[(hexylamino)carbonyl]oxy}lup-20(29)-en-3-yl amino(oxo)acetate (16) employing the ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual Functional Star Polymers for Lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun

    2016-09-12

    Star-shaped poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (PAMAs) with a 3-arm architecture were designed, prepared and their performance as a dual additive (viscosity index improver and friction modifier) for engine oils was evaluated. Furthermore, the structure-property relationships between macromolecular structure and lubricant performance were studied. Several co-polymers of dodecylmethacrylate with polar methacrylates in various amounts and various topologies, were synthesized as model compounds. Star polymers with a polar content of at least 10% effectively reduced the friction coefficient in both mixed and boundary lubrication regime only in block or tapered block topology. However, a polar content of 20% was efficient in reducing friction in both random and block topologies.

  7. Investigation of naphthofuran moiety as potential dual inhibitor against BACE-1 and GSK-3β: molecular dynamics simulations, binding energy, and network analysis to identify first-in-class dual inhibitors against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Srivastava, Gaurava; Srivastava, Swati; Verma, Seema; Negi, Arvind S; Sharma, Ashok

    2017-08-01

    BACE-1 and GSK-3β are potential therapeutic drug targets for Alzheimer's disease. Recently, both the targets received attention for designing dual inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Until now, only two-scaffold triazinone and curcumin have been reported as BACE-1 and GSK-3β dual inhibitors. Docking, molecular dynamics, clustering, binding energy, and network analysis of triazinone derivatives with BACE-1 and GSK-3β was performed to get molecular insight into the first reported dual inhibitor. Further, we designed and evaluated a naphthofuran series for its ability to inhibit BACE-1 and GSK-3β with the computational approaches. Docking study of naphthofuran series showed a good binding affinity towards both the targets. Molecular dynamics, binding energy, and network analysis were performed to compare their binding with the targets and amino acids responsible for binding. Naphthofuran series derivatives showed good interaction within the active site residues of both of the targets. Hydrogen bond occupancy and binding energy suggested strong binding with the targets. Dual-inhibitor binding was mostly governed by the hydrophobic interactions for both of the targets. Per residue energy decomposition and network analysis identified the key residues involved in the binding and inhibiting BACE-1 and GSK-3β. The results indicated that naphthofuran series derivative 11 may be a promising first-in-class dual inhibitor against BACE-1 and GSK-3β. This naphthofuran series may be further explored to design better dual inhibitors. Graphical abstract Naphthofuran derivative as a dual inhibitor for BACE-1 and GSK-3β.

  8. The Number of Monotone and Self-Dual Boolean Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviarova L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we study properties of pre-complete class of Boolean functions - monotone Boolean functions. We discuss interval graph, the abbreviated d.n.f., a minimal d.n.f. and a shortest d.n.f. of this function. Then we present a d.n.f. with the highest number of conjunctionsand we determinate the exact number of them. We count the number of monotone Boolean functions with some special properties. In the end we estimate the number of Boolean functionthat are monotone and self-dual at the same time.

  9. Bulk spectral functions in single and multiscalar gravity duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Todd; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong

    2010-12-01

    We examine two-point correlation functions involving the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in five-dimensional dual gravity theories supported by one or more scalar fields. A prescription for determining bulk channel spectral functions is developed. This prescription generalizes previous work which centered on one scalar field. As an application of these techniques, we investigate the bulk spectral function and corresponding sum rule in the Chamblin-Reall background. We show that, when expressed in terms of the beta function, the sum rule for the Chamblin-Reall background can be written in a form similar to the sum rule in Yang-Mills theory.

  10. Boronic Acid Moiety as Functional Defect in UiO-66 and Its Effect on Hydrogen Uptake Capacity and Selective CO2 Adsorption: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkartal, Mustafa; Sen, Unal

    2018-01-10

    Herein, we use linker fragmentation approach to introduce boronic acid moieties as functional defects into Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, UiO-66). Our findings show that the amount of permanently incorporated boronic acid containing ligand is directly dependent on the synthesis method. The accessible boronic acid moieties in the pore surfaces significantly improve the hydrogen uptake values, which are 3.10 and 3.44 wt % at 21 bar, 77 K for dimethylformamide (DMF)/H 2 O and DMF/HCI synthesis methods, respectively. Also, CO 2 selectivity of the resulting MOFs over N 2 and CH 4 significantly increases due to the quadrupolar interaction between active surfaces and CO 2 molecules. To the best of our knowledge, both hydrogen storage and selectivity of CO 2 for UiO-66 are the highest reported values in the literature to date. Furthermore, another striking result that emerged from the high-pressure hydrogen uptake isotherms is the direct correlation between the defects and hysteric adsorption behavior, which may result in the shift from rigidity to flexibility of the framework due to the uncoordinated sites.

  11. Evaluation of bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride based dual functional colloidal carrier as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kaur, Baljinder; Kant, Ravi; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2016-04-21

    We have developed a dual function carrier using bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride, which has anticancer as well as antibacterial activity, using a ligand insertion method with a simple and easy work procedure. The complex is prepared by a simple and cost effective method using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and palladium chloride under controlled stoichiometry. Herein, we report the aggregation (self assembly) of the metallosurfactant having palladium as a counter ion, in aqueous medium along with its binding affinity with bovine serum albumin. The palladium surfactant has exhibited excellent antimicrobial efficacy against fungus and bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). Cytotoxicity of palladium surfactant against cancerous (Human leukemia HL-60, pancreatic MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and prostate cancer PC-3) and healthy cells (fR2 human breast epithelial cells) was also evaluated using MTT assay. The present dual functional moiety shows a low IC50 value and has potential to be used as an anticancer agent. Our dual function carrier which itself possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activity represents a simple and effective system and can also be utilized as a drug carrier in the future.

  12. Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dales, H G; Lau, A T -M; Strauss, D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a coherent account of the theory of Banach spaces and Banach lattices, using the spaces C_0(K) of continuous functions on a locally compact space K as the main example. The study of C_0(K) has been an important area of functional analysis for many years. It gives several new constructions, some involving Boolean rings, of this space as well as many results on the Stonean space of Boolean rings. The book also discusses when Banach spaces of continuous functions are dual spaces and when they are bidual spaces.

  13. Note on Nahm's partition function of the dual spectrum II

    CERN Document Server

    Minimi, M

    1977-01-01

    For pt.I see CERN publication TH2240. In part I, in considering the Nahm dual resonance mass spectra theory, it was noticed that there is another modular form; a generating function that transforms automorphically under T:w to -1/w and would realize the Veneziano dualism. The group structure associated with this form is studied since it appears, to the authors, to be more natural than Nahm's original. (6 refs).

  14. Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT, Urease Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of 5-Aryl Thiophenes Bearing Sulphonylacetamide Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of novel 5-aryl thiophenes 4a–g containing sulphonylacetamide (sulfacetamide groups were synthesized in appreciable yields via Pd[0] Suzuki cross coupling reactions. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were determined using spectral data and elemental analysis. Density functional theory (DFT studies were performed using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p basis set to gain insight into their structural properties. Frontier molecular orbital (FMOs analysis of all compounds 4a–g was computed at the same level of theory to get an idea about their kinetic stability. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP mapping over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules indicated the reactive sites. First hyperpolarizability analysis (nonlinear optical response were simulated at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p level of theory as well. The compounds were further evaluated for their promising antibacterial and anti-urease activities. In this case, the antibacterial activities were estimated by the agar well diffusion method, whereas the anti-urease activities of these compounds were determined using the indophenol method by quantifying the evolved ammonia produced. The results revealed that all the sulfacetamide derivatives displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtiles, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa at various concentrations. Furthermore, the compound 4g N-((5-(4-chlorophenylthiophen-2-ylsulfonyl acetamide showed excellent urease inhibition with percentage inhibition activity ~46.23 ± 0.11 at 15 µg/mL with IC50 17.1 µg/mL. Moreover, some other compounds 4a–f also exhibited very good inhibition against urease enzyme.

  15. Dual-Language Education for Low-Income Children: Preliminary Evidence of Benefits for Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…

  16. Novel red phosphorescent polymers bearing both ambipolar and functionalized Ir(III) phosphorescent moieties for highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Lian, Meng; Yu, Yue; Yan, Xiaogang; Xu, Xianbin; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel red phosphorescent polymers is successfully developed through Suzuki cross-coupling among ambipolar units, functionalized Ir(III) phosphorescent blocks, and fluorene-based silane moieties. The photophysical and electrochemical investigations indicate not only highly efficient energy-transfer from the organic segments to the phosphorescent units in the polymer backbone but also the ambipolar character of the copolymers. Benefiting from all these merits, the phosphorescent polymers can furnish organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with exceptional high electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies with a current efficiency (η L ) of 8.31 cd A(-1) , external quantum efficiency (η ext ) of 16.07%, and power efficiency (η P ) of 2.95 lm W(-1) , representing the state-of-the-art electroluminescent performances ever achieved by red phosphorescent polymers. This work here might represent a new pathway to design and synthesize highly efficient phosphorescent polymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Functional mimicry of carboxypeptidase A by a combination of transition state stabilization and a defined orientation of catalytic moieties in molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-qiu; Wulff, Günter

    2008-06-25

    An artificial model for the natural enzyme carboxypeptidase A has been constructed by molecular imprinting in synthetic polymers. The tetrahedral transition state analogues (TSAs 4 and 5) for the carbonate hydrolysis have been designed as templates to allow incorporation of the main catalytic elements, an amidinium group and a Zn(2+) or Cu(2+) center, in a defined orientation in the transition state imprinted active site. The complexation of the functional monomer and the template in presence of Cu(2+) through stoichiometric noncovalent interaction was established on the basis of (1)H NMR studies and potentiometric titration. The Cu(2+) center was introduced into the imprinted cavity during polymerization or by substitution of Zn(2+) in Zn(2+) imprinted polymers. The direct introduction displayed obvious advantages in promoting catalytic efficiency. With substrates exhibiting a very similar structure to the template, an extraordinarily high enhancement of the rate of catalyzed to uncatalyzed reaction (k(cat)/k(uncat)) of 10(5)-fold was observed. If two amidinium moieties are introduced in proximity to one Cu(2+) center in the imprinted cavity by complexation of the functional monomer 3 with the template 5, the imprinted catalysts exhibited even higher activities and efficiencies for the carbonate hydrolysis with k(cat)/k(uncat) as high as 410,000. These are by far the highest values obtained for molecularly imprinted catalysts, and they are also considerably higher compared to catalytic antibodies. Our kinetic studies and competitive inhibition experiments with the TSA template showed a clear indication of a very efficient imprinting procedure. In addition, this demonstrates the important role of the transition state stabilization during the catalysis of this reaction.

  18. Localization of executive functions in dual-task performance with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, André J; Schubert, Torsten; Müller, Karsten; Von Cramon, D Yves

    2002-11-15

    We report a study that investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of executive functions in dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed an auditory and a visual three-choice reaction task either separately as single tasks or concurrently as dual tasks. In the dual-task condition, two stimuli were presented in rapid succession to ensure interference between the component tasks (psychological refractory period). The behavioral data showed considerable performance decrements in the dual-task compared to the single-task condition. Dual-task-related activation was detected with two different neuroimaging methods. First, we determined dual-task-related activation according to the method of cognitive subtraction. For that purpose, activation in the dual-task was compared directly with activation in the single-task conditions. This analysis revealed that cortical areas along the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS), the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are involved in dual-task performance. The results of the subtraction method were validated with the method of parametric manipulation. For this purpose, a second dual-task condition was introduced, where the difficulty of the dual-task coordination was increased compared with the first dual-task condition. As expected, behavioral dual-task performance decreased with increased dual-task difficulty. Furthermore, the increased dual-task difficulty led to an increase of activation in those cortical regions that proved to be dual-task related with the subtraction method, that is, the IFS, the MFG, and the IPS. These results support the conclusion that dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortices are involved in the coordination of concurrent and interfering task processing.

  19. Electrical/optical dual-function redox potential transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunpu; Wang, Wensi; Xu, Ju; Chu, Daping; Shen, Z. John; Roy, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new type of transistors, the electrical/optical “dual-function redox-potential transistors”, which is solution processable and environmentally stable. This device consists of vertically staked electrodes that act as gate, emitter and collector. It can perform as a normal transistor, whilst one electrode which is sensitised by dye enables to generate photocurrent when illuminated. Solution processable oxide-nanoparticles were used to form various functional layers, which allow an electrolyte to penetrate through and, consequently, the current between emitter and collector can be controlled by the gate potential modulated distribution of ions. The result here shows that the device performs with high ON-current under low driving voltage (transistor performance can readily be controlled by photo-illumination. Such device with combined optical and electrical functionalities allows single device to perform the tasks that are usually done by a circuit/system with multiple optical and electrical components, and it is promising for various applications. PMID:24310311

  20. Dual Approach to the Study of Land Market Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Oganesovna Oganesyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence, the structural elements and features of the mechanism of functioning of the market of agricultural land. The authors present the supplementing idea on the structural dichotomy of the agricultural land market. In contrast to neoclassical approaches, it is proposed to explore the market based on its structural dichotomy – market property rights and market rights of management. In this context, the mechanism of functioning of agricultural lands market performs the function of a basic element in the system of land relations to ensure market circulation of agricultural land through alienation and assign full or partial rights of land ownership. The use of the institutional approach to the study of market structures justifies the dual nature of the mechanism of functioning of the market of agricultural land due to the fact that on the one hand, the market is slow and limited in the market space of the rare economic good or factor of production, and on the other hand, it is a dynamic institutional and economic system within which the specification of property rights to land is implemented. The structure of the mechanism of functioning and development of agricultural land market is considered as a system of interrelated and interacting elements of state regulation and market self-regulation, based on the principles of coordination and harmonization of personalized economic interests and market law of supply and demand. The combination of elements of market self-regulation and state regulation allows in practice to justify the choice of model combinations of stable and changing elements of the mechanism. This combination complies with the institutional conditions for the functioning of the market of agricultural land considering the dominance of regulated sustainable standards at the market of property rights and in the frames of informal institutions at the market of the management rights. The authors prove the

  1. The role of dual-energy computed tomography in the assessment of pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hye Jeon [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, 22, Gwanpyeong-ro 170beon-gil, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 431-796 (Korea, Republic of); Hoffman, Eric A. [Departments of Radiology, Medicine, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Dr, CC 701 GH, Iowa City, IA 52241 (United States); Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Levin, David L. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seo, Joon Beom, E-mail: seojb@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Pungnap 2-dong, Songpa-ku, Seoul, 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The dual-energy CT technique enables the differentiation of contrast materials with material decomposition algorithm. • Pulmonary functional information can be evaluated using dual-energy CT with anatomic CT information, simultaneously. • Pulmonary functional information from dual-energy CT can improve diagnosis and severity assessment of diseases. - Abstract: The assessment of pulmonary function, including ventilation and perfusion status, is important in addition to the evaluation of structural changes of the lung parenchyma in various pulmonary diseases. The dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) technique can provide the pulmonary functional information and high resolution anatomic information simultaneously. The application of DECT for the evaluation of pulmonary function has been investigated in various pulmonary diseases, such as pulmonary embolism, asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease and so on. In this review article, we will present principles and technical aspects of DECT, along with clinical applications for the assessment pulmonary function in various lung diseases.

  2. Dual-component collagenous peptide/reactive oligomer hydrogels as potential nerve guidance materials - from characterization to functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, C; Klemens, J M; Kascholke, C; Murthy, N S; Kohn, J; Brandenburger, M; Hacker, M C

    2016-10-18

    Toward a new generation of improved nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), novel biomaterials are required to address pressing clinical shortcomings in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR) and to promote biological performance. A dual-component hydrogel system formed by cross-linking reaction between maleic anhydride groups in an oligomeric building block for cross-linking of free amine functionalities in partially hydrolyzed collagen is formulated for continuous processing and NGC fabrication. The influence of the gelation base is optimized for processing from a double syringe delivery system with a static mixer. A hydrophilic low-concentrated base was introduced to control network formation and to utilize highly reactive macromers for gelation. Cross-linking extent and building block conversion were improved and homogenous monoliths were fabricated. Chemically derivatized hydrogels were obtained by conversion of a fraction of anhydride groups in the oligomeric precursor with monovalent primary amine-containing grafting molecules prior to gelation. Network stability in functionalized hydrogels was maintained and cationic moieties were implement to the gel that promoted in vitro cell attachment and spreading irrespective of mechanical stiffness. A molding strategy was introduced that allowed for fabrication of flexible tubular conduits in tunable dimensions and with chemically patterned structures. These hydrogel-based conduits hold promise for the next generation NGCs with integrated chemical cues for PNR.

  3. Citrate- and glycerol triesters as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for ceramic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, S.; Klemensø, T.; Brodersen, K.

    2018-01-01

    Short chained triesters of glycerol and citric acid were systematically investigated as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for use in ceramic processing. Additional systematic studies on a series of diesters having structural similarities with the citrate and glycerol triesters we......, for triethyl citrate the dual-function was finally demonstrated by producing a dense piece of 8YSZ through tape casting and subsequent sintering....

  4. Aptamer-Based Dual-Functional Probe for Rapid and Specific Counting and Imaging of MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yin, Xiao; Xu, Chi; Hu, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Development of multimodal detection technologies for accurate diagnosis of cancer at early stages is in great demand. In this work, we report a novel approach using an aptamer-based dual-functional probe for rapid, sensitive, and specific counting and visualization of MCF-7 cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence imaging. The probe consists of a recognition unit of aptamer to catch cancer cells specifically, a fluorescent dye (FAM) moiety for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based "off-on" fluorescence imaging as well as gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) tag for both ICP-MS quantification and fluorescence quenching. Due to the signal amplification effect and low spectral interference of Au NPs in ICP-MS, an excellent linearity and sensitivity were achieved. Accordingly, a limit of detection of 81 MCF-7 cells and a relative standard deviation of 5.6% (800 cells, n = 7) were obtained. The dynamic linear range was 2 × 10 2 to 1.2 × 10 4 cells, and the recoveries in human whole blood were in the range of 98-110%. Overall, the established method provides quantitative and visualized information on MCF-7 cells with a simple and rapid process and paves the way for a promising strategy for biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  5. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  6. Dual-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers with improved P-glycoprotein inhibition and tight junction modulating effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanjie; Chiu, Gigi N C

    2013-12-09

    This study aims to surface modify poly(amido amine) or PAMAM dendrimers by sequentially grafting poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG and 4-thiobutylamidine (TBA) so as to reduce PAMAM cytotoxicity while improving the ability of PAMAM to modulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux and tight junction integrity. Conjugation of functional groups was determined by NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, thiol group quantification and molecular weight estimation. The yield of the dual-functionalized dendrimers was >80%. The dual-functionalized dendrimer could significantly reduce PAMAM cytotoxicity to effect could be affected by the extent of PEGylation of the dendrimer. Surface-modified PAMAM dendrimers, either by single or dual functionalization, could better modulate tight junction integrity in comparison with unmodified PAMAM, as demonstrated through immunostaining of the tight junction marker ZO-1, permeation of the model compound Lucifer Yellow (LY) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Of importance, reversible tight junction modulating effect was only observed in the dual-functionalized dendrimers. Collectively, dual functionalization with PEG and TBA represented a promising approach in altering PAMAM dendrimer surface for potential application in oral drug delivery.

  7. Green functions in a super self-dual Yang-Mills background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    In euclidean supersymmetric theories of chiral superfields and vector superfields coupled to a super-self-dual Yang-Mills background, we define Green functions for the Laplace-type differential operators which are obtained from the quadratic parot the action. These Green functions are expressed in terms of the Green function on the space of right chiral superfields, and an explicit expression for the right chiral Green function in the fundamental representation of an SU(n) gauge group is presented using the supersymmetric version of the ADHM formalism. The superfield kernels associated with the Laplace-type operators are used to obtain the one-loop quantum corrections to the super-self-dual Yang-Mills action, and also to provide a superfield version of the super-index theorems for the components of chiral superfields in a self-dual background. (orig.)

  8. Dual-functionalized nanoparticles loaded microbubbles for enhancement of drug uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjia; Zhang, Xia; Luo, Wanxian; Wang, Dongxiao; Yang, Li; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shiyu; Luo, Shuyi; Wang, Ying

    2018-07-01

    The application of microbubble (MB)-assisted ultrasound (US) can combine the advantages of real-time imaging and targeted drug delivery. However, the drug loading capacity of MB is limited restricting its application in antitumor procedure. In contrast, nanoparticles (NPs) can carry drugs more efficiently, but adverse side effect induced by unspecific accumulation can not be ignored. Herein, we developed a dual-functionalized NP loaded MB to investigate its potential feasibility for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Firstly, we prepared NPs using heparin as backbone. Targeting ligand folate and cell-penetrating ligand Tat peptide were conjugated to the backbone to deliver paclitaxel (H-F-Tat-P NPs). Subsequently, the dual-functionalized NPs were incorporated with MBs via avidin-biotin linkage to fabricate H-F-Tat-P NPs loaded MBs (NPs-loaded MBs). The combined strategy can take profit of dual functionalities from NPs and sonoporation effect from MBs triggered by US. The prepared NPs have been characterized. The excellent cellular uptake of NPs were qualitative and quantitative analysis by flow cytometry and confocal microscope, the results indicated that it was attributed to not only dual functionalities but also US effect. Foremost, the NPs-loaded MBs combined with US exhibited significant cytotoxicity on both folate receptor (FR) overexpressing and deficiency cells. The combination of dual-functionalized NPs and MBs with US is expected to be a promising strategy for targeted anticancer drug delivery and ultrasound imaging simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Azomesogens with a heterocyclic moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Azomesogens with a heterocyclic moiety. †. JAYRANG S DAVE and MEERA MENON*. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, MS University of Baroda,. Baroda 390 001, India. Abstract. Azobenzene derivatives were among the first ten liquid crystalline compounds. But there have been.

  10. Blue Light Emitting Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Bipolar Charge Transport Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two light-emitting polyphenylene dendrimers with both hole and electron transporting moieties were synthesized and characterized. Both molecules exhibited pure blue emission solely from the pyrene core and efficient surface-to-core energy transfers when characterized in a nonpolar environment. In particular, the carbazole- and oxadiazole-functionalized dendrimer (D1 manifested a pure blue emission from the pyrene core without showing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT in environments with increasing polarity. On the other hand, the triphenylamine- and oxadiazole-functionalized one (D2 displayed notable ICT with dual emission from both the core and an ICT state in highly polar solvents. D1, in a three-layer organic light emitting diode (OLED by solution processing gave a pure blue emission with Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage 1931 CIE xy = (0.16, 0.12, a peak current efficiency of 0.21 cd/A and a peak luminance of 2700 cd/m2. This represents the first reported pure blue dendrimer emitter with bipolar charge transport and surface-to-core energy transfer in OLEDs.

  11. Generic primal-dual interior point methods based on a new kernel function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EL Ghami, M.; Roos, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a generic primal-dual interior point methods (IPMs) for linear optimization in which the search direction depends on a univariate kernel function which is also used as proximity measure in the analysis of the algorithm. The proposed kernel function does not satisfy all the

  12. A structural view on the functional importance of the sugar moiety and steroid hydroxyls of cardiotonic steroids in binding to Na,K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Flemming; Kanai, Ryuta; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is specifically inhibited by cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) like digoxin and is of significant therapeutic value in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Recently, new interest has arisen in developing Na,K-ATPase inhibitors as anticancer agents. In the present study, we compare the potency and rate of inhibition as well as the reactivation of enzyme activity following inhibition by various cardiac glycosides and their aglycones at different pH values using shark Na,K-ATPase stabilized in the E2MgPi or in the E2BeFx conformations. The effects of the number and nature of various sugar residues as well as changes in the positions of hydroxyl groups on the β-side of the steroid core of cardiotonic steroids were investigated by comparing various cardiac glycoside compounds like ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, and gitoxin with their aglycones. The results confirm our previous hypothesis that CTS binds primarily to the E2-P ground state through an extracellular access channel and that binding of extracellular Na(+) ions to K(+) binding sites relieved the CTS inhibition. This reactivation depended on the presence or absence of the sugar moiety on the CTS, and a single sugar is enough to impede reactivation. Finally, increasing the number of hydroxyl groups of the steroid was sterically unfavorable and was found to decrease the inhibitory potency and to confer high pH sensitivity, depending on their position on the steroid β-face. The results are discussed with reference to the recent crystal structures of Na,K-ATPase in the unbound and ouabain-bound states.

  13. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study. AG Pose, ES Rodriguez, AC Mendez, JN Gomez, AV Redondo, ER Rodriguez, EMG Ramos, AA Gutierrez, MPR Molto, DG Roche, YS Ugalde, AM Lopez ...

  14. The dual pathway to creativity model : Creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; De Dreu, C.K.W.; Rietzschel, E.F.; Baas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dual pathway to creativity model argues that creativity-the generation of original and appropriate ideas-is a function of cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence, and that dispositional or situational variables may influence creativity either through their effects on flexibility, on

  15. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like ...

  16. Functional cerebral lateralization and dual-task efficiency-testing the function of human brain lateralization using fTCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lust, J. M.; Geuze, R. H.; Groothuis, A. G. G.; Bouma, A.; Bouma, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that functional cerebral lateralization enhances cognitive performance. Evidence was found in birds and fish. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between cerebral lateralization and both single-task performance and dual-task efficiency in

  17. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual functions of perirhinal cortex in fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The present review examines the role of perirhinal cortex (PRC) in Pavlovian fear conditioning. The focus is on rats, partly because so much is known, behaviorally and neurobiologically, about fear conditioning in these animals. In addition, the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of rat PRC have been described in considerable detail at the cellular and systems levels. The evidence suggests that PRC can serve at least two types of mnemonic functions in Pavlovian fear conditioning. The first function, termed "stimulus unitization," refers to the ability to treat two or more separate items or stimulus elements as a single entity. Supporting evidence for this perceptual function comes from studies of context conditioning as well as delay conditioning to discontinuous auditory cues. In a delay paradigm, the conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) overlap temporally and co-terminate. The second PRC function entails a type of "transient memory." Supporting evidence comes from studies of trace cue conditioning, where there is a temporal gap or trace interval between the CS offset and the US onset. For learning to occur, there must be a transient CS representation during the trace interval. We advance a novel neurophysiological mechanism for this transient representation. These two hypothesized functions of PRC are consistent with inferences based on non-aversive forms of learning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dual-Functional Hydrazide-Reactive and Anhydride-Containing Oligomeric Hydrogel Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Loth, Tina; Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Möller, Stephanie; Bellstedt, Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-03-13

    Biomimetic hydrogels are advanced biomaterials that have been developed following different synthetic routes. Covalent postfabrication functionalization is a promising strategy to achieve efficient matrix modification decoupled of general material properties. To this end, dual-functional macromers were synthesized by free radical polymerization of maleic anhydride with diacetone acrylamide (N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)acrylamide) and pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate. Amphiphilic oligomers (M n 40%). Efficient hydrazide/hydrazine immobilization depending on solution pH, hydrogel ketone content as well as ligand concentration for bioconjugation was shown and reversibility of hydrazone formation was indicated by physiologically relevant hydrazide release over 7 days. Proof-of-concept experiments with hydrazido-functionalized hyaluronan demonstrated potential for covalent aECM immobilization. The presented dual-functional macromers have perspective as reactive hydrogel building blocks for various biomedical applications.

  20. Positive definite functions and dual pairs of locally convex spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alpay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using pairs of locally convex topological vector spaces in duality and topologies defined by directed families of sets bounded with respect to the duality, we prove general factorization theorems and general dilation theorems for operator-valued positive definite functions.

  1. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed C–O Bond-Cleaving Alkylation of Esters: Direct Replacement of the Ester Moiety by Functionalized Alkyl Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiangqian

    2017-06-07

    Two efficient protocols for the nickel-catalyzed aryl–alkyl cross-coupling reactions using esters as coupling components have been established. The methods enable the selective oxidative addition of nickel to acyl C–O and aryl C–O bonds and allow the aryl–alkyl cross-coupling via decarbonylative bond cleavage or through cleavage of a C–O bond with high efficiency and good functional group compatibility. The protocols allow the streamlined, unconventional utilization of widespread ester groups and their precursors, carboxylic acids and phenols, in synthetic organic chemistry.

  3. Application of chitosan functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid moiety for on-line preconcentration and determination of trace elements in water samples

    OpenAIRE

    Sabarudin, Akhmad; Noguchi, Osamu; Oshima, Mitsuko; Higuchi, Keiro; Motomizu, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (CCTS-DHBA resin) was used as a packing material for flow injection (FI) on-line mini-column preconcentration in combination with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the determination of trace elements such as silver, bismuth, copper, gallium, indium, molybdenum, nickel, uranium, and vanadium in environmental waters. A 5-mL aliquot of sample (pH 5.5) was introduced to the minicolumn for the adsorpt...

  4. Chemistry of polyhalogenated nitrobutadienes, 10: Synthesis of highly functionalized heterocycles with a rigid 6-amino-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A. Zapol’skii

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nitropolychlorobutadienes 3, 4 are valuable building blocks for various amination and successive heterocyclization products. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of the partially protected, bioactive amines 1, 2 with either vinyl, imidoyl or carbonyl chlorides result in the formation of the enamines 11, 12, 13, 16, 25, the amidine 6, and the amides 20, 21, respectively. In the following, cyclization to the highly functionalized pyrazoles 27, 28, pyrimidine 26 and pyridopyrimidine 24 succeeded. Deprotection of 21, 12 and 28 proved to be only partially feasible.

  5. Direct detection and characterization of bioinorganic peroxo moieties in a vanadium complex by17O solid-state NMR and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupal; Stringer, John; Struppe, Jochem; Rehder, Dieter; Polenova, Tatyana

    2018-07-01

    Electronic and structural properties of short-lived metal-peroxido complexes, which are key intermediates in many enzymatic reactions, are not fully understood. While detected in various enzymes, their catalytic properties remain elusive because of their transient nature, making them difficult to study spectroscopically. We integrated 17 O solid-state NMR and density functional theory (DFT) to directly detect and characterize the peroxido ligand in a bioinorganic V(V) complex mimicking intermediates non-heme vanadium haloperoxidases. 17 O chemical shift and quadrupolar tensors, measured by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, probe the electronic structure of the peroxido ligand and its interaction with the metal. DFT analysis reveals the unusually large chemical shift anisotropy arising from the metal orbitals contributing towards the magnetic shielding of the ligand. The results illustrate the power of an integrated approach for studies of oxygen centers in enzyme reaction intermediates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive load and dual-task performance during locomotion poststroke: a feasibility study using a functional virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizony, Rachel; Levin, Mindy F; Hughey, Lucinda; Perez, Claire; Fung, Joyce

    2010-02-01

    Gait and cognitive functions can deteriorate during dual tasking, especially in people with neurological deficits. Most studies examining the simultaneous effects of dual tasking on motor and cognitive aspects were not performed in ecological environments. Using virtual reality technology, functional environments can be simulated to study dual tasking. The aims of this study were to test the feasibility of using a virtual functional environment for the examination of dual tasking and to determine the effects of dual tasking on gait parameters in people with stroke and age-matched controls who were healthy. This was a cross-sectional observational study. Twelve community-dwelling older adults with stroke and 10 age-matched older adults who were healthy participated in the study. Participants walked on a self-paced treadmill while viewing a virtual grocery aisle projected onto a screen placed in front of them. They were asked to walk through the aisle (single task) or to walk and select ("shop for") items according to instructions delivered before or during walking (dual tasking). Overall, the stroke group walked slower than the control group in both conditions, whereas both groups walked faster overground than on the treadmill. The stroke group also showed larger variability in gait speed and shorter stride length than the control group. There was a general tendency to increase gait speed and stride length during dual-task conditions; however, a significant effect of dual tasking was found only in one dual-task condition for gait speed and stride duration variability. All participants were able to complete the task with minimal mistakes. The small size and heterogeneity of the sample were limitations of the study. It is feasible to use a functional virtual environment for investigation of dual tasking. Different gait strategies, including an increase or decrease in gait speed, can be used to cope with the increase in cognitive demands required for dual tasking.

  7. Polymer nanoreactors with dual functionality: simultaneous detoxification of peroxynitrite and oxygen transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrunz Dominik; Toma Adriana C; Tanner Pascal; Pfohl Thomas; Palivan Cornelia G

    2012-01-01

    The design of multifunctional systems is in focus today as a key strategy for coping with complex challenges in various domains that include chemistry, medicine, environmental sciences, and technology. Herein, we introduce protein-containing polymer nanoreactors with dual functionality: peroxynitrite degradation and oxygen transport. Vesicles made of poly-(2-methyloxazoline)-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(2-methyloxazoline) successfully encapsulated hemoglobin (Hb), which serves as a model prote...

  8. Dual-well potential field function for articulated manipulator trajectory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new attractive potential field function is proposed in this paper for manipulator trajectory planning. Existing attractive potential field constructs a global minimum through which maneuvering objects move down the gradient of the potential field toward this global minimum. The proposed method constructs a potential field with two minima. The purpose of these two minima is to create a dual attraction between links rather than affecting each link by the preceding one through kinematic constraints.

  9. Vibration Suppression of Electronic Box by a Dual Function Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Tuned Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Rafique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry

  10. Dual representation for the generating functional of the Feynman path-integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The generating functional for scalar theories admits a representation which is dual with respect to the one introduced by Schwinger, interchanging the role of the free and interacting terms. It maps ∫V(δJ and JΔJ to δϕcΔδϕc and ∫V(ϕc, respectively, with ϕc=∫JΔ and Δ the Feynman propagator. Comparing the Schwinger representation with its dual version one gets a little known relation that we prove to be a particular case of a more general operatorial relation. We then derive a new representation of the generating functional T[ϕc]=W[J] expressed in terms of covariant derivatives acting on 1 T[ϕc]=NN0exp⁡(−U0[ϕc]exp⁡(−∫V(Dϕc−⋅1 where Dϕ±(x=∓Δδδϕ(x+ϕ(x. The dual representation, which is deeply related to the Hermite polynomials, is the key to express the generating functional associated to a sum of potentials in terms of factorized generating functionals. This is applied to renormalization, leading to a factorization of the counterterms of the interaction. We investigate the structure of the functional generator for normal ordered potentials and derive an infinite set of relations in the case of the potential λn!:ϕn: . Such relations are explicitly derived by using the Faà di Bruno formula. This also yields the explicit expression of the generating functional of connected Green's functions.

  11. Dual number algebra method for Green's function derivatives in 3D magneto-electro-elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziatkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The Green functions are the basic elements of the boundary element method. To obtain the boundary integral formulation the Green function and its derivative should be known for the considered differential operator. Today the interesting group of materials are electronic composites. The special case of the electronic composite is the magnetoelectroelastic continuum. The mentioned continuum is a model of the piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composites. The anisotropy of their physical properties makes the problem of Green's function determination very difficult. For that reason Green's functions for the magnetoelectroelastic continuum are not known in the closed form and numerical methods should be applied to determine such Green's functions. These means that the problem of the accurate and simply determination of Green's function derivatives is even harder. Therefore in the present work the dual number algebra method is applied to calculate numerically the derivatives of 3D Green's functions for the magnetoelectroelastic materials. The introduced method is independent on the step size and it can be treated as a special case of the automatic differentiation method. Therefore, the dual number algebra method can be applied as a tool for checking the accuracy of the well-known finite difference schemes.

  12. Feasibility study analysis for multi-function dual energy oven (case study: tapioca crackers small medium enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraya, N. W.; El Hadi, R. M.; Chumaidiyah, E.; Tripiawan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional drying process is constrained by weather (cloudy / rainy), and requires wide drying area, and provides low-quality product. Multi-function dual energy oven is the appropriate technology to solve these problems. The oven uses solar thermal or gas heat for drying various type of products, including tapioca crackers. Investment analysis in technical, operational, and financial aspects show that the multi-function dual energy oven is feasible to be implemented for small medium enterprise (SME) processing tapioca crackers.

  13. Integrated rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal functions: principles and assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billette, Jacques; Tadros, Rafik

    2014-01-15

    The atrioventricular (AV) node conducts slowly and has a long refractory period. These features sustain the filtering of atrial impulses and hence are often modulated to optimize ventricular rate during supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The AV node is also the site of a clinically common reentrant arrhythmia. Its function is assessed for a variety of purposes from its responses to a premature protocol (S1S2, test beats introduced at different cycle lengths) repeatedly performed at different basic rates and/or to an incremental pacing protocol (increasingly faster rates). Puzzlingly, resulting data and interpretation differ with protocols as well as with chosen recovery and refractory indexes, and are further complicated by the presence of built-in fast and slow pathways. This problem applies to endocavitary investigations of arrhythmias as well as to many experimental functional studies. This review supports an integrated framework of rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal function that can account for these puzzling characteristics. The framework was established from AV nodal responses to S1S2S3 protocols that, compared with standard S1S2 protocols, allow for an orderly quantitative dissociation of the different factors involved in changes in AV nodal conduction and refractory indexes under rate-dependent and dual pathway function. Although largely based on data from experimental studies, the proposed framework may well apply to the human AV node. In conclusion, the rate-dependent and dual pathway properties of the AV node can be integrated within a common functional framework the contribution of which to individual responses can be quantitatively determined with properly designed protocols and analytic tools.

  14. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  15. Dual Functional Core-Shell Fluorescent Ag2S@Carbon Nanostructure for Selective Assay of E. coli O157:H7 and Bactericidal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wei, Xing; Zheng, An-Qi; Yang, Ting; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2017-03-24

    A dual functional fluorescent core-shell Ag 2 S@Carbon nanostructure is prepared by a hydrothermally assisted multi-amino synthesis approach with folic acid (FA), polyethylenimine (PEI), and mannoses (Mans) as carbon and nitrogen sources (FA-PEI-Mans-Ag 2 S nanocomposite shortly as Ag 2 S@C). The nanostructure exhibits strong fluorescent emission at λ ex /λ em = 340/450 nm with a quantum yield of 12.57 ± 0.52%. Ag 2 S@C is bound to E. coli O157:H7 via strong interaction with the Mans moiety in Ag 2 S@C with FimH proteins on the fimbriae tip in E. coli O157:H7. Fluorescence emission from Ag 2 S@C/E. coli conjugate is closely related to the content of E. coli O157:H7. Thus, a novel procedure for fluorescence assay of E. coli O157:H7 is developed, offering a detection limit of 330 cfu mL -1 . Meanwhile, the Ag 2 S@C nanostructure exhibits excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli O157:H7. A 99.9% sterilization rate can be readily achieved for E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 10 6 -10 7 cfu mL -1 with 3.3 or 10 μg mL -1 of Ag 2 S@C with an interaction time of 5 or 0.5 min, respectively.

  16. Development of dual-function SPECT and CT probe for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, Sanjay; Dube, Veeresh; Kheruka, Subash; Kumar, Uttam; Ahmad, Absar

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Different biological queries require different imaging strategies. In imaging this is more dependent not so much on the instruments but on the properties of the imaging agents.The development of dual-function probes for both fluorescence imaging and MRI was recently reported. Nano SPECT-CT, Bioscan system for animal imaging recently procured by our institute motivated us to explore and standardize a dual function probe for such a system. The study has been planned with a view develop a dual capability CT and radiopharmaceutical contrast to facilitate an anatomical and functional images thus combining the good resolution abilities of CT and high sensitivity functional images of SPECT. Method: Radiolabeling, of Bismuth nanocolloid with Technetium-99m was done and confirmation of good binding by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) confirmed more than 90% binding. This was injected into male Sprauge Dawley rats and biodistribution image and clearance time from blood was calculated. Confirmation, of Bismuth nano-colloid to act as CT contrast agent was done by performing phantom study at various concentrations in saline, 50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml and 500 mg/ml at CT tube current of 2.5mA and tube voltage of 140 KVp. Results: As compared to commercial Iodine contrast (375 mg/ml iodine) which was used as standard the average clearance time Bismuth colloid was longer. Its biodistribution was seen in heart, Liver, spleen and kidney. The iodine comparable CT contrast was achieved by 500 mg/ml of Bismuth colloid. 99m Tc-Bismuth colloid imaging on a dedicated animal SPECT-CT (Nano-SPECT, Bioscan) revealed similar biodistribution and in-vivo-stability of labeling. Conclusion: Successful radiolabeling, in-vivo stability and SPECT imaging of 99m Tc-Bismuth colloid along with its potential to impart iodine equivalent contrast raises the possibility of converting 99m-Tc-Bismuth as dual SPECT-CT probe for obtaining functional and anatomical image in pre

  17. The Dual Role of Oxygen Functions in Coal Pretreatment and Liquefaction: Crosslinking and Cleavage Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Serio; Erik Kroo; Sylvie Charpenay; Peter Solomon

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to elucidate and model the dual role of oxygen functions in thermal pretreatment and liquefaction of low rank coals through the application of analytical techniques and theoretical models. The project was an integrated study of model polymers representative of coal structures, raw coals of primarily low rank, and selectively modified coals in order to provide specific information relevant to the reactions of real coals. The investigations included liquefaction experiments in microautoclave reactors, along with extensive analysis of intermediate solid, liquid and gaseous products. Attempts were made to incorporate the results of experiments on the different systems into a liquefaction model.

  18. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-01-01

    blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50...... or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. RESULTS: Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while...

  19. Clinical usefulness of dual-label Schilling test for pancreatic exocrine function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.L.; Morishita, R.; Eguchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Sakai, M.; Tateishi, H.; Uchino, H.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of the pancreatic dual-label Schilling test as an indirect test of pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated. This dual-label Schilling test was based on the difference of absorption for (58Co)cobalamin bound to hog R protein and (57Co)cobalamin bound to intrinsic factor. In this study, the test was performed in 7 normal subjects, 5 patients with pancreatectomy, 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 10 patients with suspicion of chronic pancreatitis, and 13 patients without chronic pancreatitis. The normal lower limit (mean -2 SD) of excretion ratio for (58Co)/(57Co) in 24-h urine was 0.68. Of the 26 patients on whom endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed, none of the 9 patients with normal pancreatogram, 4 of the 9 patients with mild to moderate pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram, and 7 of the 8 patients with advanced pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram showed a positive value lower than the ratio of 0.68 in this test. In 28 patients examined with the direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity, 2 of the 13 patients with normal function, 6 of the 9 patients with mild dysfunction, and 5 of the 6 patients with definite dysfunction were positive in this test. The results of the pancreatic dual-label Schilling test significantly correlated with those of a direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity and the findings of pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram (p less than 0.01, chi 2 test). The ratio for (58Co)/(57Co) correlated (r = 0.73) with the maximal bicarbonate concentration in duodenal juice of the direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity. The impairment of bicarbonate output by the pancreas may adversely affect the transfer of cobalamin from R protein to intrinsic factor.

  20. Clinical usefulness of dual-label Schilling test for pancreatic exocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.; Morishita, R.; Eguchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Sakai, M.; Tateishi, H.; Uchino, H.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of the pancreatic dual-label Schilling test as an indirect test of pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated. This dual-label Schilling test was based on the difference of absorption for [58Co]cobalamin bound to hog R protein and [57Co]cobalamin bound to intrinsic factor. In this study, the test was performed in 7 normal subjects, 5 patients with pancreatectomy, 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 10 patients with suspicion of chronic pancreatitis, and 13 patients without chronic pancreatitis. The normal lower limit (mean -2 SD) of excretion ratio for [58Co]/[57Co] in 24-h urine was 0.68. Of the 26 patients on whom endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed, none of the 9 patients with normal pancreatogram, 4 of the 9 patients with mild to moderate pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram, and 7 of the 8 patients with advanced pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram showed a positive value lower than the ratio of 0.68 in this test. In 28 patients examined with the direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity, 2 of the 13 patients with normal function, 6 of the 9 patients with mild dysfunction, and 5 of the 6 patients with definite dysfunction were positive in this test. The results of the pancreatic dual-label Schilling test significantly correlated with those of a direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity and the findings of pancreatitic changes in pancreatogram (p less than 0.01, chi 2 test). The ratio for [58Co]/[57Co] correlated (r = 0.73) with the maximal bicarbonate concentration in duodenal juice of the direct test of pancreatic secretory capacity. The impairment of bicarbonate output by the pancreas may adversely affect the transfer of cobalamin from R protein to intrinsic factor

  1. Dual-channel functional electrical stimulation improvements in speed-based gait classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Springer S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shmuel Springer,1,2 Yocheved Laufer,1 Meni Becher,1,2 Jean-Jacques Vatine3,41Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, 2Clinical Department, Bioness Neuromodulation, Ra'anana, 3Outpatient and Research Division, Reuth Medical Center, Tel Aviv, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, IsraelBackground: Functional electrical stimulation (FES is becoming an accepted treatment method for enhancing gait performance in patients who present with gait difficulties resulting from hemiparesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether individuals with hemiparesis who have varied gait speeds, which place them in different functional categories, benefit to the same extent from the application of FES.Methods: Thirty-six subjects with chronic hemiparesis demonstrating foot-drop and deficits in knee and/or hip control were fitted with a dual-channel FES system activating the dorsiflexors and hamstring muscles. Gait was assessed during a 2-minute walk test with and without stimulation. A second assessment was conducted after 6 weeks of daily use. Analysis was performed with the subjects stratified into three functional ambulation classes according to their initial gait categories.Results: The dual-channel FES improved the gait velocity of all three subgroups. No minimal gait velocity was required in order to gain benefits from FES. For example, subjects with limited household ambulation capabilities improved their gait speed by 63.3% (from 0.30 ± 0.09 m/sec to 0.49 ± 0.20 m/sec; P < 0.01, while subjects with functional community ambulation capabilities improved their gait speed by 25.5% (from 0.90 ± 0.11 m/sec to 1.13 ± 0.22 m/sec; P < 0.01.Conclusion: Dual-channel FES positively affects gait velocity in patients with chronic hemiparesis, regardless of their initial gait velocity. Furthermore, gait velocity gains may be large enough

  2. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties. PMID:27870845

  3. Dual functionality of interleukin-1 family cytokines: implications for anti-interleukin-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luheshi, N M; Rothwell, N J; Brough, D

    2009-08-01

    Dysregulated inflammation contributes to disease pathogenesis in both the periphery and the brain. Cytokines are coordinators of inflammation and were originally defined as secreted mediators, released from expressing cells to activate plasma membrane receptors on responsive cells. However, a group of cytokines is now recognized as having dual functionality. In addition to their extracellular effects, these cytokines act inside the nuclei of cytokine-expressing or cytokine-responsive cells. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines are key pro-inflammatory mediators, and blockade of the IL-1 system in inflammatory diseases is an attractive therapeutic goal. All current therapies target IL-1 extracellular actions. Here we review evidence that suggests IL-1 family members have dual functionality. Several IL-1 family members have been detected inside the nuclei of IL-1-expressing or IL-1-responsive cells, and intranuclear IL-1 is reported to regulate gene transcription and mRNA splicing. However, further work is required to determine the impact of IL-1 intranuclear actions on disease pathogenesis. The intranuclear actions of IL-1 family members represent a new and potentially important area of IL-1 biology and may have implications for the future development of anti-IL-1 therapies.

  4. 4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl moiety as bioisoster of the carboxy function. Synthesis, ionization constants, and molecular pharmacological characterization at ionotropic glutamate receptors of compounds related to glutamate and its homologues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolli, Marco L; Giordano, Cecilia; Pickering, Darryl S

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the 4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl moiety as a carboxylic acid bioisoster at ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), a series of acidic alpha-aminocarboxylic acids in which the distal carboxy group was replaced by the 4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl group was synthesized...

  5. A dual physiological character for sexual function: libido and sexual pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G

    2009-12-01

    Human sexual response is a complex function involving many cerebral, spinal and peripheral aspects; the last are relatively known and benefit from good pharmacological control, as in the case of erectile dysfunction. Spinal cord sexual reflexes also have a good theoretical and experimental description. There is minimal understanding of the cerebral sexual processes (libido, sexual arousal, orgasm). The initial perspective was that the cerebral areas implied in sexuality exert descending stimulatory and inhibitory influences on spinal cord sexual centres/reflexes. This was a wrong supposition, which inhibited progress in this subject, with a considerable impact on a subject's individual and social life. A new approach to sexual function arises from the idea that simple neurological structures can support only simple functions, while a more complex function requires correspondingly complex anatomical structures. For this reason the spinal cord would not be able to realise the integration of multiple (spinal and psychosensorial) stimuli into a unique and coherent ejaculation response. Consequently, all mechanisms implied in human sexuality would be cerebral processes, ejaculation reflexes ascending in evolution to the cerebral level. This new evolutionary concept was developed after 2001 in five distinct articles on the cerebral duality of sexual arousal, sexual hormones, ejaculation and serotonergic receptors. During this period other published results suggested a possible cerebral duality for sexual pheromones and libido in humans. All these dual physiological aspects are integrated in this review into one neurophysiological model, thus trying to further develop the new concepts of sexual function and perhaps relational behaviour. In conclusion, ejaculation is a dual cerebral process with arousal sensation (hormonally modulated) and libido perception (pheromonally modulated) as the afferent part. Two neurophysiological axes could exist in both men and women. In this

  6. Dual-task training effects on motor and cognitive functional abilities in individuals with stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Liqing; Pang, Marco Yiu Chung

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of dual-task balance and mobility training in people with stroke. An extensive electronic databases literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Randomized controlled studies that assessed the effects of dual-task training in stroke patients were included for the review (last search in December 2017). The methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration recommendation, and level of evidence was determined according to the criteria described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. About 13 articles involving 457 participants were included in this systematic review. All had substantial risk of bias and thus provided level IIb evidence only. Dual-task mobility training was found to induce more improvement in single-task walking function (standardized effect size = 0.14-2.24), when compared with single-task mobility training. Its effect on dual-task walking function was not consistent. Cognitive-motor balance training was effective in improving single-task balance function (standardized effect size = 0.27-1.82), but its effect on dual-task balance ability was not studied. The beneficial effect of dual-task training on cognitive function was provided by one study only and thus inconclusive. There is some evidence that dual-task training can improve single-task walking and balance function in individuals with stroke. However, any firm recommendation cannot be made due to the weak methodology of the studies reviewed.

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia as studied by dual-probe microdialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, William T.

    1998-01-01

    Dual probe microdialysis was employed in intact rat brain to investigate the effect of intrastriatal perfusion with selective dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptor agonists and with c-fos antisense oligonucleotide on (a) local GABA release in the striatum; (b) the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which is the output site of the strionigral GABA pathway; and (c) the external segment of the globus pallidus, which is the output site of the striopallidal GABA pathway. The data provide functional in vivo evidence for a selective dopamine D 1 receptor-mediated activation of the direct strionigral GABA pathway and a selective dopamine D 2 receptor inhibition of the indirect striopallidal GABA pathway and provides a neuronal substrate for parallel processing in the basal ganglia regulation of motor function. Taken together, these findings offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dopamine-linked disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia

  8. Synthesis and application of dual functionalized task specific ionic liquid for bamboo dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Sultan Nor Shahroon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dual functionalized imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL namely 3-(2-cyano-ethyl-1-(2-ethoxy-ethyl-3-imidazolium bromide [CNEIM][Br], was synthesized and characterized to study their potential in bamboo dissolution. The chemical structure for the IL was characterized using NMR (1H and 13C. Thermal properties, surface morphology and functional group of the native bamboo and IL treated bamboo were analyzed by Thermal Gravimetric Anaylysis (TGA, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The new IL was able to dissolve up to 5wt% of bamboo biomass within 48 hours and 100°C.

  9. Carbodithioic acid esters of fluoxetine, a novel class of dual-function spermicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, S T V S; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Vishnu L; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Rajeev K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Kumar, Manish; Shukla, Praveen K; Gupta, Gopal

    2008-10-01

    Carbodithioic acid esters of fluoxetine have been prepared by replacing the methylamino function in aminopropane chain with carbodithioic acid ester group and by adding various S-2-hydroxypropyl ester of dialkyl carbodithioic acid at 3-methylamino group. Some of these compounds showed spermicidal, antifungal and anti-Trichomonas activities. The study revealed that incorporation of carbodithioic acid residue directly into fluoxetine structure leads to compounds with better antifungal and anti-Trichomonas activities, and N-methyl-[3-phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-propyl]carbodithioic acid S-(2-pyrrolidino-ethyl) ester (14) has shown better profile than both fluoxetine and nonoxynol-9. Further lead optimization may yield a potent dual-function spermicide.

  10. High-quality reduced graphene oxide by a dual-function chemical reduction and healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Yoo, HeeJoun; Lee, Saemi; Park, Younghun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    A new chemical dual-functional reducing agent, thiophene, was used to produce high-quality reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a result of a chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the healing of rGO. Thiophene reduced GO by donation of electrons with acceptance of oxygen while it was converted into an intermediate oxidised polymerised thiophene that was eventually transformed into polyhydrocarbon by loss of sulphur atoms. Surprisingly, the polyhydrocarbon template helped to produce good-quality rGOC (chemically reduced) and high-quality rGOCT after thermal treatment. The resulting rGOCT nanosheets did not contain any nitrogen or sulphur impurities, were highly deoxygenated and showed a healing effect. Thus the electrical properties of the as-prepared rGOCT were superior to those of conventional hydrazine-produced rGO that require harsh reaction conditions. Our novel dual reduction and healing method with thiophene could potentially save energy and facilitate the commercial mass production of high-quality graphene.

  11. RET Functions as a Dual-Specificity Kinase that Requires Allosteric Inputs from Juxtamembrane Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Plaza-Menacho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit a variety of activation mechanisms despite highly homologous catalytic domains. Such diversity arises through coupling of extracellular ligand-binding portions with highly variable intracellular sequences flanking the tyrosine kinase domain and specific patterns of autophosphorylation sites. Here, we show that the juxtamembrane (JM segment enhances RET catalytic domain activity through Y687. This phospho-site is also required by the JM region to rescue an otherwise catalytically deficient RET activation-loop mutant lacking tyrosines. Structure-function analyses identified interactions between the JM hinge, αC helix, and an unconventional activation-loop serine phosphorylation site that engages the HRD motif and promotes phospho-tyrosine conformational accessibility and regulatory spine assembly. We demonstrate that this phospho-S909 arises from an intrinsic RET dual-specificity kinase activity and show that an equivalent serine is required for RET signaling in Drosophila. Our findings reveal dual-specificity and allosteric components for the mechanism of RET activation and signaling with direct implications for drug discovery.

  12. Functional outcome of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with dual plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thiruvengita Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years. All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ≤2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and

  13. Oxidation of the Primary Alcoholic Moiety Selectively in the Presence of the Secondary Alcoholic Moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Myint Htwe

    2011-12-01

    Both primary and secondary alcoholic moieties are very sensitive to oxidation reactions. But sometimes it is necessary to oxidized only the primary alcoholic moiety. Such cases are usually found in Food Industries. In this situation, TEMPO (1, 1, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-1-Piperidine Oxoammonium) was used as an oxidizing agent. In this paper, Alpha starch was successfully oxidized using TEMPO as the oxidizing agent in combination with sodium hypochlorite with and without sodium bromide. The oxidation of primary alcoholic moiety only and the remaining untouched secondary alcoholic moiety were proved by infrared spectroscopy method.

  14. Determination of kidney function with 99mTc-DTPA renography using a dual-head camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus J; Møller, Michael L; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Single-head gamma camera renography has been used for decades to estimate kidney function. An estimate of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained using Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA). However, because of differing attenuation, an error is introduced when the kidney...... depth or kidney size is unequal. This error can be reduced using geometric mean data obtained from dual-head renography. The aim of this study was to compare single-head versus dual-head assessment of single kidney function....

  15. Preparation of self-cleaning surfaces with a dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Ji; Yoon, Hye Soo; Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-11-01

    Thin film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was deposited on SiO2 nanoparticles by chemical vapor deposition, and SiO2 became completely hydrophobic after PDMS coating. Mixtures of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 nanoparticles with various relative ratios were prepared, and distributed on glass surfaces, and water contact angles and photocatalytic activities of these surfaces were studied. Samples consisting of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 with a ratio of 7:3 showed a highly stable superhydrophobicity under UV irradiation with a water contact angle of 165° and UV-driven photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue and phenol in aqueous solution. Our process can be exploited for fabricating self-cleaning surfaces with dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity at the same time.

  16. SU-F-J-91: Sparing Lung Function in Treatment Planning Using Dual Energy Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapointe, A; Bahig, H; Zerouali, K; Blais, D; Carrier, J; Filion, E; Roberge, D; Bedwani, S [Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Guise, J [Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To propose an alternate treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the functional lung tissues. In clinical situation, the evaluation of the lung functionality is typically derived from perfusion scintigraphy. However, such technique has spatial and temporal resolutions generally inferior to those of a CT scan. Alternatively, it is possible to evaluate pulmonary function by analysing the iodine concentration determined via contrast-enhanced dual energy CT (DECT) scan. Methods: Five lung cancer patients underwent a scintigraphy and a contrast-enhanced DECT scan (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens). The iodine concentration was evaluated using the two-material decomposition method to produce a functional map of the lung. The validation of the approach is realized by comparison between the differential function computed by DECT and scintigraphy. The functional map is then used to redefine the V5 (volume of the organ that received more than 5 Gy during a radiotherapy treatment) to a novel functional parameter, the V5f. The V5f, that uses a volume weighted by its function level, can assist in evaluating optimal beam entry points for a specific treatment plan. Results: The results show that the differential functions obtained by scintigraphy and DECT are in good agreement with a mean difference of 6%. In specific cases, we are able to visually correlate low iodine concentration with abnormal pulmonary lung or cancerous tumors. The comparison between V5f and V5 has shown that some entry points can be better exploited and that new ones are now accessible, 2.34 times more in average, without increasing the V5f - thus allowing easier optimization of other planning objectives. Conclusion: In addition to the high-resolution DECT images, the iodine map provides local information used to detect potential functional heterogeneities in the 3D space. We propose that this information be used to calculate new functional dose parameters such as the V5f. The presenting author

  17. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  18. Lower limb muscle coactivation levels in healthy younger and older adults during functional dual-task gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Zamfolini Hallal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of daily cognitive task on stiffness of old and young female adults during the gait. The study included 17 physically active younger and 18 older women, with low risk of falls. The volunteers were asked to walk on the treadmill at two different gait conditions: normal gait and functional dual-task gait. The electromyographic signals were collected of the lower limb muscles. The percentage of coactivation for the tibialis anterior/gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior/soleus were significantly higher in elderly than in younger in the normal gait and dual-task gait. Our results suggest that the elderly have a greater stiffness in the ankle joint during gait normal and daily dual task gait. Thus, we conclude that challenging cognitively situations during the gait may increase the risk of falls in this population.

  19. The "Stroop Walking Task": An innovative dual-task for the early detection of executive function impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrochon, A; Kemoun, G; Watelain, E; Dugué, B; Berthoz, A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate a dual-task named the "Stroop Walking Task", which is similar to the task of making a decision of whether to cross a street based on a pedestrian traffic light. Fifty-one subjects (15 young adults, 21 subjectively healthy old subjects and 15 old subjects with mild cognitive impairment) had to respond to a visual signal (pictogram) with an appropriate motor response (walk or stop). We used an electronic walkway system to record the gait parameters and performed a cluster analysis on the obtained data. This dual-task enables the early detection of executive function impairment with 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. The use of a dual-task that is inspired by an everyday event as an evaluation tool seems to facilitate the detection of ageing subjects' cognitive impairment, which is not detectable with traditional psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of dual-functional Fe3O4/Au composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Huang, Yu-Bin; Lai, Ying-Huang

    2018-03-01

    There is a high demand for multifunctional materials that can integrate sample collection and sensing. In this study, magnetic Fe3O4 clusters were fabricated using a simple solvent-thermal method. The effect of the reductant (sodium citrate, SC) on the structure and morphology of Fe3O4 was examined by the variation in the reagent amount. The resulting Fe3O4 clusters were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to anchor Au nanoparticles to its surface. The fabricated composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Dual-functional Fe3O4/Au clusters were obtained, effectively combining magnetic and plasmonic optical properties. The magnetic Fe3O4 cluster cores permitted the adsorption of the probe molecules, while sample concentration and collection were carried out under an external magnetic field. In addition, 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) was chosen as the probe molecule to examine the analyte concentration ability and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the Fe3O4/Au composites. The results indicated that the Fe3O4/Au clusters exhibit a prominent SERS effect. The best 4-NTP detection limit obtained was 1 × 10-8 M, with a corresponding SERS analytical enhancement factor (AEF) exceeding 2 × 105.

  1. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P.; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pKa). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix.

  2. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-02-07

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pK(a)). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Dual Sensory Loss and Depressive Symptoms: The Importance of Hearing, Daily Functioning and Activity Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Matthew Kiely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyse 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men aged between 65 and 103 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D. Vision loss (VL was defined by corrected visual acuity greater than 0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL was defined by pure tone average (PTA greater than 25 dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviours, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B=1.16, SE=0.33 and DSL (B=2.15, SE=0.39 but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B=0.16, SE=0.06, p

  4. Dual functions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA): fabricating particles and electrospinning nanofibers applied in controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Hong; Wu, De-Qun; Chu, Chih-Chang

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of submicron size microsphere from 8-Phe-4 poly(ester amide) (PEA) using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the emulsion was reported. The biodegradable microspheres were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, and PVA was used as the emulsion. Furthermore, the emulsion PVA was electrospun into nanofibrous mats, and 8-Phe-4 PEA microspheres were entrapped in the resultant mats. The dual functions of PVA to fabricate ideal nanofibrous mats which can entrap microspheres in them and to obtain 8-Phe-4 microspheres as emulsion in their potential application were demonstrated. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated in the 8-Phe-4 amino acid-based PEA microspheres and the entrapment efficiency is almost 100 %. At the same time, the DOX can be controlled released in PBS solution and in α-chymotrypsin solution. The cytotoxicity of PVA, PVA mats-entrapped 8-Phe-4 microspheres and PVA mats-entrapped DOX-loaded 8-Phe-4 microspheres, was investigated. Hela cells were used to test the cytotoxicity of the DOX that released from the PVA mats-entrapped DOX-loaded 8-Phe-4 microspheres for 2 days, and the cell viability is below 30 % when the 8-Phe-4 microspheres concentration is 1 mg/mL. It demonstrated that the PVA mats-entrapped DOX-loaded 8-Phe-4 microspheres have a potential biomedical application.

  5. Performance Investigation and Structure Optimization of a Flat Dual-Function Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a dual-function solar collector (DFSC that can work as either water heater or air heater depending on seasonal requirement is investigated via both experimental and numerical approaches in this paper. The numerical results are well consistent with the experimental results. Daily efficiency of the thermosiphon system with DFSC is more than 55% in water heating mode and the instantaneous air heating efficiency of the collector reaches 60%. The effects of inner parameters on the thermal efficiency of the collector are analyzed by numerical simulations of the operation of DFSC in two working modes. It is found that the depths of the two air channels in DFSC have an optimal range suitable for both working modes. The thickness of back insulation should be no less than 0.06 m to prevent heat loss via backboard, and the diameter and number of copper tubes show notable effect on the efficiency of DFSC in water heating mode but slight effect in air heating mode.

  6. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  7. Prostate stem cell antigen-targeted nanoparticles with dual functional properties: in vivo imaging and cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Xin Gao,1,* Yun Luo,1,* Yuanyuan Wang,1,* Jun Pang,1 Chengde Liao,2 Hanlun Lu,3 Youqiang Fang11Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 3Materials Science Institute of Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: We designed dual-functional nanoparticles for in vivo application using a modified electrostatic and covalent layer-by-layer assembly strategy to address the challenge of assessment and treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.Methods: Core-shell nanoparticles were formulated by integrating three distinct functional components, ie, a core constituted by poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid, docetaxel, and hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIONs, a multilayer shell formed by poly(allylamine hydrochloride and two different sized poly(ethylene glycol molecules, and a single-chain prostate stem cell antigen antibody conjugated to the nanoparticle surface for targeted delivery.Results: Drug release profiles indicated that the dual-function nanoparticles had a sustained release pattern over 764 hours, and SPIONs could facilitate the controlled release of the drug in vitro. The nanoparticles showed increased antitumor efficiency and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in vitro through targeted delivery of docetaxel and SPIONs to PC3M cells. Moreover, in nude mice bearing PC3M xenografts, the nanoparticles provided MRI negative contrast enhancement, as well as halting and even reversing tumor growth during the 76-day study duration, and without significant systemic toxicity. The lifespan of the mice treated with these targeted dual-function nanoparticles was significantly increased (Chi-square = 22.514, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: This dual-function nanomedical platform may be a promising candidate for tumor imaging and targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in vivo

  8. Pro-Moieties of Antimicrobial Peptide Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanna Forde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a promising class of antimicrobial agents that have been garnering increasing attention as resistance renders many conventional antibiotics ineffective. Extensive research has resulted in a large library of highly-active AMPs. However, several issues serve as an impediment to their clinical development, not least the issue of host toxicity. An approach that may allow otherwise cytotoxic AMPs to be used is to deliver them as a prodrug, targeting antimicrobial activity and limiting toxic effects on the host. The varied library of AMPs is complemented by a selection of different possible pro-moieties, each with their own characteristics. This review deals with the different pro-moieties that have been used with AMPs and discusses the merits of each.

  9. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Dual AAV therapy ameliorates exercise-induced muscle injury and functional ischemia in murine models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yadong; Yue, Yongping; Li, Liang; Hakim, Chady H; Zhang, Keqing; Thomas, Gail D; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-09-15

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) membrane delocalization contributes to the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by promoting functional muscle ischemia and exacerbating muscle injury during exercise. We have previously shown that supra-physiological expression of nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin restores normal blood flow regulation and prevents functional ischemia in transgenic mdx mice, a DMD model. A critical next issue is whether systemic dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy can restore nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin expression and mitigate muscle activity-related functional ischemia and injury. Here, we performed systemic gene transfer in mdx and mdx4cv mice using a pair of dual AAV vectors that expressed a 6 kb nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin gene. Vectors were packaged in tyrosine mutant AAV-9 and co-injected (5 × 10(12) viral genome particles/vector/mouse) via the tail vein to 1-month-old dystrophin-null mice. Four months later, we observed 30-50% mini-dystrophin positive myofibers in limb muscles. Treatment ameliorated histopathology, increased muscle force and protected against eccentric contraction-induced injury. Importantly, dual AAV therapy successfully prevented chronic exercise-induced muscle force drop. Doppler hemodynamic assay further showed that therapy attenuated adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle. Our results suggest that partial transduction can still ameliorate nNOS delocalization-associated functional deficiency. Further evaluation of nNOS binding mini-dystrophin dual AAV vectors is warranted in dystrophic dogs and eventually in human patients.

  11. Lower limb muscle coactivation levels in healthy younger and older adults during functional dual-task gait

    OpenAIRE

    Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Brunt, Denis; Spinoso, Deborah Hebling; Castro, Alex; Cardozo, Adalgiso Coscrato; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of daily cognitive task on stiffness of old and young female adults during the gait. The study included 17 physically active younger and 18 older women, with low risk of falls. The volunteers were asked to walk on the treadmill at two different gait conditions: normal gait and functional dual-task gait. The electromyographic signals were collected of the lower limb muscles. The percentage of coactivation for the tibialis anterior/gast...

  12. Modeling the emissions of a dual fuel engine coupled with a biomass gasifier-supplementing the Wiebe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Caligiuri, Carlo; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris; Renzi, Massimiliano; Baratieri, Marco

    2018-03-12

    There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines. This study introduces a thermodynamic model that works in parallel with the Wiebe function and calculates the emissions of the engines. This "vis-à-vis" approach takes into consideration the actual conditions inside the cylinders-as they are returned by the Wiebe function-and calculates the final thermodynamic equilibrium of the flue gases mixture. This approach aims to enhance the operation of the dual fuel internal combustion engines by identifying the optimal operating conditions and-at the same time-advance pollution control and minimize the environmental impact.

  13. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by immobilized dual functional biocatalysts in a cellulose hollow fiber bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun A; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2005-08-05

    A whole-cell technology for detoxification of organophosphates based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli cell expressing both cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) onto cell surface was reported recently (Wang et al., 2002). This study reports the application of these biocatalysts when immobilized in a cellulose hollow fiber bioreactor (HFB) for the biodetoxification of a model organophosphate, paraoxon, in a continuous flow mode. In 24 h, 0.79 mg wet cell/cm2 fiber surface were immobilized onto cellulose fibers specifically and strongly through the cellulose binding domain, forming a monolayer demonstrated by Scanning Electronic Micrograph, and essentially no cell was washed away by washing buffer. The immobilized biocatalyst had a high performance of detoxifying paraoxon solution of 5,220 mumol/h x L reactor or 990 mumol/h x m2 reactor. The immobilized biocatalysts maintained a stable degradation capacity for 15 uses over a period of 48 days with only 10% decline in degradation efficiency under operating and storage conditions. In addition, the bioreactor was easily regenerated by washing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with 86.7% immobilization capacity and 93.9% degradation efficiency recovery. This is the first report using the HFB in a non-traditional way, immobilizing whole-cell biocatalysts by specific adhesion thus rendering the catalysis operation the advantages of low pressure drop, low shear force, and low energy requirement. The successful application of this genetically engineered dual functional E. coli strain in a model bioreactor shows its promise in large-scale detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents in bulk liquid phase. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fabrication, characterization, and functionalization of dual carbon electrodes as probes for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kim; Nadappuram, Binoy Paulose; Actis, Paolo; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Korchev, Yuri E; Matsue, Tomokazu; Robinson, Colin; Unwin, Patrick R

    2013-08-06

    Dual carbon electrodes (DCEs) are quickly, easily, and cheaply fabricated by depositing pyrolytic carbon into a quartz theta nanopipet. The size of DCEs can be controlled by adjusting the pulling parameters used to make the nanopipet. When operated in generation/collection (G/C) mode, the small separation between the electrodes leads to reasonable collection efficiencies of ca. 30%. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation is developed to predict the current response of these electrodes as a means of estimating the probe geometry. Voltammetric measurements at individual electrodes combined with generation/collection measurements provide a reasonable guide to the electrode size. DCEs are employed in a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) configuration, and their use for both approach curves and imaging is considered. G/C approach curve measurements are shown to be particularly sensitive to the nature of the substrate, with insulating surfaces leading to enhanced collection efficiencies, whereas conducting surfaces lead to a decrease of collection efficiency. As a proof-of-concept, DCEs are further used to locally generate an artificial electron acceptor and to follow the flux of this species and its reduced form during photosynthesis at isolated thylakoid membranes. In addition, 2-dimensional images of a single thylakoid membrane are reported and analyzed to demonstrate the high sensitivity of G/C measurements to localized surface processes. It is finally shown that individual nanometer-size electrodes can be functionalized through the selective deposition of platinum on one of the two electrodes in a DCE while leaving the other one unmodified. This provides an indication of the future versatility of this type of probe for nanoscale measurements and imaging.

  15. Error analysis and new dual-cosine window for estimating the sensor frequency response function from the step response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang-Long; Liang, Li-Ping; Liu, Hou-De; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at reducing the estimation error of the sensor frequency response function (FRF) estimated by the commonly used window-based spectral estimation method, the error models of interpolation and transient errors are derived in the form of non-parameter models. Accordingly, window effects on the errors are analyzed and reveal that the commonly used hanning window leads to smaller interpolation error which can also be significantly eliminated by the cubic spline interpolation method when estimating the FRF from the step response data, and window with smaller front-end value can restrain more transient error. Thus, a new dual-cosine window with its non-zero discrete Fourier transform bins at -3, -1, 0, 1, and 3 is constructed for FRF estimation. Compared with the hanning window, the new dual-cosine window has the equivalent interpolation error suppression capability and better transient error suppression capability when estimating the FRF from the step response; specifically, it reduces the asymptotic property of the transient error from O(N-2) of the hanning window method to O(N-4) while only increases the uncertainty slightly (about 0.4 dB). Then, one direction of a wind tunnel strain gauge balance which is a high order, small damping, and non-minimum phase system is employed as the example for verifying the new dual-cosine window-based spectral estimation method. The model simulation result shows that the new dual-cosine window method is better than the hanning window method for FRF estimation, and compared with the Gans method and LPM method, it has the advantages of simple computation, less time consumption, and short data requirement; the actual data calculation result of the balance FRF is consistent to the simulation result. Thus, the new dual-cosine window is effective and practical for FRF estimation.

  16. A viral nanoparticle with dual function as an anthrax antitoxin and vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly J Manayani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon has stimulated the search for novel antitoxins and vaccines that act rapidly and with minimal adverse effects. B. anthracis produces an AB-type toxin composed of the receptor-binding moiety protective antigen (PA and the enzymatic moieties edema factor and lethal factor. PA is a key target for both antitoxin and vaccine development. We used the icosahedral insect virus Flock House virus as a platform to display 180 copies of the high affinity, PA-binding von Willebrand A domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor. The chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs correctly displayed the receptor von Willebrand A domain on their surface and inhibited lethal toxin action in in vitro and in vivo models of anthrax intoxication. Moreover, VLPs complexed with PA elicited a potent toxin-neutralizing antibody response that protected rats from anthrax lethal toxin challenge after a single immunization without adjuvant. This recombinant VLP platform represents a novel and highly effective, dually-acting reagent for treatment and protection against anthrax.

  17. A Viral Nanoparticle with Dual Function as an Anthrax Antitoxin and Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayani, Darly J; Thomas, Diane; Dryden, Kelly A; Reddy, Vijay; Siladi, Marc E; Marlett, John M; Rainey, G. Jonah A; Pique, Michael E; Scobie, Heather M; Yeager, Mark; Young, John A. T; Manchester, Marianne; Schneemann, Anette

    2007-01-01

    The recent use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon has stimulated the search for novel antitoxins and vaccines that act rapidly and with minimal adverse effects. B. anthracis produces an AB-type toxin composed of the receptor-binding moiety protective antigen (PA) and the enzymatic moieties edema factor and lethal factor. PA is a key target for both antitoxin and vaccine development. We used the icosahedral insect virus Flock House virus as a platform to display 180 copies of the high affinity, PA-binding von Willebrand A domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor. The chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) correctly displayed the receptor von Willebrand A domain on their surface and inhibited lethal toxin action in in vitro and in vivo models of anthrax intoxication. Moreover, VLPs complexed with PA elicited a potent toxin-neutralizing antibody response that protected rats from anthrax lethal toxin challenge after a single immunization without adjuvant. This recombinant VLP platform represents a novel and highly effective, dually-acting reagent for treatment and protection against anthrax. PMID:17922572

  18. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J., E-mail: c.jensen@contilia.d [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Jochims, Markus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Hunold, Peter; Forsting, Michael; Barkhausen, Joerg [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany); Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Schlosser, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular (LV) function and mass (LVM) derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of beta-blocker administration compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR were included, where of fifteen received metoprolol intravenously before DSCT. LV parameters were calculated by the disc-summation method (DSM) and by a segmented region-growing algorithm (RGA). All data sets were analyzed by two blinded observers. Interobserver agreement was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results.: 1. Using DSM LV parameters were not statistically different between DSCT and CMR in all patients (DSCT vs. CMR: EF 63 {+-} 8% vs. 64 {+-} 8%, p = 0.47; EDV 136 {+-} 36 ml vs. 138 {+-} 35 ml, p = 0.66; ESV 52 {+-} 21 ml vs. 52 {+-} 22 ml, p = 0.61; SV 83 {+-} 22 ml vs. 87 {+-} 19 ml, p = 0.22; CO 5.4 {+-} 0.9 l/min vs. 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min, p = 0.09, LVM 132 {+-} 33 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p = 0.99). 2. In a subgroup of 15 patients beta-blockade prior to DSCT resulted in a lower ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and increase in end systolic volume (ESV) in DSCT (EF 59 {+-} 8% vs. 62 {+-} 9%; SV 73 {+-} 17 ml vs. 81 {+-} 15 ml; CO 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min vs. 5.0 {+-} 0.8 l/min; ESV 52 {+-} 27 ml vs. 57 {+-} 24 ml, all p < 0.05). 3. Analyzing the RGA parameters LV volumes were not significantly different compared to DSM, whereas LVM was higher using RGA (177 {+-} 31 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p < 0.05). Interobserver agreement was excellent comparing DSM values with best agreement between RGA calculations. Conclusion: Left ventricular volumes and mass can reliably be assessed by DSCT compared to CMR. However, beta-blocker administration leads to statistically significant reduced EF, SV and CO, whereas ESV significantly increases. DSCT RGA reliably analyzes LV function, whereas LVM is overestimated compared to DSM.

  19. Inhibition of HIV Virus by Neutralizing Vhh Attached to Dual Functional Liposomes Encapsulating Dapivirine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Scarlet Xiaoyan; Michiels, Johan; Ariën, Kevin K.; New, Roger; Vanham, Guido; Roitt, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    efficacy in reducing viral replication in vitro. Thus, dual function liposomes may lead to a novel strategy for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS by combining the neutralizing activity of Vhh with antiviral effects of high drug concentrations.

  20. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Christoph J.; Jochims, Markus; Hunold, Peter; Forsting, Michael; Barkhausen, Joerg; Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver; Schlosser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular (LV) function and mass (LVM) derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of beta-blocker administration compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR were included, where of fifteen received metoprolol intravenously before DSCT. LV parameters were calculated by the disc-summation method (DSM) and by a segmented region-growing algorithm (RGA). All data sets were analyzed by two blinded observers. Interobserver agreement was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results.: 1. Using DSM LV parameters were not statistically different between DSCT and CMR in all patients (DSCT vs. CMR: EF 63 ± 8% vs. 64 ± 8%, p = 0.47; EDV 136 ± 36 ml vs. 138 ± 35 ml, p = 0.66; ESV 52 ± 21 ml vs. 52 ± 22 ml, p = 0.61; SV 83 ± 22 ml vs. 87 ± 19 ml, p = 0.22; CO 5.4 ± 0.9 l/min vs. 5.7 ± 1.2 l/min, p = 0.09, LVM 132 ± 33 g vs. 132 ± 33 g, p = 0.99). 2. In a subgroup of 15 patients beta-blockade prior to DSCT resulted in a lower ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and increase in end systolic volume (ESV) in DSCT (EF 59 ± 8% vs. 62 ± 9%; SV 73 ± 17 ml vs. 81 ± 15 ml; CO 5.7 ± 1.2 l/min vs. 5.0 ± 0.8 l/min; ESV 52 ± 27 ml vs. 57 ± 24 ml, all p < 0.05). 3. Analyzing the RGA parameters LV volumes were not significantly different compared to DSM, whereas LVM was higher using RGA (177 ± 31 g vs. 132 ± 33 g, p < 0.05). Interobserver agreement was excellent comparing DSM values with best agreement between RGA calculations. Conclusion: Left ventricular volumes and mass can reliably be assessed by DSCT compared to CMR. However, beta-blocker administration leads to statistically significant reduced EF, SV and CO, whereas ESV significantly increases. DSCT RGA reliably analyzes LV function, whereas LVM is overestimated compared to DSM.

  1. AV interval optimization using pressure volume loops in dual chamber pacemaker patients with maintained systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Frank; Hanke, Thorsten; Fitschen, Joern; Heringlake, Matthias; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Wiegand, Uwe K H

    2012-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) interval optimization is often deemed too time-consuming in dual-chamber pacemaker patients with maintained LV function. Thus the majority of patients are left at their default AV interval. To quantify the magnitude of hemodynamic improvement following AV interval optimization in chronically paced dual chamber pacemaker patients. A pressure volume catheter was placed in the left ventricle of 19 patients with chronic dual chamber pacing and an ejection fraction >45 % undergoing elective coronary angiography. AV interval was varied in 10 ms steps from 80 to 300 ms, and pressure volume loops were recorded during breath hold. The average optimal AV interval was 152 ± 39 ms compared to 155 ± 8 ms for the average default AV interval (range 100-240 ms). The average improvement in stroke work following AV interval optimization was 935 ± 760 mmHg/ml (range 0-2,908; p AV interval changes the average stroke work by 207 ± 162 mmHg/ml. AV interval optimization also leads to improved systolic dyssynchrony indices (17.7 ± 7.0 vs. 19.4 ± 7.1 %; p = 0.01). The overall hemodynamic effect of AV interval optimization in patients with maintained LV function is in the same range as for patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy for several parameters. The positive effect of AV interval optimization also applies to patients who have been chronically paced for years.

  2. On Complex Zeros of the q-Potts Partition Function for a Self-dual Family of Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, J.-M.; Corset, F.; Fontenas, E.

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the location of the complex zeros of q-Potts partition function for a class of self-dual graphs. For this class of graphs, as the form of the eigenvalues is known, the regions of the complex plane can be focused on the sets where there is only one dominant eigenvalue in particular containing the positive half plane. Thus, in these regions, the analyticity of the free energy per site can be derived easily. Next, some examples of graphs with their Tutte polynomial having few eigenvalues are given. The case of the cycle with an edge having a high order of multiplicity is presented in detail. In particular, we show that the well known conjecture of Chen et al. is false in the finite case. Furthermore we obtain a sequence of self-dual graphs for which the unit circle does not belong to the accumulation sets of the zeros.

  3. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  4. Macromolecular Networks Containing Fluorinated Cyclic Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-12

    Moieties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew J. Guenthner; Scott T. Iacono; Cynthia A. Corley; 5d...AFRL/RQRP 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7680 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 5 Pollux Drive NUMBER(S) Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7048 AFRL-RQ-ED-TP-2015

  5. Psychological Well-Being of the Dual Career Women as Function of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on workplace factors precipitating stress among dual career women. The subjects were 869 educated working mothers aged between 20 and 60 years and who have a minimum of Nigeria certificate in education (NCE). Research questions and null hypotheses formulated were directed towards issues ...

  6. Function, Type, and Distribution of Teacher Questions in Dual-Language Preschool Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the nature and distribution of dual-language preschool teachers' questions across parallel Spanish- and English-medium read-aloud activities. The notions of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985) and language output (Swain, 1985), along with a reciprocal interaction model of teaching (Cummins, 2000), guided our…

  7. Optimization of 5-hydroxytryptamines as dual function inhibitors targeting phospholipase A2 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hu; Liu, Ying; Zhai, Yujing; Lai, Luhua

    2013-01-01

    Dual function inhibitors targeting phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) may balance the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network and be used as new anti-inflammatory drugs. In previous study, we discovered multi-target drugs towards the AA metabolic network, among which a dual-target inhibitor (JMC08-4) for human nonpancreatic secretory phospholipase A(2) (hnps-PLA(2)) and human leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H-h) was found. Based on the structure of compound JMC08-4, new dual-target inhibitors were designed assisted by molecular docking. In this report, a series of 5-hydroxytryptamine compounds were synthesized; and most of these title compounds showed more potent inhibitory activity than compound JMC08-4 in the in vitro bioassay against these two enzymes. The best one inhibited hnps-PLA(2) and LTA(4)H-h with IC(50) values of 9.2 ± 0.5 μM and 2.4 ± 1.4 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual-task training on a treadmill to improve gait and cognitive function in elderly idiopathic fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Moran; Herman, Talia; Brozgol, Marina; Shema, Shirley; Weiss, Aner; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2014-10-01

    Daily activities require the ability to dual task (DT), utilizing cognitive resources while walking to negotiate complex environmental conditions. For older adults, these additional cognitive demands often lead to reduced gait quality that increases the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to assess whether a combined intervention, consisting of treadmill training (TT) while performing DT, improves cognitive and motor performance in older adults with a history of multiple falls. A repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effects of training in 10 elderly fallers (mean age, 78.1 ± 5.81 y, 7 women). The progressive intensive training sessions included walking on a treadmill while practicing a variety of dual tasks 3 times a week for more than 6 weeks. Cognitive and motor measures were used to assess the effects of the intervention immediately after training and 1 month posttraining. Improvements were observed in Berg Balance Scale (P = 0.02), Dynamic Gait Index (P = 0.03), gait speed during usual walking and while DT (P Elderly: P = 0.02). At 1 month postintervention, changes were not significant. After 6 weeks of TT + DT program, elderly fallers demonstrated improved scores on tests of mobility, functional performance tasks, and cognition.Dual task training can be readily implemented by therapists as a component of a fall-risk reduction training program.Video Abstract available. See Video (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A81) for more insights from the authors.

  9. Managing Student Behavior in Dual Immersion Classrooms: A Study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D; Caldarella, Paul; Williams, Leslie; Wills, Howard P

    2017-09-01

    Classroom management in dual immersion classrooms includes unique challenges. The teacher must instruct and correct in the L2 language, in which students are beginning learners, and effective classroom management strategies appropriate to the L2 context. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a positive classroom management program that teaches social skills and uses group contingencies to improve behavior. The present study examined the ability of French immersion teachers to implement CW-FIT in the L2, including the effects of CW-FIT on teacher praise and reprimand rates and as well as on students' classroom behavior. Social validity was also assessed. A single-subject multiple baseline design with embedded reversals was used to evaluate impact in second-, third-, and fourth-grade dual immersion classrooms. Results indicated that dual immersion teachers were able to implement CW-FIT in L2 with fidelity. The intervention significantly increased teacher praise and improved classroom on-task behavior. Changes in teacher reprimand rates were inconsistent. Students and teachers reported CW-FIT to be socially valid.

  10. Dual delivery of hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors via a protease-degradable hydrogel improves cardiac function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva S Salimath

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (MI caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction due to local cell death and a temporally regulated inflammatory response. Current therapeutics are limited by delivery vehicles that do not address spatial and temporal aspects of healing. The aim of this study was to engineer biotherapeutic delivery materials to harness endogenous cell repair to enhance myocardial repair and function. We have previously engineered poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-based hydrogels to present cell adhesive motifs and deliver VEGF to promote vascularization in vivo. In the current study, bioactive hydrogels with a protease-degradable crosslinker were loaded with hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors (HGF and VEGF, respectively and delivered to the infarcted myocardium of rats. Release of both growth factors was accelerated in the presence of collagenase due to hydrogel degradation. When delivered to the border zones following ischemia-reperfusion injury, there was no acute effect on cardiac function as measured by echocardiography. Over time there was a significant increase in angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and a decrease in fibrosis in the dual growth factor delivery group that was significant compared with single growth factor therapy. This led to an improvement in chronic function as measured by both invasive hemodynamics and echocardiography. These data demonstrate that dual growth factor release of HGF and VEGF from a bioactive hydrogel has the capacity to significantly improve cardiac remodeling and function following IR injury.

  11. mathematical model of thermal explosion, the dual variational formulation of nonlinear problem, alternative functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    in its plane, and in the circular cylinder unlimited in length.An approximate numerical solution of the differential equation that is included in a nonlinear mathematical model of the thermal explosion enables us to obtain quantitative estimates of combination of determining parameters at which the limit state occurs in areas of not only canonical form. A capability to study of the thermal explosion state can be extended in the context of development of mathematical modeling methods, including methods of model analysis to describe the thermal state of solids.To analyse a mathematical model of the thermal explosion in a homogeneous solid the paper uses a variational approach based on the dual variational formulation of the appropriate nonlinear stationary problem of heat conduction in such a body. This formulation contains two alternative functional reaching the matching values in their stationary points corresponding to the true temperature distribution. This functional feature allows you to not only get an approximate quantitative estimate of the combination of parameters that determine the thermal explosion state, but also to find the greatest possible error in such estimation.

  12. The Role of Ruthenium in CO2 Capture and Catalytic Conversion to Fuel by Dual Function Materials (DFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Shuoxun Wang; Erik T. Schrunk; Harshit Mahajan; and Robert J. Farrauto

    2017-01-01

    Development of sustainable energy technologies and reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are the two effective strategies in dealing with current environmental issues. Herein we report a Dual Function Material (DFM) consisting of supported sodium carbonate in intimate contact with dispersed Ru as a promising catalytic solution for combining both approaches. The Ru-Na2CO3 DFM deposited on Al2O3 captures CO2 from a flue gas and catalytically converts it to synthetic natural gas (i.e., m...

  13. Tailoring electron energy distribution functions through energy confinement in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-08

    A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.

  14. Large-scale, Lithography-free Production of Transparent Nanostructured Surface for Dual-functional Electrochemical and SERS Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanger, Kuldeep; Durucan, Onur; Wu, Kaiyu

    2017-01-01

    aspect ratios distributed homogeneously on a 4-inch fused silica wafer. The sensor was made up of three-electrode array, obtained by subsequent e-beam evaporation of Au on nanostructures in selected areas through a shadow mask. The SERS performance was evaluated through surface-averaged enhancement......-reversible behavior with decrease in peak potential separation (∆Ep ~90mV) and higher peak currents (Ipa/Ipc ~1), comparing to planar electrodes (∆Ep ~560mV). The oxidation potential of PAR was also lowered by ~80 mV on nanostructured electrodes. To illustrate dual-functional sensing, quantitative evaluation of PAR...

  15. Walking in school-aged children in a dual-task paradigm is related to age but not to cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska eHagmann-von Arx

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7 to 13.2 years (M =10.0 years. Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task. Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive functions; parents reported on their child’s motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning. Gait variability (an index of gait regularity decreased with increasing age in both single- and dual-task walking. Dual-task gait decrements were stronger when children walked in the motor compared to the cognitive dual-task condition and decreased with increasing age in both dual-task conditions. Gait alterations from single- to dual-task conditions were not related to children’s cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning.

  16. Haemodynamic effects of dual-chamber pacing versus ventricular pacing during a walk test in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Adele; Salvatore, Marco; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimages of the National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Duilio, Carlo; Santomauro, Maurizio [University Federico II, Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    Dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing provides haemodynamic benefits compared with ventricular pacing at rest, but it is unclear whether this also holds true during physical exercise in patients with heart failure. This study assessed the haemodynamic response to a walk test during dual-chamber pacing and ventricular pacing in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular (LV) function. Twelve patients with an LV ejection fraction <50% and 11 patients with an LV ejection fraction {>=}50% underwent two randomised 6-min walk tests under dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing and ventricular pacing at a fixed rate of 70 beats/min. All patients had a dual-chamber pacemaker implanted for complete heart block. LV function was monitored by a radionuclide ambulatory system. In patients with depressed LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a decrease in end-systolic volume at the peak of the walk test (P<0.05), with no difference in end-diastolic volume. As a consequence, higher increases in LV ejection fraction (P<0.0001) and stroke volume (P<0.01) were observed during ventricular pacing. No difference in cardiac output was found between the two pacing modes. In patients with normal LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a significant decrease in cardiac output (P<0.005 at rest and P<0.05 at the peak of the walk test). Compared with dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing, ventricular pacing improves cardiac function and does not affect cardiac output during physical activity in patients with depressed LV function, whereas it impairs cardiac output in those with normal function. (orig.)

  17. Haemodynamic effects of dual-chamber pacing versus ventricular pacing during a walk test in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Adele; Salvatore, Marco; Cuocolo, Alberto; Duilio, Carlo; Santomauro, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing provides haemodynamic benefits compared with ventricular pacing at rest, but it is unclear whether this also holds true during physical exercise in patients with heart failure. This study assessed the haemodynamic response to a walk test during dual-chamber pacing and ventricular pacing in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular (LV) function. Twelve patients with an LV ejection fraction <50% and 11 patients with an LV ejection fraction ≥50% underwent two randomised 6-min walk tests under dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing and ventricular pacing at a fixed rate of 70 beats/min. All patients had a dual-chamber pacemaker implanted for complete heart block. LV function was monitored by a radionuclide ambulatory system. In patients with depressed LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a decrease in end-systolic volume at the peak of the walk test (P<0.05), with no difference in end-diastolic volume. As a consequence, higher increases in LV ejection fraction (P<0.0001) and stroke volume (P<0.01) were observed during ventricular pacing. No difference in cardiac output was found between the two pacing modes. In patients with normal LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a significant decrease in cardiac output (P<0.005 at rest and P<0.05 at the peak of the walk test). Compared with dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing, ventricular pacing improves cardiac function and does not affect cardiac output during physical activity in patients with depressed LV function, whereas it impairs cardiac output in those with normal function. (orig.)

  18. Dual-functional Polyurea Microcapsules for Chronic Wound Care Dressings: Sustained Drug Delivery and Non-leaching Infection Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    A new design of dual-functional polyurea microcapsules was proposed for chronic wound dressings to provide both non-leaching infection control and sustained topical drug delivery functionalities. Quaternary ammonium functionalized polyurea microcapsules (MCQs) were synthesized under mild conditions through an interfacial crosslinking reaction between branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in a dimethylformamide/cyclohexane emulsion. An in-situ modification method was developed to endow non-leaching surface antimicrobial properties to MCQs via bonding antimicrobial surfactants to surface isocyanate residues on the polyurea shells. The resultant robust MCQs with both non-leaching antimicrobial properties and sustained drug releasing properties have potential applications in medical textiles, such as chronic wound dressings, for infection control and drug delivery.

  19. Some isomorphic function and Fock space representations of the dual model superconformal group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, R.

    1977-12-01

    The dual model superconformal group is first constructed as the set of transformations which preserve up to a variable factor a suitably defined metric in a superspace (Z, theta) where Z is (essentially) a complex number and theta is a Grassmann parameter. This means one has a graded Lie group. Superfunctions are then found which enable some super unitary representations to be constructed. This necessitates the introduction of enlarged matrices - some submatrices of which are composed of Grassmann elements. Finally isomorphic (up to a factor) Fock space representations are exhibited. (Auth.)

  20. Calcium is the switch in the moonlighting dual function of the ligand-activated receptor kinase phytosulfokine receptor 1

    KAUST Repository

    Muleya, Victor

    2014-09-23

    Background: A number of receptor kinases contain guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic centres encapsulated in the cytosolic kinase domain. A prototypical example is the phytosulfokine receptor 1 (PSKR1) that is involved in regulating growth responses in plants. PSKR1 contains both kinase and GC activities however the underlying mechanisms regulating the dual functions have remained elusive. Findings: Here, we confirm the dual activity of the cytoplasmic domain of the PSKR1 receptor. We show that mutations within the guanylate cyclase centre modulate the GC activity while not affecting the kinase catalytic activity. Using physiologically relevant Ca2+ levels, we demonstrate that its GC activity is enhanced over two-fold by Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, increasing Ca2+ levels inhibits kinase activity up to 500-fold at 100 nM Ca2+. Conclusions: Changes in calcium at physiological levels can regulate the kinase and GC activities of PSKR1. We therefore propose a functional model of how calcium acts as a bimodal switch between kinase and GC activity in PSKR1 that could be relevant to other members of this novel class of ligand-activated receptor kinases.

  1. Computerized Dual-Task Testing of Gait and Visuospatial Cognitive Functions; Test-Retest Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szturm, Tony J; Sakhalkar, Vedant S; Kanitkar, Anuprita; Nankar, Mayur

    2017-01-01

    The common occurrence of age decline in mobility and cognition does cause a decrease in the level of physical activity and an increased falls risk. Consequently, dual -task (DT) assessment that simultaneously addresses both mobility skills and cognitive functions are important because, continued difficulties and fall injuries will have a sizable impact in this population. The first objective of the present study was to assess test-retest reliability of a computerized DT treadmill walking protocol and concurrent outcome measures of gait and visuospatial executive function in a group of healthy older adults. Secondly, discriminative validity was evaluated by examining the effect of DT conditions (single task vs. dual-task) on; (a) spatiotemporal gait measures (average and coefficient of variation) and (b) visuomotor and visuospatial executive performance measures. Twenty-five community-dwelling individuals median age 65 (range 61-67) were recruited from a Fitness Facility. Participants performed a computerized visuomotor tracking task and a visuospatial executive game task in standing and while treadmill walking. Testing was conducted on two occasions, 1 week apart. Moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC values of 0.65-0.88) were observed for spatiotemporal gait variables. No significant differences between the group means were observed between test periods in any gait variable. Moderate test-retest reliability (ICC values of 0.6-0.65) was observed for measures of visuomotor and visuospatial executive performance during treadmill walking. Significant DT effects were observed for both spatiotemporal gait variables and visuospatial executive performance measures. This study demonstrates the reliability and reproducibility of the computer-based assessment tool for dual task treadmill walking. The high to moderate ICC values and the lack of systematic errors in the measures indicate that this tool has the ability to repeatedly record reliable data from community

  2. ``Green'' functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles via tea polyphenol for magnetic resonance/fluorescent dual-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lai, Kuilin; Liu, Kexia; Xia, Rui; Gao, Fabao; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Tea polyphenol serves as an environmentally friendly ligand-exchange molecule to synthesize multifunctional metal-doped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via a catechol-metal coordination interaction. The resultant particles not only exhibit excellent hydrophilicity and protein adsorption resistance, but also are applicable as magnetic resonance/fluorescent dual-imaging probes due to their high T2 relaxivity, autofluorescence and large cellular uptake.Tea polyphenol serves as an environmentally friendly ligand-exchange molecule to synthesize multifunctional metal-doped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via a catechol-metal coordination interaction. The resultant particles not only exhibit excellent hydrophilicity and protein adsorption resistance, but also are applicable as magnetic resonance/fluorescent dual-imaging probes due to their high T2 relaxivity, autofluorescence and large cellular uptake. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information and figures (Fig. S1-S7), including experimental sections, characterization of the products, protein corona analysis, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake quantification. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05003c

  3. A dual-factor model of mental health: toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaramian, Susan P; Scott Huebner, E; Hills, Kimberly J; Valois, Robert F

    2010-10-01

    Traditional mental health models focus on psychological problems and distress; accordingly, health is viewed as the absence of illness or disability. In contrast, a dual-factor model of mental health incorporates both indicators of positive subjective well-being (SWB) and measures of psychopathological symptoms to comprehensively determine an individual's psychological adjustment. This study used such a dual-factor model to measure the mental health status of young adolescents. A total of 764 middle school students were classified into one of four distinct groups based on having high or low psychopathology and high or low SWB. Furthermore, group differences in student engagement, academic achievement, and environmental support for learning were investigated. Results demonstrated the existence of a traditionally neglected group of adolescents (low SWB and low psychopathology) who are nonetheless at risk for academic and behavior problems in school and who performed no better than the most troubled group of adolescents. Overall, both the presence of positive well-being and the absence of symptoms were necessary for ensuring the most advantageous school performance. These results highlight the importance of incorporating positive indicators of well-being along with traditional negative factors in more fully understanding relationships between individuals' mental health and educational outcomes. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  4. Can dual-energy CT replace perfusion CT for the functional evaluation of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulé, Sébastien; Pigneur, Frédéric; Quelever, Ronan; Tenenhaus, Arthur; Baranes, Laurence; Richard, Philippe; Tacher, Vania; Herin, Edouard; Pasquier, Hugo; Ronot, Maxime; Rahmouni, Alain; Vilgrain, Valérie; Luciani, Alain

    2017-11-22

    To determine the degree of relationship between iodine concentrations derived from dual-energy CT (DECT) and perfusion CT parameters in patients with advanced HCC under treatment. In this single-centre IRB approved study, 16 patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib or radioembolization who underwent concurrent dynamic perfusion CT and multiphase DECT using a single source, fast kV switching DECT scanner were included. Written informed consent was obtained for all patients. HCC late-arterial and portal iodine concentrations, blood flow (BF)-related and blood volume (BV)-related perfusion parameters maps were calculated. Mixed-effects models of the relationship between iodine concentrations and perfusion parameters were computed. An adjusted p value (Bonferroni method) perfusion index (F=28.24, pperfusion changes. • Late-arterial iodine concentration is highly related to arterial BF and BV. • Portal iodine concentration mainly reflects tumour blood volume. • Dual-energy CT offers significantly decreased radiation dose compared with perfusion CT.

  5. Cognitive function and gait speed under normal and dual-task walking among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n = 191) and non-amnestic MCI (n = 198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p Gait speed during DTW was also significantly associated with working memory (p gait speed and cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI. PMID:24694100

  6. Dual function armchair graphene nanoribbon-based spin-photodetector: Optical spin-valve and light helicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostovari, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-335, Tehran 1411713116 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem, E-mail: Farshi-k@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-335, Tehran 1411713116 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Advanced Devices Simulation Lab (ADSL), Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-194, Tehran 1411713116 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    We show an armchair graphene nanoribbon channel connected between asymmetric ferromagnetic source-drain structure—i.e., p-type Co/Au/graphene source and n-type Co/Cu/graphene drain—can operate as dual function spin-photodetector, under zero external biases at room temperature. It can function as an optical spin-valve with magnetoresistance of greater than 60% and responsivity as high as 25.12 A/mW, when irradiated by an un-polarized light of energy ∼3.03 eV. Under a circularly polarized illumination, this optical spin-valve can also operate as a light helicity detector. The calculated magnetoresistances for right and left circularly polarized lights are both greater than 60%.

  7. Analysis of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Simulated Space Radiation Qualities by Use of Recombinant Bacteria Carrying a Dual-Function Dual-Reporter Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Zahoor, Ahmed; Testard, Isabelle; Reitz, Guenther

    Along with the long-term space exploration come various potential health risks due to unique physical factors of the space environment. Space radiation is one of the primary environmental hazards associated with space flight. In order to deal with space-related risk radiation exposure must be properly characterised and quantified, and biological effects of charged particles have to be analysed in ground based research, especially as astronauts are subjected to a differing radiation quality in space than they receive on Earth. For risk assessment, the mutagenic potential of the heavy ion component of the galactic cosmic radiation is of major concern for tumour induction as radiation late effects. The recombinant SWITCH test is based on TA1535 Salmonella typhimurium cells transformed with a dual-function dual-reporter vector harbouring (a) the genes for bioluminescence production from Photobacterium leiognathi under the control of a DNA-damage inducible promoter and (b) the gene for green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria under the control of a constitutive promoter. Suchlike genetically modified organism report on the presence of genotoxic conditions by dose dependent increase of bioluminescence induction and on the presence of cytotoxic conditions by dose dependent decrease in GFP fluorescence. By this, it is possible to analyse bacterial inactivation and mutation induction by ionizing radiation in parallel in the same cell within short time. Experiments with heavy ions have been performed with the SWITCH test at GANIL with the following accelerated heavy ions: 35 MeV/u (72 keV/µm) and 75 MeV/u (37 keV/µm) carbon, 95 MeV/u argon (377 keV/µm), 95 MeV/u neon (98 keV/µm), 75 MeV/u nickel (967 keV/µm) and 29 MeV/u lead (10238 keV/µm). The results obtained clearly show that the numbers of hits (particles per cm2 ) necessary to inactivate the bacteria (cytotoxicity) depend on LET. The higher the ionisation capacity of the accelerated ion, the

  8. Conceptual design and testing strategy of a dual functional lithium-lead test blanket module in ITER and EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A dual functional lithium-lead (DFLL) test blanket module (TBM) concept has been proposed for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in China to demonstrate the technologies of the liquid lithium-lead breeder blankets with emphasis on the balance between the risks and the potential attractiveness of blanket technology development. The design of DFLL-TBM concept has the flexibility of testing both the helium-cooled quasi-static lithium-lead (SLL) blanket concept and the He/PbLi dual-cooled lithium-lead (DLL) blanket concept. This paper presents an effective testing strategy proposed to achieve the testing target of SLL and DLL DEMO blankets relevant conditions, which includes three parts: materials R and D and small-scale out-of-pile mockups testing in loops, middle-scale TBMs pre-testing in EAST and full-scale consecutive TBMs testing corresponding to different operation phases of ITER during the first 10 years. The design of the DFLL-TBM concept and the testing strategy ability to test TBMs for both blanket concepts in sequence and or in parallel for both ITER and EAST are discussed

  9. Dual-modality brain PET-CT image segmentation based on adaptive use of functional and anatomical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Eberl, Stefan; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2012-01-01

    Dual medical imaging modalities, such as PET-CT, are now a routine component of clinical practice. Medical image segmentation methods, however, have generally only been applied to single modality images. In this paper, we propose the dual-modality image segmentation model to segment brain PET-CT images into gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. This model converts PET-CT image segmentation into an optimization process controlled simultaneously by PET and CT voxel values and spatial constraints. It is innovative in the creation and application of the modality discriminatory power (MDP) coefficient as a weighting scheme to adaptively combine the functional (PET) and anatomical (CT) information on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Our approach relies upon allowing the modality with higher discriminatory power to play a more important role in the segmentation process. We compared the proposed approach to three other image segmentation strategies, including PET-only based segmentation, combination of the results of independent PET image segmentation and CT image segmentation, and simultaneous segmentation of joint PET and CT images without an adaptive weighting scheme. Our results in 21 clinical studies showed that our approach provides the most accurate and reliable segmentation for brain PET-CT images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual-functioning peptides discovered by phage display increase the magnitude and specificity of BMSC attachment to mineralized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraju, Harsha; Miller, Sharon J; Kohn, David H

    2017-07-01

    Design of biomaterials for cell-based therapies requires presentation of specific physical and chemical cues to cells, analogous to cues provided by native extracellular matrices (ECM). We previously identified a peptide sequence with high affinity towards apatite (VTKHLNQISQSY, VTK) using phage display. The aims of this study were to identify a human MSC-specific peptide sequence through phage display, combine it with the apatite-specific sequence, and verify the specificity of the combined dual-functioning peptide to both apatite and human bone marrow stromal cells. In this study, a combinatorial phage display identified the cell binding sequence (DPIYALSWSGMA, DPI) which was combined with the mineral binding sequence to generate the dual peptide DPI-VTK. DPI-VTK demonstrated significantly greater binding affinity (1/K D ) to apatite surfaces compared to VTK, phosphorylated VTK (VTK phos ), DPI-VTK phos , RGD-VTK, and peptide-free apatite surfaces (p biomaterial surfaces and subsequently increase cell proliferation and differentiation. These new peptides expand biomaterial design methodology for cell-based regeneration of bone defects. This strategy of combining cell and material binding phage display derived peptides is broadly applicable to a variety of systems requiring targeted adhesion of specific cell populations, and may be generalized to the engineering of any adhesion surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LSD1 dual function in mediating epigenetic corruption of the vitamin D signaling in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Sebastiano; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Williams, Jennifer; Winchester, Trisha; Moser, Michael T; Smiraglia, Dominic J; Foster, Barbara A

    2017-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH) 2 -D 3 (vitamin D) action in prostate cancer (PCa). Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test. TRAMP tumors and prostates from wild-type (WT) mice were used to evaluate VDR and LSD1 expression via IHC and western blotting. The presence of VDR and LSD1 in the same transcriptional complex was evaluated via immunoprecipitation (IP) using nuclear cell lysate. The effect of LSD1 and 1,25(OH) 2 -D 3 on cell viability was evaluated in C4-2 and BC1A cells via trypan blue exclusion. The role of LSD1 in VDR-mediated gene transcription was evaluated for Cdkn1a , E2f1 , Cyp24a1 , and S100g via qRT-PCR-TaqMan and via chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Methylation of Cdkn1a TSS was measured via bisulfite sequencing, and methylation of a panel of cancer-related genes was quantified using methyl arrays. The Cancer Genome Atlas data were retrieved to identify genes whose status correlates with LSD1 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Results were correlated with patients' survival data from two separate cohorts of primary and metastatic PCa. LSD1 and VDR protein levels are elevated in PCa tumors and correlate with faster tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. Knockdown of LSD1 reduces PCa cell viability, and gene expression data suggest a dual coregulatory role of LSD1 for VDR, acting as a coactivator and corepressor in a locus-specific manner. LSD1 modulates VDR-dependent transcription by mediating the recruitment of VDR and DNMT1 at the TSS of VDR-targeted genes and modulates the epigenetic status of transcribed genes by altering H3K4me2 and H3K9Ac and DNA

  12. Functional Results and Patient Satisfaction of First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthrodesis Using Dual Crossed Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Ryan J; Blume, Peter A

    A total of 262 feet in 228 consecutive patients underwent first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) fusion; thus, the present study is the largest single-surgeon patient series reported. The inclusion criteria included severe painful deformity of the first MPJ due to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or gouty arthritis and stage 3 or 4 hallux rigidus. The exclusion criteria were revision surgery of the first MPJ, fixation other than with dual crossed screws, and a postoperative follow-up period of fixated with dual-crossed 3.0-mm screws. The office follow-up period was ≥3 months postoperatively and the survey follow-up period was ≥6 months postoperatively. The mean duration to radiographic evidence of arthrodesis was 7.00 ± 2.33 weeks, and 252 of the feet (96.18%) achieved successful arthrodesis. The mean postoperative office follow-up duration was 30.43 ± 6.59 weeks. The mean modified American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons scale score was 51.2 ± 3.28 of maximum possible of 68 points. The mean subjective score was 37.1 ± 2.5 (maximum possible of 50 points), and the mean objective score was 14.5 ± 1.7 (maximum possible of 18 points). Furthermore, 200 patients (87.72%) reported that they had little to no pain, 187 (82.02%) reported they either mostly liked the appearance of their toe or liked it very much, and 173 (75.88%) reported that they could wear any type of shoe most or all the time after the operation. Of the respondents, 207 (90.79%) stated they would have the surgery repeated, and 197 (86.40%) would recommend the surgery to a family member or friend. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanogenerator-based dual-functional and self-powered thin patch loudspeaker or microphone for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Torres, David; Díaz, Ramón; Wang, Zhengjun; Wu, Changsheng; Wang, Chuan; Lin Wang, Zhong; Sepúlveda, Nelson

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectret nanogenerators were recently introduced as a promising alternative technology for harvesting kinetic energy. Here we report the device's intrinsic properties that allow for the bidirectional conversion of energy between electrical and mechanical domains; thus extending its potential use in wearable electronics beyond the power generation realm. This electromechanical coupling, combined with their flexibility and thin film-like form, bestows dual-functional transducing capabilities to the device that are used in this work to demonstrate its use as a thin, wearable and self-powered loudspeaker or microphone patch. To determine the device's performance and applicability, sound pressure level is characterized in both space and frequency domains for three different configurations. The confirmed device's high performance is further validated through its integration in three different systems: a music-playing flag, a sound recording film and a flexible microphone for security applications.

  14. Substrate Recognition by a Dual-Function P450 Monooxygenase GfsF Involved in FD-891 Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Takayanagi, Ryuichi; Furuya, Takashi; Kawamata, Ayano; Itagaki, Tomohiro; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Kanoh, Naoki; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2017-11-02

    GfsF is a multifunctional P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes epoxidation and subsequent hydroxylation in the biosynthesis of macrolide polyketide FD-891. Here, we describe the biochemical and structural analysis of GfsF. To obtain the structural basis of a dual-function reaction, we determined the crystal structure of ligand-free GfsF, which revealed GfsF to have a predominantly hydrophobic substrate binding pocket. The docking models, in conjunction with the results of the enzymatic assay with substrate analogues and site-directed mutagenesis suggested two distinct substrate binding modes for epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions, which explained how GfsF regulates the order of two oxidative reactions. These findings provide new insights into the reaction mechanism of multifunctional P450 monooxygenases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modeling intraparticle transports during propylene polymerizations using supported metallocene and dual function metallocene as catalysts: Single particle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hua-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two improved multigrain models (MGMs for preparing homopolypropylene and long chain branched polypropylene via propylene polymerization using silica-supported metallocene or dual function metallocene as catalysts are presented in this paper. The presented models are used to predict the intraparticle flow fields involved in the polymerizations. The simulation results show that the flow field distributions involve dare basically identical. The results also show that both the two polymerization processes have an initiation stage and the controlling step for them is reaction-diffusion-reaction with the polymerization proceeding. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the intra particle mass transfer resistance has significant effect on the polymerization but the heat transfer resistance can be ignored.

  16. A Flexible Monopole Antenna with Dual-Notched Band Function for Ultrawideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a flexible ultrawideband (UWB planar monopole antenna with dual-notched band characteristic printed on a polyimide substrate. The antenna is fed by a step coplanar waveguide (CPW that provides smooth transitional impedance for improved matching. It operates from 2.76 to 10.6 GHz with return loss greater than 10 dB except for the notch band to reduce the interference with existing 3.5 GHz WiMAX band and 5.5 GHz WLAN band. With a combination of rectangular and circle patches in which the U-shaped slot is carved, the overall size of antenna is 30 mm × 20 mm. Moreover, a pair of arc-shaped stubs located at both sides of the feed line is utilized to create the notch band for WiMAX band. The results also show that the antenna has omnidirectional radiation pattern and smooth gain over the entire operational band.

  17. Synthesis of highly active and dual-functional electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Geng; Xu, Guangran; Li, Yingjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Baocang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Gong, Xia [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zheng, Dafang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Jun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinwang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ternary RuMPt (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) nanodendrities (NDs) catalysts, are successfully synthesized by using a facile method. The as-obtained ternary catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities toward the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, as compared to the binary catalysts and the commercial Pt/C catalysts. - Highlights: • Ternary RuMPt catalysts are synthesized by using a facile method. • The catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity towards the MOR and ORR. • High activities are attributed to enhanced electron density and synergistic effects. - Abstract: The promising Pt-based ternary catalyst is crucial for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) due to improving catalytic activity and durability for both methanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction. In this work, a facile strategy is used for the synthesis ternary RuMPt (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) nanodendrities catalysts. The ternary RuMPt alloys exhibit enhanced specific and mass activity, positive half-wave potential, and long-term stability, compared with binary Pt-based alloy and the commercial Pt/C catalyst, which is attributed to the high electron density and upshifting of the d-band center for Pt atoms, and synergistic catalytic effects among Pt, M, and Ru atoms by introducing a transition metal. Impressively, the ternary RuCoPt catalyst exhibits superior mass activity (801.59 mA mg{sup −1}) and positive half-wave potential (0.857 V vs. RHE) towards MOR and ORR, respectively. Thus, the RuMPt nanocomposite is a very promising material to be used as dual electrocatalyst in the application of PEMFCs.

  18. On entire functions restricted to intervals, partition of unities, and dual Gabor frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    Partition of unities appears in many places in analysis. Typically it is generated by compactly supported functions with a certain regularity. In this paper we consider partition of unities obtained as integer-translates of entire functions restricted to finite intervals. We characterize the enti...

  19. Dual-function vector for protein expression in both mammalian cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, M; Angelo, K

    2002-01-01

    -function vector capable of supporting protein production in both Xenopus oocytes and CHO-K1 cells at an expression level equivalent to the levels obtained with vectors optimized for either oocyte or mammalian expression. Our functional studies have been performed with hERGI, KCNQ4, and Kv1.3 potassium channels....

  20. Beyond Creation of Mesoporosity: The Advantages of Polymer-Based Dual-Function Templates for Fabricating Hierarchical Zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Qiwei

    2016-02-05

    Direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites currently relies on the use of surfactant-based templates to produce mesoporosity by the random stacking of 2D zeolite sheets or the agglomeration of tiny zeolite grains. The benefits of using nonsurfactant polymers as dual-function templates in the fabrication of hierarchical zeolites are demonstrated. First, the minimal intermolecular interactions of nonsurfactant polymers impose little interference on the crystallization of zeolites, favoring the formation of 3D continuous zeolite frameworks with a long-range order. Second, the mutual interpenetration of the polymer and the zeolite networks renders disordered but highly interconnected mesopores in zeolite crystals. These two factors allow for the synthesis of single-crystalline, mesoporous zeolites of varied compositions and framework types. A representative example, hierarchial aluminosilicate (meso-ZSM-5), has been carefully characterized. It has a unique branched fibrous structure, and far outperforms bulk aluminosilicate (ZSM-5) as a catalyst in two model reactions: conversion of methanol to aromatics and catalytic cracking of canola oil. Third, extra functional groups in the polymer template can be utilized to incorporate desired functionalities into hierarchical zeolites. Last and most importantly, polymer-based templates permit heterogeneous nucleation and growth of mesoporous zeolites on existing surfaces, forming a continuous zeolitic layer. In a proof-of-concept experiment, unprecedented core-shell-structured hierarchical zeolites are synthesized by coating mesoporous zeolites on the surfaces of bulk zeolites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Assessing language and visuospatial functions with one task: a "dual use" approach to performing fMRI in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Kathina; Lidzba, Karen; Hauser, Till-Karsten; Wilke, Marko

    2011-10-01

    In order to increase the rate of successful functional MR studies in children it is helpful to shorten the time spent in the scanner. To this effect, assessing two cognitive functions with one task seems to be a promising approach. The hypothesis of this study was that the control condition of an established language task (vowel identification task, VIT) requires visuospatial processing and that the control condition (VIT(CC)) therefore may also be applicable to localize visuospatial functions. As a reference task, a visual search task (VST, previously established for use in children) was employed. To test this hypothesis, 43 children (19 f, 24 m; 12.0±2.6, range 7.9 to 17.8 years) were recruited and scanned using both tasks. Second-level random effects group analyses showed activation of left inferior-frontal cortex in the active condition of the VIT, as in previous studies. Additionally, analysis of the VIT(CC) demonstrated activation in right-dominant superior parietal and high-frontal brain regions, classically associated with visuospatial functions; activation seen in the VST was similar with a substantial overlap. However, lateralization in the parietal lobe was significantly more bilateral in the VST than in the VIT(CC). This suggests that the VIT can not only be applied to assess language functions (using the active>control contrast), but also that the control>active condition is useful for assessing visuospatial functions. Future task design may benefit from such a "dual use" approach to performing fMRI not only, but also particularly in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining Preschool-Aged Dual Language Learners' Language Use: From a Functional Approach. WCER Working Paper No. 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahyoung Alicia; Kondo, Akira; Castro, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increase in the number of preschool-aged dual language learners (DLLs), there is a need to understand their language development and how to better support them. Although DLLs' language development has traditionally been studied from a structuralist perspective, few have examined their language use from a functional approach, which…

  3. Effect of various surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia after thermal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Nijhuis, Henk; Felipe Valandro, Luiz

    This study evaluated the effect of chairside and laboratory types of surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia ceramic after thermocycling. Disk-shaped (diameter: 10 mm, thickness: 2 mm) Y-TZP ceramics (Lava(TM), 3M ESPE) were used

  4. The zebrafish genome encodes the largest vertebrate repertoire of functional aquaporins with dual paralogy and substrate specificities similar to mammals

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    Chauvigné François

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. These proteins are vital for maintaining water homeostasis in living organisms. In mammals, thirteen aquaporins (AQP0-12 have been characterized, but in lower vertebrates, such as fish, the diversity, structure and substrate specificity of these membrane channel proteins are largely unknown. Results The screening and isolation of transcripts from the zebrafish (Danio rerio genome revealed eighteen sequences structurally related to the four subfamilies of tetrapod aquaporins, i.e., aquaporins (AQP0, -1 and -4, water and glycerol transporters or aquaglyceroporins (Glps; AQP3 and AQP7-10, a water and urea transporter (AQP8, and two unorthodox aquaporins (AQP11 and -12. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated dual paralogy between teleost and human aquaporins. Three of the duplicated zebrafish isoforms have unlinked loci, two have linked loci, while DrAqp8 was found in triplicate across two chromosomes. Genomic sequencing, structural analysis, and maximum likelihood reconstruction, further revealed the presence of a putative pseudogene that displays hybrid exons similar to tetrapod AQP5 and -1. Ectopic expression of the cloned transcripts in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that zebrafish aquaporins and Glps transport water or water, glycerol and urea, respectively, whereas DrAqp11b and -12 were not functional in oocytes. Contrary to humans and some rodents, intrachromosomal duplicates of zebrafish AQP8 were water and urea permeable, while the genomic duplicate only transported water. All aquaporin transcripts were expressed in adult tissues and found to have divergent expression patterns. In some tissues, however, redundant expression of transcripts encoding two duplicated paralogs seems to occur. Conclusion The zebrafish genome encodes the largest repertoire of

  5. A Dual Functional Scaffold Tethered with EGFR Antibody Promotes Neural Stem Cell Retention and Neuronal Differentiation for Spinal Cord Injury Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bai; Zhao, Yannan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Wang, Bin; Liang, Hui; Li, Xing; Fang, Yongxiang; Han, Sufang; Li, Xiaoran; Fan, Caixia; Dai, Jianwu

    2017-05-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation is a promising strategy to restore neuronal relays and neurological function of injured spinal cord because of the differentiation potential into functional neurons, but the transplanted NSCs often largely diffuse from the transplanted site and mainly differentiate into glial cells rather than neurons due to the adverse microenviornment after spinal cord injury (SCI). This paper fabricates a dual functional collagen scaffold tethered with a collagen-binding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to simultaneously promote NSCs retention and neuronal differentiation by specifically binding to EGFR molecule expressed on NSCs and attenuating EGFR signaling, which is responsible for the inhibition of differentiation of NSCs toward neurons. Compared to unmodified control scaffold, the dual functional scaffold promotes the adhesion and neuronal differentiation of NSCs in vitro. Moreover, the implantation of the dual functional scaffold with exogenous NSCs in rat SCI model can capture and retain NSCs at the injury sites, and promote the neuronal differentiation of the retained NSCs into functional neurons, and finally dedicate to improving motor function of SCI rats, which provides a potential strategy for synchronously promoting stem cell retention and differentiation with biomaterials for SCI repair. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Role of Ruthenium in CO2 Capture and Catalytic Conversion to Fuel by Dual Function Materials (DFM

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    Shuoxun Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of sustainable energy technologies and reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are the two effective strategies in dealing with current environmental issues. Herein we report a Dual Function Material (DFM consisting of supported sodium carbonate in intimate contact with dispersed Ru as a promising catalytic solution for combining both approaches. The Ru-Na2CO3 DFM deposited on Al2O3 captures CO2 from a flue gas and catalytically converts it to synthetic natural gas (i.e., methane using H2 generated from renewable sources. The Ru in the DFM, in combination with H2, catalytically hydrogenates both adsorbed CO2 and the bulk Na2CO3, forming methane. The depleted sites adsorb CO2 through a carbonate reformation process and in addition adsorb CO2 on its surface. This material functions well in O2- and H2O-containing flue gas where the favorable Ru redox property allows RuOx, formed during flue gas exposure, to be reduced during the hydrogenation cycle. As a combined CO2 capture and utilization scheme, this technology overcomes many of the limitations of the conventional liquid amine-based CO2 sorbent technology.

  7. Simultaneous dual-functioning InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode for transferrable optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-10-01

    We propose a wafer-level procedure for the fabrication of 1.5-mm-diameter dual functioning InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) diodes on a GaN-on-silicon platform for transferrable optoelectronics. Nitride semiconductor materials are grown on (111) silicon substrates with intermediate Al-composition step-graded buffer layers, and membrane-type MQW-diode architectures are obtained by a combination of silicon removal and III-nitride film backside thinning. Suspended MQW-diodes are directly transferred from silicon to foreign substrates such as metal, glass and polyethylene terephthalate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred MQW-diodes display strong electroluminescence under current injection and photodetection under light irradiation. Interestingly, they demonstrate a simultaneous light-emitting light-detecting function, endowing the 1.5-mm-diameter MQW-diode with the capability of producing transferrable optoelectronics for adjustable displays, wearable optical sensors, multifunctional energy harvesting, flexible light communication and monolithic photonic circuit.

  8. One-Pot Fabrication of Antireflective/Antibacterial Dual-Function Ag NP-Containing Mesoporous Silica Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaikai; He, Junhui

    2018-04-04

    Thin films that integrate antireflective and antibacterial dual functions are not only scientifically interesting but also highly desired in many practical applications. Unfortunately, very few studies have been devoted to the preparation of thin films with both antireflective and antibacterial properties. In this study, mesoporous silica (MSiO 2 ) thin films with uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared through a one-pot process, which simultaneously shows high transmittance, excellent antibacterial activity, and mechanical robustness. The optimal thin-film-coated glass substrate demonstrates a maximum transmittance of 98.8% and an average transmittance of 97.1%, respectively, in the spectral range of 400-800 nm. The growth and multiplication of typical bacteria, Escherichia coli ( E. coli), were effectively inhibited on the coated glass. Pencil hardness test, tape adhesion test, and sponge washing test showed favorable mechanical robustness with 5H pencil hardness, 5A grade adhesion, and functional durability of the coating, which promises great potential for applications in various touch screens, windows for hygiene environments, and optical apparatuses for medical uses such as endoscope, and so on.

  9. Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambi, A.; Figdor, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding C-type lectin and lectin-like receptors play an important role in the immune system. The large family can be subdivided into subtypes according to their structural similarities and functional differences. The selectins are of major importance in mediating cell adhesion and

  10. Single and dual incision technique for acute distal biceps rupture: clinical and functional outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmino, Claudia; Massimino, Paolo; Ioppolo, Francesco; Castorina, Sergio; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Di Giunta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Distal bicep tendon injuries are a traumatic event though rather rare. The pathogenesis is not entirely clear. The most common cause for injury is an unexpected load on the biceps when the elbow is in an extended position. Although several studies have provided insight into the pathogenetic processes of the lesion, the literature suggests to treat all injuries surgically (whether partial or total) if there is high functional demand. Methods Between January 2006 and March 2016 were studied 20 patients surgically treated for a disconnected distal bicep, 15 with a total lesion and 5 with a partial lesion. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Surgical access with single incision was performed on 13 patients while a double surgical access was performed on 7 patients. The clinical and functional results were studied using an Ewald System Score (ESS). Results In both groups, the most rapid improvement was achieved for the parameters of pain and deformity with excellent results, while those of function and movement were normalized as gradual and progressive over next 2 months. Conclusion The clinical and functional outcomes during the follow-up examination after surgery showed excellent results in patients treated with both types of surgical procedures. PMID:28217566

  11. Fuzzy optimization of primal-dual pair using piecewise linear membership functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper improves the model of Bector and Chandra [Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 125 (2002 317-325] on duality in fuzzy linear programming by using non-linear membership functions. Numerical problem discussed by these authors has also been worked out through our non-linear model to demonstrate improved optimality of the results.

  12. Dual Roles of Glutathione in Ecdysone Biosynthesis and Antioxidant Function During Larval Development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, Sora; Yamamoto, Chikana; Mizuno, Hajime; Esaki, Tsuyoshi; Lin, Hsin-Kuang; Iga, Masatoshi; Morohashi, Kana; Hirano, Yota; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Masujima, Tsutomu; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2017-12-01

    Ecdysteroids, including the biologically active hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play essential roles in controlling many developmental and physiological events in insects. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is achieved by a series of specialized enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes. Recently, a new class of Halloween gene, noppera-bo ( nobo ), encoding a glutathione S -transferase (GST) in dipteran and lepidopteran species, has been identified and characterized. GSTs are well known to conjugate substrates with the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a bioactive tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. We hypothesized that GSH itself is required for ecdysteroid biosynthesis. However, the role of GSH in steroid hormone biosynthesis has not been examined in any organisms. Here, we report phenotypic analysis of a complete loss-of-function mutant in the γ -glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic subunit ( Gclc ) gene in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Gclc encodes the evolutionarily conserved catalytic component of the enzyme that conjugates glutamate and cysteine in the GSH biosynthesis pathway. Complete Gclc loss-of-function leads to drastic GSH deficiency in the larval body fluid. Gclc mutant animals show a larval-arrest phenotype. Ecdysteroid titer in Gclc mutant larvae decreases, and the larval-arrest phenotype is rescued by oral administration of 20E or cholesterol. Moreover, Gclc mutant animals exhibit abnormal lipid deposition in the prothoracic gland, a steroidogenic organ during larval development. All of these phenotypes are reminiscent to nobo loss-of-function animals. On the other hand, Gclc mutant larvae also exhibit a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity. Consistent with this phenotype, Gclc mutant larvae are more sensitive to oxidative stress response as compared to wild-type. Nevertheless, the ecdysteroid biosynthesis defect in Gclc mutant animals is not associated with loss of antioxidant function. Our data raise the unexpected

  13. A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Mohan; Beloglazova, Natalia; Flick, Robert; Graham, Chris; Skarina, Tatiana; Nocek, Boguslaw; Gagarinova, Alla; Pogoutse, Oxana; Brown, Greg; Binkowski, Andrew; Phanse, Sadhna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koonin, Eugene V.; Savchenko, Alexei; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack; Edwards, Aled M.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) and the associated proteins (Cas) comprise a system of adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids in prokaryotes. Cas1 is a CRISPR-associated protein that is common to all CRISPR-containing prokaryotes but its function remains obscure. Here we show that the purified Cas1 protein of Escherichia coli (YgbT) exhibits nuclease activity against single-stranded and branched DNAs including Holliday junctions, replication forks, and 5′-flaps. The crystal structure of YgbT and site-directed mutagenesis have revealed the potential active site. Genome-wide screens show that YgbT physically and genetically interacts with key components of DNA repair systems, including recB, recC and ruvB. Consistent with these findings, the ygbT deletion strain showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage and impaired chromosomal segregation. Similar phenotypes were observed in strains with deletion of CRISPR clusters, suggesting that the function of YgbT in repair involves interaction with the CRISPRs. These results show that YgbT belongs to a novel, structurally distinct family of nucleases acting on branched DNAs and suggest that, in addition to antiviral immunity, at least some components of the CRISPR-Cas system have a function in DNA repair. PMID:21219465

  14. An α-Helical Core Encodes the Dual Functions of the Chlamydial Protein IncA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. PMID:25324548

  15. An α-helical core encodes the dual functions of the chlamydial protein IncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-11-28

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with dual diagnosis has both a mental disorder and an alcohol or drug problem. These conditions occur together frequently. In particular, ... to emotional and mental problems. Someone with a dual diagnosis must treat both conditions. For the treatment ...

  17. Photosensitizer (PS)-cyanine dye (CD) conjugates: Impact of the linkers joining the PS and CD moieties and their orientation in tumor-uptake and photodynamic therapy (PDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nadine S; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Chen, Yihui; Tabaczynski, Walter; Durrani, Farukh; Shibata, Masayuki; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2016-10-21

    To investigate the impact of linker(s) joining the photosensitizer HPPH [3-(1'-hexyloxy) ethyl-3-devinylpyropheophorbide-a] and the cyanine dye (CD) in tumor-imaging and photodynamic therapy (dual-function agents), a series of HPPH-CD conjugates were synthesized. The modifications were done in an attempt to minimize Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between the two chromophores and maximize singlet oxygen production. Among the conjugates containing variable length of linkers, the HPPH-CD conjugate, in which the photosensitizer (PS) and the CD was joined by four Carbon [(CH2)4] units showed higher tumor uptake, improved tumor contrast and limited skin uptake in mice bearing Colon-26 (BALB/c) or U87 tumors in Nude mice. The bi-functional agents in which the HPPH was linked at the meta-position of phenyl-substituted CD 5, 6 and 7 showed longer tumor response (cure) than the corresponding para-substituted analogs 2, 3, and 4, which suggests that the orientation of the PS and CD moieties within the conjugate also makes a substantial difference in tumor-specificity. Compared to HPPH, the singlet oxygen yields of all the HPPH-CD conjugates were significantly low, and required a higher therapeutic dose to achieve the same in vivo response obtained by HPPH-PDT alone. However, conjugate 6 produced a higher singlet oxygen yield with reduced FRET and exhibited enhanced long-term PDT efficacy in mice bearing Colon-26 (BALB/c) and U87 tumors (nude) than its counterparts, including our lead compound (HPPH-CD), making it the most efficacious of the series. Thus, these conjugates bearing cyanine dye moiety (CD) provide an opportunity of imaging deeply seated tumors for fluorescence-guided surgery with an option of PDT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual function of the pectoral girdle for feeding and locomotion in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Scott, Bradley; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-07-26

    Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion. We measured three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral girdle in white-spotted bamboo sharks during suction feeding with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology, and found the pectoral girdle consistently retracted about 11° by rotating caudoventrally about the dorsal scapular processes. This motion occurred mostly after peak gape, so it likely contributed more to accelerating captured prey through the oral cavity and pharynx, than to prey capture as in ray-finned fishes. Our results emphasize the multiple roles of the pectoral girdle in feeding and locomotion, both of which should be considered in studying the functional and evolutionary morphology of this structure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Dual function of Swc5 in SWR remodeling ATPase activation and histone H2A eviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Luk, Ed

    2017-09-29

    The chromatin remodeler SWR deposits histone H2A.Z at promoters and other regulatory sites via an ATP-driven histone exchange reaction that replaces nucleosomal H2A with H2A.Z. Simultaneous binding of SWR to both H2A nucleosome and free H2A.Z induces SWR ATPase activity and engages the histone exchange mechanism. Swc5 is a conserved subunit of the 14-polypeptide SWR complex that is required for the histone exchange reaction, but its molecular role is unknown. We found that Swc5, although not required for substrate binding, is required for SWR ATPase stimulation, suggesting that Swc5 is required to couple substrate recognition to ATPase activation. A biochemical complementation assay was developed to show that a unique, conserved domain at the C-terminus of Swc5, called Bucentaur (BCNT), is essential for the histone exchange activity of SWR, whereas an acidic region at the N-terminus is required for optimal SWR function. In vitro studies showed the acidic N-terminus of Swc5 preferentially binds to the H2A-H2B dimer and exhibits histone chaperone activity. We propose that an auxiliary function of Swc5 in SWR is to assist H2A ejection as H2A.Z is inserted into the nucleosome. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Dual effect of Mesorhizobium loti T3SS functionality on the symbiotic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Cintia; Mercante, Virginia; Babuin, María F; Lepek, Viviana C

    2012-05-01

    Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 has a functional type III secretory system (T3SS) involved in the nodulation process on Lotus tenuis and Lotus japonicus. Four putative M. loti T3SS effectors (Mlr6358, Mlr6331, Mlr6361, and Mlr6316) have been previously described, and it has been demonstrated that the N-terminal regions of Mlr6361 and Mlr6358 mediate the secretion via a T3SS. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of Mlr6316 and Mlr6331 N-terminal regions to direct the secretion of a translational fusion to a reporter peptide through T3SS. By using single, double, and triple mutants, we demonstrated the positive and negative participation of some of these proteins in the determination of competitiveness on Lotus spp. Low competitiveness values correlated with low nodulation efficiency for a mutant deficient in three of the putative M. loti effectors. Our data suggest that the net effect of M. loti T3SS function on symbiotic process with Lotus results from a balance between positive and negative effects. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dual-energy micro-CT functional imaging of primary lung cancer in mice using gold and iodine nanoparticle contrast agents: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Jeffrey R; Clark, Darin P; Moding, Everett J; Ghaghada, Ketan; Kirsch, David G; West, Jennifer L; Badea, Cristian T

    2014-01-01

    To provide additional functional information for tumor characterization, we investigated the use of dual-energy computed tomography for imaging murine lung tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability were quantified using gold and iodine nanoparticles. This approach was compared with a single contrast agent/single-energy CT method. Ex vivo validation studies were performed to demonstrate the accuracy of in vivo contrast agent quantification by CT. Primary lung tumors were generated in LSL-Kras(G12D); p53(FL/FL) mice. Gold nanoparticles were injected, followed by iodine nanoparticles two days later. The gold accumulated in tumors, while the iodine provided intravascular contrast. Three dual-energy CT scans were performed-two for the single contrast agent method and one for the dual contrast agent method. Gold and iodine concentrations in each scan were calculated using a dual-energy decomposition. For each method, the tumor fractional blood volume was calculated based on iodine concentration, and tumor vascular permeability was estimated based on accumulated gold concentration. For validation, the CT-derived measurements were compared with histology and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements of gold concentrations in tissues. Dual-energy CT enabled in vivo separation of gold and iodine contrast agents and showed uptake of gold nanoparticles in the spleen, liver, and tumors. The tumor fractional blood volume measurements determined from the two imaging methods were in agreement, and a high correlation (R(2) = 0.81) was found between measured fractional blood volume and histology-derived microvascular density. Vascular permeability measurements obtained from the two imaging methods agreed well with ex vivo measurements. Dual-energy CT using two types of nanoparticles is equivalent to the single nanoparticle method, but allows for measurement of fractional blood volume and permeability with a single scan. As confirmed by ex

  2. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function: preliminary comparison of single-breath dual-energy xenon CT with three conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Hisami; Honda, Norinari; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Wataru; Shimizu, Yuji; Osada, Hisato; Nakada, Kei; Okada, Takemichi; Ohno, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Takeo; Otani, Katharina

    2013-06-01

    To assess the use of xenon ventilation maps (Xe-images) for predicting postoperative pulmonary function. After study approval by the institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from 30 patients with lung tumors who underwent pre- and postoperative spirometry, pulmonary perfusion SPECT and dual-energy CT (80 kV and 140 kV/Sn) after single-breath inspiration of 35 % xenon. Xe-images were calculated by three-material decomposition. Sum of pixel values of the part to be resected (A) and of the whole lung (B) on Xe-images or lung perfusion SPECT, and volumes or the number of segments of the part to be resected (A) and of the whole lung (B) on Xe-images were enumerated, respectively. We multiplied (1 - A/B) by each preoperative value from spirometry for prediction. Predictions by each of the four methods were compared with postoperative values. Predicted values for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by the four methods regressed significantly with measured values (R (2) = 0.56-0.77, p < 0.001 for all). Analysis of Xe-images can predict postoperative VC, FVC and FEV1 with accuracy comparable to that of CT volumetry.

  3. Dual-functional aniline-assisted wet-chemical synthesis of bismuth telluride nanoplatelets and their thermoelectric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changcun; Kong, Fangfang; Liu, Congcong; Liu, Huixuan; Hu, Yongjing; Wang, Tongzhou; Xu, Jingkun; Jiang, Fengxing

    2017-06-01

    The wet-chemical approach is of great significance for the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) bismuth telluride nanoplatelets as a potential thermoelectric (TE) material. Herein, we proposed a simple and effective solution method with the assistance of aniline for the fabrication of bismuth telluride nanoplatelets at a low temperature of 100 °C. The choice of aniline with its dual function avoided the simultaneous use of a capping regent and a toxic reductant. The as-synthesized nanoplatelets have a large size of more than 900 × 500 nm2 and a small thickness of 15.4 nm. The growth of bismuth telluride nanoplatelets are related to the Bi/Te ratio of precursors indicating that a larger content of the Bi precursor is more conducive to the formation of 2D nanoplatelets. The bismuth telluride nanoplatelets pressed into a pellet show a smaller electrical resistivity (˜6.5 × 10-3 Ω · m) and a larger Seebeck coefficient (-135 μV K-1), as well as a lower thermal conductivity (0.27 W m-1 K-1) than those of nanoparticles. The next goal is to further reduce the electrical resistivity and optimize the TE performance by disposing of the residual reactant of aniline adsorbed on the surface of the nanoplatelets.

  4. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary function. Preliminary comparison of single-breath dual-energy xenon CT with three conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagita, Hisami; Honda, Norinari; Nakayama, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of xenon ventilation maps (Xe-images) for predicting postoperative pulmonary function. After study approval by the institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from 30 patients with lung tumors who underwent pre- and postoperative spirometry, pulmonary perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dual-energy CT (80 kV and 140 kV/Sn) after single-breath inspiration of 35% xenon. Xe-images were calculated by three-material decomposition. Sum of pixel values of the part to be resected (A) and of the whole lung (B) on Xe-images or lung perfusion SPECT, and volumes or the number of segments of the part to be resected (A) and of the whole lung (B) on Xe-images were enumerated, respectively. We multiplied (1-A/B) by each preoperative value from spirometry for prediction. Predictions by each of the four methods were compared with postoperative values. Predicted values for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) by the four methods regressed significantly with measured values (R 2 =0.56-0.77, p 1 with accuracy comparable to that of CT volumetry. (author)

  5. The Type VI Secretion System Engages a Redox-Regulated Dual-Functional Heme Transporter for Zinc Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiru Si

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system was recently reported to be involved in zinc acquisition, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that Burkholderia thailandensis T6SS4 is involved in zinc acquisition via secretion of a zinc-scavenging protein, TseZ, that interacts with the outer membrane heme transporter HmuR. We find that HmuR is a redox-regulated dual-functional transporter that transports heme iron under normal conditions but zinc upon sensing extracellular oxidative stress, triggered by formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. Acting as the first line of defense against oxidative stress, HmuR not only guarantees an immediate response to the changing environment but also provides a fine-tuned mechanism that allows a gradual response to perceived stress. The T6SS/HmuR-mediated active zinc transport system is also involved in bacterial virulence and contact-independent bacterial competition. We describe a sophisticated bacterial zinc acquisition mechanism affording insights into the role of metal ion transport systems.

  6. Highly Effective Dual-Function Near-Infrared (NIR) Photosensitizer for Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nayan; Pera, Paula; Joshi, Penny; Dukh, Mykhaylo; Tabaczynski, Walter A; Siters, Kevin E; Kryman, Mark; Cheruku, Ravindra R; Durrani, Farukh; Missert, Joseph R; Watson, Ramona; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Tracy, Erin C; Baumann, Heinz; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2016-11-10

    We report herein the synthesis and biological efficacy of near-infrared (NIR), bacteriochlorin analogues: 3-(1'-butyloxy)ethyl-3-deacetyl-bacteriopurpurin-18-N-butylimide methyl ester (3) and the corresponding carboxylic acid 10. In in vitro assays, compared to its methyl ester analogue 3, the corresponding carboxylic acid derivative 10 showed higher photosensitizing efficacy. However, due to drastically different pharmacokinetics in vivo, the PS 3 (HPLC purity >99%) showed higher tumor uptake and long-term tumor cure than 10 (HPLC purity >96.5%) in BALB/c mice bearing Colon 26 tumors. Isomerically pure R- and S- isomers of 3 (3a and 3b, purity by HPLC > 99%) under similar treatment parameters showed identical efficacy in vitro and in vivo. In addition, photosensitizer (PS) 3 showed limited skin phototoxicity and provides an additional advantage over the clinically approved chemically complex hematoporphyrin derivative as well as other porphyrin-based PDT agents, which makes 3 a promising dual-function agent for fluorescence-guided surgery with an option of phototherapy of cancer.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of dual-functional ultrafine composite fibers with phase-change energy storage and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Peng; Zhao, Tianxiang; Xia, Lei; Shu, Dengkun; Ma, Menjiao; Cheng, Bowen

    2017-01-09

    Ultrafine composite fibers consisting of a thermoplastic polyurethane solid-solid phase-change material and organic lanthanide luminescent materials were prepared through a parallel electrospinning technique as an innovative type of ultrafine, dual-functional fibers containing phase-change and luminescent properties. The morphology and structure, thermal energy storage, and luminescent properties of parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers possessed the desired morphologies with smaller average fiber diameters than those of traditional mixed electrospun ultrafine fibers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers were composed of two parts. Polymeric phase-change materials, which can be directly produced and spun, were used to provide temperature stability, while a mixture of polymethyl methacrylate and an organic lanthanide complex acted as the luminescent unit. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and luminescence measurements indicated that the unique structure of the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers provides the products with good thermal energy storage and luminescence properties. The fluorescence intensity and the phase-change enthalpy values of the ultrafine fibers prepared by parallel electrospinning were respectively 1.6 and 2.1 times those of ultrafine fibers prepared by mixed electrospinning.

  8. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. TLE3 Is a Dual-Function Transcriptional Coregulator of Adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Claudio J; Waki, Hironori; Godio, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    PPARγ and Wnt signaling are central positive and negative regulators of adipogenesis, respectively. Here we identify the groucho family member TLE3 as a transcriptional integrator of the PPARγ and Wnt pathways. TLE3 is a direct target of PPARγ that participates in a feed-forward loop during...... adipocyte differentiation. TLE3 enhances PPARγ activity and functions synergistically with PPARγ on its target promoters to stimulate adipogenesis. At the same time, induction of TLE3 during differentiation provides a mechanism for termination of Wnt signaling. TLE3 antagonizes TCF4 activation by β......-catenin in preadipocytes, thereby inhibiting Wnt target gene expression and reversing β-catenin-dependent repression of adipocyte gene expression. Transgenic expression of TLE3 in adipose tissue in vivo mimics the effects of PPARγ agonist and ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance. Our data suggest that TLE3...

  10. Dual-Channel Cosine Function Based ITD Estimation for Robust Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuliang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In speech separation tasks, many separation methods have the limitation that the microphones are closely spaced, which means that these methods are unprevailing for phase wrap-around. In this paper, we present a novel speech separation scheme by using two microphones that does not have this restriction. The technique utilizes the estimation of interaural time difference (ITD statistics and binary time-frequency mask for the separation of mixed speech sources. The novelties of the paper consist in: (1 the extended application of delay-and-sum beamforming (DSB and cosine function for ITD calculation; and (2 the clarification of the connection between ideal binary mask and DSB amplitude ratio. Our objective quality evaluation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Equilibrium prices supported by dual price functions in markets with non-convexities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2004-06-01

    The issue of finding market clearing prices in markets with non-convexities has had a renewed interest due to the deregulation of the electricity sector. In the day-ahead electricity market, equilibrium prices are calculated based on bids from generators and consumers. In most of the existing markets, several generation technologies are present, some of which have considerable non-convexities, such as capacity limitations and large start up costs. In this paper we present equilibrium prices composed of a commodity price and an uplift charge. The prices are based on the generation of a separating valid inequality that supports the optimal resource allocation. In the case when the sub-problem generated as the integer variables are held fixed to their optimal values possess the integrality property, the generated prices are also supported by non-linear price-functions that are the basis for integer programming duality. (Author)

  12. The effect of Moidal non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT on CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Yang Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between linear blending and non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT, and to evaluate the effect on CT image quality. Methods: The model was made of a piece of fresh pork liver inserted with 5 syringes containing various concentrations of iodine solutions (16.3, 26.4, 48.7, 74.6 and 112.3 HU). Linear blending images were automatically reformatted after the model was scanned in the dual-energy mode. Non-linear blending images were reformatted using the software of optimal contrast in Syngo workstation. Images were divided into 3 groups, including linear blending group, non-linear blending group and 120 kV group. Contrast noise ratio (CNR) were measured and calculated respectively in the 3 groups and the different figure of merit (FOM) values between the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Twenty patients scanned in the dual-energy mode were randomly selected and the SNR of their liver, renal cortex, spleen, pancreas and abdominal aorta were measured. The independent sample t test was used to compare the difference of signal to noise ratio (SNR) between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Two readers' agreement score and single-blind method were used to investigate the conspicuity difference between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Results: With models of different CT values, the FOM values in non-linear blending group were 20.65± 8.18, 11.40±4.25, 1.60±0.82, 2.40±1.13, 45.49±17.86. In 74.6 HU and 112.3 HU models, the differences of the FOM values observed among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), which were 0.30±0.06 and 14.43±4.59 for linear blending group, and 0.22±0.05 and 15.31±5.16 for 120 kV group. And non-linear blending group had a better FOM value. The SNR of renal cortex and abdominal aorta were 19.2±5.1 and 36.5±13.9 for non-linear blending group, while they were 12.4±3.8 and 22.6±7.0 for linear blending group. There were statistically

  13. Green Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles by Gum Tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer: A Dual Functional Reductant and Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and ecofriendly procedure have been devised for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of gum tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer, a renewable, nontoxic natural phyto-exudate. The water soluble components in the gum act as reductants and stabilizers. The generated nanoparticles were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The role of gum concentration and reaction time on the synthesis of nanoparticles was studied. By regulating the reaction conditions, spherical nanoparticles of 13.1±1.0 nm size were produced. Also, the possible functional groups involved in reduction and capping of nanoparticles has been elucidated. The antibacterial activity of the fabricated nanoparticles was tested on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with well-diffusion method. These nanoparticles exhibited considerable antibacterial activity on both the Gram classes of bacteria, implying their potential biomedical applications.

  14. Dual breath-hold magnetic resonance cine evaluation of global and regional cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Dietrich, Olaf; Huber, Armin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Sincleair, Spencer; Runge, Val M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of a multislice cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with parallel imaging in regard to global and regional left ventricular function. Forty-two individuals underwent cine MRI on a 1.5-tesla scanner. Cine MRI used a steady-state free precession technique and was performed as a single-slice technique (nonTSENSE cine) and an accelerated multislice technique (TSENSE cine) with five slices per breath-hold. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction (EF) were evaluated for all data sets and in regard to regional wall motion and regional wall motion analysis, and quantitative regional wall thickness and systolic thickening were also assessed. EDV, ESV, and EF based on TSENSE cine showed excellent correlation to the nonTSENSE cine approach (all r 2 =0.99, P<0.001). While EDV evaluations showed a small underestimation for TSENSE cine, ESV and EF showed accurate results compared with nonTSENSE cine. Both readers showed good agreement (κ=0.72) in regional wall motion assessment comparing both techniques. Data acquisition for the multislice approach was significantly shorter (∝75%) that in single-slice cine. We conclude that accurate evaluation of regional wall motion and left ventricular EF is possible using accelerated multislice cine MR with high spatial and temporal resolution. (orig.)

  15. Fluorescence-Magnetism Functional EuS Nanocrystals with Controllable Morphologies for Dual Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanqing; Wang, Dandan; Zhao, Tianxin; Jiang, Yingnan; Zhao, Yueqi; Wang, Chuanxi; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai; Lin, Quan

    2016-12-14

    Multiple functions incorporated in one single component material offer important applications in biosystems. Here we prepared a divalent state of rare earth EuS nanocrystals (NCs), which provides luminescent and magnetic properties, using both 1-Dodecanethiol (DT) and oleylamine (OLA) as reducing agents. The resultant EuS NCs exhibit controllable shapes, uniform size, and bright luminescence with a quantum yield as high as 3.5%. OLA as a surface ligand plays an important role in tunable morphologies, such as nanowires, nanorods, nanospheres et al. Another attractive nature of the EuS NCs is their paramagnetism at room temperature. In order to expand the biological applications, the resultant EuS NCs were modified with amphiphilic block copolymer F127 and transferred from oil to water phase. The excellent biocompatibility of EuS NCs is demonstrated as well as preservation of their luminescence and paramagnetic properties. The EuS NCs offer multifunction and great advantages of bright luminescence, paramagnetic, controllable morphologies, and good biocompatibility promising applications in the field of simultaneous magnetic resonance and fluorescence bioimaging.

  16. Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68 μg/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79 μg/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95 μg/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88 μg/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28 μg/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38 μg/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67 μg/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70 μg/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

  17. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  18. DNA binding and unwinding by Hel308 helicase requires dual functions of a winged helix domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northall, Sarah J; Buckley, Ryan; Jones, Nathan; Penedo, J Carlos; Soultanas, Panos; Bolt, Edward L

    2017-09-01

    Hel308 helicases promote genome stability linked to DNA replication in archaea, and have homologues in metazoans. In the crystal structure of archaeal Hel308 bound to a tailed DNA duplex, core helicase domains encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a "ratchet" for directional translocation. A winged helix domain (WHD) is also present, but its function is mysterious. We investigated the WHD in full-length Hel308, identifying that mutations in a solvent exposed α-helix resulted in reduced DNA binding and unwinding activities. When isolated from the rest of Hel308, the WHD protein alone bound to duplex DNA but not ssDNA, and DNA binding by WHD protein was abolished by the same mutations as were analyzed in full-length Hel308. Isolated WHD from a human Hel308 homologue (HelQ) also bound to duplex DNA. By disrupting the interface between the Hel308 WHD and a RecA-like domain, a topology typical of Ski2 helicases, we show that this is crucial for ATPase and helicase activities. The data suggest a model in which the WHD promotes activity of Hel308 directly, through binding to duplex DNA that is distinct from ssDNA binding by core helicase, and indirectly through interaction with the RecA-like domain. We propose how the WHD may contribute to ssDNA translocation, resulting in DNA helicase activity or in removal of other DNA bound proteins by "reeling" ssDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual functioning of plant arginases provides a third route for putrescine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigar; Ariyaratne, Menaka; Ahmed, Sheaza; Ge, Lingxiao; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Kalinoski, Andrea; Morris, Paul F

    2017-09-01

    Two biosynthetic routes are known for putrescine, an essential plant metabolite. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) converts ornithine directly to putrescine, while a second route for putrescine biosynthesis utilizes arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to convert arginine to agmatine, and two additional enzymes, agmatine iminohydrolase (AIH) and N-carbamoyl putrescine aminohydrolase (NLP1) to complete this pathway. Here we show that plants can use ADC and arginase/agmatinase (ARGAH) as a third route for putrescine synthesis. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana ADC2, and any of the arginases from A. thaliana (ARGAH1, or ARGHA2) or the soybean gene Glyma.03g028000 (GmARGAH) into a yeast strain deficient in ODC, fully complemented the mutant phenotype. In vitro assays using purified recombinant enzymes of AtADC1 and AtARGAH2 were used to show that these enzymes can function in concert to convert arginine to agmatine and putrescine. Transient expression analysis of the soybean genes (Glyma.06g007500, ADC; Glyma.03g028000 GmARGAH) and the A. thaliana ADC2 and ARGAH genes in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, showed that these proteins are localized to the chloroplast. Experimental support for this pathway also comes from the fact that expression of AtARGAH, but not AtAIH or AtNLP1, is co-regulated with AtADC2 in response to drought, oxidative stress, wounding, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Based on the high affinity of ARGAH2 for agmatine, its co-localization with ADC2, and typically low arginine levels in many plant tissues, we propose that these two enzymes can be major contributors to putrescine synthesis in many A. thaliana stress responses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The use of PIB-PET as a dual pathological and functional biomarker in AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Anton; Engler, Henry; Blomquist, Gunnar; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2012-03-01

    Amyloid imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is presently used in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. In this study we investigated the possibility to use early frames (ePIB) of the PIB scans as a rough index of CBF by comparing normalised early PIB values with cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc). PIB-PET and FDG-PET were performed in 37 AD patients, 21 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 6 healthy controls (HC). The patients were divided based on their PIB retention (amyloid load) as either PIB positive (PIB+) or PIB negative (PIB-). Data of the unidirectional influx K(1) from a subset of the subjects including 7 AD patients and 3 HC was used for correlative analysis. Data was analysed using regions of interest (ROI) analysis. A strong, positive correlation was observed across brain regions between K(1) and ePIB (r=0.70; p≤0.001). The ePIB values were significantly lower in the posterior cingulate (p≤0.001) and the parietal cortices (p=0.002) in PIB+ subjects compared to PIB-, although the group difference were stronger for rCMRglc in cortical areas (p≤0.001). Strong positive correlations between ePIB and rCMRglc were observed in all cortical regions analysed, especially in the posterior cingulate and parietal cortices (p≤0.001). A single dynamic PIB-PET scan may provide information about pathological and functional changes (amyloidosis and impaired blood flow). This might be important for diagnosis of AD, enrichment of patients in clinical trials and evaluation of treatment effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Executive function deficits in team sport athletes with a history of concussion revealed by a visual-auditory dual task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Anthony; Gonzalez, Dave; Roy, Eric; Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functions in team sport athletes with and without a history of concussion. Executive functions comprise many cognitive processes including, working memory, attention and multi-tasking. Past research has shown that concussions cause difficulties in vestibular-visual and vestibular-auditory dual-tasking, however, visual-auditory tasks have been examined rarely. Twenty-nine intercollegiate varsity ice hockey athletes (age = 19.13, SD = 1.56; 15 females) performed an experimental dual-task paradigm that required simultaneously processing visual and auditory information. A brief interview, event description and self-report questionnaires were used to assign participants to each group (concussion, no-concussion). Eighteen athletes had a history of concussion and 11 had no concussion history. The two tests involved visuospatial working memory (i.e., Corsi block test) and auditory tone discrimination. Participants completed both tasks individually, then simultaneously. Two outcome variables were measured, Corsi block memory span and auditory tone discrimination accuracy. No differences were shown when each task was performed alone; however, athletes with a history of concussion had a significantly worse performance on the tone discrimination task in the dual-task condition. In conclusion, long-term deficits in executive functions were associated with a prior history of concussion when cognitive resources were stressed. Evaluations of executive functions and divided attention appear to be helpful in discriminating participants with and without a history concussion.

  2. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  3. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeys, J.; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L.; Brown, C. D.; Coquet, Y.; Jarvis, N. J.

    2012-07-01

    Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = -0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the

  4. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moeys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedotransfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved.

    Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42. Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = −0.26 due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72. Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is

  5. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R.; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL-1, detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm-2)-1, and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm-2)-1 with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectra of n-Tm2O3, differential pulse voltammograms, magnitude of potential difference as a function of scan rate (10-100 mV s-1), effect of working potential, amount of enzyme used for immobilization, amount of enzyme loading, effect of interferents, response time, effect of temperature, determination of cholesterol in serum samples and photometric enzyme activity studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05043b

  6. CB 1/2 dual agonists with 3-carbamoyl 2-pyridone derivatives as antipruritics: reduction of CNS side effects by introducing polar functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odan, Masahide; Ishizuka, Natsuki; Hiramatsu, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Masanao; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Mitsumori, Susumu; Morioka, Yasuhide; Soga, Masahiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Arimura, Akinori

    2012-04-15

    Our lead compound 1 showed high affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, suggesting the possibility of inducing psychoactive side effects through the CB1 receptor in the brain. To solve this issue, polar functional groups were introduced at the 3-position of the pyridone core of compound 1 to find CB1/2 dual agonists such as 17 and 20 which did not show any CNS side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Walking in School-Aged Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm Is Related to Age But Not to Cognition, Motor Behavior, Injuries, or Psychosocial Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7–13.2 years (M = 10.0 years). Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task) and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task). Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive...

  8. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, S.; Johnson, T.R.C.; Wintersperger, B.J.; Minaifar, N.; Bhargava, A.; Rist, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.; Nikolaou, K. [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT), the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the assessment of left ventricular functional parameters with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Fifteen patients (two female, 13 male; mean age 50.8 {+-} 19.2 years) underwent CT and MRI examinations on a DSCT (Somatom Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions), respectively. Multiphase axial CT images were analysed with a semiautomatic region growing algorithms (Syngo Circulation; Siemens Medical Solutions) by two independent blinded observers. In MRI, dynamic cine loops of short axis slices were evaluated with semiautomatic contour detection software (ARGUS; Siemens Medical Solutions) independently by two readers. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) were determined for both modalities, and correlation coefficient, systematic error, limits of agreement and inter-observer variability were assessed. In DSCT, EDV and ESV were 135.8 {+-} 41.9 ml and 54.9 {+-} 29.6 ml, respectively, compared with 132.1 {+-} 40.8 ml EDV and 57.6 {+-} 27.3 ml ESV in MRI. Thus, EDV was overestimated by 3.7 ml (limits of agreement -46.1/+53.6), while ESV was underestimated by 2.6 ml (-36.6/+31.4). Mean EF was 61.6 {+-} 12.4% in DSCT and 57.9 {+-} 9.0% in MRI, resulting in an overestimation of EF by 3.8% with limits of agreement at -14.7 and +22.2%. Rank correlation rho values were 0.81 for EDV (P = 0.0024), 0.79 for ESV (P = 0.0031) and 0.64 for EF (P = 0.0168). The kappa value of inter

  9. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, S.; Johnson, T.R.C.; Wintersperger, B.J.; Minaifar, N.; Bhargava, A.; Rist, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.; Nikolaou, K.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT), the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the assessment of left ventricular functional parameters with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Fifteen patients (two female, 13 male; mean age 50.8 ± 19.2 years) underwent CT and MRI examinations on a DSCT (Somatom Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions), respectively. Multiphase axial CT images were analysed with a semiautomatic region growing algorithms (Syngo Circulation; Siemens Medical Solutions) by two independent blinded observers. In MRI, dynamic cine loops of short axis slices were evaluated with semiautomatic contour detection software (ARGUS; Siemens Medical Solutions) independently by two readers. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) were determined for both modalities, and correlation coefficient, systematic error, limits of agreement and inter-observer variability were assessed. In DSCT, EDV and ESV were 135.8 ± 41.9 ml and 54.9 ± 29.6 ml, respectively, compared with 132.1 ± 40.8 ml EDV and 57.6 ± 27.3 ml ESV in MRI. Thus, EDV was overestimated by 3.7 ml (limits of agreement -46.1/+53.6), while ESV was underestimated by 2.6 ml (-36.6/+31.4). Mean EF was 61.6 ± 12.4% in DSCT and 57.9 ± 9.0% in MRI, resulting in an overestimation of EF by 3.8% with limits of agreement at -14.7 and +22.2%. Rank correlation rho values were 0.81 for EDV (P = 0.0024), 0.79 for ESV (P 0.0031) and 0.64 for EF (P = 0.0168). The kappa value of inter-observer variability were

  10. Dual functional passivating layer of graphene/TiO2 for improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad Umair; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Muhsan, Ali Samer; Khatani, Mehboob; Bashiri, Robabeh; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella; Shamsudin, Adel Eskandar

    2018-02-01

    The FTO/TiO2 interface plays a crucial role in the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The uneven microstructure morphology of FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) glass surface and high porosity of TiO2 layer produce tiny gaps and voids at the FTO/TiO2 interface that breaks the connectivity, leading to an increase in the recombination process. In the current work, a dual functional passivating layer is introduced by the combination of the graphene/TiO2 compact layer. The excellent mobility and flexibility of graphene is capitalized using its layer to fill the voids in the FTO surface, which can consequently reduce the charge transfer resistance at the interface, while the added TiO2 compact layer avoids direct contact with the electrolyte thus reducing the recombination. Graphene was synthesized by the facile solvent exfoliation method with the assistance of the probe sonication process. The parameters of sonication were optimized to achieve high-quality concentrated graphene inks (0.177-0.51 mg/ml). Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the graphene obtained is of a few-layer type. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicated that the incorporated compact layer of graphene/TiO2 was capable of accelerating the charge transfer and reducing the recombination process at the FTO/TiO2 interface. Consequently, the photoconversion efficiency (PCE) for the device (1 cm2 active area) with double-coated graphene layer under one sun irradiation (AM 1.5) was found to be 49.49% higher than the conventional one.

  11. Dual functional BAFF receptor aptamers inhibit ligand-induced proliferation and deliver siRNAs to NHL cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Tiemann, Katrin; Chomchan, Pritsana; Alluin, Jessica; Swiderski, Piotr; Burnett, John; Zhang, Xizhe; Forman, Stephen; Chen, Robert; Rossi, John

    2013-01-01

    The B-cell–activating factor (BAFF)-receptor (BAFF-R) is restrictedly expressed on B-cells and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. On binding to its ligand BAFF, proliferation and cell survival are increased, enabling cancer cells to proliferate faster than normal B-cells. Nucleic acid aptamers can bind to target ligands with high specificity and affinity and may offer therapeutic advantages over antibody-based approaches. In this study, we isolated several 2′-F–modified RNA aptamers targeting the B-cell–specific BAFF-R with nanomolar affinity using in vitro SELEX technology. The aptamers efficiently bound to BAFF-R on the surface of B-cells, blocked BAFF-mediated B-cell proliferation and were internalized into B-cells. Furthermore, chimeric molecules between the BAFF-R aptamer and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were specifically delivered to BAFF-R expressing cells with a similar efficiency as the aptamer alone. We demonstrate that a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) siRNA delivered by the BAFF-R aptamer was processed by Dicer and efficiently reduced levels of target mRNA and protein in Jeko-1 and Z138 human B-cell lines. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the dual-functional BAFF-R aptamer–siRNA conjugates are able to deliver siRNAs and block ligand mediated processes, suggesting it might be a promising combinatorial therapeutic agent for B-cell malignancies. PMID:23470998

  12. Pt-decorated zinc oxide nanorod arrays with graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for highly efficient dual-functional gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hailin; Fan, Huiqing; Ma, Jiangwei; Liu, Zhiyong; Ma, Longtao; Lei, Shenhui; Fang, Jiawen; Long, Changbai

    2018-01-05

    In this work, well-aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the substrate of exfoliated g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, and then Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures were obtained after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. The growth of vertically ordered ZnO nanorods was occurred on g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets through the bonding interaction between Zn and N atoms, which was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR data and molecular orbital theory. The Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures sensor exhibited the remarkable sensitivity, selectivity, and fast response/recovery time for air pollutants of ethanol and NO 2 . The application of Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures could be used as a dual-functional gas sensor through the controlled working temperature. Besides, the Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures sensor could be applied to the repeating detection of ethanol and NO 2 in the natural environment. The synergistic effect and improved the separation of electron-hole pairs in Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures had been verified for the gas sensing mechanism. Additionally, Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures revealed the excellent charge carriers transport properties in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), such as the longer electron lifetime (τ n ), higher electron diffusion coefficient (D n ) and bigger effective diffusion length (L n ), which also played an important role for Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures with striking gas sensing activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Functional Marrow Irradiation Based on Skeletal Marrow Composition Obtained Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magome, Taiki [Department of Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Froelich, Jerry [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Arentsen, Luke [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Holtan, Shernan; Verneris, Michael R. [Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Keenan [Mindways Software Inc, Austin, Texas (United States); Haga, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Holter Chakrabarty, Jennifer L. [College of Medicine, Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Giebel, Sebastian [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Comprehensive Cancer Center M. Curie-Sklodowska Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland); Wong, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California (United States); Dusenbery, Kathryn [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Storme, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: shui@coh.org [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging method to characterize and map marrow composition in the entire skeletal system, and to simulate differential targeted marrow irradiation based on marrow composition. Methods and Materials: Whole-body dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images of cadavers and leukemia patients were acquired, segmented to separate bone marrow components, namely, bone, red marrow (RM), and yellow marrow (YM). DECT-derived marrow fat fraction was validated using histology of lumbar vertebrae obtained from cadavers. The fractions of RM (RMF = RM/total marrow) and YMF were calculated in each skeletal region to assess the correlation of marrow composition with sites and ages. Treatment planning was simulated to target irradiation differentially at a higher dose (18 Gy) to either RM or YM and a lower dose (12 Gy) to the rest of the skeleton. Results: A significant correlation between fat fractions obtained from DECT and cadaver histology samples was observed (r=0.861, P<.0001, Pearson). The RMF decreased in the head, neck, and chest was significantly inversely correlated with age but did not show any significant age-related changes in the abdomen and pelvis regions. Conformity of radiation to targets (RM, YM) was significantly dependent on skeletal sites. The radiation exposure was significantly reduced (P<.05, t test) to organs at risk (OARs) in RM and YM irradiation compared with standard total marrow irradiation (TMI). Conclusions: Whole-body DECT offers a new imaging technique to visualize and measure skeletal-wide marrow composition. The DECT-based treatment planning offers volumetric and site-specific precise radiation dosimetry of RM and YM, which varies with aging. Our proposed method could be used as a functional compartment of TMI for further targeted radiation to specific bone marrow environment, dose escalation, reduction of doses to OARs, or a combination of these factors.

  14. Assessment of global left ventricular function with dual-source computed tomography in patients with valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, So Hyeon; Jeon, Hae Jeong (Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Ko, Sung Min (Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Inst. of Medical Science, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), Email: 20070437@kuh.ac.kr; Yang, Hyun Suk; Hwang, Hweung Kon (Dept. of Cardiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Song, Meong Gun (Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) function is a vital parameter for prognosis, therapy guidance, and follow-up of cardiovascular disease. Dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) provides an accurate analysis of global LV function. Purpose: To assess the performance of DSCT in the determination of global LV functional parameters in comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Material and Methods: A total of 111 patients (58 men, mean age 49.9 years) with known VHD and who underwent DSCT, 2D-TTE, and CMR a period of 2 weeks before undergoing valve surgery were included in this study. LV end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated by DSCT using the threshold-based technique, by 2D-TTE using a modified Simpson's method, and by CMR using Simpson's method. Agreement for parameters of LV global function was determined with the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman analysis. All the DSCT and CMR data-sets were assessed independently by two readers. Results: Fifty of the total 111 patients had aortic VHD, 29 patients had mitral VHD, and 32 patients had mixed aortic and mitral VHD. An excellent inter-observer agreement was seen for the assessment of global LV function using DSCT (r 0.910-0.983) and CMR (r = 0.854-0.965). An excellent or good correlation (r 0.93, 0.95, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively, P < 0.001) was noted between the DSCT and 2D-TTE values for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF. EDV (33.7 mL, P < 0.001), ESV (12.1 mL, P < 0.001), SV (21.2 mL, P < 0.001), and EF (1.6%, P = 0.019) were significantly overestimated by DSCT when compared with 2D-TTE. An excellent correlation (r = 0.96, 0.97, 0.91, and 0.94, respectively, P < 0.001) between DSCT and CMR was seen in the evaluation of EDV, ESV, SV, and EF. EDV (15.9 mL, P < 0.001), ESV (7.3 mL, P < 0.001), and SV

  15. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  16. Obtaining a closed-form representation for the dual bosonic thermal Green function by using methods of integration on the complex plane

    OpenAIRE

    Mondaini, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    We derive an exact closed-form representation for the Euclidean thermal Green function of the two-dimensional (2D) free massless scalar field in coordinate space. This can be interpreted as the real part of a complex analytic function of a variable that conformally maps the infinite strip -∞ < x < ∞ (0 < τ < β) of the z = x + iτ (τ: imaginary time) plane into the upper-half-plane. Use of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions, then allows us to identify the dual thermal...

  17. Realization of synaptic learning and memory functions in Y2O3 based memristive device fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Kumar, Amitesh; Singh, Rohit; Than Htay, Myo; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-02-01

    Single synaptic device with inherent learning and memory functions is demonstrated based on a forming-free amorphous Y2O3 (yttria) memristor fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering system. Synaptic functions such as nonlinear transmission characteristics, long-term plasticity, short-term plasticity and ‘learning behavior (LB)’ are achieved using a single synaptic device based on cost-effective metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure. An ‘LB’ function is demonstrated, for the first time in the literature, for a yttria based memristor, which bears a resemblance to certain memory functions of biological systems. The realization of key synaptic functions in a cost-effective MIS structure would promote much cheaper synapse for artificial neural network.

  18. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Falbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST training (n=16 and physical-cognitive dual task (DT training (n=20, respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles under both single and dual task (ST, DT conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling. The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  19. The effect of a multicomponent dual-modality exercise program targeting osteoporosis on bone health status and physical function capacity of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomio, Silvia; Ermolao, Andrea; Lalli, Alberto; Zaccaria, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is important for the prevention of osteoporosis and the reduction of fracture risk because it improves muscle mass and strength, besides improving balance. We evaluated the effect of a specific exercise program on bone mass and quality and physical function capacity in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Participants (N = 125) underwent a bone mass (Dual X-ray Absorptiometry), bone quality (osteosonography), and physical functional capacity assessment. Fifty-eight of them took part in an 11-month exercise program (E), that included a multicomponent (strength, aerobic capacity, balance, joint mobility) dual-modality (on ground and in the water; alternating group and home-based exercise periods) exercise regimen. The others represented a control group (C) that did not exercise. After the exercise program all participants were reevaluated. After the training program: femoral neck T-score significantly improved in E; C significantly decreased all bone quality (osteosonography) parameters, whereas E showed no differences; E significantly improved all the physical function capacity parameters, while most of them decreased or did not change in C. A specific exercise program targeting osteoporosis improves physical function capacity, reduces physiological bone loss, and maintains bone quality in low bone mineral density postmenopausal women.

  20. [The clinical application value of dual source CT quantification volume imaging to forecast lung cancer patients' postoperative pulmonary function changing: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liang, Chaoyang; Guo, Juntang; Ma, Yongfu; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Pu; Yang, Gongzheng; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    To probe the clinical application and value of dual source CT quantification volume imaging to forecast lung cancer patients' postoperative pulmonary function changing. Between June 2012 and June 2013, there were 233 patients (121 male patients and 112 female patients, with a mean age of (53 ± 16) years) who accepted the thoracoscope lobectomy or unilateral holo-lungs pneumonectomy accepted pulmonary function test before and after 3 months of the surgery. CT scan was conducted at both inspiration phase and expiration phase before the surgery and the lung volume of the single lobe, the pixel exponential distribution histogram, and the average lung density were measured after CT scan. The discrepancy and correlation between the preoperative lung volume accepted by CT and preoperative, postoperative pulmonary function index were compared. The CT volume scan showed that average lung density of the superior part at decubitus position is -(870 ± 22) HU, the inferior part was -(767 ± 16) HU (t = 3.13, P dual source CT quantification volume imaging to predict lung cancer patients' postoperative pulmonary function alteration, which can provide precise predictive value of these patients. CT quantification volume imaging technology has important clinical application value.

  1. Cellular functions of the dual-targeted catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase--potential role in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Dyballa-Rukes, Nadine; Jakob, Sascha; Altschmied, Joachim; Haendeler, Judith

    2014-08-01

    Over the last 40 years it has become clear that telomeres, the end of the chromosomes, and the enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which is required to counteract their shortening, play a pivotal role in senescence and aging. However, over the last years several studies demonstrated that TERT belongs to the group of dual-targeted proteins. It contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal as well as a mitochondrial targeting sequence and, under physiological conditions, is found in both organelles in several cell types including terminally differentiated, post-mitotic cells. The canonical function of TERT is to prevent telomere erosion and thereby the development of replicative senescence and genetic instability. Besides telomere extension, TERT exhibits other non-telomeric activities such as cell cycle regulation, modulation of cellular signaling and gene expression, augmentation of proliferative lifespan as well as DNA damage responses. Mitochondrial TERT is able to reduce reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial DNA damage and apoptosis. Because of the localization of TERT in the nucleus and in the mitochondria, it must have different functions in the two organelles as mitochondrial DNA does not contain telomeric structures. However, the organelle-specific functions are not completely understood. Strikingly, the regulation by phosphorylation of TERT seems to reveal multiple parallels. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the cellular functions and post-translational regulation of the dual-targeted protein TERT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional outcome and health related quality of life after dual mobility cup total hip replacement for displaced femoral neck fractures in middle aged Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Ramy Ahmed; Sevenoaks, Hannah; Shabaan, Amira Mohammed; Choudry, Qaisar Akhlaq; Hammad, Abdullah Said; Kasem, Mohammed Samir; El Khadrawe, Tarek Aly; El Dakhakhny, Magdy Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    This study was done to assess the functional and clinical results after one year of cemented THR with dual mobility cup for the treatment of fracture neck femur in active middle-aged patients in Egypt (Middle Eastern population). This study included 31 patients (32 hips) with displaced femoral neck fractures that were admitted to El Hadara University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt. Their mean age was 66.4 ± 5.9 years. Fifteen patients were females. All the patients were treated with total hip replacement using a cemented dual mobility cup (Ecofit ® 2 M, Implantcast GmbH, Germany) total hip replacement through the standard posterior approach. Functional assessment was done using Harris Hip Score (HHS), SF-36 questionnaire for health related quality of life (HRQoL) with assistance of a physiotherapist. The mean HHS improved over the follow up period from 79.04 ± 7.9 at 12 weeks to an average of 92.8 ± 11.1 at 1 year follow up. HRQoL measures showed a pattern of initial drop at 3 months postoperatively, then a steady rise to be restored at 1 year as compared to the preoperative baseline measures. There were no dislocations encountered in this series over one year follow up. The following complications were encountered; 1 deep infection, 2 deep vein thrombosis, 2 heterotopic ossifications, and 1 patient died within one year after surgery. Dual mobility cup total hip replacement is an acceptable method for treatment of displaced femoral neck fracture in active middle aged patients in Egypt as it provides pain relief and good function without compromising the stability. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual-Function Au@Y2O3:Eu3+ Smart Film for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Eom, Tae Young; Yang, In Seok; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Wan In; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Young Soo

    2017-07-28

    In the present study, a dual-functional smart film combining the effects of wavelength conversion and amplification of the converted wave by the localized surface plasmon resonance has been investigated for a perovskite solar cell. This dual-functional film, composed of Au nanoparticles coated on the surface of Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor (Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticle monolayer, enhances the solar energy conversion efficiency to electrical energy and long-term stability of photovoltaic cells. Coupling between the Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor monolayer and ultraviolet solar light induces the latter to be converted into visible light with a quantum yield above 80%. Concurrently, the Au nanoparticle monolayer on the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer amplifies the converted visible light by up to 170%. This synergy leads to an increased solar light energy conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Simultaneously, the dual-function film suppresses the photodegradation of perovskite by UV light, resulting in long-term stability. Introducing the hybrid smart Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ film in perovskite solar cells increases their overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency to 16.1% and enhances long-term stability, as compared to the value of 15.2% for standard perovskite solar cells. The synergism between the wavelength conversion effect of the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer and the wave amplification by the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticle monolayer in a perovskite solar cell is comparatively investigated, providing a viable strategy of broadening the solar spectrum utilization.

  4. The influence of body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry on functional capacity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The individual with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD can experience a significant reduction of body composition, peripheral muscle dysfunction, resulting in a negative influence on functional capacity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry on functional capacity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven male patients with COPD (COPDG, seven presenting moderate obstruction and four severe, and 11 sedentary male subjects (CG were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess their body composition. All subjects also performed the 6-minute walk test (6MWT and Step Test (6MST to assess their functional capacity. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between groups for anthropometric data such as age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI. However, the COPDG presented Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV, Walked Distance (WD and Number of Steps (NS significantly lower than the CG (p < 0.05, Student's t-test. The Body Bone Mass (BBM, BBM%, Lean Mass (LM, LM%, and Right Lower Limb (RLL and Left Lower Limb (LLL were significantly lower in the COPDG when compared with the CG, presenting statistically significant positive correlations with 6MWT's WD and 6MST's NS (p < 0.05, Pearson's test. CONCLUSION: We conclude that body composition is an important prognostic factor for patients with COPD, which reinforces the importance of assessing body composition by dual-energy absorptiometry since it has demonstrated with satisfactory accuracy in clinical practice. Moreover, it is a useful parameter for evaluation and reassessment in pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  5. An expandable prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function in a single device for vertebral body replacement: the clinical experience on 14 consecutive cases with vertebral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, J J; Ramírez, J J; Chiquete, E; Gómez-Limón, E

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the hypothesis that an expandable prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function can provide immediate and durable spine stabilization after corpectomy. We designed an expandable vertebral body prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function in a single device (JR-prosthesis). Anatomical studies were performed to design a titanium-made prosthesis. Cadaver assays were done with a stainless steal device to test fixation and adequacy to the human spine anatomy. Then, 14 patients with vertebral tumors (8 metastatic) underwent corpectomy and vertebral body replacement with the JR-prosthesis. All patients had neurological deficit, severe pain and spine instability (mean follow-up: 25.4 months). Mean pain score before surgery in a visual analog scale improved from 7.6 to 3.0 points after operation (P=0.002). All patients achieved at least one grade of improvement in the Frankel score (P=0.003), excepting the 3 patients with Frankel grade A presurgery. Two patients with renal cell carcinoma died during the following 4 days after surgery (renal failure and massive bleeding), the rest attained a painless and stable spine immediately and maintained for long periods. No significant infections or implant failures were registered. A non-fatal case of inferior vena cava surgical injury was observed (repaired during surgery without further complications). The JR-prosthesis stabilizes the spine immediately after surgery and for the rest of the patients' life. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the clinical experience of any expandable vertebral body prosthesis with dual cage-and-plate function in a single device. These observations await confirmation in different scenarios.

  6. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  7. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowska, Barbara; Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna; Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. → The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. → The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. → We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  8. A facile method to prepare dual-functional membrane for efficient oil removal and in situ reversible mercury ions adsorption from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingdong; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a novel thiol covered polyamide (nylon 66) microfiltration membrane was fabricated by combining mussel-inspired chemistry and coupling reaction, which owns excellent dual-function that can simultaneously remove oil from water efficiently and adsorb the mercury ions contained in the wastewater reversibly. Such membrane exhibited high oil/water separation efficiency, outstanding mercury adsorption ability, and good stability. Moreover, it can be regenerated in nitric acid solution, and maintain its good adsorption performance. The as-prepared membrane showed great potentials for water purification to reduce the heavy metal ion pollution and complicated industrial oily wastewater and living wastewater.

  9. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  10. The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  11. Preparation and Characterization of a Tumor-Targeting Dual-Image System Based on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Functionalized with Folic Acid and Rhodamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ancira-Cortez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the diseases with most deaths worldwide, around 8.2 million annually. For this reason, several treatments and diagnostic tools have been investigated and developed over the past decades. Among them, a dual-image system has been developed to achieve and enhance the detection of cancer, which has not been done with systems currently available. The present study describes the preparation of a dual-image targeting system composed of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid and rhodamine; nanoparticles synthesis was achieved by a coprecipitation method; the functionalization was carried out by a carbodiimide with folic acid and/or the rhodamine isothiocyanate; conjugates were characterized by spectrometric techniques; toxicity was measured by cell proliferation assay on HeLa cells using progressive concentrations of functionalized nanoparticles. Cellular uptake assay was carried out by competitive assay on HeLa cells. Iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles, modified with folic acid and rhodamine, were successfully synthetized with a particle size lower than 20 nm (TEM, EDS, HRTEM, and XDR showed highly crystalline Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Folic acid and rhodamine were conjugated with high efficiency. A significant selectivity and uptake, facilitated by surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles with folic acid, were demonstrated. The multifunctional system showed suitable physicochemical and biological properties for cell targeting through folate receptors.

  12. Role of globin moiety in the autoxidation reaction of oxymyoglobin: effect of 8 M urea.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Y; Matsuoka, A; Kaino, A; Shikama, K

    1995-01-01

    It is in the ferrous form that myoglobin or hemoglobin can bind molecular oxygen reversibly and carry out its function. To understand the possible role of the globin moiety in stabilizing the FeO2 bond in these proteins, we examined the autoxidation rate of bovine heart oxymyoglobin (MbO2) to its ferric met-form (metMb) in the presence of 8 M urea at 25 degrees C and found that the rate was markedly enhanced above the normal autoxidation in buffer alone over the whole range of pH 5-13. Taking...

  13. The effect of cognitive-motor dual-task training on cognitive function and plasma amyloid ? peptide 42/40 ratio in healthy elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Hisayo; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Imai, Daiki; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ryosuke; Naghavi, Nooshin; Ota, Akemi; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces the incidence and progression of cognitive impairment. Cognitive-motor dual-task training, which requires dividing attention between cognitive tasks and exercise, may improve various cognitive domains; therefore, we examined the effect of dual-task training on the executive functions and on plasma amyloid ? peptide (A?) 42/40 ratio, a potent biomarker of Alzheimer?s disease, in healthy elderly people. Methods Twenty-seven sedentary elderly people participa...

  14. Ultrasensitive colorimetric immunoassay for hCG detection based on dual catalysis of Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticle functionalized by horseradish peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo; Zou, Yake; Yan, Jinwu; Liu, Jing; Chen, Huixiong; Li, Shan; Zhang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an ultrasensitive colorimetric biosensor for human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) detection was designed from bottom-up method based on the dual catalysis of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Au@Pt nanoparticles (NPs) relative to H2O2-TEM system. HRP and monoclonal mouse anti-hCG antibody (β-submit, mAb1) were co-immobilized onto the Au@Pt NP surface to improve catalytic efficiency and specificity, which formed a dual functionalized Au@Pt-HRP probe with the mean size of 42.8 nm (D50). The colorimetric immunoassay was developed for the hCG detection, and the Au@Pt-HRP probe featured a higher sensitivity in the concentration range of 0.4-12.8 IU L- 1 with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 IU L- 1 compared with the LODs of 0.8 IU L- 1 for BA-ELISA and of 2.0 IU L- 1 for Au@Pt, which indicated that the Au@Pt-HRP probe possessed higher catalytic efficiency with 2.8-fold increase over Au@Pt and 33.8-fold increase over HRP. Also, the Au@Pt-HRP probe exhibited good precision and reproducibility, high specificity and acceptable accuracy with CV being less than 15%. The dual functionalized Au@Pt-HRP probe as a type of signal amplified method was firstly applied in the colorimetric immunoassay for the hCG detection.

  15. A contour integral representation for the dual five-point function and a symmetry of the genus-4 surface in R6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Andrew J; Sha Jiping

    2006-01-01

    The invention of the 'dual resonance model' N-point functions B N motivated the development of current string theory. The simplest of these models, the four-point function B 4 , is the classical Euler Beta function. Many standard methods of complex analysis in a single variable have been applied to elucidate the properties of the Euler Beta function, leading, for example, to analytic continuation formulae such as the contour-integral representation obtained by Pochhammer in 1890. However, the precise features of the expected multiple-complex-variable generalizations to B N have not been systematically studied. Here we explore the geometry underlying the dual five-point function B 5 , the simplest generalization of the Euler Beta function. The original integrand defining B 5 leads to a polyhedral structure for the five-crosscap surface, embedded in RP 5 , that has 12 pentagonal faces and a symmetry group of order 120 in PGL(6). We find a Pochhammer-like representation for B 5 that is a contour integral along a surface of genus 5 in CP 2 x 4(CP 2 )-bar. The symmetric embedding of the five-crosscap surface in RP 5 is doubly covered by a corresponding symmetric embedding of the surface of genus 4 in S 5 is contained in R 6 that has a polyhedral structure with 24 pentagonal faces and a symmetry group of order 240 in O(6). These symmetries enable the construction of elegant visualizations of these surfaces. The key idea of this paper is to realize that the compactification of the set of five-point cross-ratios forms a smooth real algebraic subvariety that is the five-crosscap surface in RP 5 . It is in the complexification of this surface that we construct the contour integral representation for B 5 . Our methods are generalizable in principle to higher dimensions, and therefore should be of interest for further study

  16. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  17. Dual effect of chloramphenicol peptides on ribosome inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougas, Anthony; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis A; Gatos, Dimitrios; Arenz, Stefan; Dinos, George P

    2017-05-01

    Chloramphenicol peptides were recently established as useful tools for probing nascent polypeptide chain interaction with the ribosome, either biochemically, or structurally. Here, we present a new 10mer chloramphenicol peptide, which exerts a dual inhibition effect on the ribosome function affecting two distinct areas of the ribosome, namely the peptidyl transferase center and the polypeptide exit tunnel. According to our data, the chloramphenicol peptide bound on the chloramphenicol binding site inhibits the formation of both acetyl-phenylalanine-puromycin and acetyl-lysine-puromycin, showing, however, a decreased peptidyl transferase inhibition compared to chloramphenicol-mediated inhibition per se. Additionally, we found that the same compound is a strong inhibitor of green fluorescent protein synthesis in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation assay as well as a potent inhibitor of lysine polymerization in a poly(A)-programmed ribosome, showing that an additional inhibitory effect may exist. Since chemical protection data supported the interaction of the antibiotic with bases A2058 and A2059 near the entrance of the tunnel, we concluded that the extra inhibition effect on the synthesis of longer peptides is coming from interactions of the peptide moiety of the drug with residues comprising the ribosomal tunnel, and by filling up the tunnel and blocking nascent chain progression through the restricted tunnel. Therefore, the dual interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide with the ribosome increases its inhibitory effect and opens a new window for improving the antimicrobial potency of classical antibiotics or designing new ones.

  18. Electrochemically induced C-H functionalization using bromide ion/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl dual redox catalysts in a two-phase electrolytic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Hu, Li-Ming; Yang, Feng-Lin; Yoo, Seung Joon; Little, R. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Electrocatalytic C-H bond functionalization of tetrahydroisoquinolines is reported. •The transformation is mediated by a bromide ion/TEMPO dual redox catalyst system. •The transformation is conducted in a two-phase electrolytic medium. •The mechanism is proposed to proceed via a sequence of oxidation and addition reactions involving water as a nucleophile. •The procedure features wide substrate scope, the use of mild reaction conditions. -- Abstract: The electrochemical oxidative functionalization of benzylic C-H bonds, mediated by a dual bromide ion/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO) redox catalyst system in a two-phase electrolytic medium, has been explored using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and preparative electrolysis techniques. The results show that electron transfer between TEMPO + and a neutral substrate occurs with an efficiency that depends upon the presence of a base. The preparative scale electrolysis led to the formation of dihydro-isoquinolinones, isochromanone and xanthenone in moderate to excellent yields. On the basis of the CV analysis and preparative electrolysis results, a reaction mechanism is proposed

  19. Dual-Function Electrocatalytic and Macroporous Hollow-Fiber Cathode for Converting Waste Streams to Valuable Resources Using Microbial Electrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Katuri, Krishna

    2018-04-30

    Dual-function electrocatalytic and macroporous hollow-fiber cathodes are recently proposed as promising advanced material for maximizing the conversion of waste streams such as wastewater and waste CO2 to valuable resources (e.g., clean freshwater, energy, value-added chemicals) in microbial electrochemical systems. The first part of this progress report reviews recent developments in this type of cathode architecture for the simultaneous recovery of clean freshwater and energy from wastewater. Critical insights are provided on suitable materials for fabricating these cathodes, as well as addressing some challenges in the fabrication process with proposed strategies to overcome them. The second and complementary part of the progress report highlights how the unique features of this cathode architecture can solve one of the intrinsic bottlenecks (gas-liquid mass transfer limitation) in the application of microbial electrochemical systems for CO2 reduction to value-added products. Strategies to further improve the availability of CO2 to microbial catalysts on the cathode are proposed. The importance of understanding microbe-cathode interactions, as well as electron transfer mechanisms at the cathode-cell and cell-cell interface to better design dual-function macroporous hollow-fiber cathodes, is critically discussed with insights on how the choice of material is important in facilitating direct electron transfer versus mediated electron transfer.

  20. Examining the role of endogenous orexins in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis endocrine function using transient dual orexin receptor antagonism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Michel A; Sciarretta, Carla; Brisbare-Roch, Catherine; Strasser, Daniel S; Studer, Rolf; Jenck, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The orexin neuropeptide system regulates wakefulness and contributes to physiological and behavioral stress responses. Moreover, a role for orexins in modulating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been proposed. Brain penetrating dual orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists such as almorexant decrease vigilance and have emerged as a novel therapeutic class for the treatment of insomnia. Almorexant was used here as a pharmacological tool to examine the role of endogenous orexin signaling in HPA axis endocrine function under natural conditions. After confirming the expression of prepro-orexin and OXR-1 and OXR-2 mRNA in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, the effects of systemic almorexant were investigated on peripheral HPA axis hormone release in the rat under baseline, stress and pharmacological challenge conditions. Almorexant did not alter basal or stress-induced corticosterone release despite affecting wake and sleep stages (detected by radiotelemetric electroencephalography/electromyography) during the stress exposure. Moreover, almorexant did not affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone at different time points along the diurnal rhythm, nor corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)- and ACTH-stimulated neuroendocrine responses, measured in vivo under stress-free conditions. These results illustrate that dual OXR antagonists, despite modulating stress-induced wakefulness, do not interfere with endocrine HPA axis function in the rat. They converge to suggest that endogenous orexin signaling plays a minor role in stress hormone release under basal conditions and under challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential gene expression along the animal-vegetal axis in the ascidian embryo is maintained by a dual functional protein Foxd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhiro, Shin-Ichi; Tokuoka, Miki; Kobayashi, Kenji; Kubo, Atsushi; Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Satou, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    In many animal embryos, a specific gene expression pattern is established along the animal-vegetal axis soon after zygotic transcription begins. In the embryo of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, soon after the division that separates animal and vegetal hemispheres into distinct blastomeres, maternal Gata.a and β-catenin activate specific genes in the animal and vegetal blastomeres, respectively. On the basis of these initial distinct gene expression patterns, gene regulatory networks promote animal cells to become ectodermal tissues and vegetal cells to become endomesodermal tissues and a part of the nerve cord. In the vegetal hemisphere, β-catenin directly activates Foxd, an essential transcription factor gene for specifying endomesodermal fates. In the present study, we found that Foxd also represses the expression of genes that are activated specifically in the animal hemisphere, including Dmrt1, Prdm1-r.a (Bz1), Prdm1-r.b (Bz2), and Otx. A reporter assay showed that Dmrt1 expression was directly repressed by Foxd, and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Foxd was bound to the upstream regions of Dmrt1, Prdm1-r.a, Prdm1-r.b, and Otx. Thus, Foxd has a dual function of activating specific gene expression in the vegetal hemisphere and of repressing the expression of genes that are normally expressed in the animal hemisphere. This dual function stabilizes the initial patterning along the animal-vegetal axis by β-catenin and Gata.a.

  2. Dual-beam ELF wave generation as a function of power, frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Dual-beam ELF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter are used to investigate the dependence of the generated ELF wave magnitude on HF power, HF frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location. During the experiments, two HF beams transmit simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere at ELF frequencies while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF wave generation. We report experimental results for different ambient ionospheric conditions, and we interpret the observations in the context of a newly developed dual-beam HF heating model. A comparison between model predictions and experimental observations indicates that the theoretical model includes the essential physics involved in multifrequency HF heating of the lower ionosphere. In addition to the HF transmission parameters mentioned above, the model is used to predict the dependence of ELF wave magnitude on the polarization of the CW beam and on the modulation frequency of the modulated beam. We consider how these effects vary with ambientD-region electron density and electron temperature.

  3. Design of Thermochromic Polynorbornene Bearing Spiropyran Chromophore Moieties: Synthesis, Thermal Behavior and Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new class of thermochromic polynorbornene with pendent spiropyran moieties has been synthesized. Functionalization of norbornene monomers with spirobenzopyran moieties has been achieved using Steglich esterification. These new monomeric materials were polymerized via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP. In spite of their poor solubility, polynorbornenes with spirobenzopyran exhibited thermochromic behavior due to the conversion of their closed spiropyran moieties to the open merocyanine form. Moreover, these polymers displayed bathochromic shifts in their optical response, which was attributed to the J-aggregation of the attached merocyanine moieties that were associated with their high concentration in the polymeric chain. The surface of the obtained polymers was exposed to atmospheric pressure air Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma system, which resulted in the reduction of the surface porosity and converted some surface area into completely non-porous regions. Moreover, the plasma system created some areas with highly ordered J-aggregates of the merocyanine form in thread-like structures. This modification of the polymers’ morphology may alter their applications and allow for these materials to be potential candidates for new applications, such as non-porous membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or molecular separation in the gas phase.

  4. The Explicit Determinations Of Dual Plane Curves And Dual Helices In Terms Of Its Dual Curvature And Dual Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae Won; Choi Jin Ho; Jin Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give the explicit determinations of dual plane curves, general dual helices and dual slant helices in terms of its dual curvature and dual torsion as a fundamental theory of dual curves in a dual 3-space

  5. Syntehsis and antiproliferative activities of chloropyridazine derivatives retain alkylsulfonyl moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Won; Park, Myung Sook [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Some chloropyridazine derivatives have shown interesting pharmacodynamics properties in terms of antioxidant and anti-human rotavirus (HRV) activities (Figure 1). To date, however, no study has evaluated the antiproliferative effects of chloropyridazines in other types of human cancer cells. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized a total of five groups of alkoxy-(or alkylthio-, alkylselenyl-, alkylsufinyl alkylsulfonyl-)chloropyridazines, and their antiproliferative activity was evaluated in the human cancer cell lines. IC{sub 50} values showed that the alkylsulfonylchloropyridazine compounds exhibited more active than the other four groups having alkoxy, alkylthio, alkylselenyl, alkylsulfinyl moieties against MCF-7 and Hep2B Cells.

  6. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  7. Effect of 3 T MRI on the function of shunt valves-Evaluation of Paedi GAV, Dual Switch and proGAV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, D. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: dlind@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Preul, C. [Max-Planck-Institut for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstr. 1a, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Trantakis, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Moeller, H. [Max-Planck-Institut for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstr. 1a, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Meixensberger, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The MR-compatibility of medical implants and devices becomes more and more important with the increasing number of high-field MR-scanners employed. Until the end of 2004, about twenty 3 T MR in Germany will be in clinical practice. Patients with hydrocephalus need frequent follow-up MR-examinations to assure correct functioning of a shunt. We tested three types of gravitational valves: the Paedi GAV, the Dual Switch and as a new programmable valve the proGAV (Miethke Company, Berlin), that have not been evaluated at 3 T, yet. In sum, there is strong evidence for maintenance of function of these valves after exposure to 3 T. This also implies the programmable valve, as long as the brake mechanism is properly adjusted during MR-examination.

  8. Hydrophilization of poly(caprolactone copolymers through introduction of oligo(ethylene glycol moieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Wurth

    Full Text Available In this study, a new family of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL copolymers that bear oligo(ethylene glycol (OEG moieties is described. The synthesis of three different oligo(ethylene glycol functionalized epoxide monomers derived from 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid, and their copolymerization with ε-caprolactone (CL to poly(CL-co-OEG-MPO copolymers is presented. The statistical copolymerization initiated with SnOct2/BnOH yielded the copolymers with varying OEG content and composition. The linear relationship between feed ratio and incorporation of the OEG co-monomer enables control over backbone functional group density. The introduction of OEG moieties influenced both the thermal and the hydrophilic characteristics of the copolymers. Both increasing OEG length and backbone content resulted in a decrease in static water contact angle. The introduction of OEG side chains in the PCL copolymers had no adverse influence on MC-3TE3-E1 cell interaction. However, changes to cell form factor (Φ were observed. While unmodified PCL promoted elongated (anisotropic morphologies (Φ = 0.094, PCL copolymer with tri-ethylene glycol side chains at or above seven percent backbone incorporation induced more isotropic cell morphologies (Φ = 0.184 similar to those observed on glass controls (Φ = 0.151.

  9. SU-F-T-660: Evaluating the Benefit of Using Dual-Function Fiducial Markers for In-Situ Delivery of Radiosenistizing Gold Nanoparticles During Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMansour, S; Chin, J; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law. The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate

  10. SU-F-T-660: Evaluating the Benefit of Using Dual-Function Fiducial Markers for In-Situ Delivery of Radiosenistizing Gold Nanoparticles During Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMansour, S; Chin, J; Sajo, E; Ngwa, W [University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dual-function fiducials loaded with radiosensitizers, like gold nanoparticles (GNP), offer an innovative approach for ensuring geometric accuracy during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and significantly increasing therapeutic efficacy due to controlled in-situ release of the radiosensitizers. This study retrospectively investigates the dosimetric benefit of using up to two such dual-function fiducial markers instead of traditional single function fiducials during IGRT. Methods: A computational code was developed to investigate the dosimetric benefit for 10 real patient tumor volumes of up to 6.5 cm diameter. The intra-tumoral space-time biodistribution of the GNP was modeled as in previous studies based on Fick’s second law. The corresponding dose-enhancement for each tumor voxel due to the GNP was also calculated for clinical 6MV beam configurations. Various loading concentrations (25–50 mg/g) were studied, as a function of GNP size, to determine potential for clinically significant dose enhancement. The time between initial implantation of dual-function fiducials to the beginning of radiotherapy was assumed to be 14 days as typical for many clinics. Results: A single dual-function fiducial could achieve at least a DEF of 1.2 for patients with tumors less than 1.4 cm diameter after 14 days. Replacing two single function fiducials with dual-function ones at the same locations achieved at least the required minimal DEF for tumors that are 2 cm diameter in 3 patients. The results also revealed dosimetrically better fiducial locations which could enable significant DEF when using one or two dual function fiducials. 2 nm sizes showed the most feasibility. Conclusion: The results highlight the potential of tumor sub-volume radiation boosting using GNP released from fiducials, and the ability to customize the DEF throughout the tumor by using two dual-function fiducials, varying the initial concentration and nanoparticle size. The results demonstrate

  11. A novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 ultra-thin layer as the back electrode enabling high performance of thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinxian; Su, Yantao; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yuan, Sheng; Hu, Jiangtao; Lin, Yuan; Liang, Jun; Pan, Feng

    2016-09-14

    Increasing the open-circuit voltage (Voc) along with the fill factor (FF) is pivotal for the performance improvement of solar cells. In this work, we report the design and construction of a new structure of CdS/CdTe/Al2O3/Cu using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, and then we control Cu diffusion through the Al2O3 atomic layer into the CdTe layer. Surprisingly, this generates a novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 atomic layer. Due to this dual-functional character of the Cu-Al2O3 layer, an efficiency improvement of 2% in comparison with the standard cell was observed. This novel dual-functional back contact structure could also be introduced into other thin film solar cells for their efficiency improvement.

  12. Calix[8]arene functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns for dual-signalling electrochemical sensing of aconitine based on competitive host-guest recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Ran, Xin; Cai, Le; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Hui; Li, Can-Peng

    2016-09-15

    A dual-signalling electrochemical approach has been developed towards aconitine based on competitive host-guest interaction by selecting methylene blue (MB) and p-sulfonated calix[8]arene functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns (SCX8-SWCNHs) as the "reporter pair". Upon the presence of aconitine to the performed SCX8-SWCNHs·MB complex, the MB molecules are displaced by aconitine. This results in a decreased oxidation peak current of MB and the appearance of an oxidation peak of aconitine, and the changes of these signals correlate linearly with the concentration of aconitine. A linear response range of 1.00-10.00μM for aconitine with a low detection limit of 0.18μM (S/N=3) was obtained by using the proposed method. This method could be successfully utilized to detect aconitine in serum samples. This dual-signalling sensor can provide more sensitive target recognition and will have important applications in the sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of aconitine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensor Fusion Based on an Integrated Neural Network and Probability Density Function (PDF) Dual Kalman Filter for On-Line Estimation of Vehicle Parameters and States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Melendez, Leandro; Boada, Beatriz L; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Gauchia, Antonio; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-04-29

    Vehicles with a high center of gravity (COG), such as light trucks and heavy vehicles, are prone to rollover. This kind of accident causes nearly 33 % of all deaths from passenger vehicle crashes. Nowadays, these vehicles are incorporating roll stability control (RSC) systems to improve their safety. Most of the RSC systems require the vehicle roll angle as a known input variable to predict the lateral load transfer. The vehicle roll angle can be directly measured by a dual antenna global positioning system (GPS), but it is expensive. For this reason, it is important to estimate the vehicle roll angle from sensors installed onboard in current vehicles. On the other hand, the knowledge of the vehicle's parameters values is essential to obtain an accurate vehicle response. Some of vehicle parameters cannot be easily obtained and they can vary over time. In this paper, an algorithm for the simultaneous on-line estimation of vehicle's roll angle and parameters is proposed. This algorithm uses a probability density function (PDF)-based truncation method in combination with a dual Kalman filter (DKF), to guarantee that both vehicle's states and parameters are within bounds that have a physical meaning, using the information obtained from sensors mounted on vehicles. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Accuracy of Functional and Predictive Methods to Calculate the Hip Joint Center in Young Non-pathologic Asymptomatic Adults with Dual Fluoroscopy as a Reference Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M.; Kutschke, Michael J.; Atkins, Penny R.; Foreman, K. Bo; Kapron, Ashley L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Predictions from biomechanical models of gait may be sensitive to joint center locations. Most often, the hip joint center (HJC) is derived from locations of reflective markers adhered to the skin. Here, predictive techniques use regression equations of pelvic anatomy to estimate the HJC, whereas functional methods track motion of markers placed at the pelvis and femur during a coordinated motion. Skin motion artifact may introduce errors in the estimate of HJC for both techniques. Quantifying the accuracy of these methods is an area of open investigation. In this study, we used dual fluoroscopy (DF) (a dynamic x-ray imaging technique) and three-dimensional reconstructions from computed tomography (CT) images, to measure HJC locations in-vivo. Using dual fluoroscopy as the reference standard, we then assessed the accuracy of three predictive and two functional methods. Eleven non-pathologic subjects were imaged with DF and reflective skin marker motion capture. Additionally, DF-based solutions generated virtual markers placed on bony landmarks, which were input to the predictive and functional methods to determine if estimates of the HJC improved. Using skin markers, functional methods had better mean agreement with the HJC measured by DF (11.0 ± 3.3 mm) than predictive methods (18.1 ± 9.5 mm); estimates from functional and predictive methods improved when using the DF-based solutions (1.3 ± 0.9 and 17.5 ± 8.6 mm, respectively). The Harrington method was the best predictive technique using both skin markers (13.2 ± 6.5 mm) and DF-based solutions (10.6 ± 2.5 mm). The two functional methods had similar accuracy using skin makers (11.1 ± 3.6 and 10.8 ± 3.2 mm) and DF-based solutions (1.2 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.0 mm). Overall, functional methods were superior to predictive methods for HJC estimation. However, the improvements observed when using the DF-based solutions suggest that skin motion artifact is a large source of error for the functional methods. PMID

  15. Dual-task functional exercises as an effective way to improve dynamic balance in persons with intellectual disability – continuation of the project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mikołajczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Balance disorders are common in people with intellectual disability (ID. Aim of the research: The continuation of the project is aimed at finding out whether extension of the unstable surface dual-task functional exercises programme by another 12 weeks affects the level of dynamic balance in adolescents with ID and what those changes are like after the 8-week summer holidays. Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescents with ID aged 14–16 years (E performed functional exercises for another 12 weeks on unstable surfaces, and a group of 17 individuals with ID were the controls. Dynamic balance was assessed three times: after the first stage of the programme (test 2, after another 12 weeks (test 3, after the 8-week holiday (test 4. ALFA AC An International East stabilometric platform was used for measurements. Results : No statistical differences were discovered in group E, in dynamic balance assessment between test 2 and 3; however, the mean scores in group E, in test 3, were slightly better than in test 2, and notably better than in group C. No significant differences between test 3 and 4 were found in group E either. Conclusions : Extension of the intervention program helped to maintain improved dynamic balance. Discontinuation of the program for the period of 8 weeks resulted in decreased level of balance; however, it was still higher than at the beginning of the project. Dual-task functional exercises based on activities of daily living (ADLs and stimulation of righting reactions may enhance dynamic balance in individuals with ID, but it should be constantly stimulated.

  16. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  17. Dual-source computed tomography. Effect on regional and global left ventricular function assessment compared to magnetic resonance imaging; Untersuchung der regionalen und globalen linksventrikulaeren Funktion mit der Dual-Source-Computertomografie im Vergleich zur Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, F.; Seifarth, H.; Wessling, J.; Heindel, W.; Juergens, Kai Uwe [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Fischbach, R. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Neuroradiologie, Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to determine regional and global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters and to perform segmental wall thickness (SWT) and motion (WM) analysis of dual source CT (DSCT) with optimized temporal resolution versus MRI. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with known or suspected CAD, non-obstructive HCM, DCM, ARVCM, Fallot Tetralogy, cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac metastasis underwent DSCT and MRI. The DSCT and MR images were evaluated: end-systolic (ESV), end-diastolic LV (EDV) volumes, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and myocardial mass (MM) as well as LV wall thickening and segmental WM applying the AHA model were obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean LV-EDV (r = 0.96) and ESV (r = 0.98) as well as LV-EF (r = 0.97), SV (r = 0.83), and MM (r = 0.95) correlated well. Bland Altman analysis revealed little systematic underestimation of LV-EF (-1.1 {+-} 7.8%), EDV (-0.3 {+-} 18.2 ml), SV (-1.3 {+-} 16.7 ml) and little overestimation of ESV (1.1 {+-} 7.8 ml) and MM (12.8 {+-} 14.4 g) determined by DSCT. Systolic reconstruction time points correlated well (DSCT 32.2 {+-} 6.7 vs. MRI 35.6 {+-} 4.4% RR-interval). The LV wall thickness obtained by DSCT and MRI showed close correlation in all segments (diameter diff 0.42 {+-} 1 mm). In 413 segments (89%) WM abnormalities were equally rated, whereas DSCT tended to underestimate the degree of wall motion impairment. Conclusion: DSCT with optimized temporal resolution enables regional and global LV function analysis as well as segmental WM analysis in good correlation with MRI. However, the degree of WM impairment is slightly underestimated by DSCT. (orig.)

  18. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  19. Synthetic transformations of a pendant nitrile moiety in group 4 metallocene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Jiří; Císařová, Ivana; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Lamač, Martin

    2013-05-21

    Functional group transformations at the group 4 metallocene framework have been demonstrated, which have provided relatively straightforward access to otherwise synthetically challenging derivatives. The pendant nitrile group in Ti and Zr metallocene complexes of the type [(η(5)-C5Me5)(η(5)-C5H4CMe2CH2CN)MCl2] was converted into an intramolecularly bound ketimido moiety by alkylation, which took place not only at the nitrile, but also at the metal centre. The choice of an alkylating reagent (alkyl/aryl lithium, Grignard reagent) was crucial: e.g., 2 equiv. of MeMgBr effected the alkylation only at the metal, yielding selectively complexes [(η(5)-C5Me5)(η(5)-C5H4CMe2CH2CN)MMe2], while the use of PhMgBr, PhLi, or MeLi instead gave selectively the ketimido complexes. Organyl lithium reagents were, however, not compatible with the titanocene derivatives. The metal-bound ketimides were subsequently cleaved off by the reaction with HCl, which afforded metallocene dichlorides with a pendant imino group. These compounds were easily protonated again at the nitrogen atom to produce a cationic iminium moiety. Aqueous hydrolysis of the imine or its respective hydrochloride proved to be viable in the case of Zr and it finally afforded a pendant ketone group attached to the zirconocene framework.

  20. Miktoarm core-crosslinked star copolymers with biologically active moieties on peripheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Miktoarm core-crosslinked star (CCS) copolymers featuring hydrophobic inner compartment based on poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), and hydrophilic multivalent exterior consisting of L-lysine dendritic wedges and estradiol or ferrocene moieties have been synthesized. Ring-opening polymerization (ROP......) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) initiated by functional alcohols provides alkyne or azide end-capped linear PCL chains. Further derivatization of the hydroxyl chain ends of these hetero-telechelic macromolecules by methacrylic acid (MA), and subsequent Cu(I) mediated "click" coupling of terminal alkyne...... and azide groups with azide-functionalized dendritic wedge, 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol and ethynylferrocene afford well-defined linear-dendritic and linear macromonomers (MMs), respectively. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of the MMs together with a difunctional monomer 1,4-butanediol...

  1. Power, efficiency, ecological function and ecological coefficient of performance of an irreversible Dual-Miller cycle (DMC) with nonlinear variable specific heat ratio of working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiang; Chen, Lingen; Ge, Yanlin; Sun, Fengrui

    2017-05-01

    Finite time thermodynamic (FTT) theory is applied to perform performance analysis for an air-standard irreversible Dual-Miller cycle (DMC) based on the power output (P), thermal efficiency (η, ecological function (E) and ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP) criteria by considering nonlinear variable specific heat ratio, piston friction loss, heat transfer loss and other internal irreversible losses. Relationships between different performance characteristics are obtained via numerical calculations. Effects of pressure ratio and stroke length on each criterion are analyzed, and performance characteristics with different optimization objective are compared. The results show that pressure ratio has little influence on performance characteristics, but stroke length has great influence on performance characteristics. Moreover P, η, E and ECOP decrease with increasing stroke length, but when stroke length increases to a certain value, E is less than 0 whatever value of compression ratio takes. Choosing the E and ECOP as optimization objectives is more significant by comparing with other performance indexes.

  2. Multifold enhanced synergistic removal of nickel and phosphate by a (N,Fe)-dual-functional bio-sorbent: Mechanism and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan-hong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Organic Chemical Industrial Waste Water Disposal Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Fu-qiang, E-mail: jogia@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Organic Chemical Industrial Waste Water Disposal Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Chang-qing; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Wei, Meng-meng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Organic Chemical Industrial Waste Water Disposal Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Feng-he [School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023 (China); Ling, Chen; Li, Ai-min [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Organic Chemical Industrial Waste Water Disposal Resource Reuse, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • A (N,Fe)-dual-functional bio-sorbent was newly synthesized. • Removal of Ni(II) and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} could be remarkably enhanced over 3 times. • A multiple mechanism resulted in the synergic adsorption. • N/Fe-DB is efficient and repeatable in treating electroplating wastewater. - Abstract: A novel (N,Fe)-dual-functional biosorbent (N/Fe-DB) capable of efficient synergistic removal of Ni(II) and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} from aqueous solution was synthesized. The adsorption capacities of Ni(II) and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} were both remarkably enhanced over 3 times compared with those in single systems. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that complexation of amino groups and ligand exchange of hydrous ferric oxide in N/Fe-DB played dominant roles. The electric double layer compressing and chelating ligand of deprotonated H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} accounted for the enhanced removal of Ni(II) in binary system, while cation bridge interaction promoted uptake of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −}. Furthermore, the coadsorbates were sequentially recovered, with the ratios of more than 99.0%. Besides, the recovered N/Fe-DB remained stable and applicable to the treatment of real electroplating wastewater even after six adsorption-regeneration cycles. Since the electroplating industry is springing up, effective control of heavy metals and phosphate has attracted global concerns. Based on the enhanced coremoval properties and superb regenerability, N/Fe-DB is potentially applicable to practical production.

  3. Acute Exposure to a Precursor of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces a Dual Effect on the Rat Pancreatic Islet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Elmhiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced glycation end products, known as AGEs, are a major risk factor for diabetes onset and maintenance. Methylglyoxal (MG, a highly reactive metabolite of glucose, is a precursor for the generation of endogenous AGEs. Methods. In this current study we incubated in vitro pancreatic islets from adult rats in absence or presence of MG (10 μmol/l with different concentrations of glucose and different metabolic components (acetylcholine, epinephrine, potassium, forskolin, and leucine. Results. Different effects of MG on insulin secretion were evidenced. In basal glucose stimulation (5.6 mM, MG induced a significant (P<0.05 increase of insulin secretion. By contrast, in higher glucose concentrations (8.3 mM and 16.7 mM, MG significantly inhibited insulin secretion (P<0.05. In the presence of potassium, forskolin, and epinephrine, MG enhanced insulin secretion (P<0.05, while when it was incubated with acetylcholine and leucine, MG resulted in a decrease of insulin secretion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We suggest that MG modulates the secretion activity of beta-cell depending on its level of stimulation by other metabolic factors. These results provide insights on a dual acute effect of MG on the pancreatic cells.

  4. The glycosyl moiety of lectin from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namen, A E; Hapner, K D

    1979-09-29

    A lectin isolated from the seeds of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop. var Eski) has been shown to be a glycoprotein containing 2.6% (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 1.6% (w/w) glucosamine (Hapner, K.D. and Robbins, J.E. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 580, 186--197) A homogeneous glycopeptide accounting for 70% of the original glycoprotein carbohydrate was isolated from pronase digests of the lectin by gel filtration chromatography. Gas-liquid chromatographic and amino acid analyses showed the glycosyl portion to contain glucosamine, mannose, xylose and fucose in molar ratio to glycopeptide of 1.8 : 1.8 : 0.7 : 0.9. The amino acid sequence was determined as H2N-Ser-Asn(glycosyl)-glu-Thr-COOH. The glycosyl moiety was attached to the peptide through N-glycosidic linkage between asparagine and glucosamine.

  5. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC......-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of these components in the liquid from hydrothermal pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. The reaction mechanisms for synthesis of the new dipentoses having hydroxylated oxane bicyclic residues are considered and they are proposed to be formed as reaction products...... from either xylose or glucose reacting with glyceraldehyde during pretreatment. The data show that the main cellulase inhibition from hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw liquors is due to xylooligosaccharides followed by oligophenolic compounds and the newly discovered dipentose with bicyclic...

  6. Photoisomerization of azobenzene moiety in crosslinking polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Jin, Feng; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a series of acryloyloxy-substituted azobenzene derivatives, 3-(tert-butyl)-4,4'-bisacryoloxy-azobenzene (tBu-Azo-AO), 3-(tert-butyl)-4,4'-bis[3-(acryoloxy)propoxy]-azobenzene (tBu-Azo-AO3) and 3-(tert-butyl)-4,4'-bis[6-(acryoloxy)hexyloxy]-azobenzene (tBu-Azo-AO6) were synthesized and employed as monomers to prepare polymer films by copolymerizing dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate (DPE-6A) and methyl methacrylate (MMA), respectively. When exposed to a nanosecond laser beam at the wavelength of 355 nm, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of the resultant polymer films with different irradiation time were monitored. On the basis of the absorbance of the π-π* electronic transition, the kinetics of trans-to-cis photoisomerization of three kinds of azobenzene moieties were demonstrated and found to be influenced by both the pump energy and azobenzene concentration.

  7. Orthogonal dual-modification of proteins for the engineering of multivalent protein scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mühlberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To add new tools to the repertoire of protein-based multivalent scaffold design, we have developed a novel dual-labeling strategy for proteins that combines residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids with chemical oxidative aldehyde formation at the N-terminus of a protein. Our approach relies on the selective introduction of two different functional moieties in a protein by mutually orthogonal copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC and oxime ligation. This method was applied to the conjugation of biotin and β-linked galactose residues to yield an enzymatically active thermophilic lipase, which revealed specific binding to Erythrina cristagalli lectin by SPR binding studies.

  8. Dual Entwining Structures and Dual Entwined Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhlail, Jawad Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we introduce and investigate the concepts of dual entwining structures and dual entwined modules. This generalizes the concepts of dual Doi-Koppinen structures and dual Doi-Koppinen modules introduced (in the infinite case over rings) by the author is his dissertation.

  9. Near infrared fluorescent dual ligand functionalized Au NCs based multidimensional sensor array for pattern recognition of multiple proteins and serum discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shenghao; Gao, Teng; Feng, Xiuying; Fan, Xiaojian; Liu, Gufan; Mao, Yaning; Yu, Xijuan; Lin, Jiehua; Luo, Xiliang

    2017-11-15

    Here, a multidimensional sensor array capable of analyzing various proteins and discriminating between serums from different stages of breast cancer patients were developed based on six kinds of near infrared fluorescent dual ligand functionalized Au NCs (functionalized with different amino acids) as sensing receptors. These six kinds of different amino acids functionalized Au NCs were synthesized for the first time within 2h due to the direct donation of delocalized electrons of electron-rich atoms or groups of the ligands to the Au core. Based on this, ten proteins could be simultaneously and effectively discriminated by this "chemical nose/tongue" sensor array. Linear discrimination analysis (LDA) of the response patterns showed successful differentiation of the analytes at concentrations as low as 10nM with high identification accuracy. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiment illustrates that Au NCs interacted with proteins mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Furthermore, the greatest highlight of this sensor array is demonstrated by successfully discriminating between serums from different stages of breast cancer patients (early, middle and late) and healthy people, suggesting great potential for auxiliary diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  11. Linear and nonlinear properties of novel materials based on DNA containing [2.2]paracyclophane moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cosmina Andreea; Kajzar, François; Manea-Saghin, Ana-Maria

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis and the characterization of new deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based compounds containing [2.2]paracyclophane moiety are reported. The DNA molecule was functionalized with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA), [2.2]paracyclophane-4-methoxy-5-formyl [A] and [2.2]paracyclophane-4-hydroxy-5-formyl [B], respectively. These compounds were used for obtaining good optical quality thin films by spin coating method. The absorption and emission spectra of studied solutions and thin films showed that the new obtained materials are of good optical properties. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of thin films were characterized by the optical third-harmonic generation technique at 1064.2 nm fundamental wavelength.

  12. Colletotrichum higginsianum extracellular LysM proteins play dual roles in appressorial function and suppression of chitin-triggered plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kombrink, Anja; Hughes, H Bleddyn; Halder, Vivek; Robin, Guillaume P; Hiruma, Kei; Neumann, Ulla; Shinya, Tomonori; Kombrink, Erich; Shibuya, Naoto; Thomma, Bart P H J; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum, encodes a large repertoire of candidate-secreted effectors containing LysM domains, but the role of such proteins in the pathogenicity of any Colletotrichum species is unknown. Here, we characterized the function of two effectors, ChELP1 and ChELP2, which are transcriptionally activated during the initial intracellular biotrophic phase of infection. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that ChELP2 is concentrated on the surface of bulbous biotrophic hyphae at the interface with living host cells but is absent from filamentous necrotrophic hyphae. We show that recombinant ChELP1 and ChELP2 bind chitin and chitin oligomers in vitro with high affinity and specificity and that both proteins suppress the chitin-triggered activation of two immune-related plant mitogen-activated protein kinases in the host Arabidopsis. Using RNAi-mediated gene silencing, we found that ChELP1 and ChELP2 are essential for fungal virulence and appressorium-mediated penetration of both Arabidopsis epidermal cells and cellophane membranes in vitro. The findings suggest a dual role for these LysM proteins as effectors for suppressing chitin-triggered immunity and as proteins required for appressorium function. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Dual function of the nuclear export signal of the Borna disease virus nucleoprotein in nuclear export activity and binding to viral phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Mako; Sakai, Madoka; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-07-11

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of leucine at positions 128 and 131 and isoleucine at positions 133 and 136 overlaps with one of two predicted binding sites for the viral phosphoprotein (P). A previous study demonstrated that higher expression of BoDV-P inhibits nuclear export of N; however, the function of N NES in the interaction with P remains unclear. We examined the subcellular localization, viral polymerase activity, and P-binding ability of BoDV-N NES mutants. We also characterized a recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) harboring an NES mutation of N. BoDV-N with four alanine-substitutions in the leucine and isoleucine residues of the NES impaired its cytoplasmic localization and abolished polymerase activity and P-binding ability. Although an alanine-substitution at position 131 markedly enhanced viral polymerase activity as determined by a minigenome assay, rBoDV harboring this mutation showed expression of viral RNAs and proteins relative to that of wild-type rBoDV. Our results demonstrate that BoDV-N NES has a dual function in BoDV replication, i.e., nuclear export of N and an interaction with P, affecting viral polymerase activity in the nucleus.

  14. Quantification of left ventricular function and mass in heart transplant recipients using dual-source CT and MRI: initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastarrika, Gorka; Arraiza, Maria; Cecco, Carlo N. de; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Ubilla, Matias; Rabago, Gregorio

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare LV function and mass quantification derived from cardiac dual-source CT (DSCT) exams with those obtained by MRI in heart transplant recipients. Twelve heart transplant recipients who underwent cardiac DSCT and MRI examination were included. Double-oblique short-axis 8-mm slice thickness images were evaluated. Left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, cardiac output and myocardial mass were manually assessed for each patient by two blinded readers. A systematic overestimation of all left ventricular volumes by DSCT when compared with MRI was observed. Mean difference was 16.58±18.61 ml for EDV, 4.94±6.84 ml for ESV, 11.64±13.58 ml for SV and 5.73±1.14 l/min for CO. Slightly lower values for left ventricular ejection fraction with DSCT compared with MRI were observed (mean difference 0.34±3.18%, p=0.754). Correlation between DSCT and MRI for left ventricular mass was excellent (rho = 0.972). Bland and Altman plots and CCC indicated good agreement between DSCT and MRI left ventricular function and mass measurements. The interobserver correlation was good. In conclusion, DSCT accurately estimates left ventricular ejection fraction, volumes and mass in heart transplant recipients. (orig.)

  15. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbik, Martin; Krasteva, Stanimira; Mayer, Nina; Kählig, Hanspeter; Krenn, Liselotte

    2010-05-01

    Due to the fact that an Indian group had reported a benzoflavone moiety (BZF) as an active principle in the herb of Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae), this study was performed to isolate the compound for analytical purposes. In Passiflorae herba from three different origins (cultivations in India, Italy and France) a compound with the published TLC characteristics was detected in trace amounts only in the Italian material. No traces of the substance were found in the drugs from India and France. In a commercial extract two compounds with the respective TLC characteristics were detected. One was identified as a phytol isomer. Due to the very small amounts of the second compound its structure elucidation was not successful. The amount of extract for the isolation corresponded to approximately the 10-fold amount of the drug, from which the isolation of 332 mg "BZF" had been reported. The detection of only trace amounts of a BZF-like compound in one of three commercial samples of Passiflorae herba and in an extract suggests for the first time that BZF is not the active principle in this drug and should not serve as an active marker. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  16. Turnover and metabolism of phosphatidylglycerol acyl moieties in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.; Rock, C.O.

    1987-01-01

    Fatty acids synthesized in mutants (plsB) blocked in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis were preferentially transferred to phosphatidylglycerol (PtdGro). The ratio of phospholipid species labeled with 32 P and [ 3 H]acetate in the absence of glycerol-3-P acyltransferase activity indicated that [ 3 H]acetate incorporation into PtdGro was due to fatty acid turnover. The magnitude of the turnover process was difficult to estimate due to a significant contraction of the acetyl-CoA pool following the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis. A possible connection between PtdGro turnover and protein acylation was investigated in an E. coli strain containing a lipoprotein expression vector. Cells were prelabeled with [ 3 H]acetate and lipoprotein expression was induced concomitant with the addition of exogenous [ 14 C]-palmitate. [ 14 C] Palmitate was assimilated into the l-position of phosphatidylethanolamine and transferred to the amino terminus of the lipoprotein. In contrast, the ester-linked lipoprotein fatty acids and PtdGro were not enriched in carbon-14 implying a metabolic relationship between these two pools. The data suggest that turnover of PtdGro acyl moieties is related to protein acylation, but a direct link between the two processes remains to be established

  17. [Evaluation of the functional and clinical qualities of the new GSG-2 dual-sensor gamma-topograph].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'kind, E Iu; Kalantarov, K D; Kuznetsov, V A; Turaev, R N; Frenkel', V Kh

    1979-01-01

    A double-sensor gamma-topograph model GSG-2 has been constructed to realize colour shade lining and black-and-white photographic registration of images reflecting spatial distribution of radioactive isotopes introduced to patients for diagnostic purposes. On the ground of trial tests the valuation of functional and clinical qualities of the device is given.

  18. Quantification of variable functional-group densities of mixed-silane monolayers on surfaces via a dual-mode fluorescence and XPS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tobias; Dietrich, Paul M; Streeck, Cornelia; Ray, Santanu; Nutsch, Andreas; Shard, Alex; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Rurack, Knut

    2015-03-03

    The preparation of aminated monolayers with a controlled density of functional groups on silica surfaces through a simple vapor deposition process employing different ratios of two suitable monoalkoxysilanes, (3-aminopropyl)diisopropylethoxysilane (APDIPES) and (3-cyanopropyl)dimethylmethoxysilane (CPDMMS), and advances in the reliable quantification of such tailored surfaces are presented here. The one-step codeposition process was carried out with binary silane mixtures, rendering possible the control over a wide range of densities in a single step. In particular, APDIPES constitutes the functional silane and CPDMMS the inert component. The procedure requires only small amounts of silanes, several ratios can be produced in a single batch, the deposition can be carried out within a few hours and a dry atmosphere can easily be employed, limiting self-condensation of the silanes. Characterization of the ratio of silanes actually bound to the surface can then be performed in a facile manner through contact angle measurements using the Cassie equation. The reliable estimation of the number of surface functional groups was approached with a dual-mode BODIPY-type fluorescence label, which allows quantification by fluorescence and XPS on one and the same sample. We found that fluorescence and XPS signals correlate over at least 1 order of magnitude, allowing for a direct linking of quantitative fluorescence analysis to XPS quantification. Employment of synchrotron-based methods (XPS; reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence, TXRF) made the traceable quantification of surface functional groups possible, providing an absolute reference for quantitative fluorescence measurements through a traceable measurement chain.

  19. A novel dual-function molecularly imprinted polymer on CdTe/ZnS quantum dots for highly selective and sensitive determination of ractopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huilin; Liu, Dongrui; Fang, Guozhen; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Cuicui; Yang, Yukun [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Shuo, E-mail: s.wang@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-01-31

    Highlights: ► We have developed a novel dual-function MIP-coated QDs material. ► The MIP-coated QDs combine the advantage of molecular imprinting and QDs. ► We used MIP-coated QDs as fluorescence sensing material for recognize RAC. ► We used QDs@MIP as sorbent to combine SPE with HPLC for the determination. -- Abstract: A novel dual-function material was synthesized by anchoring a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on CdTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) using a sol–gel with surface imprinting. The material exhibited highly selective and sensitive determination of ractopamine (RAC) through spectrofluorometry and solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A series of adsorption experiments revealed that the material showed high selectivity, good adsorption capacity and a fast mass transfer rate. Fluorescence from the MIP-coated QDs was more strongly quenched by RAC than that of the non-imprinted polymer, which indicated that the MIP-coated QDs acted as a fluorescence sensing material could recognize RAC. In addition, the MIP-coated QDs as a sorbent was also shown to be promising for SPE coupled with HPLC for the determination of trace RAC in feeding stuffs and pork samples. Under optimal conditions, the spectrofluorometry and SPE-HPLC methods using the MIP-coated QDs had linear ranges of 5.00 × 10{sup −10}–3.55 × 10{sup −7} and 1.50 × 10{sup −10}–8.90 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}, respectively, with limits of detection of 1.47 × 10{sup −10} and 8.30 × 10{sup −11} mol L{sup −1}, the relative standard deviations for six repeat experiments of RAC (2.90 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1}) were below 2.83% and 7.11%.

  20. Dual responsive dysprosium-doped hydroxyapatite particles and toxicity reduction after functionalization with folic and glucuronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Lafarga, Ana Karen; Pacheco Moisés, Fermín P. [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gurinov, Andrey [Research Resources Center for Magnetic Resonance, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskij pr. 26, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel [Laboratorio Desarrollo-Envejecimiento, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO), Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    The development of probes for biomedical applications demands materials with low toxicity levels besides fluorescence or magnetic properties to be detected by confocal microscopes or MRI resonators. Several drug delivery systems or other biomedical materials prepared with hydroxyapatite have been proposed, however, toxicity effects might arise when the size of particles is nanometric. In this study, hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic or folic acids presented lower oxidative stress, measured from lipoperoxides and nitric oxide indicators in rats than pure hydroxyapatite. In separated experiments, hydroxyapatite was doped with dysprosium cations by coprecipitation producing a single crystal phase with fluorescent properties easily visualized by confocal microscopy when excited at 488 nm. These particles also presented the ability to modify the proton relaxation time in T1 maps collected by magnetic resonance imaging. These modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be candidates to design bimodal probes with low toxicity. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Functionalization with folic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Dysprosium doping does not affect the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. • Dysprosium doped particles are visible in fluorescent microscope. • Dysprosium doped particles act as MRI contrast agents.

  1. Dual responsive dysprosium-doped hydroxyapatite particles and toxicity reduction after functionalization with folic and glucuronic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Lafarga, Ana Karen; Pacheco Moisés, Fermín P.; Gurinov, Andrey; Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The development of probes for biomedical applications demands materials with low toxicity levels besides fluorescence or magnetic properties to be detected by confocal microscopes or MRI resonators. Several drug delivery systems or other biomedical materials prepared with hydroxyapatite have been proposed, however, toxicity effects might arise when the size of particles is nanometric. In this study, hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic or folic acids presented lower oxidative stress, measured from lipoperoxides and nitric oxide indicators in rats than pure hydroxyapatite. In separated experiments, hydroxyapatite was doped with dysprosium cations by coprecipitation producing a single crystal phase with fluorescent properties easily visualized by confocal microscopy when excited at 488 nm. These particles also presented the ability to modify the proton relaxation time in T1 maps collected by magnetic resonance imaging. These modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be candidates to design bimodal probes with low toxicity. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Functionalization with folic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Dysprosium doping does not affect the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. • Dysprosium doped particles are visible in fluorescent microscope. • Dysprosium doped particles act as MRI contrast agents

  2. Serial changes in anatomy and ventricular function on dual-source cardiac computed tomography after the Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    Accurate evaluation of anatomy and ventricular function after the Norwood procedure in hypoplastic left heart syndrome is important for treatment planning and prognostication, but echocardiography and cardiac MRI have limitations. To assess serial changes in anatomy and ventricular function on dual-source cardiac CT after the Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In 14 consecutive patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, end-systolic and end-diastolic phase cardiac dual-source CT was performed before and early (average: 1 month) after the Norwood procedure, and repeated late (median: 4.5 months) after the Norwood procedure in six patients. Ventricular functional parameters and indexed morphological measurements including pulmonary artery size, right ventricular free wall thickness, and ascending aorta size on cardiac CT were compared between different time points. Moreover, morphological features including ventricular septal defect, endocardial fibroelastosis and coronary ventricular communication were evaluated on cardiac CT. Right ventricular function and volumes remained unchanged (indexed end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes: 38.9±14.0 vs. 41.1±21.5 ml/m{sup 2}, P=0.7 and 99.5±30.5 vs. 105.1±33.0 ml/m{sup 2}, P=0.6; ejection fraction: 60.1±7.3 vs. 63.8±7.0%, P=0.1, and indexed stroke volume: 60.7±18.0 vs. 64.0±15.6 ml/m{sup 2}, P=0.5) early after the Norwood procedure, but function was decreased (ejection fraction: 64.2±2.6 vs. 58.1±7.1%, P=0.01) and volume was increased (indexed end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes: 39.2±14.9 vs. 68.9±20.6 ml/m{sup 2}, P<0.003 and 107.8±36.5 vs. 162.9±36.2 ml/m{sup 2}, P<0.006, and indexed stroke volume: 68.6±21.7 vs. 94.0±21.3 ml/m{sup 2}, P=0.02) later. Branch pulmonary artery size showed a gradual decrease without asymmetry after the Norwood procedure. Right and left pulmonary artery stenoses were identified in 21.4% (3/14) of the patients. Indexed right ventricular free wall

  3. Non-amphiphilic carbohydrate liquid crystals containing an intact monosaccharide moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kellogg, R.M; van Doren, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    A chiral rigid moiety which forms the basis of a new class of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate liquid crystals has been developed. This moiety contains a fully intact glucopyranose ring embedded in a trans-decalin structure. The original carbohydrate is substituted so that only two hydroxyl groups are

  4. An Expanded Role for the RFX Transcription Factor DAF-19, with Dual Functions in Ciliated and Nonciliated Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Elizabeth A; Mueller, Katherine P; Bauer, Rosemary J; Hurlburt, Alexander J; Bice, Sophie A; Scholtz, Sophie L; Phirke, Prasad; Sugiaman-Trapman, Debora; Stinson, Loraina A; Olson, Haili B; Vogel, Savannah L; Ek-Vazquez, Zabdiel; Esemen, Yagmur; Korzynski, Jessica; Wolfe, Kelsey; Arbuckle, Bonnie N; Zhang, He; Lombard-Knapp, Gaelen; Piasecki, Brian P; Swoboda, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory Factor X (RFX) transcription factors (TFs) are best known for activating genes required for ciliogenesis in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In humans, eight RFX TFs have a variety of tissue-specific functions, while in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans , the sole RFX gene, daf-19 , encodes a set of nested isoforms. Null alleles of daf-19 confer pleiotropic effects including altered development with a dauer constitutive phenotype, complete absence of cilia and ciliary proteins, and defects in synaptic protein maintenance. We sought to identify RFX/ daf-19 target genes associated with neuronal functions other than ciliogenesis using comparative transcriptome analyses at different life stages of the worm. Subsequent characterization of gene expression patterns revealed one set of genes activated in the presence of DAF-19 in ciliated sensory neurons, whose activation requires the daf-19c isoform, also required for ciliogenesis. A second set of genes is downregulated in the presence of DAF-19, primarily in nonsensory neurons. The human orthologs of some of these neuronal genes are associated with human diseases. We report the novel finding that daf-19a is directly or indirectly responsible for downregulation of these neuronal genes in C. elegans by characterizing a new mutation affecting the daf-19a isoform ( tm5562 ) and not associated with ciliogenesis, but which confers synaptic and behavioral defects. Thus, we have identified a new regulatory role for RFX TFs in the nervous system. The new daf-19 candidate target genes we have identified by transcriptomics will serve to uncover the molecular underpinnings of the pleiotropic effects that daf-19 exerts on nervous system function. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiapeng [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Mouveaux, Thomas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F. [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Tomavo, Stanislas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Ngô, Huân M., E-mail: h-ngo@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); BrainMicro LLC, 21 Pendleton Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The second crystal structure of a parasite protein preferentially enriched in the brain cyst of T. gondii has been solved at 2.75 Å resolution. Bradyzoite enolase 1 is reported to have differential functions as a glycolytic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator in bradyzoites. In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.

  6. Some properties of dual and approximate dual of fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar; Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of approximate dual to fusion frames and present some approaches to obtain dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames. Also, we study the stability of dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames.

  7. Dual functions of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 in the Krebs cycle and mitochondrial DNA inheritance in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Steven E; Hajduk, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    The dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2) of the multisubunit α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (α-KD) is an essential Krebs cycle enzyme commonly found in the matrices of mitochondria. African trypanosomes developmentally regulate mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism and lack a functional Krebs cycle in the bloodstream of mammals. We found that despite the absence of a functional α-KD, bloodstream form (BF) trypanosomes express α-KDE2, which localized to the mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane. Furthermore, α-KDE2 fractionated with the mitochondrial genome, the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), in a complex with the flagellum. A role for α-KDE2 in kDNA maintenance was revealed in α-KDE2 RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns. Following RNAi induction, bloodstream trypanosomes showed pronounced growth reduction and often failed to equally distribute kDNA to daughter cells, resulting in accumulation of cells devoid of kDNA (dyskinetoplastic) or containing two kinetoplasts. Dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes lacked mitochondrial membrane potential and contained mitochondria of substantially reduced volume. These results indicate that α-KDE2 is bifunctional, both as a metabolic enzyme and as a mitochondrial inheritance factor necessary for the distribution of kDNA networks to daughter cells at cytokinesis.

  8. Dual-functional Memory and Threshold Resistive Switching Based on the Push-Pull Mechanism of Oxygen Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    2016-04-07

    The combination of nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching functions of transition metal oxides in crossbar memory arrays is of great potential for replacing charge-based flash memory in very-large-scale integration. Here, we show that the resistive switching material structure, (amorphous TiOx)/(Ag nanoparticles)/(polycrystalline TiOx), fabricated on the textured-FTO substrate with ITO as the top electrode exhibits both the memory switching and threshold switching functions. When the device is used for resistive switching, it is forming-free for resistive memory applications with low operation voltage (<±1 V) and self-compliance to current up to 50 μA. When it is used for threshold switching, the low threshold current is beneficial for improving the device selectivity. The variation of oxygen distribution measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation or rupture of conducting filaments in the device at different resistance states. It is therefore suggested that the push and pull actions of oxygen ions in the amorphous TiOx and polycrystalline TiOx films during the voltage sweep account for the memory switching and threshold switching properties in the device.

  9. Dual functions of Macpiwi1 in transposon silencing and stem cell maintenance in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Battistoni, Giorgia; El Demerdash, Osama; Gurtowski, James; Wunderer, Julia; Falciatori, Ilaria; Ladurner, Peter; Schatz, Michael C; Hannon, Gregory J; Wasik, Kaja A

    2015-11-01

    PIWI proteins and piRNA pathways are essential for transposon silencing and some aspects of gene regulation during animal germline development. In contrast to most animal species, some flatworms also express PIWIs and piRNAs in somatic stem cells, where they are required for tissue renewal and regeneration. Here, we have identified and characterized piRNAs and PIWI proteins in the emerging model flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We found that M. lignano encodes at least three PIWI proteins. One of these, Macpiwi1, acts as a key component of the canonical piRNA pathway in the germline and in somatic stem cells. Knockdown of Macpiwi1 dramatically reduces piRNA levels, derepresses transposons, and severely impacts stem cell maintenance. Knockdown of the piRNA biogenesis factor Macvasa caused an even greater reduction in piRNA levels with a corresponding increase in transposons. Yet, in Macvasa knockdown animals, we detected no major impact on stem cell self-renewal. These results may suggest stem cell maintenance functions of PIWI proteins in flatworms that are distinguishable from their impact on transposons and that might function independently of what are considered canonical piRNA populations. © 2015 Zhou et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Separation of input function for rapid measurement of quantitative CMRO{sub 2} and CBF in a single PET scan with a dual tracer administration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, Advanced Medical-Engineering Center, National Cardiovascular Center-Research Institute, 5-7-1, Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2007-04-07

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) images can be quantified using positron emission tomography (PET) by administrating {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sup 15}{sub 2}O) and oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}). Conventionally, those images are measured with separate scans for three tracers C{sup 15}O for CBV, H{sup 15}{sub 2}O for CBF and {sup 15}O{sub 2} for CMRO{sub 2}, and there are additional waiting times between the scans in order to minimize the influence of the radioactivity from the previous tracers, which results in a relatively long study period. We have proposed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) approach (Kudomi et al 2005), which enabled us to measure CBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} rapidly by sequentially administrating H{sup 15}{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O{sub 2} within a short time. Because quantitative CBF and CMRO{sub 2} values are sensitive to arterial input function, it is necessary to obtain accurate input function and a drawback of this approach is to require separation of the measured arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) into pure water and oxygen input functions under the existence of residual radioactivity from the first injected tracer. For this separation, frequent manual sampling was required. The present paper describes two calculation methods: namely a linear and a model-based method, to separate the measured arterial TAC into its water and oxygen components. In order to validate these methods, we first generated a blood TAC for the DARG approach by combining the water and oxygen input functions obtained in a series of PET studies on normal human subjects. The combined data were then separated into water and oxygen components by the present methods. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were calculated using those separated input functions and tissue TAC. The quantitative accuracy in the CBF and CMRO{sub 2} values by the DARG approach did not exceed the acceptable range, i.e., errors in those

  11. Optimal construction and delivery of dual-functioning lentiviral vectors for type I collagen-suppressed chondrogenesis in synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Yongchang; Zhou, Ruijie; Su, Kai; Citra, Fudiman; Wang, Dong-An

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to deliver both transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) and shRNA targeting type I collagen (Col I) by optimal construction and application of various dual-functioning lentiviral vectors to induce Col I-suppressed chondrogenesis in synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs). We constructed four lentiviral vectors (LV-1, LV-2, LV-3 and LV-4) with various arrangements of the two expression cassettes in different positions and orientations. Col I inhibition efficiency and chondrogenic markers were assessed with qPCR, ELISA and staining techniques. Among the four vectors, LV-1 has two distant and reversely oriented cassettes, LV-2 has two distant and same-oriented cassettes, LV-3 has two proximal and reversely oriented cassettes, and LV-4 has two proximal and same-oriented cassettes. Col I and chondrogenic markers, including type II collagen (Col II), aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG), were examined in SMSCs cultured in 3-D alginate hydrogel. All of the four vectors showed distinct effects in Col I level as well as diverse inductive efficiencies in upregulation of the cartilaginous markers. Based on real-time PCR results, LV-1 was optimal towards Col I-suppressed chondrogenesis. LV-1 vector is competent to promote Col I-suppressed chondrogenesis in SMSCs.

  12. Optical and electrochemical dual channel sensing of Cu2 + using functionalized furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines-2,4[1H,3H]-diones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumawat, Lokesh Kumar; Bhatt, Priyanka; Jha, Anjali; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Anuj; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Owing to their easy accessibility and high degree of structural and functional diversity, many multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have been a rich source of conjugate π-systems, functionalised chromophores (or fluorophore) and redox active molecules. Despite their high explorative potential and practical benefits, only a few MCR products have been so far investigated for their metal sensing abilities. In the present report, two furopyrimidinones (FPys) based molecular systems have been synthesized by [4 + 1] cycloaddition based MCR sequence. Designed chemosensors displayed optic (absorption spectra) as well as electroanalytical (ion selective electrode) response toward Cu2 + ion in solution and membrane phase respectively (dual channel sensing). Different aspects of both the sensing phenomena such as selectivity, association constants, detection limit, membrane composition etc. were studied in detail using UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR titration and cell assembly. Both the compounds showed excellent performance characteristics such as high selectivity, acceptable affinity and low detection limits (10- 7 M) in both sensing assays with potential utility in the area of sample monitoring.

  13. Hydroxyethyl cellulose doped with copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt as an effective dual functional hole-blocking layer for polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Yun

    2017-07-01

    We report a doping method to improve the performance of solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). Doping 12 wt% copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonated acid tetrasodium salt (TS-CuPc) into hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a dual functional hole-blocking layer (df-HBL) of multilayer PLED (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/HY-PPV/TS-CuPc-doped HEC/LiF/Al) significantly enhanced maximum luminance, maximum current and power efficiency over that without the df-HBL (10,319 cd/m2, 2.98 cd/A and 1.24 lm/W) to (29,205 cd/m2, 13.27 cd/A and 9.56 lm/W). CV measurements reveal that HEC possesses a powerful hole-blocking capability. Topography and conductivity AFM images show that doping TS-CuPc increases the interfacial contact area and interfacial conductivity, which can overcome the insulating nature of HEC and thus further facilitate electron injection. Enhancements in device performance are attributed to the improved carrier balance and recombination in the presence of df-HBL, confirmed in electron-only and hole-only devices. Moreover, apparently raised open-circuit voltages provide further evidence that enhanced electron injection is indeed realized by the df-HBL. This study demonstrates an effective approach to develop highly efficient PLEDs.

  14. Determination of the exocrine pancreatic function with the NBT-PABA test using a novel dual isotope technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, B; Ekelund, S; Jørgensen, L; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-04-01

    We describe a tubeless test of exocrine pancreatic function based on a new dual isotope technique, using N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (NBT-PABA) as a substrate for intestinal chymotrypsin activity and the stable isotope, 13C-PABA as marker. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the quantification of PABA and 13C-PABA in blood. The method involves hydrolysis, extractions, separation by HPLC, and methyl ester formation of the test substances before GC-MS analysis. The test is precise and shows good separation of healthy volunteers from patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The PABA/13C-PABA ratios in serum after 1.5 h were 2.64 +/- 0.14 (mean +/- SEM) in 10 healthy volunteers and 1.26 +/- 0.22 in 10 patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We present a sensitive and specific assay, which is free of analytical interference and radiation hazards and, additionally, it illuminates extrapancreatic pharmacokinetic conditions. This test can eliminate the need for duodenal intubation, which makes it very acceptable to the patients.

  15. Dual responsive dysprosium-doped hydroxyapatite particles and toxicity reduction after functionalization with folic and glucuronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Lafarga, Ana Karen; Pacheco Moisés, Fermín P; Gurinov, Andrey; Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    The development of probes for biomedical applications demands materials with low toxicity levels besides fluorescence or magnetic properties to be detected by confocal microscopes or MRI resonators. Several drug delivery systems or other biomedical materials prepared with hydroxyapatite have been proposed, however, toxicity effects might arise when the size of particles is nanometric. In this study, hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic or folic acids presented lower oxidative stress, measured from lipoperoxides and nitric oxide indicators in rats than pure hydroxyapatite. In separated experiments, hydroxyapatite was doped with dysprosium cations by coprecipitation producing a single crystal phase with fluorescent properties easily visualized by confocal microscopy when excited at 488nm. These particles also presented the ability to modify the proton relaxation time in T1 maps collected by magnetic resonance imaging. These modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be candidates to design bimodal probes with low toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microporous metal–organic framework with dual functionalities for highly efficient removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Tong-Liang

    2015-06-04

    The removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene is a technologically very important, but highly challenging task. Current removal approaches include the partial hydrogenation over a noble metal catalyst and the solvent extraction of cracked olefins, both of which are cost and energy consumptive. Here we report a microporous metal–organic framework in which the suitable pore/cage spaces preferentially take up much more acetylene than ethylene while the functional amine groups on the pore/cage surfaces further enforce their interactions with acetylene molecules, leading to its superior performance for this separation. The single X-ray diffraction studies, temperature dependent gas sorption isotherms, simulated and experimental column breakthrough curves and molecular simulation studies collaboratively support the claim, underlying the potential of this material for the industrial usage of the removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene at room temperature through the cost- and energy-efficient adsorption separation process.

  17. Dual functions of ribosome recycling factor in protein biosynthesis: disassembling the termination complex and preventing translational errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosi, L; Ricker, R; Kaji, A

    1996-01-01

    We summarize in this communication the data supporting the two functions of ribosome recycling factor (RRF, originally called ribosome releasing factor). The first described role involves the disassembly of the termination complex which consists of mRNA, tRNA and the ribosome bound to the mRNA at the termination codon. This process is catalyzed by two factors, elongation factor G (EF-G) and RRF. RRF stimulated protein synthesis as much as eight-fold in the in vitro lysozyme synthesis system, when ribosomes were limiting. In the absence of RRF, ribosomes remain mRNA-bound at the termination codon and translate downstream codons. In the in vitro system, the site of reinitiation is the triplet codon 3' to the termination codon. RRF is an essential protein for bacterial life. Temperature sensitive (ts) RRF mutants were isolated and in vivo translational reinitiation due to inactivation of ts RRF was demonstrated using the beta-galactosidase reporter gene placed downstream from the termination codon. A second function of RRF involves preventing errors in translation. In polyphenylalanine synthesis programmed by polyuridylic acid, misincorporation of isoleucine, leucine or a mixture of amino acids was stimulated upto 17-fold when RRF was omitted from the in vitro system. RRF did not influence the large error (10-fold increase) induced by streptomycin. This means that RRF participates not only in the disassembly of the termination complex but also in peptide elongation. Extending this concept and its conventional role for releasing ribosomes from mRNA, involvement of RRF in the reinitiation in the 3A' system (a construct using S aureus protein A, a collaborative work with Dr Isaksson), in programmed frame shifting, in trans-translation with 10Sa RNA (collaborative work with Dr Muto), and in the reinitiation downstream from the ORF A of the IS 3 (insertion sequence of a transposon, collaborative work with Dr Sekine) are discussed on the basis of preliminary data to be

  18. The effect of distribution of monomer moiety on the pH response and mechanical properties of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Anasuya; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2010-02-01

    The pH response and mechanical properties of copolymer-based hydrogels such as poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) are usually attributed to their chemical composition. In this study, it has been shown that the architecture of the polymer chains, i.e. the distribution of comonomers in the macromolecules, also plays a major role in controlling these properties. A series of four poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acids) with fixed composition (i.e. ~30 mol% acrylic acid moieties) were synthesized, where the block lengths of both AN (acrylonitrile) and AAc (acrylic acid) moieties in the copolymers were varied by controlling the feeding pattern of the monomers during free radical copolymerization. These copolymers were then converted into fine fibers of the same dimensions. The monomer distribution in the four copolymers was estimated using quantitative carbon 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and related to the mechanical and pH response properties of the resultant fibers. The pH response of the fibers with similar composition increased dramatically as the block length of the AAc moiety was increased, while the mechanical properties increased as a direct function of the block length of the AN moieties. The fiber's response at pH 10 in terms of the change in length increased by ~four times while its response rate increased by ~50 times with the increase in block length of the AAc moiety. On the other hand, the tensile properties and retractive stress increased by ~four times with the increase in the block length of the AN moiety.

  19. The effect of distribution of monomer moiety on the pH response and mechanical properties of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Anasuya; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    The pH response and mechanical properties of copolymer-based hydrogels such as poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) are usually attributed to their chemical composition. In this study, it has been shown that the architecture of the polymer chains, i.e. the distribution of comonomers in the macromolecules, also plays a major role in controlling these properties. A series of four poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acids) with fixed composition (i.e. ∼30 mol% acrylic acid moieties) were synthesized, where the block lengths of both AN (acrylonitrile) and AAc (acrylic acid) moieties in the copolymers were varied by controlling the feeding pattern of the monomers during free radical copolymerization. These copolymers were then converted into fine fibers of the same dimensions. The monomer distribution in the four copolymers was estimated using quantitative carbon 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and related to the mechanical and pH response properties of the resultant fibers. The pH response of the fibers with similar composition increased dramatically as the block length of the AAc moiety was increased, while the mechanical properties increased as a direct function of the block length of the AN moieties. The fiber's response at pH 10 in terms of the change in length increased by ∼four times while its response rate increased by ∼50 times with the increase in block length of the AAc moiety. On the other hand, the tensile properties and retractive stress increased by ∼four times with the increase in the block length of the AN moiety

  20. Dual function of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis in myelination of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlia, Gianluca; Norrmén, Camilla; Pereira, Jorge A; Gerber, Daniel; Suter, Ueli

    2017-09-07

    Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury. However, if mTORC1 was hyperactivated after myelination onset, radial hypermyelination was observed. At early developmental stages, physiologically high PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling suppresses expression of Krox20 (Egr2), the master regulator of PNS myelination. This effect is mediated by S6K and contributes to control mechanisms that keep SCs in a not-fully differentiated state to ensure proper timing of myelination initiation. An ensuing decline in mTORC1 activity is crucial to allow myelination to start, while remaining mTORC1 activity drives myelin growth.

  1. Dual functionality of triticale as a novel dietary source of prebiotics with antioxidant activity in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Rania; Hosseinian, Farah

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (i) define the optimum concentration of triticale bran (TB) that can be incorporated in yogurt, (ii) evaluate the prebiotic effects of TB on microbial viability, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) in yogurt across 28 days of cold storage, and (iii) measure the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of water-extractable polysaccharides (WEP) in TB. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis were used as probiotics. A concentration of 4% TB in yogurt was determined to be the maximum amount that could be added without causing synersis. By day 7, the number of bacteria greatly increased in yogurt samples containing TB and maintained higher viable bacteria counts at the end of the cold storage period, in comparison to controls (P ≤ 0.05). Confirming this data was the lower pH levels and higher TTA values of TB yogurt samples exhibited throughout 28 days (P ≤ 0.05). Polysaccharide extracts of TB exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 33.86 ± 2.30 μmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of bran. Results of this study suggest that TB may serve as a new prebiotic and antioxidant source for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  2. Data in support of dual-functionalized cellulose nanofibrils prepared through TEMPO-mediated oxidation and surface-initiated ATRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Yung Tsai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously studied a suitably 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs that can be further functionalized with initiating sites and overcame the obstacle of performing atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP in the presence of neutral carboxylic acid sodium salt groups [1]. Herein, characterization of the modified TOCNs and of the products from surface-initiated (SI ATRP of the (nanocelluloses with styrene (St was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and contact angle (CA measurements. From the analysis of 1H NMR, a high purity of sacrificial initiator (i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (HEBiB was confirmed. HEBiB was utilized to trace the SI ATRP with the generated free PSt. Gradually molecular weight evaluations were revealed from GPC analysis (ca. Mn=21,000 and Đ=1.10 using different TOCNs, implying the insignificant contribution to the kinetics from the grafted initiating sites. The TOCN-g-PSts were further characterized by contact angles and displayed an obvious reversibility between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in tens of minutes. These results illustrated a simple and facile approach for controlling the graft length and composition of TOCNs through SI ATRP.

  3. Single cell dual adherent-suspension co-culture micro-environment for studying tumor-stromal interactions with functionally selected cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Zhang, Zhixiong; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Deol, Yadwinder; Ingram, Patrick N; McDermott, Sean P; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-08-07

    Considerable evidence suggests that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are critical in tumor pathogenesis, but their rarity and transience has led to much controversy about their exact nature. Although CSCs can be functionally identified using dish-based tumorsphere assays, it is difficult to handle and monitor single cells in dish-based approaches; single cell-based microfluidic approaches offer better control and reliable single cell derived sphere formation. However, like normal stem cells, CSCs are heavily regulated by their microenvironment, requiring tumor-stromal interactions for tumorigenic and proliferative behaviors. To enable single cell derived tumorsphere formation within a stromal microenvironment, we present a dual adherent/suspension co-culture device, which combines a suspension environment for single-cell tumorsphere assays and an adherent environment for co-culturing stromal cells in close proximity by selectively patterning polyHEMA in indented microwells. By minimizing dead volume and improving cell capture efficiency, the presented platform allows for the use of small numbers of cells (<100 cells). As a proof of concept, we co-cultured single T47D (breast cancer) cells and primary cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) on-chip for 14 days to monitor sphere formation and growth. Compared to mono-culture, co-cultured T47D have higher tumorigenic potential (sphere formation rate) and proliferation rates (larger sphere size). Furthermore, 96-multiplexed single-cell transcriptome analyses were performed to compare the gene expression of co-cultured and mono-cultured T47D cells. Phenotypic changes observed in co-culture correlated with expression changes in genes associated with proliferation, apoptotic suppression, tumorigenicity and even epithelial-to-mesechymal transition. Combining the presented platform with single cell transcriptome analysis, we successfully identified functional CSCs and investigated the phenotypic and transcriptome effects induced

  4. Dual-Functional Superhydrophobic Textiles with Asymmetric Roll-Down/Pinned States for Water Droplet Transportation and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhonghua; He, Jie; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-01-31

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion from lotus-leaf to rose-petal states have generated much attention for their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, oil-water separation, microdroplet transportation, and microfluidic devices. Herein we report a facile magnetic-field-manipulation strategy to fabricate dual-functional superhydrophobic textiles with asymmetric roll-down/pinned states on the two surfaces of the textile simultaneously. Upon exposure to a static magnetic field, fluoroalkylsilane-modified iron oxide (F-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moved along the magnetic field to construct discrepant hierarchical structures and roughnesses on the two sides of the textile. The positive surface (closer to the magnet, or P-surface) showed a water contact angle up to 165°, and the opposite surface (or O-surface) had a water contact angle of 152.5°. The P-surface where water droplets easily slid off with a sliding angle of 7.5° appeared in the "roll-down" state as Cassie mode, while the O-surface was in the "pinned" state as Wenzel mode, where water droplets firmly adhered even at vertical (90°) and inverted (180°) angles. The surface morphology and wetting mode were adjustable by varying the ratios of F-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and PDMS. By taking advantage of the asymmetric adhesion behaviors, the as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile was successfully applied in no-loss microdroplet transportation and oil-water separation. Our method is simple and cost-effective. The fabricated textile has the characteristics of superhydrophobicity, magnetic responsiveness, excellent chemical stability, adjustable surface morphology, and controllable adhesion. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate functional superhydrophobic materials with asymmetric surface properties for various potential applications.

  5. Dual-function 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and bioreductive cytotoxins: In vivo evaluation in KHT murine sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, S.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Fielden, E.M.; Jenkins, T.C. (Medical Research Council, Didcot, Oxon (England))

    1990-10-01

    The efficacies of a series of potential prodrugs of RSU-1069 and its alkyl-aziridine analogues were assessed. These 1-(2-haloethylamino)-3-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol compounds were designed to cyclize in vivo to generate 2-nitro-imidazoles with aziridine (RSU-1069) or alkyl-substituted aziridine (RSU-1164, RB-7040, or RSU-1150) functions. Maximum tolerated single, intraperitoneal doses (MTD) were determined in C3H/He mice bearing subcutaneous KHT sarcomas, and a drug dose-response relationship for radiosensitization was established for each compound administered at the optimum time (45-60 min) before local irradiation of tumors with a 10-Gy dose of X-rays. The potentials of the compounds as bioreductive cytotoxins were studied by administering them immediately after irradiation. Tumor cell survival was measured 18-24 h after treatment in an in vitro soft agar clonogenic assay. Results of toxicity, radiosensitization, and bioreductive cytotoxicity assays for each of the prodrugs (RB-6171, RB-6172, RB-6173, RB-6174, and RB-6175) of the alkyl-substituted aziridines were entirely consistent with complete conversion to their respective target compounds. For example, RB-6171 (the prodrug form of RSU-1164) was only about four times less efficient than RSU-1069 as a radiosensitizer and bioreductive cytotoxin but had an MTD 7.5 times higher. In contrast, prodrugs of RSU-1069 (RB-6144 and RB-6145) were two- to threefold less toxic than their expected product. RB-6144 was a poor radiosensitizer and bioreductive agent compared with RSU-1069 and was similar to RB-6170, a nonalkylating nitroimidazole. This is consistent with the observation that there is limited conversion of RB-6144 to RSU-1069 in vitro. However, radiosensitization and bioreductive cytotoxicity produced by RB-6145 were only slightly less than the effects produced by RSU-1069.

  6. Dual functions of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Tec kinase during Fcgamma receptor-induced signaling and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongstra-Bilen, Jenny; Puig Cano, Adrianet; Hasija, Manvi; Xiao, Haiyan; Smith, C I Edvard; Cybulsky, Myron I

    2008-07-01

    Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases are expressed by hematopoietic cells, activate phospholipase C (PLC)gamma, and regulate cytoskeletal rearrangement, yet their role in FcgammaR-induced signaling and phagocytosis remains unknown. We demonstrate in this study that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and Tec, the only Tec kinases expressed by RAW 264.7 cells, are activated throughout phagocytosis. Activated Btk and Tec kinase accumulate at an early stage at the base of phagocytic cups and inhibition of their activity by the specific inhibitor LFM-A13 or expression by small interfering RNA significantly inhibited FcgammaR-induced phagocytosis. Similarly, a significant role for these kinases in phagocytosis was found in primary macrophages. FcgammaR-induced activation of Mac-1, which is required for optimal phagocytosis, was markedly inhibited and our findings suggest that the roles of kinases Btk and Tec in Mac-1 activation account for their functions in the early stages of phagocytosis. Initial activation of PLCgamma2, the predominant PLC isoform in RAW 264.7 cells, is dependent on Syk. In contrast, a late and prolonged activation of PLCgamma2 was dependent on Btk and Tec. We found accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG), a PLCgamma product, in phagosome membranes, and activated Btk, but not Tec, colocalized with phagosomal DAG. Inhibition of Tec family kinase activity increased the level of DAG in phagosomes, suggesting a negative regulatory role for Btk. Tec, in contrast, clustered at sites near phagosome formation. In summary, we elucidated that Tec family kinases participate in at least two stages of FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis: activation of Mac-1 during ingestion, and after phagosome formation, during which Btk and Tec potentially have distinct roles.

  7. Studies on the supramolecular shape memory polyurethane containing pyridine moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaojun, Chen

    Fabricating smart materials with supramolecular switch is an attractive research topic. In this study, supramolecular polyurethane networks containing pyridine moieties (PUPys) were synthesized from N,N-bis(2-hydroxylethyl)isonicotinamide (BINA), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), 4, 4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supramolecular structure, morphology and shape memory properties including of thermal-induced shape memory effect and moisture-sensitive shape memory effect. Results show that hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure and phase separation morphology are formed in the PUPys. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of soft phase is controlled by the hydrogen bonding while the hard phase grows up from amorphous phase to crystalline phase as the BINA content increases. The addition of MDI-BDO promotes the formation of amorphous hard phase. PUPys have high shape fixity and high shape recovery with the recovery temperature of 45 °C-55 °C. To achieve satisfying shape recovery, 30wt% BINA contents are required. The addition of MDI-BDO improves the shape recovery force. In addition, PUPys have high moisture absorption which increases with the increase of temperature, relative humidity, BINA content as well as the decrease of MDI-BDO content. The final shape recovery decreases with the decrease of BINA content significantly and the strain recovery start time, strain recovery time, strain recovery end time and the time length are also short in the higher BINA content PUPys. Moreover, it is found that the low critical value of BINA unit for PUPys having moisture-sensitive SME is still 30wt%. The addition of MDI-BDO improves the moisture-sensitive shape recovery. Finally, it is proposed that the hydrogen bonding present in the pyridine ring serves as "switch" whereas the formed hard phase via hydrogen bonding present in the urethane groups acts as the physical netpoints for the both

  8. Functionalized Au@Ag-Au nanoparticles as an optical and SERS dual probe for lateral flow sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Tingting; Wang, Meng; Cao, Min; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Kangzhen; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Zhengxia; Liu, Ying; Guo, Zhirui; Lu, Xiang

    2018-02-14

    Lateral flow assay strips (LFASs) with Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used as a probe for biomarkers in point-of-care testing; however, there still remain challenges in detection sensitivity and quantitative analysis. In this study, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based LFAS for quantitative analysis of a biomarker in the low concentration range. Moreover, apart from conventional Au NPs, three other types of citrate-capped Au-Ag bimetallic NPs: Au core with Ag shell NPs (Au@Ag NPs), rattle-like Au core in Ag-Au shell NPs (Au@Ag-Au NPs) and Ag-Au NPs were prepared and functionalized, and their solution-based SERS activities were comprehensively studied by experimental measurement and theoretical analysis. The results clearly indicated that the citrate-capped Au@Ag-Au NPs exhibited the highest SERS activity among the probes tested. Au@Ag-Au NPs were used as both optical and SERS probes in a SERS-based LFAS. In the presence of the analyte at high concentrations, a purple color appeared in the test zone. Highly sensitive and quantitative analysis was realized by measurement of SERS signals from the test lines. One of the most specific markers for cardiac injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), was chosen as the detection model. The detection limit of the SERS-based LFAS for cardiac troponin I was 0.09 ng/mL, lowered by nearly 50 times compared with visual results, and could be further lowered by optimization. These results demonstrated that the SERS-based LFAS using citrate-capped Au@Ag-Au NPs as probes can be a powerful tool for highly sensitive and quantitative detection of biomarkers. Graphical abstract A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay strip using rattle-like Au core in Ag-Au shell (Au@Ag-Au) nanoparticles as probes was developed for quantitative analysis of a biomarker, with a detection limit nearly 50 times lower than that of visual assessment. C control line, T test line.

  9. CYTOCHROME P450 REGULATION: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ITS HEME AND APOPROTEIN MOIETIES IN SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, REPAIR AND DISPOSAL123

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R.; De Matteis, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biot...

  10. A Dual Lung Scan for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis before and after Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chong Heon

    1967-01-01

    In 20 normal cases and 39 pulmonary tuberculosis cases, regional pulmonary arterial blood flow measurement and lung perfusion scans by 131 I-Macroaggregated albumin, lung inhalation scans by colloidal 198 Au and spirometries by respirometer were done at the Radiological Research Institute. The measured lung function tests were compared and the results were as the following: 1) The normal distribution of pulmonary blood flow was found to be 54.5±2.82% to the right lung and 45.5±2.39% to the left lung. The difference between the right and left pulmonary arterial blood flow was significant statistically (p 131 I-MAA in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was as follows: a) In the pretreated minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, the decreased area of pulmonary arterial blood flow was corresponding to the chest roentgenogram, but the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow was more extensive than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram in the apparently healed minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. b) In the pretreated moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the diseased area was corresponding to the chest roentgenogram, but the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow was more extensive in the treated moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis as in the treated minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. c) Pulmonary arterial blood flow in the patients with far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after chemotherapy were almost similar to the chest roentgenogram. Especially the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the cavity was usually greater than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram. 3) Lung inhalation scan by colloidal 198 Au in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was as follows: a) In the minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, lung inhalation scan showed almost similar decrease of radioactivity corresponding to the chest roentgenogram. b) In the moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis the decrease

  11. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed [3+2]/[5+2] Annulation of 4-Aryl 1,2,3-Triazoles with Internal Alkynes through Dual C(sp2)-H Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Zhou, Ming-Bo; Ouyang, Xuan-Hui; Pi, Rui; Song, Ren-Jie; Li, Jin-Heng

    2015-05-26

    A rhodium(III)-catalyzed [3+2]/[5+2] annulation of 4-aryl 1-tosyl-1,2,3-triazoles with internal alkynes is presented. This transformation provides straightforward access to indeno[1,7-cd]azepine architectures through a sequence involving the formation of a rhodium(III) azavinyl carbene, dual C(sp(2))-H functionalization, and [3+2]/[5+2] annulation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Pterin-Dependent Signaling Pathway Regulates a Dual-Function Diguanylate Cyclase-Phosphodiesterase Controlling Surface Attachment in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirer, Nathan; Xu, Jing; Allen, Kylie D; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Waters, Christopher M; White, Robert H; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-06-30

    The motile-to-sessile transition is an important lifestyle switch in diverse bacteria and is often regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). In general, high c-di-GMP concentrations promote attachment to surfaces, whereas cells with low levels of signal remain motile. In the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, c-di-GMP controls attachment and biofilm formation via regulation of a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin. The levels of c-di-GMP in A. tumefaciens are controlled in part by the dual-function diguanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase (DGC-PDE) protein DcpA. In this study, we report that DcpA possesses both c-di-GMP synthesizing and degrading activities in heterologous and native genetic backgrounds, a binary capability that is unusual among GGDEF-EAL domain-containing proteins. DcpA activity is modulated by a pteridine reductase called PruA, with DcpA acting as a PDE in the presence of PruA and a DGC in its absence. PruA enzymatic activity is required for the control of DcpA and through this control, attachment and biofilm formation. Intracellular pterin analysis demonstrates that PruA is responsible for the production of a novel pterin species. In addition, the control of DcpA activity also requires PruR, a protein encoded directly upstream of DcpA with a predicted molybdopterin-binding domain. PruR is hypothesized to be a potential signaling intermediate between PruA and DcpA through an as-yet-unidentified mechanism. This study provides the first prokaryotic example of a pterin-mediated signaling pathway and a new model for the regulation of dual-function DGC-PDE proteins. Pathogenic bacteria often attach to surfaces and form multicellular communities called biofilms. Biofilms are inherently resilient and can be difficult to treat, resisting common antimicrobials. Understanding how bacterial cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle is essential in developing new therapeutic strategies. We have

  13. Influence of heme environment structure on dioxygen affinity for the dual function Amphitrite ornata hemoglobin/dehaloperoxidase. Insights into the evolutional structure-function adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shengfang; Sono, Masanori; Wang, Chunxue; Du, Jing; Lebioda, Lukasz; Dawson, John H. [SC

    2014-05-15

    Sea worm, Amphitrite ornata, has evolved its globin (an O2 carrier) also to serves as a dehaloperoxidase (DHP) to detoxify haloaromatic pollutants generated by competing species. A previous mutagenesis study by our groups on both DHP and sperm whale myoglobin (SW Mb) revealed some structural factors that influence the dehaloperoxidase activities (significantly lower for Mb) of both proteins. Using an isocyanide/O2 partition constant measurement method in this study, we have examined the effects of these structural factors on the O2 equilibrium constants (KO2) of DHP, SW Mb, and their mutants. A clear trend of decreasing O2 affinity and increasing catalytic activity along with the increase in the distal His Nε–heme iron distance is observed. An H93K/T95H Mb double mutant mimicking the DHP proximal His positioning exhibited markedly enhanced O2 affinity, confirming the essential effect of proximal His rotation on the globin function of DHP. For DHP, the L100F, T56G and M86E variants showed the effects of distal volume, distal His flexibility and proximal electronic push, respectively, on the O2 affinity. This study provides insights into how DHP has evolved its heme environment to gain significantly enhanced peroxidase capability without compromising its primary function as an O2 carrier.

  14. Dual functional reduced graphene oxide as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells and its exceptional efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeri, F. A.; Lim, H. N.; Zainal, Z.; Huang, N. M.; Pandikumar, A.; Lim, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    The dual functionalities of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is explored. A titanium dioxide (TiO2) film is deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass using an in-house aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Graphene oxide (GO) is then introduced onto the TiO2-ITO substrate, and the GO layer is successively thermally treated to rGO. The TiO2-rGO film is used as a compact layer for the photoanode of the DSSC. A layer of zinc oxide-silver (ZnO-Ag) is introduced on top of the compact layer as an active material. Its highly porous flower-shaped morphology is advantageous for the adsorption of dye. The in-situ electrochemical polymerization method used for the fabrication of polypyrrole incorporated with rGO and p-toluenesulfonate (pTS) (Ppy-rGO-pTS) on an ITO glass is used as a counter electrode for the DSSC. The DSSC assembled with the Ppy-rGO-1.0pTS counter electrode exhibites an enhanced conversion efficiency of 1.99% under solar illumination, which is better than that using conventional Pt as a counter electrode (0.08%). This is attributed to the increased contact area between the Ppy-rGO-pTS counter electrode and electrolyte, which subsequently improves the conductivity and high electrocatalytic activities of the Ppy-rGO-pTS counter electrode.

  15. Simultaneous detection of forbidden chemical residues in milk using dual-label time-resolved reverse competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay based on amine group functionalized surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, a sensitive dual-label time-resolved reverse competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay was developed for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicol (CAP and clenbuterol (CLE in milk. The strategy was performed based on the distinction of the kinetic characteristics of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in chemiluminesecence (CL systems and different orders of magnitude in HRP CL value for CAP and ALP CL value for CLE in the chemiluminescent immunoassay. Capture antibodies were covalently bound to the amine group functionalized chemiluminescent microtiter plate (MTP for efficient binding of detection antibodies for the enzymes labeled CAP (HRP-CAP and CLE (ALP-CLE. The CL signals were recorded at different time points by the automatic luminometers with significant distinction in the dynamic curves. When we considered the ALP CL value (about 10(5 of CLE as background for HRP CL signal value (about 10(7 of CAP, there was no interaction from ALP CL background of CLE and the differentiation of CAP and CLE can be easily achieved. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values of CAP and CLE in milk samples were 0.00501 µg L(-1 and 0.0128 µg L(-1, with the ranges from 0.0003 µg L(-1 to 0.0912 µg L(-1 and from 0.00385 µg L(-1 to 0.125 µg L(-1, respectively. The developed method is more sensitive and of less duration than the commercial ELISA kits, suitable for simultaneous screening of CAP and CLE.

  16. Defining predictive values using three different platelet function tests for CYP2C19 phenotype status on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Zhe; Kim, Moo Hyun; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Published data suggests that the presence of CYP2C19*2 or *3 loss of function (LOF) alleles is indicative of increased platelet aggregation and a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events after clopidogrel administration. We sought to determine cut-off values using three different assays for prediction of the CYP2C19 phenotype in Korean percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients. We enrolled 244 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation who were receiving clopidogrel and aspirin maintenance therapy for one month or more. Platelet reactivity was assessed with light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (VN). The CYP2C19 genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and snapshot method. The frequency of CYP2C19 LOF allele carriers was 58.6%. The cut-off values from LTA, MEA and VerifyNow for the identification of LOF allele carriers were as follows: 10 µM ADP-induced LTA ≥ 48 %, VN>242 PRU and MEA ≥ 37 U. Between the three tests, correlation was higher between LTA vs. VN assays (r=0.69) and LTA vs. MEA (r=0.56), with moderate agreement (κ=0.46 and κ=0.46), but between VN assay and MEA, both devices using whole blood showed a lower correlation (r=0.42) and agreement (κ=0.3). Our results provide guidance regarding cut-off levels for LTA, VerifyNow and MEA assays to detect the CYP2C19 LOF allele in patients during dual antiplatelet maintenance therapy.

  17. Role of the Frontal Cortex in Standing Postural Sway Tasks While Dual-Tasking: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study Examining Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Fujita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posture control during a dual-task involves changing the distribution of attention resources between the cognitive and motor tasks and involves the frontal cortex working memory (WM. The present study aimed to better understand the impact of frontal lobe activity and WM capacity in postural control during a dual-task. High and low WM-span groups were compared using their reading span test scores. High and low WM capacity were compared based on cognitive and balance performance and hemoglobin oxygenation (oxyHb levels during standing during single (S-S, standing during dual (S-D, one leg standing during single (O-S, and one leg standing during dual (O-D tasks. For sway pass length, significant difference in only the O-D task was observed between both groups. oxyHb levels were markedly increased in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor area in the high-span group during a dual-task. Therefore, WM capacity influenced the allocation of attentional resources and motor performance.

  18. A Dual Function Energy Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Tolmie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat can be collected from local energy sources and concentrated into a relatively small volume, and at a useful working temperature, by using a heat pump as the concentrator. That heat can be stored and utilized at a later date for applications like space heating. The process is doing two things at the same time: storing heat and shifting the power demand. The concentration step can be done at night when there is normally a surplus of power and its timing can be directly controlled by the power grid operator to ensure that the power consumption occurs only when adequate power is available. The sources of heat can be the summer air, the heat extracted from buildings by their cooling systems, natural heat from the ground or solar heat, all of which are free, abundant and readily accessible. Such systems can meet the thermal needs of buildings while at the same time stabilizing the grid power demand, thus reducing the need for using fossil-fuelled peaking power generators. The heat pump maintains the temperature of the periphery at the ambient ground temperature so very little energy is lost during storage.

  19. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  20. A series of copper complexes with carbazole and oxadiazole moieties: Synthesis, characterization and luminescence performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Weiyang, E-mail: baiwy02@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Sun Li [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, various moieties of ethyl, carbazole and oxadiazole are attached to 2-thiazol-4-yl-1H-benzoimidazole to form a series of diamine ligands. Their corresponding Cu(I) complexes are also synthesized using bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether as the auxiliary ligand. Crystal structures, thermal property, electronic nature and luminescence property of these Cu(I) complexes are discussed in detail. These Cu(I) complexes are found to be efficient green-emitting ones in solutions and the emissive parameters are improved largely by the incorporation of substituent moieties. Detailed analysis suggests that the effective suppression of solvent-induced exciplex quenching is responsible for this phenomenon. On the other hand, the introduction of substituent moieties exerts no obvious influence on molecular structure, thermal stability and emitting-energy of the Cu(I) complexes, owing to their absence from inner coordination sphere. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamine ligands with various moieties and Cu(I) complexes are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures and photophysical property are discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of substituent moieties improves luminescence performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-induced exciplex quenching is suppressed by substituent moieties.

  1. Synthesis of Crown Ethers Containing a Rubicene Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Smet

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A symmetrically disubstituted derivative of the highly fluorescing and photostable rubicene was incorporated in a macrocycle using high dilution conditions and a hydroxyrubicene was functionalized with a modified aminobenzo-15-crown-5.

  2. Stationary and time-resolved spectra analysis of pyrazoloquinoline derivatives with pyridyl moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabka, Danuta; Kolbus, Anna; Danel, Andrzej; Kucharek, Mateusz; Szary, Karol

    2018-03-01

    Two derivatives of pyrazoloquinoline with pyridyl moiety: 6-N,N-dimethyl-3-phenyl-1-(2-pyridyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMA-1PPhPQ) and 6-N,N-dimethyl-1,3-(di-2-pyridyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMA-1,3PPQ) were synthesized with commercial substrates. The theoretical characterization of both compounds was done. Geometry optimizations give not flat structure with the first absorption band at the wavelength about 390 nm for both compounds. Several electro-optical parameters were also calculated. The optical properties of DMA-1PPHPQ and DMA-1,3PPQ were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and stationary as well as time-resolved fluorescence. The fluorescence maximum and fluorescence quantum yield are strongly dependent on solvent polarity function. Results indicate CT fluorescence for both compounds. Because of high emission the investigated pyrazoloquinoline derivatives can be potential candidates for fabrications of electroluminescent devices.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis and RNA interference of nucleosides incorporating stable isotopes into a base moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Terado, Nanae; Tanabe, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Kenji

    2015-10-15

    Thymidine phosphorylase was used to catalyze the conversion of thymidine (or methyluridine) and uracil incorporating stable isotopes to deoxyuridine (or uridine) with the uracil base incorporating the stable isotope. These base-exchange reactions proceeded with high conversion rates (75-96%), and the isolated yields were also good (64-87%). The masses of all synthetic compounds incorporating stable isotopes were identical to the theoretical molecular weights via EIMS. (13)C NMR spectra showed spin-spin coupling between (13)C and (15)N in the synthetic compounds, and the signals were split, further proving incorporation of the isotopes into the compounds. The RNA interference effects of this siRNA with uridine incorporating stable isotopes were also investigated. A 25mer siRNA had a strong knockdown effect on the MARCKS protein. The insertion position and number of uridine moieties incorporating stable isotopes introduced into the siRNA had no influence on the silencing of the target protein. This incorporation of stable isotopes into RNA and DNA has the potential to function as a chemically benign tracer in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence of the direct involvement of the substrate TCP radical in functional switching from oxyferrous O2 carrier to ferric peroxidase in the dual-function hemoglobin/dehaloperoxidase from Amphitrite ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengfang; Sono, Masanori; Du, Jing; Dawson, John H

    2014-08-05

    The coelomic O2-binding hemoglobin dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the sea worm Amphitrite ornata is a dual-function heme protein that also possesses a peroxidase activity. Two different starting oxidation states are required for reversible O2 binding (ferrous) and peroxidase (ferric) activity, bringing into question how DHP manages the two functions. In our previous study, the copresence of substrate 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and H2O2 was found to be essential for the conversion of oxy-DHP to enzymatically active ferric DHP. On the basis of that study, a functional switching mechanism involving substrate radicals (TCP(•)) was proposed. To further support this mechanism, herein we report details of our investigations into the H2O2-mediated conversion of oxy-DHP to the ferric or ferryl ([TCP] TCP and 4-bromophenol (4-BP)] and nonrelevant (ferrocyanide) compounds. At TCP/4-BP (but not ferrocyanide)-triggered conversion of oxy-DHP to ferric DHP. These results and O2 concentration-dependent conversion rates observed in this study demonstrate that substrate TCP triggers the conversion of oxy-DHP to a peroxidase by TCP(•) oxidation of the deoxyferrous state. TCP(•) is progressively generated, by increasingly produced amounts of ferric DHP, upon H2O2 oxidation of TCP catalyzed initially by trace amounts of ferric enzyme present in the oxy-DHP sample. The data presented herein further address the mechanism of how the halophenolic substrate triggers the conversion of hemoglobin DHP into a peroxidase.

  5. Phylogeny of Cas9 determines functional exchangeability of dual-RNA and Cas9 among orthologous type II CRISPR-Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfara, Ines; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S.; Lécrivain, Anne-Laure; Bzdrenga, Janek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas-derived RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease is the key element of an emerging promising technology for genome engineering in a broad range of cells and organisms. The DNA-targeting mechanism of the type II CRISPR-Cas system involves maturation of tracrRNA:crRNA duplex (dual-RNA), which directs Cas9 to cleave invading DNA in a sequence-specific manner, dependent on the presence of a Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) on the target. We show that evolution of dual-RNA and Cas9 in bacteria produced remarkable sequence diversity. We selected eight representatives of phylogenetically defined type II CRISPR-Cas groups to analyze possible coevolution of Cas9 and dual-RNA. We demonstrate that these two components are interchangeable only between closely related type II systems when the PAM sequence is adjusted to the investigated Cas9 protein. Comparison of the taxonomy of bacterial species that harbor type II CRISPR-Cas systems with the Cas9 phylogeny corroborates horizontal transfer of the CRISPR-Cas loci. The reported collection of dual-RNA:Cas9 with associated PAMs expands the possibilities for multiplex genome editing and could provide means to improve the specificity of the RNA-programmable Cas9 tool. PMID:24270795

  6. A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Lexical Decision Task Supports the Dual Route Model and the Phonological Deficit Theory of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Itamar; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Onaral, Banu

    2014-01-01

    The dual route model (DRM) of reading suggests two routes of reading development: the phonological and the orthographic routes. It was proposed that although the two routes are active in the process of reading; the first is more involved at the initial stages of reading acquisition, whereas the latter needs more reading training to mature. A…

  7. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dual Diagnosis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  8. Dual function of novel pollen coat (surface proteins: IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity disrupting the airway epithelial barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., "de-fatted", and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen (BGP by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP and endoxylanase (EXY. The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic

  9. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions...... are considered and the relation with the dual Youla parameter given. Some applications of the dual Youla parameterisation are considered in connection with the design of controllers and model/performance validation....

  10. Noble polymeric surface conjugated with zwitterionic moieties and antibodies for the isolation of exosomes from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gahee; Yoo, Chang Eun; Kim, Myoungsoon; Kang, Hyun Ju; Park, Donghyun; Lee, Myoyong; Huh, Nam

    2012-10-17

    New zwitterionic polymer-coated immunoaffinity beads were developed to resist nonspecific protein adsorption from undiluted human serum for diagnostic applications of exosomes. A zwitterionic sulfobetaine monomer with an amine functional group was employed for simple surface chemistry and antifouling properties. An exosomal biomarker protein, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), was selected as a target molecule in this work. The beads were coated with polyacrylic acids (PAA) for increasing biorecognition sites, and protein G was then conjugated with carboxylic acid groups on the surfaces for controlling EpCAM antibody orientation. The remaining free carboxylic acid groups were modified with sulfobetaine moieties, and anti-EpCAM antibody was finally introduced. The amount of anti-EpCAM on the beads was increased by 40% when compared with PAA-uncoated beads. The surfaces of the beads exhibited near-net-zero charge, and nonspecific protein adsorption was effectively suppressed by sulfobetaine moieties. EpCAM was captured from undiluted human serum with almost the same degree of efficiency as from PBS buffer solution using the newly developed immunoaffinity beads.

  11. DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL AND DUAL TIMELIKE SPHERICAL CURVES IN DUAL MINKOWSKI SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we give characterizations of dual timelike normal and dual timelike spherical curves in the dual Minkowski 3-space and we show that every dual timelike normal curve is also a dual timelike spherical curve. Keywords: Normal curves, Dual Minkowski 3-Space, Dual Timelike curves. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2000): 53C50, 53C40. DUAL MINKOWSKI UZAYINDA DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL VE DUAL TIMELIKE KÜRESEL EĞRİLER Özet: Bu çalışmada, dual Minkowski 3-...

  12. Cytochrome P450 regulation: the interplay between its heme and apoprotein moieties in synthesis, assembly, repair, and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R; De Matteis, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers, with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biotransformation of both endo- and xenobiotics. This well-recognized functional role notwithstanding, heme also regulates P450 protein synthesis, assembly, repair, and disposal. These less well-appreciated aspects are reviewed herein.

  13. Determination of absolute configuration of the phosphonic acid moiety of fosfazinomycins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiessl, Katharina; Roller, Alexander; Hammerschmidt, Friedrich

    2013-11-14

    Fosfazinomycins A and B produced by Streptomyces lavendofoliae share the same phosphonate moiety with one chiral centre of unknown configuration which was determined by synthesising both enantiomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phosphonoacetic acid methyl ester. A chiral cyclic phosphite was reacted with methyl glyoxylate in a Pudovik reaction to give a pair of diastereomeric α-hydroxyphosphonates, which were separated by HPLC. The configurations at C-2 were assigned on the basis of single crystal X-ray structure analysis. Deprotection of these diastereomers furnished the enantiomeric α-hydroxyphosphonic acids, of which the (S)-configured had the same sign of optical rotation as the phosphonic acid moiety of the two fosfazinomycins.

  14. Wavelet frames and their duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of wavelet frame analysis in higher dimensions and, in particular, with the study of so-called dual frames of wavelet frames. A frame is a system of "simple" functions or building blocks which deliver ways of analyzing signals....... The signals are then represented by linear combinations of the building blocks with coefficients found by an associated frame, called a dual frame. A wavelet frame is a frame where the building blocks are stretched (dilated) and translated versions of a single function; such a frame is said to have wavelet...... structure. The dilation of the wavelet building blocks in higher dimension is done via a square matrix which is usually taken to be integer valued. In this thesis we step away from the "usual" integer, expansive dilation and consider more general, expansive dilations. In most applications of wavelet frames...

  15. Theoretical pKa prediction of the α-phosphate moiety of uridine 5‧-diphosphate-GlcNAc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperla, Bhavaniprasad; Griffiths, Thomas M.; Wang, Xingyong; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    The pKa value of the α-phosphate moiety of uridine 5‧-diphosphate-GlcNAc (UDP-GlcNAc) has been successfully calculated using density functional theory methods in conjunction with the Polarizable Continuum Models. Theoretical methods were benchmarked over a dataset comprising of alkyl phosphates. B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations using SMD solvation model provide excellent agreement with the experimental data. The predicted pKa for UDP-GlcNAc is consistent with most recent NMR studies but much higher than what it has long been thought to be. The importance of this study is evident that the predicted pKa for UDP-GlcNAc supports its potential role as a catalytic base in the substrate-assisted biocatalysis.

  16. Rapid and sensitive determination of phytosterols in functional foods and medicinal herbs by using UHPLC-MS/MS with microwave-assisted derivatization combined with dual ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhao, Xian-En; Dang, Jun; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Longfang; You, Jinmao; Wang, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a hyphenated technique of dual ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with microwave-assisted derivatization followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of phytosterols in functional foods and medicinal herbs. Multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the tandem mass spectrometry detection. A mass spectrometry sensitive reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine, has been used as the derivatization reagent for five phytosterols, and internal standard diosgenin was used for the first time. Parameters for the dual microextraction, microwave-assisted derivatization, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were all optimized in detail. Satisfactory linearity, recovery, repeatability, accuracy and precision, absence of matrix effect, extremely low limits of detection (0.005-0.015 ng/mL) and limits of quantification (0.030-0.10 ng/mL) were achieved. The proposed method was compared with previously reported methods. It showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy. The matrix effect was also significantly reduced. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of five phytosterols in vegetable oil (sunflower oil, olive oil, corn oil, peanut oil), milk and orange juice (soymilk, peanut milk, orange juice), and medicinal herbs (Ginseng, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps, Polygonum multiflorum) for the quality control of functional foods and medicinal herbs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dual Supervised Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yingce; Qin, Tao; Chen, Wei; Bian, Jiang; Yu, Nenghai; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Many supervised learning tasks are emerged in dual forms, e.g., English-to-French translation vs. French-to-English translation, speech recognition vs. text to speech, and image classification vs. image generation. Two dual tasks have intrinsic connections with each other due to the probabilistic correlation between their models. This connection is, however, not effectively utilized today, since people usually train the models of two dual tasks separately and independently. In this work, we p...

  18. The Essential Role of Spermidine in Growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Is Determined by the 1,3-Diaminopropane Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sok Ho; Wang, Yi; Khomutov, Maxim; Khomutov, Alexey; Fuqua, Clay; Michael, Anthony J

    2016-02-19

    The ubiquitous polyamine spermidine is indispensable for eukaryotic growth and cell proliferation. A conserved vital function of spermidine across eukaryotes is conferred by its aminobutyl group that is transferred to a single lysine in translation factor eIF5A to form the essential hypusine post-translational modification required for cellular translation. In direct contrast, although spermidine is absolutely essential for growth of α-proteobacterial plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we have found, by employing a suite of natural polyamines and synthetic methylated spermidine analogues together with spermidine biosynthetic mutants, that it is solely the 1,3-diaminopropane moiety of spermidine that is required for growth. Indeed, any polyamine containing an intact terminal 1,3-diaminopropane moiety can replace spermidine for growth, including the simple diamine 1,3-diaminopropane itself, a paradigm shift in understanding polyamine function in bacteria. We have identified for the first time a spermidine retroconversion activity in bacteria, producing diamine putrescine from triamine spermidine; however, exogenously supplied tetraamine spermine is resistant to retroconversion. When spermidine levels are pharmacologically decreased, synthesis of spermine from spermidine is induced via the same biosynthetic enzymes, carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase that produce spermidine from putrescine, the first identification of a spermine biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. This also suggests that spermidine represses spermine biosynthesis, but when spermidine levels decrease, it is then converted by carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase and decarboxylase enzymes to spermine, which is resistant to retroconversion and constitutes a sequestered pool of protected 1,3-diaminopropane modules required for growth. We also identify an efficient N-acetylspermidine deacetylase activity, indicative of a sophisticated bacterial polyamine homeostasis system.

  19. Simultaneous assembly of the β-lactam and thiazole moiety by a new multicomponent reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolb, Jürgen; Beck, Barbara; Dömling, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    A novel multicomponent reaction of β-aminothiocarboxylic acids, aldehydes, and 3-dimethylamino-2-isocyanoacylate is described. During the course of this reaction two heterocyclic moieties, a thiazole and a β-lactam ring, are formed simultaneously and under mild conditions. The increase in molecular

  20. Synthesis of New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing A Sulfonamide Moiety Of Expected Anticancer And Radiosensitizing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.Sh.I.

    2012-01-01

    In a search for new cytotoxic agents with improved antitumor activity and selectivity, some new pyrano thiazole and thiazolopyranopyrimidine derivatives bearing sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activity alone and in combination with γ-irradiation. These new compounds were docked inside the active site of carbonic anhydrase II to predict their mechanism of action.

  1. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  2. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Swaran J S; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-10-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  3. Requirements for carnitine shuttle-mediated translocation of mitochondrial acetyl moieties to the yeast cytosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, B.U.; Niemeijer, M.S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Daran, J.G.; van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acidgrown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous

  4. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type.

  5. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  6. Exploring the Role of N6-Substituents in Potent Dual Acting 5'-C-Ethyltetrazolyladenosine Derivatives: Synthesis, Binding, Functional Assays, and Antinociceptive Effects in Mice ∇.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Scortichini, Mirko; Kachler, Sonja; Boccella, Serena; Cerchia, Carmen; Torquati, Ilaria; Del Bello, Fabio; Salvemini, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore; Luongo, Livio; Maione, Sabatino; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Lavecchia, Antonio; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2017-05-25

    Structural determinants of affinity of N 6 -substituted-5'-C-(ethyltetrazol-2-yl)adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine derivatives at adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes were studied with binding and molecular modeling. Small N 6 -cycloalkyl and 3-halobenzyl groups furnished potent dual acting A 1 AR agonists and A 3 AR antagonists. 4 was the most potent dual acting human (h) A 1 AR agonist (K i = 0.45 nM) and A 3 AR antagonist (K i = 0.31 nM) and highly selective versus A 2A ; 11 and 26 were most potent at both h and rat (r) A 3 AR. All N 6 -substituted-5'-C-(ethyltetrazol-2-yl)adenosine derivatives proved to be antagonists at hA 3 AR but agonists at the rA 3 AR. Analgesia of 11, 22, and 26 was evaluated in the mouse formalin test (A 3 AR antagonist blocked and A 3 AR agonist strongly potentiated). N 6 -Methyl-5'-C-(ethyltetrazol-2-yl)adenosine (22) was most potent, inhibiting both phases, as observed combining A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists. This study demonstrated for the first time the advantages of a single molecule activating two AR pathways both leading to benefit in this acute pain model.

  7. Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Short Form (PID-5-SF): Reliability, Factorial Structure, and Relationship With Functional Impairment in Dual Diagnosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Ramírez-López, Juan; Domínguez-Salas, Sara; Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Lozano, Óscar M

    2017-11-01

    Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition ( DSM-5) has generated a personality paradigm consisting of 25 personality facets identified in five domains. The developed assessment instrument Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) has showed good psychometric properties, but the potential for certain improvements still remain. In this article, a sample of 282 dual diagnosis patients is used to provide evidence of the psychometric properties of the PID-5-Short Form. The mean value of Cronbach's alpha coefficients reached .73 on the facets and .84 for domains and test-retest values ranged between .57 to .83 for facets and .70 to .87 for the domains. Confirmatory factor analyses conducted showed good fit on both models tested: the five correlated factor structure and hierarchical structure of personality traits. The WHODAS 2.0 domains of understanding and communicating, and participating in society, appear to show the strongest relationship with personality facets. In general, the PID-5-Short Form shows adequate psychometric properties for use in dual diagnosis patients.

  8. Chemotherapy for gastric cancer by finely tailoring anti-Her2 anchored dual targeting immunomicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, He; Qian, Weizhu; Li, Huafei; Zhang, Li; Ye, Zengwei; Zhang, Ge; Xia, Mao; Li, Jinfeng; Gao, Jie; Li, Bohua; Kou, Geng; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2012-07-01

    Micelles with high in vivo serum stability and intratumor accumulation post intravenous (i.v.) injection are highly desired for promoting chemotherapy. Herein, we finely synthesized and tailored well-defined anti-Her2 antibody Fab fragment conjugated immunomicelles (FCIMs), which showed interesting dual targeting function. The thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide)(118) (PID(118)) shell with volume phase transition temperature (VPTT: 39 °C) and the anchored anti-Her2 Fab moiety contributed to the passive and active targeting, respectively. The doxorubicin (DOX) loading capacity of such FCIMs was successfully increased about 2 times by physically enhanced hydrophobicity of inner reservoir without structural deformation. The cellular uptake and intracellular accumulation of DOX by temperature regulated passive and antibody navigated active targeting was 4 times of Doxil. The cytotoxicity assay against Her2 overexpression gastric cancer cells (N87s) showed that the IC50 of the FCIMs was ≈ 9 times lower than that of Doxil under cooperatively targeting by Fab at T > VPTT. FCIMs showed high serum stability by increasing the corona PID(118) chain density (S(corona)/N(agg)). In vivo tissue distribution was evaluated in Balb/c nude mice bearing gastric cancer. As observed by the IVIS(®) imaging system, the intratumor accumulation of such finely tailored FCIMs system was obviously promoted 24 h post i.v. administration. Due to the high stability and super-targeting, the in vivo xenografted gastric tumor growth was significantly inhibited with relative tumor volume much smaller than ≈ 5 of the control. Consequently, such finely tailored FCIMs with anti-Her2 active and temperature regulated passive dual tumor-targeting function show high potent in chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-assembly of phospholipid-PEG coating on nanoparticles through dual solvent exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Sheng; Hou, Sijian; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Bao, Gang

    2011-01-01

    We coated nanoparticles including iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots with phospholipid-PEG using the newly developed dual solvent exchange method and demonstrated that, compared with the conventional film hydration method, the coating efficiency and quality of coated nanoparticles can be significantly improved. A better control of surface coating density and the amount of reactive groups on nanoparticle surface is achieved, allowing conjugation of different moieties with desirable surf...

  10. iBodies: Modular Synthetic Antibody Mimetics Based on Hydrophilic Polymers Decorated with Functional Moieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šácha, Pavel; Knedlík, Tomáš; Schimer, Jiří; Tykvart, Jan; Parolek, Jan; Navrátil, Václav; Dvořáková, Petra; Sedlák, František; Ulbrich, Karel; Strohalm, Jiří; Majer, Pavel; Šubr, Vladimír; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 7 (2016), s. 2356-2360 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : antibody mimetics * HPMA * molecular recognition * polymer conjugates * protein targeting Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 11.994, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201508642/full

  11. Design of dual action antibiotics as an approach to search for new promising drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevyashova, A N; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the latest achievements in the design of dual action antibiotics — heterodimeric (chimeric) structures based on antibacterial agents of different classes (fluoroquinolones, anthracyclines, oxazolidines, macrolides and so on). Covalent binding can make the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these molecules more predictable and improve the penetration of each component into the cell. Consequently, not only does the drug efficacy increase owing to inhibition of two targets but also the resistance to one or both antibiotics can be overcome. The theoretical grounds of elaboration, design principles and methods for the synthesis of dual action antibiotics are considered. The structures are classified according to the type of covalent spacer (cleavable or not) connecting the moieties of two agents. Dual action antibiotics with a spacer that can be cleaved in a living cell are considered as dual action prodrugs. Data on the biological action of heterodimeric compounds are presented and structure–activity relationships are analyzed. The bibliography includes 225 references

  12. Dual quaternions and dual projective spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ata, Erhan [Department of Mathematics, Dumlupinar University, 43100 Kutahya (Turkey)], E-mail: eata@dumlupinar.edu.tr; Yayli, Yusuf [Department of Mathematics, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, dual unitary matrices SU{sub D}(2) were obtained. We correspond to one to one elements of the unit dual sphere S{sub D}{sup 3} with the dual unitary matrices SU{sub D}(2). Thus, we express spherical concepts such as meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude on SU{sub D}(2). The equality SO(R{sup 3}) {approx_equal} S{sup 3}/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace} = RP{sup 3} known as the real projective spaces was generalized to the dual projective space and then, the equality SO(D{sup 3}){approx_equal}S{sub D}{sup 3}/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace}=DP{sup 3} was acquired. In particular, 2-sphere S{sup 2} was obtained by considering dual parts as zero of S{sub D}{sup 3}. Hence, it was found that Hop fibriation map of S{sup 2} can be used for Twistors in quantum mechanics applications.

  13. Considerations of the Effects of Naphthalene Moieties on the Design of Proton-Conductive Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baolong; Hong, Lihua; Li, Yunfeng; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Yuxue; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui

    2016-09-14

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketones) (SDN-PAEK-x), consisting of dual naphthalene and flexible sulfoalkyl groups, were prepared via polycondensation, demethylation, and sulfobutylation grafting reaction. Among them, SDN-PAEK-1.94 membrane with the highest ion exchange capacity (IEC = 2.46 mequiv·g(-1)) exhibited the highest proton conductivity, which was 0.147 S· cm(-1) at 25 °C and 0.271 S·cm(-1) at 80 °C, respectively. The introduction of dual naphthalene moieties is expected to achieve much enhanced properties compared to those of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketones) (SNPAEK-x), consisting of single naphthalene and flexible sulfoalkyl groups. Compared with SNPAEK-1.60 with a similar IEC, SDN-PAEK-1.74 membrane showed higher proton conductivity, higher IEC normalized conductivity, and higher effective proton mobility, although it had lower analytical acid concentration. The SDN-PAEK-x membranes with IECs higher than 1.96 mequiv·g(-1) also exhibited higher proton conductivity than that of recast Nafion membrane. Furthermore, SDN-PAEK-1.94 displayed a better single cell performance with a maximum power density of 60 mW·cm(-2) at 80 °C. Considering its high proton conductivity, excellent single cell performance, good mechanical stabilities, low membrane swelling, and methanol permeability, SDN-PAEK-x membranes are promising candidates as alternative polymer electrolyte membranes to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  14. Glycosylated SV2 and Gangliosides as Dual Receptors for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhuji; Chen, Chen; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.; (MCW)

    2010-02-22

    Botulinum neurotoxin causes rapid flaccid paralysis through the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The seven BoNT serotypes (A-G) have been proposed to bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors. To date, the structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions have not been resolved. Here, we report the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains (HCR) of BoNT/A and BoNT/F and the characterization of the dual receptors for BoNT/F. The overall polypeptide fold of HCR/A is essentially identical to the receptor binding domain of the BoNT/A holotoxin, and the structure of HCR/F is very similar to that of HCR/A, except for two regions implicated in neuronal binding. Solid phase array analysis identified two HCR/F binding glycans: ganglioside GD1a and oligosaccharides containing an N-acetyllactosamine core. Using affinity chromatography, HCR/F bound native synaptic vesicle glycoproteins as part of a protein complex. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins using {alpha}(1-3,4)-fucosidase, endo-{beta}-galactosidase, and PNGase F disrupted the interaction with HCR/F, while the binding of HCR/B to its cognate receptor, synaptotagmin I, was unaffected. These data indicate that the HCR/F binds synaptic vesicle glycoproteins through the keratan sulfate moiety of SV2. The interaction of HCR/F with gangliosides was also investigated. HCR/F bound specifically to gangliosides that contain {alpha}2,3-linked sialic acid on the terminal galactose of a neutral saccharide core (binding order GT1b = GD1a GM3; no binding to GD1b and GM1a). Mutations within the putative ganglioside binding pocket of HCR/F decreased binding to gangliosides, synaptic vesicle protein complexes, and primary rat hippocampal neurons. Thus, BoNT/F neuronal discrimination involves the recognition of ganglioside and protein (glycosylated SV2) carbohydrate moieties, providing a structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of BoNT/F for neurons.

  15. Dual gravity and matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven F.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    We consider the problem of finding a dual formulation of gravity in the presence of non-trivial matter couplings. In the absence of matter a dual graviton can be introduced only for linearised gravitational interactions. We show that the coupling of linearised gravity to matter poses obstructions to

  16. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  17. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  18. The Dual Career Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtin, Lee

    1980-01-01

    The dual career couple is forced to make a series of choices and compromises that impact the realms of marriage and career. The dilemmas that confront dual career marriages can be overcome only by compromise, accommodation, and mutual understanding on the part of the individuals involved. A revamping of human resources and recruitment programs is…

  19. Investigation of electron density changes at the onset of a chemical reaction using the state-specific dual descriptor from conceptual density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Proft, Frank; Forquet, Valérian; Ourri, Benjamin; Chermette, Henry; Geerlings, Paul; Morell, Christophe

    2015-04-14

    The electron density changes from reactants towards the transition state of a chemical reaction is expressed as a linear combination of the state-specific dual descriptors (SSDD) of the corresponding reactant complexes. Consequently, the SSDD can be expected to bear important resemblance to the so-called natural orbitals for chemical valence (NOCV), introduced as the orbitals that diagonalize the deformation density matrix of interacting molecules. This agreement is shown for three case studies: the complexation of a Lewis acid with a Lewis base, a SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction and a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. As such, the SSDD computed for reactant complexes are shown to provide important information about charge transfer interactions during a chemical reaction.

  20. Left ventricular function assessment using 123I/99mTc dual-isotope acquisition with two semi-conductor cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras: a gated cardiac phantom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Blaire

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of increased energy resolution of cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras on the assessment of left ventricular function under dual-isotope conditions (99mTc and 123I remains unknown. The Amsterdam-gated dynamic cardiac phantom (AGATE, Vanderwilt techniques, Boxtel, The Netherlands was successively filled with a solution of 123I alone, 99mTc alone, and a mixture of 123I and 99mTc. A total of 12 datasets was acquired with each commercially available CZT camera (DNM 530c, GE Healthcare and DSPECT, Biosensors International using both energy windows (99mTc or 123I with ejection fraction set to 33, 45, and 60 %. End-diastolic (EDV and end-systolic (ESV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF, and regional wall motion and thickening (17-segment model were assessed using Cedars-Sinai QGS Software. Concordance between single- and dual-isotope acquisitions was tested using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and Bland–Altman plots. Results There was no significant difference between single- or simultaneous dual-isotope acquisition (123I and 99mTc for EDV, ESV, LVEF, or segmental wall motion and thickening. Myocardial volumes using single- (123I, 99mTc and dual-isotope (reconstructed using both 123I and 99mTc energy windows acquisitions were, respectively, the following: EDV (mL 88 ± 27 vs. 89 ± 27 vs. 92 ± 29 vs. 90 ± 26 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 82 ± 20 vs. 83 ± 22 vs. 79 ± 19 vs. 77 ± 20 for DSPECT (p = NS; ESV (mL 40 ± 1 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 1 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 37 ± 5 vs. 37 ± 1 vs. 35 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 2 for DSPECT (p = NS; LVEF (% 52 ± 14 vs. 51 ± 13 vs. 53 ± 13 vs. 51 ± 13 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 52 ± 16 vs. 54 ± 13 vs. 54 ± 14 vs. 54 ± 13 for DSPECT (p = NS; regional motion (mm 6.72 ± 2.82 vs. 6.58 ± 2.52 vs. 6.86 ± 2.99 vs. 6.59 ± 2

  1. Biomimetic PDMS-hydroxyurethane terminated with catecholic moieties for chemical grafting on transition metal oxide-based surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Kelen R.; Rischka, Klaus; Gätjen, Linda; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Cavalcanti, Welchy Leite; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a non-isocyanate poly(dimethylsiloxane) hydroxyurethane with biomimetic terminal catechol moieties, as a candidate for inorganic and metallic surface modification. Such surface modifier is capable to strongly attach onto metallic and inorganic substrates forming layers and, in addition, providing water-repellent surfaces. The non-isocyanate route is based on carbon dioxide cycloaddition into bis-epoxide, resulting in a precursor bis(cyclic carbonate)-polydimethylsiloxane (CCPDMS), thus fully replacing isocyanate in the manufacture process. A biomimetic approach was chosen with the molecular composition being inspired by terminal peptides present in adhesive proteins of mussels, like Mefp (Mytilus edulis foot protein), which bear catechol moieties and are strong adhesives even under natural and saline water. The catechol terminal groups were grafted by aminolysis reaction into a polydimethylsiloxane backbone. The product, PDMSUr-Dopamine, presented high affinity towards inhomogeneous alloy surfaces terminated by native oxide layers as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D), as well as stability against desorption by rinsing with ethanol. As revealed by QCM-D, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and computational studies, the thickness and composition of the resulting nanolayers indicated an attachment of PDMSUr-Dopamine molecules to the substrate through both terminal catechol groups, with the adsorbate exposing the hydrophobic PDMS backbone. This hypothesis was investigated by classical molecular dynamic simulation (MD) of pure PDMSUr-Dopamine molecules on SiO2 surfaces. The computationally obtained PDMSUr-Dopamine assembly is in agreement with the conclusions from the experiments regarding the conformation of PDMSUr-Dopamine towards the surface. The tendency of the terminal catechol groups to approach the surface is in agreement with proposed model for the attachment PDMSUr-Dopamine. Remarkably, the versatile

  2. Remarkable diversity in the enzymes catalyzing the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn M Shapiro

    Full Text Available Biotin synthesis in Escherichia coli requires the functions of the bioH and bioC genes to synthesize the precursor pimelate moiety by use of a modified fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. However, it was previously noted that bioH has been replaced with bioG or bioK within the biotin synthetic gene clusters of other bacteria. We report that each of four BioG proteins from diverse bacteria and two cyanobacterial BioK proteins functionally replace E. coli BioH in vivo. Moreover, purified BioG proteins have esterase activity against pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, the physiological substrate of BioH. Two of the BioG proteins block biotin synthesis when highly expressed and these toxic proteins were shown to have more promiscuous substrate specificities than the non-toxic BioG proteins. A postulated BioG-BioC fusion protein was shown to functionally replace both the BioH and BioC functions of E. coli. Although the BioH, BioG and BioK esterases catalyze a common reaction, the proteins are evolutionarily distinct.

  3. Dual vector multiplet coupled to dual N=1 supergravity in 10D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    We couple in superspace a dual vector multiplet (C m 1 ...m 7 ,λ α ) to the dual version of N=1 supergravity (e m a ,ψ m α ,M m 1 ...m 6 ,χ α ,Φ) in ten dimensions. The 7-form field C has its 8-form field strength H dual to the 2-form field strength F of the conventional vector multiplet. To simplify the computation, we use so-called beta-function-favored superspace constraints for dual supergravity developed for β-function computations. As in a more conventional constraint set, the H-Bianchi identity must have the form N and F, where N is the 7-form field strength in dual supergravity. The potential anomaly for the dual vector multiplet can be cancelled for the particular gauge group U(1) 496 by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. As a by-product, we also give the globally supersymmetric Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld interactions for the dual vector multiplet for the first time

  4. Characterisation of the native lipid moiety of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Obal

    Full Text Available Antigen B (EgAgB is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5. In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40-50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9 are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding

  5. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  6. Decisive Interactions between the Heterocyclic Moiety and the Cluster Observed in Polyoxometalate-Surfactant Hybrid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Otobe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda and dodecylpyridinium (C12py surfactants. The decatungstate (W10 anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10, the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10 had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions.

  7. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  8. Synthesis and structural studies of acyl hydrazone derivatives having tetrahydrocarbazole moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıgöl, Deniz; Yüksel, Dilek; Okay, Gürol; Uzgören-Baran, Ayşe

    2015-04-01

    Seventeen new compounds having tetrahydrocarbazole moiety were synthesized by condensation of tetrahydrocarbazole hydrazide with aromatic aldehydes. The structures and physical properties of these hybrid compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, APT-NMR and mass spectroscopy. In addition, to gain more insight into conformational structures and energetics of the compounds, DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level in DMSO were performed on a selected compound from the series.

  9. Phosphonates containing 8-hydroxyquinoline moiety and their metal complexes: structures, fluorescent and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Liu, Bei; Gu, Yan-Wei; Feng, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Yue

    2013-09-14

    Two kinds of solid-state structures of 5-phosphonomethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (5pm8hqH3) have been obtained, namely 1·HCl·H2O and 1·H2O, involving different hydrogen bonds and/or aromatic stacking interactions. As a derivative of 5pm8hqH3, 5-phosphonomethyl-8-(carboxymethoxy)quinoline (5pm8cmoqH3) was synthesized. Based on 5pm8hqH3 and 5pm8cmoqH3, three new metal phosphonates have been hydrothermally prepared, including Zn(5pm8hqH)(H2O)·H2O (2), Cu(5pm8cmoqH)·2H2O (3) and Fe(5pm8cmoqH) (4), exhibiting layered structures for 2 and 4, and a three-dimensional open framework for 3. The 8-hydroxyquinoline moieties in 1·H2O and 2-4 exhibit three kinds of interesting aromatic stacking modes, including pyridine ring-pyridine ring stacking between a pair of moieties, double benzene ring-pyridine ring stacking between a pair of moieties and alternating benzene ring-benzene ring and pyridine ring-pyridine ring stacking among a number of moieties in the layered structure. The solid-state fluorescence measurements indicate the emissions of 1·HCl·H2O and 1·H2O are significantly different due to their distinct packing structures. Compound 2 exhibits both ligand-centered (LC) and ligand-to-metal charge transition (LMCT) emissions. Magnetic studies reveal dominant antiferromagnetic interactions in 3 and 4.

  10. Efficient synthesis of 2'-deoxynucleoside 3'-C-phosphonates: reactivity of geminal hydroxyphosphonate moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíková, S; Budĕsínský, M; Masojidková, M; Rosenberg, I

    2000-07-01

    In this report we present a novel, simple way for the synthesis of 3'-C-phosphonate derivatives of all four basic 2'-deoxynucleosides in both fully protected and deprotected forms. The reactivity of the geminal hydroxy phosphonate moiety located at the 3'-carbon atom of the nucleoside was studied with respect to the use of this type of nucleoside phosphonic acid for the preparation of short oligonucleotides, namely, dinucleoside monophosphate analogues.

  11. Scopranones with Two Atypical Scooplike Moieties Produced by Streptomyces sp. BYK-11038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryuji; Lee, Daiki; Suwa, Ibuki; Ohtawa, Masaki; Watanabe, Nozomu; Demachi, Ayumu; Ohte, Satoshi; Katagiri, Takenobu; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2017-11-03

    Three new compounds, designated scopranones A-C, were isolated from the culture broth of a soil isolate, Streptomyces sp. BYK-11038, and shown to be inhibitors of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induced alkaline phosphatase activity in a BMP receptor mutant cell line. The structures were elucidated using NMR and other spectral data. The scopranones have an unusual structure with two atypical scooplike moieties linked at the tails to form part of a unique 3-furanone ring.

  12. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel Arylpiperazine Derivatives Containing the Saccharin Moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Chen; Bing-Bing Xu; Tao Sun; Zhan Zhou; Hui-Yuan Ya; Mu Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. For the development of potential anti-prostate cancer agents, a series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives containing the saccharin moiety based on previous studies was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in prostate (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145) cancer cell lines for their anticancer activities. The majority of the compounds exhibited excellent selective activity for the tested cancer cells. Compounds 4 and 12 exhibited strong cytotoxic...

  13. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    OpenAIRE

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type. The carbohydrate chains were released from the protein by hydrazinolysis. Determination of the molecular weight and carbohydrate composition, in conjunction with methylation analysis and 500-MHz 1H-...

  14. A Phage Display Screening Derived Peptide with Affinity for the Adeninyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Elmlund

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phage display screening of a surface-immobilized adenine derivative led to the identification of a heptameric peptide with selectivity for adenine as demonstrated through quartz crystal microbalance (QCM studies. The peptide demonstrated a concentration dependent affinity for an adeninyl moiety decorated surface (KD of 968 ± 53.3 μM, which highlights the power of piezoelectric sensing in the study of weak interactions.

  15. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  16. The Preparations and Water Vapor Barrier Properties of Polyimide Films Containing Amide Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible displays are a systematic revolution in the field of display, in which high-performance and high-barrier polymer substrates are considered to be one of the most important key materials. In this work, high water vapor barrier polyimides containing amide moieties were synthesized via the ternary polymerization of 4,4′-diaminobenzailide (DABA, 4,4′-diaminodipheny ether (ODA, and 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BPDA followed by thermal imidization. The relationship between the content of amide moieties and the water vapor barrier property of the prepared polyimides was studied by means of density test, water absorbing test, water contact angle test, water vapor permeation test, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, thermogravimetry coupled with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis (WXRD, mechanical performance test, etc. The results show that the introduction of amide groups into polyimide (PI main chains can improve the water vapor barrier properties of the polyimides effectively. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR of the polyimide films can be improved from 8.2365 g·(m2·24 h−1 to 0.8670 g·(m2·24 h−1 with the increasing content of amide moieties.

  17. Photolysis mechanism of sulfonamide moiety in five-membered sulfonamides: A DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pu; Yu, Hang; Chen, Jingwen; Qu, Jingping; Luo, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to investigate the photolysis mechanism of relatively susceptible sulfonamide moiety of five-membered sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics, such as sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfamethizole, and sulfathiazole. The results show that the ·OH-mediated indirect photolysis of sulfonamide linkage has two possible multi-step reaction pathways, viz., H-abstraction and electrophilic C1-attack, which is contrast to previously reported one-step cleavage manner. The newly proposed indirect photolysis mechanisms could be applied to six-membered SAs such as sulfadimethoxine. It has been found that the dissociation of SN bond is easier in direct photolysis than ·OH-mediated indirect photolysis. Wiberg bond index and LUMO-HOMO energy gap are investigated to clarify the origin of the discrepant reactivity of sulfonamide moiety of SAs at singlet and triplet states. In comparison with singlet states, the SN bond of SAs is weaker at triplet states of SAs and thus results in higher reactivity of sulfonamide moiety, as also suggested by smaller LUMO-HOMO energy gap. This study could add better understanding to the photolysis mechanisms of SAs, which would be also helpful in utilizing quantum chemistry calculation to investigate the behavior and fate of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and antibacterial activity against ralstonia solanacearum for novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most important bacterial diseases on plants, is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on tobacco bacterial wilt, we sought to combine the active structure of hydrazone and pyridine together to design and synthesize a series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety. Results A series of hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological activity tests showed that compound 3e and 3g exhibited more than 80% activity against Ralstonia solanacearum at 500 mg/L, especially compound 3g displayed relatively good activity to reach 57.0% at 200 mg/L. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety by the reaction of intermediates 2 with different aldehydes in ethanol at room temperature using 2-chloronicotinic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-3-methylbenzoic acid as start materials is presented. This study suggests that the hydrazone derivatives containing a substituted pyridine ring could inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum.

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaC pilin subunit binds to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Ueno, Shintaro; Sugiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a well-established probiotic strain. The beneficial properties of this strain are partially dependent on its prolonged residence in the gastrointestinal tract, and are likely influenced by its adhesion to the intestinal mucosa. The pilin SpaC subunit, located within the Spa pili structure, is the most well studied LGG adhesion factor. However, the binding epitopes of SpaC remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the binding properties of SpaC to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates using a recombinant SpaC protein. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, SpaC binding was markedly reduced by addition of purified mucin and the mucin oligosaccharide fraction. Histochemical staining revealed that the binding of SpaC was drastically reduced by periodic acid treatment. Moreover, in the surface plasmon resonance-based Biacore assay, SpaC bound strongly to the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing terminus of glycolipids. We here provide the first demonstration that SpaC binds to the oligosaccharide chains of mucins, and that the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing termini of glycoconjugates play a crucial role in this binding. Our results demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates of SpaC for mucus interactions. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI offers the possibility to directly detect the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI allows differentiating between reversible and fixed myocardial perfusion defects. • The combination of coronary CT angiography and dual-energy sCTMPI can improve the ability of CT to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery disease. - Abstract: Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  1. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited framelets with desired time localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear...... combination of dilations of ψ with explicitly given coefficients. The result allows a simple construction procedure for pairs of dual wavelet frames whose generators have compact support in the Fourier domain and desired time localization. The construction is based on characteriszing equations for dual...

  2. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited framelets with desired time localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear...... combination of dilations of ψ with explicitly given coefficients. The result allows a simple construction procedure for pairs of dual wavelet frames whose generators have compact support in the Fourier domain and desired time localization. The construction is based on characteriszing equations for dual...

  3. Synthesis and hybridization property of a boat-shaped pyranosyl nucleic acid containing an exocyclic methylene group in the sugar moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuto; Kodama, Tetsuya; Obika, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A boat-shaped pyranosyl nucleic acid (BsNA) having an exocyclic methylene group in the sugar moiety was synthesized to investigate the possibility that the axial H3' of original BsNA is the cause of its duplex destabilization. The synthesized BsNA analog was chemically stable against various nucleophiles. From the thermal stability of duplex oligonucleotides including the BsNA analog, it was found that the duplex-forming ability can be sensitive to the size of functional groups at the 3'-position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual Dynamic Programming - DDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Bermudez, Jesus M

    1998-01-01

    Objections are presented to the mathematical formulation of the denominated Dual Dynamic programming-PDD that is the theoretical base of several computational model available for the optimal formulation of interconnected hydrothermal systems

  5. On Dual Gabor Frame Pairs Generated by Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Rae Young, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We provide explicit constructions of particularly convenient dual pairs of Gabor frames. We prove that arbitrary polynomials restricted to sufficiently large intervals will generate Gabor frames, at least for small modulation parameters. Unfortunately, no similar function can generate a dual Gabor...

  6. pH-Responsive Tumor-Targetable Theranostic Nanovectors Based on Core Crosslinked (CCL Micelles with Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance (MR Dual Imaging Modalities and Drug Delivery Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel theranostic nanovectors is of particular interest in treating formidable diseases (e.g., cancers. Herein, we report a new tumor-targetable theranostic agent based on core crosslinked (CCL micelles, possessing tumor targetable moieties and fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR dual imaging modalities. An azide-terminated diblock copolymer, N3-POEGMA-b-P(DPA-co-GMA, was synthesized via consecutive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, where OEGMA, DPA, and GMA are oligo(ethylene glycolmethyl ether methacrylate, 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate, and glycidyl methacrylate, respectively. The resulting diblock copolymer was further functionalized with DOTA(Gd (DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakisacetic acid or benzaldehyde moieties via copper(I-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC chemistry, resulting in the formation of DOTA(Gd-POEGMA-b-P(DPA-co-GMA and benzaldehyde-POEGMA-b-P(DPA-co-GMA copolymers. The resultant block copolymers co-assembled into mixed micelles at neutral pH in the presence of tetrakis[4-(2-mercaptoethoxyphenyl]ethylene (TPE-4SH, which underwent spontaneous crosslinking reactions with GMA residues embedded within the micellar cores, simultaneously switching on TPE fluorescence due to the restriction of intramolecular rotation. Moreover, camptothecin (CPT was encapsulated into the crosslinked cores at neutral pH, and tumor-targeting pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP, sequence: AEQNPIYWARYADWLFTTPLLLLDLALLVDADEGTCG moieties were attached to the coronas through the Schiff base chemistry, yielding a theranostic nanovector with fluorescence and MR dual imaging modalities and tumor-targeting capability. The nanovectors can be efficiently taken up by A549 cells, as monitored by TPE fluorescence. After internalization, intracellular acidic pH triggered the release of loaded CPT, killing cancer cells in a selective manner. On the other hand, the nanovectors labeled with DOTA

  7. What is the dual of a dipole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.f.alday@phys.uu.nl; Boer, Jan de [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jdeboer@science.uva.nl; Messamah, Ilies [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: imessama@science.uva.nl

    2006-07-03

    We study gravitational solutions that admit a dual CFT description and carry non-zero dipole charge. We focus on the black ring solution in AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3} and extract from it the one-point functions of all CFT operators dual to scalar excitations of the six-dimensional metric. In the case of small black rings, characterized by the level N, angular momentum J and dipole charge q{sub 3}, we show how the large N and J dependence of the one-point functions can be reproduced, under certain assumptions, directly from a suitable ensemble in the dual CFT. Finally we present a simple toy model that describes the thermodynamics of the small black ring for arbitrary values of the dipole charge.

  8. Prospective observational study of the effect of dual antiplatelet therapy with tranexamic acid treatment on platelet function and bleeding after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, J; Garnier, M; Szymezak, J; Le Manach, Y; Helley, D; Bertil, S; Ouattara, A; Riou, B; Gaussem, P

    2016-12-01

    The bleeding impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), aspirin and clopidogrel, maintained until coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), is still a matter of debate. The lack of preoperative antiplatelet activity measurement and heterogeneity of antifibrinolytic protocols in prior studies make the conclusions questionable. The aim of this prospective study was to determine, after preoperative antiplatelet activity measurement, if the maintenance of DAPT until CABG increases bleeding in patients treated with tranexamic acid (TA). This observational study included 150 consecutive patients, 89 treated with aspirin and 61 treated with DAPT, undergoing a first-time planned on-pump CABG with TA treatment. Antiplatelet activity was measured with platelet aggregation tests and quantification of VASP phosphorylation. Postoperative bleeding at 24 h was recorded and propensity score analysis was performed. Based on VASP assay, 54% of patients showed high on-clopidogrel platelet activity inhibition. Postoperative bleeding at 24 h increased by 22% in the DAPT group, compared with the aspirin group (680 [95% CI: 360-1670] vs 558 [95%CI: 267-1270] ml, P < 0.01), consistent with increased blood transfusion (21% vs 7%, P = 0.01); a higher incidence of mediastinitis did not reach statistical significance (15% vs 4%, P = 0.05). Bleeding correlated with the extent of clopidogrel antiplatelet effect, with the best correlation for the VASP assay. Maintenance of DAPT until the day of CABG in patients treated with TA, increased postoperative bleeding at 24 h in parallel with preoperative antiplatelet activity induced by clopidogrel. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Real-Time Study of the Interaction between G-Rich DNA Oligonucleotides and Lead Ion on DNA Tetrahedron-Functionalized Sensing Platform by Dual Polarization Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Lu, Shasha; Zhao, Jiahui; Huang, Jianshe; Yang, Xiurong

    2017-11-29

    G-quadruplex plays roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes of organisms. Due to the unique properties of G-quadruplex (e.g., forming G4/hemin complexes with catalytic activity and electron acceptability, binding with metal ions, proteins, fluorescent ligands, and so on), it has been widely applied in biosensing. But the formation process of G-quadruplex is not yet fully understood. Here, a DNA tetrahedron platform with higher reproducibility, regenerative ability, and time-saving building process was coupled with dual polarization interferometry technique for the real-time and label-free investigation of the specific interaction process of guanine-rich singled-stranded DNA (G-rich ssDNA) and Pb 2+ . The oriented immobilization of probes greatly decreased the spatial hindrance effect and improved the accessibility of the probes to the Pb 2+ ions. Through real-time monitoring of the whole formation process of the G-quadruplex, we speculated that the probes on the tetrahedron platform initially stood on the sensing surface with a random coil conformation, then the G-rich ssDNA preliminarily formed unstable G-quartets by H-bonding and cation binding, subsequently forming a completely folded and stable quadruplex structure through relatively slow strand rearrangements. On the basis of these studies, we also developed a novel sensing platform for the specific and sensitive determination of Pb 2+ and its chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. This study not only provides a proof-of-concept for conformational dynamics of G-quadruplex-related drugs and pathogenes, but also enriches the biosensor tools by combining nanomaterial with interfaces technique.

  10. Primal and dual approaches to fishing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstens, Kristiaan; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    measures using cost functions are specified for both convex and non-convex technologies. It is illustrated how the convexity assumption impacts capacity utilization rates and how this dual approach differs from the primal approach. Second, the effect of utilizing these different convex versus non...

  11. Primal and dual dynamic Luenberger productivity indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.; Serra, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops primal and dual versions of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth measures that are based on the dynamic directional distance function and intertemporal cost minimization, respectively. The empirical application focuses on panel data of Dutch dairy farms over the period

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Substituted Urea and Thiourea Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Biological Activity of Substituted Urea and Thiourea Derivatives Containing 1,2,4- Triazole Moieties Bedia Kocyigit-Kaymakcioglu 1,*, Ahmet Ozgur Celen...of novel thiourea and urea derivatives containing 1,2,4- triazole moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity... Triazole derivatives 3a–e and 4a–e were synthesized by reacting thiocarbohydrazide with thiourea and urea compounds 1a–e and 2a–e, respectively

  13. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  14. Structure–function analysis of mouse Sry reveals dual essential roles of the C-terminal polyglutamine tract in sex determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry’s ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function. PMID:25074915

  15. Structure-function analysis of mouse Sry reveals dual essential roles of the C-terminal polyglutamine tract in sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2014-08-12

    The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry's ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function.

  16. Stability of photochromism in new bifunctional copolymers containing spiropyran and chalcone moiety in the side chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong Hoon; Ban, Si Young; Kim, Jae Hong [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    We synthesized three copolymers bearing photochromic spiropyran dye and chalcone moiety in the side chain for studying the dynamic properties of their photochromism. They contain methacrylate-spiropyran (MA-spiropyran) and methacrylate-chalcone) (MA-chalcone) with the different concentration. The photosensitivity of the newly synthesized copolymers was investigated by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. We absorbed photodimerization and phtochromic behavior under UV irradiation at the same time. The effect of photocrosslink on the rate and stability of photochromism in three copolymers was considered in this study. This study might be helpful to design photochromic materials for irreversible optical memory by virtue of photocrosslinking reaction.

  17. New metathesis catalyst bearing chromanyl moieties at the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Hryniewicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new type of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst bearing a modified N-heterocyclic carbene ligands is reported. The new catalyst contains an NHC ligand symmetrically substituted with chromanyl moieties. The complex was tested in model CM and RCM reactions. It showed very high activity in CM reactions with electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated compounds even at 0 °C. It was also examined in more demanding systems such as conjugated dienes and polyenes. The catalyst is stable, storable and easy to purify.

  18. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Pentamethine Cyanine Dyes With Carboxylic Acid Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler L Dost

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanine dyes possessing carboxylic acid groups have been used in many different fields of study. The acid groups can act as handles for bioconjugation or as metal chelators. Several pentamethine cyanine dyes with propionic acid handles were synthesized and their optical properties were studied to determine their usefulness as fluorescent probes. The optical properties studies performed include the absorbance and emission maxima values as well as the calculation of quantum yield and molecular brightness levels. Molecular models were also calculated to help analyze the dyes’ behavior and were compared with similar dyes with varying alkyl chain lengths replacing the acid moieties.

  19. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of thiophene based azo dyes incorporating pyrazolone moiety

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa A. Gouda; Hadeer Fakhr Eldien; Margret M. Girges; Moged A. Berghot

    2016-01-01

    A series of thiophene incorporating pyrazolone moieties 5a–f and 6a–c were synthesized via diazo coupling of diazonium salt of 3-substituted-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophenes 1a–c with 3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one or 3-amino-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one, respectively. Newly synthesized dyes were applied to polyester fabric as disperse dyes in which their color measurements and fastness properties were evaluated. These dyes showed generally red to bl...

  20. Novel methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates containing an indole moiety as angiokinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mingze; Tian, Ye; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yu, Simiao; Xia, Juanjuan; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Haotian; Zhao, Yanfang

    2017-10-20

    A novel series of methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates bearing an indole moiety were identified as potent angiokinase inhibitors. The most active compound, A8, potently targeted the kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 and 3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors α and β, with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range. In addition, A8 effectively suppressed the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and HT-29 and MCF-7 cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis. Compound A8 is thus a promising candidate for further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. An efficient synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Schiff bases containing 9,10-anthracenedione moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the synthesis of novel Schiff bases containg anthraquinone moiety using dodeca-Tungstosilicic acid/P2O5 under solvent free conditions at room temperature. The reaction was completed in 1-3 minutes with excellent yields. This method was found to be more efficient, easy and hazardous free for the synthesis of azomethines. The development of these type of methadologies in synthetic chemistry may contribute to green chemistry. The structures of synthesized novel Schiff bases was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LCMS, FTIR and CHN analysis.

  2. Wittig Reaction: Domino Olefination and Stereoselectivity DFT Study. Synthesis of the Miharamycins' Bicyclic Sugar Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachatra, Vasco; Almeida, Andreia; Sardinha, João; Lucas, Susana D; Gomes, Ana; Vaz, Pedro D; Florêncio, M Helena; Nunes, Rafael; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José; Rauter, Amélia P

    2015-11-20

    2-O-Acyl protected-d-ribo-3-uloses reacted with [(ethoxycarbonyl)methylene]triphenylphosphorane in acetonitrile to afford regio- and stereoselectively 2-(Z)-alkenes in 10-60 min under microwave irradiation. This domino reaction is proposed to proceed via tautomerization of 3-ulose to enol, acyl migration, tautomerization to the 3-O-acyl-2-ulose, and Wittig reaction. Alternatively, in chloroform, regioselective 3-olefination of 2-O-pivaloyl-3-uloses gave (E)-alkenes, key precursors for the miharamycins' bicyclic sugar moiety.

  3. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel Arylpiperazine Derivatives Containing the Saccharin Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Xu, Bing-Bing; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Zhan; Ya, Hui-Yuan; Yuan, Mu

    2017-10-29

    Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. For the development of potential anti-prostate cancer agents, a series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives containing the saccharin moiety based on previous studies was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in prostate (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145) cancer cell lines for their anticancer activities. The majority of the compounds exhibited excellent selective activity for the tested cancer cells. Compounds 4 and 12 exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against DU145 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) cancer therapy.

  4. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  5. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  6. Is pulmonary function affected by bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block? A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria; Elers, Jimmi; Børglum, Jens

    2011-01-01

    : Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been shown to reduce postoperative pain after various abdominal surgical procedures in several studies. The motor nerves of the abdominal wall are located in the same plane as the sensory nerves affected by the TAP block. The aim of this study was t...... was to examine whether the application of an ultrasound-guided TAP block would affect the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall with respect to their function as accessory respiratory muscles and hence pulmonary function....

  7. Self-dual Hopf quivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hualin; Li Libin; Ye Yu

    2004-07-01

    We study pointed graded self-dual Hopf algebras with a help of the dual Gabriel theorem for pointed Hopf algebras. Quivers of such Hopf algebras are said to be self-dual. An explicit classification of self-dual Hopf quivers is obtained. We also prove that finite dimensional coradically graded pointed self-dual Hopf algebras are generated by group-like and skew-primitive elements as associative algebras. This partially justifies a conjecture of Andruskiewitsch and Schneider and may help to classify finite dimensional self-dual pointed Hopf algebras

  8. Dual model of vocational education: Austrian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual education, as a form of secondary vocational education means that education and practical training are held on two locations - in school and in a company (organization, factory and that these two institutions jointly participate in the realization of vocational education. The paper presents an account of the functioning of dual education in Austria. In that framework special attention was paid to law regulations in this field, the modes of dual education, progression through the system and the perspectives of the young in the labour market. Among the key features of dual education which are, at the same time, considered the factors of its successfulness, the following stand out: active role of social partners in the conceptualization and realization of vocational education; intensive practical training of high quality; systemic interrelatedness of vocational schools and firms where practical training is provided, the compliance of the offer of educational profiles and the needs of labour market; the system of stimulation for the firms that provide professional training for students, clear legislation and the system of professional qualifications. Yet, the challenges of dual educations are not neglected in the paper.

  9. Liquid crystalline polymers IX Main chain thermotropic poly (azomethine – ethers containing thiazole moiety linked with polymethylene spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A new homologous series of thermally stable thermotropic liquid crystalline poly(azomethine-ethers based on thiazole moiety were synthesized by solution polycondensation of 4,4`-diformyl-α,ω-diphenoxyalkanes, I–IV or 4,4`-diformyl-2,2`-dimethoxy-α,ω-diphenoxyalkanes V–VIII with the new bis(2-aminothiazole monomer X. A model compound XI was synthesized from X with benzaldehyde and characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. The inherent viscosities of the resulting polymers were in the range 0.43–1.34 dI/g. All the poly(azomethine-ethers were insoluble in common organic solvents but dissolved completely in concentrated H2SO4 and formic acid. The mesomorphic properties of these polymers were studied as a function of the diphenoxyalkane space length. Their thermotropic liquid crystalline properties were examined by DSC and optical polarizing microscopy and demonstrated that the resulting polymers form nematic mesophases over wide temperature ranges. The thermogravimetric analyses of those polymers were evaluated by TGA and DSC measurements and correlated to their structural units. X-ray analysis showed that polymers having some degree of crystallinity in the region 2θ = 5–60°. In addition, the morphological properties of selected examples were tested by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Influence of galloyl moiety in interaction of epicatechin with bovine serum albumin: a spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Saha, Chabita; Hossain, Maidul; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The health benefits stemming from green tea are well known, but the exact mechanism of its biological activity is not elucidated. Epicatechin (EC) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) are two dietary catechins ubiquitously present in green tea. Serum albumins functionally carry these catechins through the circulatory system and eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced injury. In the present study ECG is observed to have higher antioxidant activity; which is attributed to the presence of galloyl moiety. The binding affinity of these catechins to bovine serum albumin (BSA) will govern the efficacy of their biological activity. EC and ECG bind with BSA with binding constants 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and 6.6 × 10(7) M(-1), respectively. Changes in secondary structure of BSA on interaction with EC and ECG have been identified by circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermodynamic characterization reveals the binding process to be exothermic, spontaneous and entropy driven. Mixed binding forces (hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding) exist between ECG and BSA. Binding site for EC is primarily site-II in sub-domain IIIA of BSA and for ECG; it is site-I in sub-domain IIA. ECG with its high antioxidant activity accompanied by high affinity for BSA could be a model in drug designing.

  11. Influence of galloyl moiety in interaction of epicatechin with bovine serum albumin: a spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Pal

    Full Text Available The health benefits stemming from green tea are well known, but the exact mechanism of its biological activity is not elucidated. Epicatechin (EC and epicatechin gallate (ECG are two dietary catechins ubiquitously present in green tea. Serum albumins functionally carry these catechins through the circulatory system and eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS induced injury. In the present study ECG is observed to have higher antioxidant activity; which is attributed to the presence of galloyl moiety. The binding affinity of these catechins to bovine serum albumin (BSA will govern the efficacy of their biological activity. EC and ECG bind with BSA with binding constants 1.0 × 10(6 M(-1 and 6.6 × 10(7 M(-1, respectively. Changes in secondary structure of BSA on interaction with EC and ECG have been identified by circular dichroism (CD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Thermodynamic characterization reveals the binding process to be exothermic, spontaneous and entropy driven. Mixed binding forces (hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding exist between ECG and BSA. Binding site for EC is primarily site-II in sub-domain IIIA of BSA and for ECG; it is site-I in sub-domain IIA. ECG with its high antioxidant activity accompanied by high affinity for BSA could be a model in drug designing.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and gas separation properties of novel polyimides containing cardo and tert-butyl-m-terphenyl moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bermejo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of aromatic polyimides has been obtained by the reaction of two dianhydrides, the commercial 2,2′-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA and another having a 5′-tert-butyl-m-terphenyl moiety (BTPDA, with several diamines, including two that have a cardo structure (derived from 9H-fluorene, one of them bearing methyl groups ortho to the amino functionalities (TMeCardo. The solubility, and also the thermal, mechanical, and gas separation properties of the corresponding polyimide membranes were evaluated and compared in order to explore the effect of the different groups in the polyimide backbone. The novel polyimides, which were derived from BTPDA and the cardo diamines, showed high thermal stability, excellent solubility in organic solvents and good gas separation properties, especially the polyimide that bore the ortho methyl substituents. The behavior was especially good for the pair O2/N2, where the TMeCardo polymer overpassed the Robeson upper bound.

  13. Electric field tunable light emitting diodes containing europium β-diketonates with [2.2]paracyclophane moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grykien, Remigiusz; Luszczynska, Beata; Glowacki, Ireneusz; Puntus, Lada; Pekareva, Irina; Lyssenko, Konstantin; Kajzar, François; Rau, Ileana; Lazar, Cosmina A.

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis and electroluminescent (EL) properties of two europium complexes with unsymmetrical β-diketonates and 1,10-phenanthroline are reported. The molecules are substituted by functional groups with different donor-acceptor properties and contain [2.2]paracyclophane moiety. They were used to fabricate the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). A large emission wavelength tunability by the applied electric field is observed for OLED containing europium β-diketonate substituted by phenyl group, with the maximum of luminance of 8 cd/m2. Such tunability disappears for OLED based on europium β-diketonate substituted by CH3 group, for which the luminance decreases to ca 2.5 cd/m2. Also in that case an emission band in UV disappears. The OLED stability is lower in the latter case too, showing the importance of the substitution on the OLED operation. It shows also a high potential for the electroluminescent properties control and improvement of these Eu based macromolecules through a simple β-diketonate ligand chemical structure modification.

  14. A Dual of the Compression-Expansion Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual of the fixed point theorems of compression and expansion of functional type as well as the original Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem. The multi-valued situation is also discussed.

  15. Dual Function of the pUL7-pUL51 Tegument Protein Complex in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albecka, Anna; Owen, Danielle J; Ivanova, Lyudmila; Brun, Juliane; Liman, Rukayya; Davies, Laura; Ahmed, M Firoz; Colaco, Susanna; Hollinshead, Michael; Graham, Stephen C; Crump, Colin M

    2017-01-15

    The tegument of herpesviruses is a highly complex structural layer between the nucleocapsid and the envelope of virions. Tegument proteins play both structural and regulatory functions during replication and spread, but the interactions and functions of many of these proteins are poorly understood. Here we focus on two tegument proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), pUL7 and pUL51, which have homologues in all other herpesviruses. We have now identified that HSV-1 pUL7 and pUL51 form a stable and direct protein-protein interaction, their expression levels rely on the presence of each other, and they function as a complex in infected cells. We demonstrate that expression of the pUL7-pUL51 complex is important for efficient HSV-1 assembly and plaque formation. Furthermore, we also discovered that the pUL7-pUL51 complex localizes to focal adhesions at the plasma membrane in both infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. The expression of pUL7-pUL51 is important to stabilize focal adhesions and maintain cell morphology in infected cells and cells infected with viruses lacking pUL7 and/or pUL51 round up more rapidly than cells infected with wild-type HSV-1. Our data suggest that, in addition to the previously reported functions in virus assembly and spread for pUL51, the pUL7-pUL51 complex is important for maintaining the attachment of infected cells to their surroundings through modulating the activity of focal adhesion complexes. Herpesviridae is a large family of highly successful human and animal pathogens. Virions of these viruses are composed of many different proteins, most of which are contained within the tegument, a complex structural layer between the nucleocapsid and the envelope within virus particles. Tegument proteins have important roles in assembling virus particles as well as modifying host cells to promote virus replication and spread. However, little is known about the function of many tegument proteins during virus

  16. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  17. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  18. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols

  19. Preservation of peptide moieties in three Spanish sulfur-rich Tertiary kerogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, J.C. del [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia; Olivella, M.A.; Heras, F.X.D. de las [Escola Universitaria Politecnica de Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); Knicker, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde

    2004-09-01

    Thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and solid-state {sup 15}N NMR were utilized for the characterization of refractory organic nitrogen in Tertiary Spanish kerogens. The samples included sulfur-rich oil shales from the Ribesalbes (Serravallian), Libros (Tortonian) and Cerdanya (Tortonian) basins. Analysis using solid state {sup 15}N NMR showed that part of the refractory nitrogen in the kerogens corresponds to amide groups. Moreover, the release of amino acid derivatives after pyrolysis in the presence of TMAH indicated that this amide-N arose from peptide moieties. The amino acids released from the kerogens were dominated by high amounts of glycine and alanine. Minor amounts of aspartic acid, serine, {alpha}-aminobutyric acid and other unidentified amino acids were also detected. Because proteinaceous structures, including small peptides, are generally considered as being highly sensitive to diagenetic degradation, encapsulation of labile peptide material into aliphatic structures in S-rich kerogens (probably via lipid sulfurization) has been proposed to explain the survival of these moieties. Substantial amounts of fatty acids (as methyl esters) were also released from all the kerogens after pyrolysis/TMAH, indicating their highly aliphatic character. The production of both fatty acids and amino acids from the kerogens supports the encapsulation process. (author)

  20. Implications of lipid moiety in oligomerization and immunoreactivities of GPI-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jihyoun; Wang, Yetao; Kinoshita, Taroh; Maeda, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) enriches GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) in lipid rafts by intimate interaction of its lipid moiety with sphingolipids and cholesterol. In addition to such lipid-lipid interactions, it has been reported that GPI may interact with protein moiety linked to GPI and affect protein conformations because GPI delipidation reduced immunoreactivities of protein. Here, we report that GPI-APs that have not undergone fatty acid remodeling exhibit reduced immunoreactivities in Western blotting, similar to delipidated proteins, compared with normal remodeled GPI-APs. In contrast, immunostaining in flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation did not show significant differences between remodeled and unremodeled GPI-APs. Moreover, detection with premixed primary/secondary antibody complexes or Fab fragments eliminated this difference in Western blotting. These results indicate that normally remodeled GPI enhanced oligomerization of GPI-APs and that inefficient oligomerization of unremodeled GPI-APs was responsible for reduced immunoreactivities. Moreover, the reduction in immunoreactivities of delipidated GPI-APs was most likely caused by the same effect. Finally, by chemical cross-linking of surface proteins in living cells and cell killing assay using a pore-forming bacterial toxin, we showed that enhanced oligomerization by GPI-remodeling occurs under a physiological membrane environment. Thus, this study clarifies the significance of GPI fatty acid remodeling in oligomerization of GPI-APs and provides useful information for technical studies of these cell components. PMID:23378600

  1. Synthesis, Antiviral Bioactivity of Novel 4-Thioquinazoline Derivatives Containing Chalcone Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 4-thioquinazoline derivatives containing chalcone moiety were designed, synthesized and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited moderate to good anti-TMV activity. In particular, compounds M2 and M6 possessed appreciable protection activities against TMV in vivo, with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 138.1 and 154.8 μg/mL, respectively, which were superior to that of Ribavirin (436.0 μg/mL. The results indicated that chalcone derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety could effectively control TMV. Meanwhile, the structure-activity relationship (SAR of the target compounds, studied using the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR method of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA based on the protection activities against TMV, demonstrated that the CoMFA model exhibited good predictive ability with the cross-validated q2 and non-cross-validated r2 values of 0.674 and 0.993, respectively. Meanwhile, the microscale thermophoresis (MST experimental showed that the compound M6 may interaction with the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMV CP.

  2. Statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in porous crystals with dynamic moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Efrem; Carraro, Carlo; Smit, Berend

    2017-01-01

    Some nanoporous, crystalline materials possess dynamic constituents, for example, rotatable moieties. These moieties can undergo a conformation change in response to the adsorption of guest molecules, which qualitatively impacts adsorption behavior. We pose and solve a statistical mechanical model of gas adsorption in a porous crystal whose cages share a common ligand that can adopt two distinct rotational conformations. Guest molecules incentivize the ligands to adopt a different rotational configuration than maintained in the empty host. Our model captures inflections, steps, and hysteresis that can arise in the adsorption isotherm as a signature of the rotating ligands. The insights disclosed by our simple model contribute a more intimate understanding of the response and consequence of rotating ligands integrated into porous materials to harness them for gas storage and separations, chemical sensing, drug delivery, catalysis, and nanoscale devices. Particularly, our model reveals design strategies to exploit these moving constituents and engineer improved adsorbents with intrinsic thermal management for pressure-swing adsorption processes. PMID:28049851

  3. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  4. Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Boliang; Li, Guohui; Jia, Li; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approache...

  5. spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)

  6. Xenon-enhanced CT using subtraction CT: Basic and preliminary clinical studies for comparison of its efficacy with that of dual-energy CT and ventilation SPECT/CT to assess regional ventilation and pulmonary functional loss in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sugihara, Naoki [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara (Japan); Kishida, Yuji; Seki, Shinichiro; Koyama, Hisanobu; Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively and directly compare the capability for assessments of regional ventilation and pulmonary functional loss in smokers of xenon-ventilation CT obtained with the dual-energy CT (DE-CT) and subtraction CT (Sub-CT) Materials and methods: Twenty-three consecutive smokers (15 men and 8 women, mean age: 69.7 ± 8.7 years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced CTs, the latter by Sub-CT and DE-CT methods, ventilation SPECT and pulmonary function tests. Sub-CT was generated from unenhanced and xenon-enhanced CT, and all co-registered SPECT/CT data were produced from SPECT and unenhanced CT data. For each method, regional ventilation was assessed by using a 11-point scoring system on a per-lobe basis. To determine the functional lung volume by each method, it was also calculated for individual sublets with a previously reported method. To determine inter-observer agreement for each method, ventilation defect assessment was evaluated by using the χ2 test with weighted kappa statistics. For evaluation of the efficacy of each method for pulmonary functional loss assessment, functional lung volume was correlated with%FEV{sub 1}. Results: Each inter-observer agreement was rated as substantial (Sub-CT: κ = 0.69, p < 0.0001; DE-CT: κ = 0.64, p < 0.0001; SPECT/CT: κ = 0.64, p < 0.0001). Functional lung volume for each method showed significant to good correlation with%FEV{sub 1} (Sub-CT: r = 0.72, p = 0.0001; DE-CT: r = 0.74, p < 0.0001; SPECT/CT: r = 0.66, p = 0.0006). Conclusion: Xenon-enhanced CT obtained by Sub-CT can be considered at least as efficacious as that obtained by DE-CT and SPECT/CT for assessment of ventilation abnormality and pulmonary functional loss in smokers.

  7. Dual Symmetry in Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkarov, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative in...

  8. Dual function of a bee (Apis cerana) inhibitor cysteine knot peptide that acts as an antifungal peptide and insecticidal venom toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Geun; Kyung, Seung Su; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kwon, Hyung Wook; Je, Yeon Ho; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-12-01

    Inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) peptides exhibit ion channel blocking, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activities, but currently, no functional roles for bee-derived ICK peptides have been identified. In this study, a bee (Apis cerana) ICK peptide (AcICK) that acts as an antifungal peptide and as an insecticidal venom toxin was identified. AcICK contains an ICK fold that is expressed in the epidermis, fat body, or venom gland and is present as a 6.6-kDa peptide in bee venom. Recombinant AcICK peptide (expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells) bound directly to Beauveria bassiana and Fusarium graminearum, but not to Escherichia coli or Bacillus thuringiensis. Consistent with these findings, AcICK showed antifungal activity, indicating that AcICK acts as an antifungal peptide. Furthermore, AcICK expression is induced in the fat body and epidermis after injection with B. bassiana. These results provide insight into the role of AcICK during the innate immune response following fungal infection. Additionally, we show that AcICK has insecticidal activity. Our results demonstrate a functional role for AcICK in bees: AcICK acts as an antifungal peptide in innate immune reactions in the body and as an insecticidal toxin in venom. The finding that the AcICK peptide functions with different mechanisms of action in the body and in venom highlights the two-pronged strategy that is possible with the bee ICK peptide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual Functions of Natural Killer Cells in Selection and Differentiation of Stem Cells; Role in Regulation of Inflammation and Regeneration of Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Jewett, Yan-Gao Man, Han-Ching Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence from our laboratory indicates that conditioned or anergized NK cells have the ability to induce resistance of healthy stem cells and transformed cancer stem cells through both secreted factors and direct cell-cell contact by inducing differentiation. Cytotoxic function of NK cells is suppressed in the tumor microenvironment by a number of distinct effectors and their secreted factors. Furthermore, decreased peripheral blood NK cell function has been documented in many cancer patients. We have previously shown that NK cells mediate significant cytotoxicity against primary oral squamous carcinoma stem cells (OSCSCs as compared to their more differentiated oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCCs. In addition, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs and induced human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs were all significantly more susceptible to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity than their differentiated counterparts or parental cells from which they were derived. We have also reported that inhibition of differentiation or reversion of cells to a less-differentiated phenotype by blocking NFκB or gene deletion of COX2 significantly augmented NK cell function. Furthermore, the induction of resistance of the stem cells to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity and their subsequent differentiation is amplified when either the stem cells or the NK cells were cultured in the presence of monocytes. Therefore, we propose that the two stages of NK cell maturation namely CD16+CD56dimCD69- NK cells are important for the lysis of stem cells or poorly differentiated cells whereas the CD16dim/-CD56dim/+CD69+NK cells are important for differentiation and eventual regeneration of the tissues and the resolution of inflammation, thus functionally serving as regulatory NK cells (NKreg. CD16 receptor on the NK cells were found to be the receptor with significant potential to induce NK cell anergy

  10. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  11. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  12. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...

  13. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...

  14. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  15. Dual-layer ultrathin film optics: I. Theory and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits dual-layer ultrathin film optics, which can be used for functional graded refractive index thin film stack. We present the detailed derivation including s-polarized and p-polarized light under arbitrary incidence angle showing the equivalence between the dual-layer ultrathin films and a negative birefringent thin film and also the approximations made during the derivation. Analysis of the approximations shows the influence of thickness of dual-layer thin films, the incidence angle and desired refractive index of the birefringent film. Numerical comparison between the titanium dioxide/aluminum oxide based dual-layer ultrathin film stack and the equivalent birefringent film verifies the theoretical analysis. The detailed theoretical study and numerical comparison provide a physical insight and design guidelines for dual-layer ultrathin film based optical devices. (paper)

  16. Dual lattice functional renormalization group for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition: Irrelevance of amplitude and out-of-plane fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Jan; Kopietz, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We develop a functional renormalization group (FRG) approach for the two-dimensional X Y model by combining the lattice FRG proposed by Machado and Dupuis [Phys. Rev. E 82, 041128 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.041128] with a duality transformation that explicitly introduces vortices via an integer-valued field. We show that the hierarchy of FRG flow equations for the infinite set of relevant and marginal couplings of the model can be reduced to the well-known Kosterlitz-Thouless renormalization group equations for the renormalized temperature and the vortex fugacity. Within our approach it is straightforward to include weak amplitude as well as out-of-plane fluctuations of the spins, which lead to additional interactions between the vortices that do not spoil the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. This demonstrates that previous failures to obtain a line of true fixed points within the FRG are a mathematical artifact of insufficient truncation schemes.

  17. A Dual-Functional [SBA-15/Fe3O4/P(N-iPAAm] Hybrid System as a Potential Nanoplatform for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis strategy of a multifunctional system of [SBA-15/Fe3O4/P(N-iPAAm] hybrids of interest for bioapplications was explored. Magnetite nanoparticles coated by mesoporous silica were prepared by an alternative chemical route using neutral surfactant and without the application of any functionalization method. Monomer adsorption followed by in situ polymerization initiated by a radical was the adopted procedure to incorporate the hydrogel into the pore channels of silica nanocomposite. Characterization of the materials was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, N2 adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Temperature programmed reduction studies (TPR. Their application as drug delivery system using atenolol as a model drug to assess the influence of the application of low frequency alternating magnetic fields on drug release was evaluated. The structural characteristics of the magnetic hybrid nanocomposite, including the effect of the swelling behavior on heating by the application of an alternating magnetic field, are presented and discussed.

  18. Understanding and optimizing the dual excipient functionality of sodium lauryl sulfate in tablet formulation of poorly water soluble drug: wetting and lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Ahmad; Chatterji, Ashish; Dong, Zedong; Shah, Navnit H; Malick, Waseem; Singhal, Dharmendra; Sandhu, Harpreet K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and optimize sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and magnesium stearate (Mg.St) levels, with respect to dissolution and compaction, in a high dose, poorly soluble drug tablet formulation. A model poorly soluble drug was formulated using high shear aqueous granulation. A D-optimal design was used to evaluate and model the effect of granulation conditions, size of milling screen, SLS and Mg.St levels on tablet compaction and ejection. The compaction profiles were generated using a Presster(©) compaction simulator. Dissolution of the kernels was performed using a USP dissolution apparatus II and intrinsic dissolution was determined using a stationary disk system. Unlike kernels dissolution which failed to discriminate between tablets prepared with various SLS contents, the intrinsic dissolution rate showed that a SLS level of 0.57% was sufficient to achieve the required release profile while having minimal effect on compaction. The formulation factors that affect tablet compaction and ejection were identified and satisfactorily modeled. The design space of best factor setting to achieve optimal compaction and ejection properties was successfully constructed by RSM analysis. A systematic study design helped identify the critical factors and provided means to optimize the functionality of key excipient to design robust drug product.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of a Dual-Function Green Fluorescent Protein–HSV1-Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Driven by the Human Elongation Factor 1α Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Luker

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Toward the goal of monitoring activity of native mammalian promoters with molecular imaging techniques, we stably transfected DU145 prostate carcinoma cells with a fusion construct of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and wild-type herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK as a reporter gene driven by the promoter for human elongation factor 1α (EF-1α-EGFP-TK. Using this model system, expression of EGFP was quantified by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while the HSV1-TK component of the reporter was quantified with 8-[3H]ganciclovir (8-[3H]GCV. As analyzed by flow cytometry, passage of EGFP-TK-DU145 transfected cells (ETK in vitro resulted in populations of cells with high and low expression of EGFP over time. High and low ETK cells retained 23-fold and 5-fold more GCV, respectively, than control. While differences in uptake and retention of GCV corresponded to relative expression of the reporter gene in each subpopulation of cells as determined by both flow cytometry (EGFP and quantitative RT-PCR, the correlation was not linear. Furthermore, in high ETK cells, net retention of various radiolabeled nucleoside analogues varied; the rank order was 8-[3H]GCV < 9-(4-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutylguanine ([18F]FHBG ≈ 8-[3H]penciclovir (8-[3H]PCV < 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-iodouracil-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (2-[14C]FIAU. Xenograft tumors of ETK cells in vivo accumulated 2.5-fold more 8-[3H]GCV per gram of tissue and showed greater fluorescence from EGFP than control DU145 cells, demonstrating that the reporter gene functioned in vivo. These data extend previous reports by showing that a human promoter can be detected in vitro and in vivo with a dual-function reporter exploiting optical and radiotracer techniques.

  20. Heat Shock Protein-Inducing Property of Diarylheptanoid Containing Chalcone Moiety from Alpinia katsumadai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Won Nam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new diarylheptanoid containing a chalcone moiety, katsumain H (1, was isolated from the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai. The structure was elucidated using a combination of 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data analysis. The absolute configurations of C-3, C-5, and C-7 in 1 were assigned based on its optical rotation and after comparing its NMR chemical shifts with those of its diastereoisomers, katsumain E and katsumain F, which were previously isolated from this plant and characterized. In this study, the stimulatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, and HSP70. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the expression of HSF1 (1.056- and 1.200-fold, respectively, HSP27 (1.312- and 1.242-fold, respectively, and HSP70 (1.234- and 1.271-fold, respectively, without increased cytotoxicity.

  1. Self-Assembled Fibers Containing Stable Organic Radical Moieties: Alignment and Magnetic Properties in Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimura, Hiroki; Umeta, Yoshikazu; Tokoro, Hiroko; Yoshio, Masafumi; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi; Kato, Takashi

    2016-06-20

    Macroscopically oriented stable organic radicals have been obtained by using a liquid-crystalline (LC) gel composed of an l-isoleucine-based low molecular weight gelator containing a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl moiety. The LC gel has allowed magnetic measurements of the oriented organic radical. The gelator has formed fibrous aggregates in liquid crystals via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The fibrous aggregates of the radical gelator are formed and oriented on cooling by applying a magnetic field to the mixture of liquid crystals and the gelator. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements have revealed that both oriented and nonoriented fibrous aggregates exhibited antiferromagnetic interactions, in which super-exchange interaction constant J is estimated as -0.89 cm(-1) . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of benzimidazole carbamates bearing indole moieties for antiproliferative and antitubulin activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qi; Han, Chunming; Zuo, Daiying; Zhai, Min'an; Li, Zengqiang; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Yanpeng; Jiang, Xuewei; Bao, Kai; Wu, Yingliang; Zhang, Weige

    2014-11-24

    A series of novel benzimidazole carbamates bearing indole moieties with sulphur or selenium atoms connecting the aromatic rings were synthesised and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, A-549 and HT-1080) using an MTT assay. Compounds 10a, 10b, 7a, 7b and 7f showed significant activities against these cell lines. The most potent compound in this series, 10a, was selected to investigate its antitumour mechanism. In addition, molecular docking studies suggested that compound 10a interacts very closely with the nocodazole docking pose through hydrogen bonds at the colchicine binding site of tubulin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship of New Pyrimidinamine Derivatives Containing an Aryloxy Pyridine Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Aiying; Liu, Changling; Chen, Wei; Yang, Fan; Xie, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Li, Zhinian; Wang, Mingan

    2017-02-15

    The pyrimidinamine diflumetorim is an ideal template for the discovery of agrochemical lead compounds due to its unique mode of action, novel chemical structure, and lack of reported resistance. To develop a new pyrimidinamine fungicide effective against cucumber downy mildew (CDM), a series of new pyrimidinamine derivatives containing an aryloxy pyridine moiety were designed and synthesized by employing the recently reported intermediate derivatization method (IDM). The structures of all compounds were identified by 1 H NMR, elemental analyses, HRMS, and X-ray diffraction. Bioassays demonstrated that some of the title compounds exhibited excellent fungicidal activities against CDM. Compound 9 gave the best activity (EC 50 = 0.19 mg/L), which is significantly better than the commercial fungicides diflumetorim, flumorph, and cyazofamid. The relationship between structure and fungicidal activity of the synthesized pyrimidinamines was explored. The study showed that compound 9 is a promising fungicide candidate for further development.

  4. Controlled radical polymerization of an acrylamide containing L-alanine moiety via ATRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Homopolymerization of an optically active acrylamide having an amino acid moiety in the side chain, N-acryloyl-L-alanine (AAla) was carried out via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) at room temperature using 2-hydroxyethyl-2'-methyl-2'-bromopropionate (HMB) or sodium-4-(bromomethyl)benzoate (SBB) as initiator in pure water, methanol/water mixture and pure methanol solvents. The polymerization reaction resulted in the optically active biocompatible amino acid-based homopolymer in good yield with narrow molecular weight distribution. The number average molecular weight increased with conversion and polydispersity was low. The structure and molecular weight of synthesized polymer were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and size-exclusion chromatography.

  5. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of thiophene based azo dyes incorporating pyrazolone moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. Gouda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of thiophene incorporating pyrazolone moieties 5a–f and 6a–c were synthesized via diazo coupling of diazonium salt of 3-substituted-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophenes 1a–c with 3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one or 3-amino-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, respectively. Newly synthesized dyes were applied to polyester fabric as disperse dyes in which their color measurements and fastness properties were evaluated. These dyes showed generally red to blue shifted color with high extinction coefficient in comparison with aniline-based azo dyes. The antitumor activity of the synthesized dyes was evaluated. The results showed clearly that most of them exhibited good activity and compounds 5c and 5d exhibited moderate activity.

  6. Photoconducting hybrid perovskite containing carbazole moiety as the organic layer: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meng; Wu Gang; Cheng Siyuan; Wang Mang; Borghs, Gustaaf; Chen Hongzheng

    2008-01-01

    PbCl 2 -based thin films of perovskite structure with hole-transporting carbazole derivatives as the organic layer were successfully prepared by spin-coating from dimethylformamide solution containing stoichiometric amounts of organic and inorganic moieties. The crystal structure and optical property of the hybrid perovskite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). FT-IR spectra confirmed the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite structure. UV-vis spectra of hybrid perovskite thin films exhibited a wide absorption band in ultraviolet region as well as a sharp peak at 330 nm characteristic of PbCl 2 -based layered perovskite. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the layered structure was oriented parallel to the silica glass slide plane. Meanwhile, double-layer photoreceptors of the hybrid perovskite were also fabricated, which showed the enhancement of photoconductivity by carbazole chromophore

  7. Preparation and characterization of new polyamide/montmorillonite nanocomposites containing azo moiety in the main chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new samples of polyamide/montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing 4,4′-azobenzoic acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Polyamide (PA 4 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of 4,4′-azobenzoic acid 2 with 4,4′-diamino diphenyl ether 3 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PA-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV–vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.

  8. Radiation chemistry of carbohydrates and of the sugar moiety in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C. von

    1979-01-01

    The free radical chemistry of carbohydrates as studied by radiation techniques is briefly reviewed. In aqueous solutions OH radicals and H atoms abstract carbon-bound H atoms to give the primary carbohydrate radicals which can undergo a number of elimination and rearrangement reactions leading to secondary carbohydrate radicals. Oxygen can suppress these elimination and rearrangement reactions by converting the primary carbohydrate radicals into the corresponding peroxyl radicals. The reactions leading to the observed products are discussed. In the solid state a few carbohydrates show radiation-induced chain reactions which are of preparative interest. Hydroxyl radical attack at the sugar moiety of DNA eventually leads to DNA strand breaks and to alkali-labile sites. (Auth.)

  9. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel Arylpiperazine Derivatives Containing the Saccharin Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. For the development of potential anti-prostate cancer agents, a series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives containing the saccharin moiety based on previous studies was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in prostate (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145 cancer cell lines for their anticancer activities. The majority of the compounds exhibited excellent selective activity for the tested cancer cells. Compounds 4 and 12 exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against DU145 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 < 2 μM. The structure–activity relationship (SAR of these arylpiperazine derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data. This work provides a potential lead compound for anticancer agent development focusing on prostate cancer therapy.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent tricationic salts of mesitylene and stilbazolium moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Tae Soo; McCurdy, William L.; Tanthmanatham, Ontida; Kim, Tae K.; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.; Heinrich, Benoît; Donnio, Bertrand

    2012-07-01

    A series of luminescent tricationic salts having mesitylene and stilbazolium moieties with various organic counterions were synthesized by using quaternization and metathesis reactions. Their chemical structures were characterized by 1H, 19F and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Their crystalline and amorphous properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and variable-temperature X-ray diffraction studies. Their thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analyses, which were in the broad temperature ranges of 239-317 °C in nitrogen. Their optical properties were studied by UV-Vis and photoluminescent spectroscopy. The light-emission properties were dependent on the polarity of organic solvents (positive solvatochromism) but independent on the chemical structures of organic counterions. They emitted blue light in various organic solvents in a broad range of wavelengths of 470-497 nm, but emitted green light in a narrow range of wavelengths of 506-515 nm in their solid states.

  11. Applications of fluorene moiety containing polymers for improved scintillation light yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishpaugh, David; Hajagos, Tibor; Liu, Chao; Chen, Qi; Pei, Qibing

    2017-10-01

    A terfluorene compound, designed and synthesized for its photophysical and polymerizable properties, was employed as a host material in polymer scintillators to achieve a 31% increase in light yield versus a commercial standard viewed with a Silicon Photomultilier. Monomers of the compound were mixed with a solubility promoting vinyl toluene and either a commercial or custom designed fluor containing fluorene moiety structures. Fluors were chosen with overlapping energy levels to promote resonance energy transfer from the host material and improve light emission. The mixture was cured via bulk polymerization into cylindrical polymer monoliths which were coupled to either a photomultiplier tube or silicon photomultiplier to measure the scintillation light yield upon exposure to Cs-137 gamma. Samples emitted at longer wavelengths than commercial blue scintillators such as EJ-212 but outperformed this standard when accounting for the variability of photomultiplier tube sensitivity.

  12. Uranium(VI) adsorption properties of a chelating resin containing polyamine-substituted methylphosphonic acid moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Akiyoshi, Yoshirou

    1991-01-01

    Uranium(VI) adsorption and desorption properties of a chelating resin containing polyamine-substituted methylphosphonic acid moiety of 2.29 mmol/g-resin (APA) were examined. Uranium(VI) adsorption properties of several ion exchange resins and extractant agents which were known as excellent adsorbents for uranium(VI), were examined together for a comparison with those of APA. Uranium(VI) adsorption capacity of APA at the concentration of 100 mg·dm -3 -uranium(VI) in 100 g·dm -3 -H 2 SO 4 aq. soln., 190 g·dm -3 -H 3 PO 4 aq. soln. and uranium enriched sea water, was 0.2, 0.05 and 0.05 mmol·g -1 respectively. The adsorption capacity of APA for uranium(VI) in these solutions was larger than that of another adsorbents, except the adsorption of uranium(VI) in enriched sea water on ion exchange resin containing phosphoric acid moiety (adsorption capacity ; 0.2 mmol·g -1 ). Uranium(VI) adsorption rate on APA was high and the relation between treatment time (t : min) and uranium(VI) concentration (y : mg·dm -3 ) in 100 g·dm -3 H 2 SO 4 aq. soln. after treatment, was shown as following equation, y=20 0.048t+1.90 (0≤t≤30). The adsorbed uranium(VI) on APA was able to be eluted with a mixed aq. soln. of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide and also was able to be eluted with an aq. alkaline soln. dissolved reduction agents such as sodium sulfite and hydrazine. From these results, it was thought that uranium(VI) adsorbed on APA was eluted due to the reduction to uranium(VI) by these eluents. (author)

  13. Triphenylphosphonium Moiety Modulates Proteolytic Stability and Potentiates Neuroprotective Activity of Antioxidant Tetrapeptides in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezeda A. Akhmadishina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although delocalized lipophilic cations have been identified as effective cellular and mitochondrial carriers for a range of natural and synthetic drug molecules, little is known about their effects on pharmacological properties of peptides. The effect of triphenylphosphonium (TPP cation on bioactivity of antioxidant tetrapeptides based on the model opioid YRFK motif was studied. Two tetrapeptide variants with L-arginine (YRFK and D-arginine (YrFK were synthesized and coupled with carboxyethyl-TPP (TPP-3 and carboxypentyl-TPP (TPP-6 units. The TPP moiety noticeably promoted YRFK cleavage by trypsin, but effectively prevented digestion of more resistant YrFK attributed, respectively, to structure-organizing and shielding effects of the TPP cation on conformational variants of the tetrapeptide motif. The TPP moiety enhanced radical scavenging activity of the modified YRFK in a model Fenton-like reaction, whereas decreased reactivity was revealed for both YrFK and its TPP derivative. The starting motifs and modified oligopeptides, especially the TPP-6 derivatives, suppressed acute oxidative stress in neuronal PC-12 cells during a brief exposure similarly with glutathione. The effect of oligopeptides was compared upon culturing of PC-12 cells with CoCl2, L-glutamic acid, or menadione to mimic physiologically relevant oxidative states. The cytoprotective activity of oligopeptides significantly depended on the type of oxidative factor, order of treatment and peptide structure. Pronounced cell-protective effect was established for the TPP-modified oligopeptides, which surpassed that of the unmodified motifs. The protease-resistant TPP-modified YrFK showed the highest activity when administered 24 h prior to the cell damage. Our results suggest that the TPP cation can be used as a modifier for small therapeutic peptides to improve their pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties.

  14. Triphenylphosphonium Moiety Modulates Proteolytic Stability and Potentiates Neuroprotective Activity of Antioxidant Tetrapeptides in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadishina, Rezeda A.; Garifullin, Ruslan; Petrova, Natalia V.; Kamalov, Marat I.; Abdullin, Timur I.

    2018-01-01

    Although delocalized lipophilic cations have been identified as effective cellular and mitochondrial carriers for a range of natural and synthetic drug molecules, little is known about their effects on pharmacological properties of peptides. The effect of triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation on bioactivity of antioxidant tetrapeptides based on the model opioid YRFK motif was studied. Two tetrapeptide variants with L-arginine (YRFK) and D-arginine (YrFK) were synthesized and coupled with carboxyethyl-TPP (TPP-3) and carboxypentyl-TPP (TPP-6) units. The TPP moiety noticeably promoted YRFK cleavage by trypsin, but effectively prevented digestion of more resistant YrFK attributed, respectively, to structure-organizing and shielding effects of the TPP cation on conformational variants of the tetrapeptide motif. The TPP moiety enhanced radical scavenging activity of the modified YRFK in a model Fenton-like reaction, whereas decreased reactivity was revealed for both YrFK and its TPP derivative. The starting motifs and modified oligopeptides, especially the TPP-6 derivatives, suppressed acute oxidative stress in neuronal PC-12 cells during a brief exposure similarly with glutathione. The effect of oligopeptides was compared upon culturing of PC-12 cells with CoCl2, L-glutamic acid, or menadione to mimic physiologically relevant oxidative states. The cytoprotective activity of oligopeptides significantly depended on the type of oxidative factor, order of treatment and peptide structure. Pronounced cell-protective effect was established for the TPP-modified oligopeptides, which surpassed that of the unmodified motifs. The protease-resistant TPP-modified YrFK showed the highest activity when administered 24 h prior to the cell damage. Our results suggest that the TPP cation can be used as a modifier for small therapeutic peptides to improve their pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties. PMID:29520232

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography estimation of cross-linking of dihydroxyindole moiety in eumelanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Glass, Keely; Simon, John D

    2013-03-15

    Eumelanin pigments consist of various ratios of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). On alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation, these indole moieties give rise to pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), respectively. In a recent study, we detected considerable amounts of other pyrrole acids, pyrrole-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (PTeCA) and pyrrole-2,3,4-tricarboxylic acid (isoPTCA), among the oxidation products of fossil ink sacs more than 160 million years old. PTeCA and isoPTCA arise from the cross-linking of the DHI moiety of eumelanin at the C2 and/or C3 positions. We mimicked the process of cross-linking by heating synthetic eumelanins prepared from various ratios of DHICA and DHI at 100 °C for 18 days (or at 40 °C for 180 days). The heated eumelanins were analyzed after alkaline peroxide oxidation as PTCA, PDCA, PTeCA, and isoPTCA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. On heating, PTCA decreased rapidly due to decarboxylation, whereas PDCA decreased gradually. Concurrently, PTeCA increased gradually to levels close to PTCA. IsoPTCA also increased gradually at lower levels. Similar changes were observed at 40°C at a much slower rate. These findings suggest that the PTeCA/PTCA ratio may serve as a good indicator of aging (cross-linking) of eumelanin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of PPh₃ moiety in the anticancer activity of new organometallic ruthenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Rubén; Lorenzo, Julia; Prieto, Ma Jose; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Calvet, Teresa; Omeñaca, Nuria; Vilaseca, Marta; Moreno, Virtudes

    2014-07-01

    The effect of the PPh3 group in the antitumor activity of some new organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes has been investigated. Several complexes of the type [Ru((II))(Cl)(PPh3)(Lig-N)], [Ru((II))(Cl)2(Lig-N)] (where Lig-N=pyridine derivate) and [Ru((II))(Cl)(PPh3)2], have been synthesized and characterized. A noticeable increment of the antitumor activity and cytotoxicity of the complexes due to the presence of PPh3 moiety has also been demonstrated, affording IC50 values of 5.2 μM in HL-60 tumor cell lines. Atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism and electrophoresis experiments have proved that these complexes can bind DNA resulting in a distortion of both secondary and tertiary structures. Ethidium bromide displacement fluorescence spectroscopy studies and viscosity measurements support that the presence of PPh3 group induces intercalation interactions with DNA. Indeed, crystallographic analysis, suggest that intra-molecular π-π interactions could be involved in the intercalation within DNA base pairs. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) studies have confirmed a strong interaction between ruthenium complexes and proteins (ubiquitin and potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor - PCI) including slower kinetics due to the presence of PPh3 moiety, which could have an important role in detoxification mechanism and others. Finally, ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS) experiments have proved that there is no significant change in the gas phase structural conformation of the proteins owing to their bonding to ruthenium complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and photophysical and electrochemical properties of novel unsymmetrical phthalocyanines with a Sudan IV moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçeşmeci, Ibrahim; Büyük, Pınar; Nar, Ilgın; Gül, Ahmet

    The synthesis of novel, A3B type unsymmetrical metal-free and metallophthalocyanines bearing one aza dye group Sudan IV and three nitro terminal moieties was achieved by cyclotetramerization of novel 4-((1-((E)-(2-methyl-4-((E)-o-tolyldiazenyl)phenyl)diazenyl)naphthalen-2-yl)oxy)phthalonitrile and 4-nitrophthalonitrile. The new unsymmetrical metal-free and metallophthalocyanines have been characterized using elemental analyses, 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis and mass spectroscopic data. The aggregation properties of the compounds were investigated in a concentration range of 1.0 × 10‑4 M-6.25 × 10‑6 M. General trends were also studied for fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of these phthalocyanine compounds in tetrahydrofuran. The fluorescence of the synthesized unsymmetrical metal-free and metallophthalocyanines is effectively quenched by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in THF. In-depth investigation of the electrochemical properties showed that nitro groups extended the reduction potentials. The synthesis of novel, A3B type unsymmetrical metal-free and metallo phthalocyanines bearing one aza dye group Sudan IV and three nitro terminal moieties was achieved by cyclotetramerization of novel 4-((1-((E)-(2-methyl-4-((E)-o-tolyldiazenyl)phenyl)diazenyl) naphthalen-2-yl)oxy)phthalonitrile and 4-nitrophthalonitrile. The aggregation properties of the compounds were investigated. General trends were also studied for fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of these phthalocyanine compounds. In-depth investigation of the electrochemical properties showed that nitro groups extended the reduction potentials.

  18. The dual role of oxygen functions in coal pretreatment and liquefaction: Crosslinking and cleavage reactions. Seventh quarterly report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serio, M.A.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Solomon, P.R.

    1992-12-31

    The work during the past quarter under Task 2 has focused on the investigation of FT-IR methods for measuring carboxyl and phenolic functions. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of coal contain a wealth of information that can be utilized in the development of quantitative analysis routines based on least squares curvefitting. Because of the importance of the carboxylate groups in retrogressive reactions, recent efforts have focused on the C=O stretching region. Raw and modified coal samples (acid washed, demineralized, and cation exchanged) were analyzed in order to validate the proposed band assignments in the C=O stretching region. This parameter set differentiates free carbonyl (B2) and hydrogen-bonded carbonyl (B4) from carboxylic acid carbonyl (B3) and carboxylate (B7). One test of these assignments, which are based on literature data, is to plot B3 versus B7. This should be linear, assuming that the sum of the free carboxyl and carboxylate groups is constant and that the intensity of the overlapped aromatic ring band in B7 is also constant. This relationship was found to hold for a set of raw, acid washed, and acid washed/cation-exchanged Zap coals. The work under Task 3 has involved (1) completion of the synthesis of the -C-C-0- linked, methoxy substituted lignin-network polymer, -- C{sub 6}H{sub 3}(o-OMe)-O-CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]{sub {eta}} -- polymer, (2) Analysis of the polymer via depolymerization under pyrolysis-FIMS (Py-FIMS) conditions, and (3) testing of several routes to selective cleavage of the O-Methyl bond so that the relative crosslinking tendencies of the methylated and unmethylated versions of the polymer could be determined.

  19. Reconfigurable/tunable dual band/dual mode ferrite composite right/left-handed CPW coupled-line coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M. A.; Hu, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental verification of a novel reconfigurable/tunable dual band/dual mode ferrite composite right/left handed CPW coupled-line coupler. The composite right/left handed configuration has been realized by loading coupled CPW transmission lines with series inter-digital capacitors and shunt segment inductors. The coupler performance has been verified using the equivalent circuit model, electromagnetic full wave simulations and experimental measurements. The coupler operates on dual mode in that it has dual bands of operation with two different propagation mechanisms. The first band has only a reciprocal backward coupling whereas the second band has only nonreciprocal through propagation. The non-reciprocity isolation in the second band is better than average of 15 dB. Compared to conventional single band single mode coupled line coupler of length = 0.25 λg, the proposed novel dual band dual mode coupler length is almost the same (0.265 λg) at 4.5 GHz. Furthermore, the dual mode/dual band coupler can have tunable functionality.

  20. Em08red, a dual functional antiproliferative emodin analogue, is a downregulator of ErbB2 expression and inducer of intracellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang FP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fong-Pin Liang,1,* Jin-Cherng Lien,1,* Yu-Hua Wu,2 Chien-Shu Chen,2 Shin-Hun Juang1–3 1Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2School of Pharmacy and Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital, 3Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Expression of ErbB2 protein is inversely correlated with the prognosis in cancer patients. Consequently, strategies targeting ErbB2 remain an attractive option in treating several types of malignancies, including oral cancer. In addition, many studies have shown that emodin and emodin derivatives are able to inhibit growth of ErbB2-overexpressing tumor cells. In this study, a series of computer modeling-generated emodin analogues were synthesized and tested for their antiproliferative activity against oral cancer cell lines overexpressing ErbB2. Among these analogues, em08red (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H-anthracenone demonstrated potent antiproliferative activity against all three tested ErbB2-overexpressing cell lines, ie, FaDu, HSC3, and OECM1. Treatment with em08red significantly downregulated activation of ErbB2 as well as the ErbB2 protein expression level in the tested cell lines and induced G2 arrest. Antiapoptosis protein (Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 expression levels were also downregulated, and active caspase-3 and caspase-9 was detected in cells after treatment with em08red. Moreover, treatment with em08red stimulated production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in treated cells, and this could be partially reversed by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. Overall, we demonstrated inhibition of ErbB2 function and induction of reactive oxygen species in tumor cells by em08red, which prevented proliferation of tumor cells and induced apoptotic cell death. Keywords: ErbB2, emodin, em08red, reactive oxygen species, structure-activity relationship 

  1. Establishment of animal model of dual liver transplantation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The animal model of the whole-size and reduced-size liver transplantation in both rat and mouse has been successfully established. Because of the difficulties and complexities in microsurgical technology, the animal model of dual liver transplantation was still not established for twelve years since the first human dual liver transplantation has been made a success. There is an essential need to establish this animal model to lay a basic foundation for clinical practice. To study the physiological and histopathological changes of dual liver transplantation, "Y" type vein from the cross part between vena cava and two iliac of donor and "Y' type prosthesis were employed to recanalize portal vein and the bile duct between dual liver grafts and recipient. The dual right upper lobes about 45-50% of the recipient liver volume were taken as donor, one was orthotopically implanted at its original position, the other was rotated 180° sagitally and heterotopically positioned in the left upper quadrant. Microcirculation parameters, liver function, immunohistochemistry and survival were analyzed to evaluate the function of dual liver grafts. No significant difference in the hepatic microcirculatory flow was found between two grafts in the first 90 minutes after reperfusion. Light and electronic microscope showed the liver architecture was maintained without obvious features of cellular destruction and the continuity of the endothelium was preserved. Only 3 heterotopically positioned graft appeared patchy desquamation of endothelial cell, mitochondrial swelling and hepatocytes cytoplasmic vacuolization. Immunohistochemistry revealed there is no difference in hepatocyte activity and the ability of endothelia to contract and relax after reperfusion between dual grafts. Dual grafts made a rapid amelioration of liver function after reperfusion. 7 rats survived more than 7 days with survival rate of 58.3.%. Using "Y" type vein and bile duct prosthesis, we

  2. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming accord......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  3. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  4. The DUAL mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ballmoos, Peter; Alvarez, Jose; Barriere, Nicolas; Boggs, Steve; Bykov, Andrei; Del Cura Velayos, Juan Manuel; Frontera, Filippo; Hanlon, Lorraine; Hernanz, Margarita; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Isern, Jordi; Jean, Pierre; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Kuiper, Lucien; Leising, Mark; Pirard, Benoît; Prost, Jean-Pierre; da Silva, Rui; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tomsick, John; Walter, Roland; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    DUAL will study the origin and evolution of the elements and explores new frontiers of physics: extreme energies that drive powerful stellar explosions and accelerate particles to macroscopic energies; extreme densities that modify the laws of physics around the most compact objects known; and extreme fields that influence matter in a way that is unknown on Earth. The variability of these extreme objects requires continuous all-sky coverage, while detailed study demands an improvement in sensitivity over previous technologies by at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL payload is composed of an All-Sky Compton Imager (ASCI), and two optical modules, the Laue-Lens Optic (LLO) and the Coded-Mask Optic (CMO). The ASCI serves dual roles simultaneously, both as an optimal focal-plane sensor for deep observations with the optical modules and as a sensitive true all-sky telescope in its own right for all-sky surveys and monitoring. While the optical modules are located on the main satellite, the All-Sky Compton Imager is situated on a deployable structure at a distance of 30 m from the satellite. This configuration not only permits to maintain the less massive payload at the focal distance, it also greatly reduces the spacecraft-induced detector background, and, above all it provides ASCI with a continuous all-sky exposure.

  5. Robot-assisted pyeloplasty for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction of lower moiety in partial duplex system: A technical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girdhar S Bora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO in a duplex system is technically challenging as dissection at the pelvis may jeopardize the vascularity of the normal moiety ureter. Anastomosing the pelvis to the one single ureter will have a risk of future development of stricture which then will risk both the moieties. Robotic assistance enables appropriate tissue dissection; minimal handling of normal ureter and precision in suturing, overcoming the potential challenges involved in the minimally invasive management of such complex cases. We report the feasibility and efficacy of robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in such case.

  6. New Fukui, dual and hyper-dual kernels as bond reactivity descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos-A; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2017-06-21

    We define three new linear response indices with promising applications for bond reactivity using the mathematical framework of τ-CRT (finite temperature chemical reactivity theory). The τ-Fukui kernel is defined as the ratio between the fluctuations of the average electron density at two different points in the space and the fluctuations in the average electron number and is designed to integrate to the finite-temperature definition of the electronic Fukui function. When this kernel is condensed, it can be interpreted as a site-reactivity descriptor of the boundary region between two atoms. The τ-dual kernel corresponds to the first order response of the Fukui kernel and is designed to integrate to the finite temperature definition of the dual descriptor; it indicates the ambiphilic reactivity of a specific bond and enriches the traditional dual descriptor by allowing one to distinguish between the electron-accepting and electron-donating processes. Finally, the τ-hyper dual kernel is defined as the second-order derivative of the Fukui kernel and is proposed as a measure of the strength of ambiphilic bonding interactions. Although these quantities have never been proposed, our results for the τ-Fukui kernel and for τ-dual kernel can be derived in zero-temperature formulation of the chemical reactivity theory with, among other things, the widely-used parabolic interpolation model.

  7. Effects of the antitumor drug OSI-906, a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, on the glycemic control, β-cell functions, and β-cell proliferation in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Eiko; Shimizu, Mari; Horigome, Yuka; Tuno, Takayuki; Hayasaka, Moe; Abe, Shiori; Fuse, Masahiro; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The IGF-1 receptor has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of OSI-906 (linstinib), a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, for solid cancers has been examined in clinical trials. The effects of OSI-906, however, on the blood glucose levels and pancreatic β-cell functions have not yet been reported. We investigated the impact of OSI-906 on glycemic control, insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and β-cell proliferation in male mice. Oral administration of OSI-906 worsened glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner in the wild-type mice. OSI-906 at a dose equivalent to the clinical daily dose (7.5 mg/kg) transiently evoked glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-deficient mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, both models of peripheral insulin resistance, exhibited more severe glucose intolerance after OSI-906 administration than glucokinase-haploinsufficient mice, a model of impaired insulin secretion. Phloridzin improved the hyperglycemia induced by OSI-906 in mice. In vitro, OSI-906 showed no effect on insulin secretion from isolated islets. After daily administration of OSI-906 for a week to mice, the β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation rate were significantly increased. The insulin signals in the β-cells were apparently unaffected in those mice. Taken together, the results suggest that OSI-906 could exacerbate diabetes, especially in patients with insulin resistance. On the other hand, the results suggest that the β-cell mass may expand in response to chemotherapy with this drug.

  8. Cinchona Alkaloid Derivative-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis via a Mannich-Type Reaction and Antifungal Activity of β-Amino Esters Bearing Benzoheterocycle Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of highly functionalized chiral β-amino ester derivatives containing benzothiophene and benzothiazole moieties is developed by a Mannich-type reaction using a cinchona alkaloid-derived thiourea catalyst. The desired products were obtained in good yields and high enantioselectivities (~86% yield, >99% ee using to the optimized reaction conditions. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and HREI-MS analyses. The bioassays identified that compound 5dr has excellent antifungal activity, with a 60.53% inhibition rate against F. oxysporum, higher than that of the commercial agricultural fungicide hymexazol, whose inhibition rate was 56.12%.

  9. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  10. Quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety: Synthesis and biological evaluation as possible antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shehry, Mohamed F; Ghorab, Mostafa M; Abbas, Samir Y; Fayed, Eman A; Shedid, Said A; Ammar, Yousry A

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt for development of new antimicrobial agents, three series of quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety have been synthesized. The first series was synthesized through the synthesis of 4-(quinolin-2-yloxy)benzaldehyde and 4-(quinolin-2-yloxy)acetophenone and then treatment with ketone or aldehyde derivatives to afford the corresponding chalcones. Cyclization of the latter chalcones with hydrazine derivatives led to the formation of new pyrazoline derivatives. The second series was synthesized via the synthesis of 2-hydrazinylquinoline and then treatment with formylpyrazoles to afford the corresponding hydrazonyl pyrazole derivatives. The third series was synthesized through the treatment of 2-hydrazinylquinoline with ethoxyethylidene, dithioacetal and arylidene derivatives to afford the corresponding pyrazole derivatives. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their expected antibacterial and antifungal activities; where, the majority of these compounds showed potent antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains of bacteria and fungi. Pyrazole derivative 13b showed better results when compared with the reference drugs as revealed from their MIC values (0.12-0.98 μg/mL). The pyrazole derivative 13b showed fourfold potency of gentamycin in inhibiting the growth of S. flexneri (MIC 0.12 μg/mL). Also, compound 13b showed fourfold potency of amphotericin B in inhibiting the growth of A. clavatus (MIC 0.49 μg/mL) and C. albicans (MIC 0.12 μg/mL), respectively. The same compound showed twofold potency of gentamycin in inhibiting the growth of P. vulgaris (MIC 0.98 μg/mL), equipotent to the ampicillin and amphotericin B in inhibiting the growth of S. epidermidis (MIC 0.49 μg/mL), A. fumigatus (MIC 0.98 μg/mL), respectively. Thus, these studies suggest that quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety are interesting scaffolds for the development of novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017

  11. Self-dual electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the utility of self-dual fields in electrodynamics. Stable configurations of free electromagnetic fields can be represented as superpositions of standing waves, each possessing zero Poynting vector and zero orbital angular momentum. The standing waves are themselves superpositions of self-dual and anti-self-dual solutions. The idea of self-duality provides additional insights into the geometrical and spectral properties of stable electromagnetic configurations, such as those responsible for the formation of ball lightning.

  12. Dual symmetry in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshkarov, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative interpretation is the quasi-Maxwell linear theory with magnetic charge. Analogous approach is possible in the Yang-Mills theory. In this case the dual-invariant non-Abelian theory motion equations possess the same instanton solutions as the conventional Yang-Mills equations have. An Abelian two-parameter dual group is found to exist in gravitation. Irreducible representations have been obtained: the curvature tensor was expanded into the sum of twice anti-self-dual and self-dual parts. Gravitational instantons are defined as (real )solutions to the usual duality equations. Central symmetry solutions to these equations are obtained. The twice anti-self-dual part of the curvature tensor may be used for introduction of new gravitational equations generalizing Einstein''s equations. However, the theory obtained reduces to the conformal-flat Nordstroem theory

  13. Efeito da realização simultânea de tarefas cognitivas e motoras no desempenho funcional de idosos da comunidade Dual task effects on functional performance in community-dwelling elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Magalhães Machado Barbosa

    2008-12-01

    correlation with the time spent in all the other tasks. These two tasks most affected the time spent to accomplish TUG (p<0.001. Hence, dwelling community elderly showed a decrease in performance at all dual tasks associated to TUG. The worst functional performances were transferring coins from one pocket to another and saying weekdays backwards, showing that task complexity, rather than task nature, had greater impact on the time spent to perform TUG.

  14. Simultaneous extraction and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine for clinical routine testing based on a dual functional solid phase extraction assisted by phenylboronic acid coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2017-04-01

    of the reference interval for authentic urine specimens from 90 healthy individuals. Graphical abstract A simple, rapid, robust, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method combined with a dual functional solid phase extraction has been developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction and quantitation of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine with low cost.

  15. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingul, Murat; Tan, Owen; Gardner, Christopher R; Sutton, Selina K; Arndt, Greg M; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B; Kumar, Naresh; Black, David StC

    2016-07-14

    Identification of the novel (E)-N'-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19-26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G₁ cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27(kip1) cell cycle regulating protein.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bingul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the novel (E-N′-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-ylmethylene-3-(phenylthiopropanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19–26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27kip1 cell cycle regulating protein.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical study of a new asymmetrical tripodal amine containing morpholine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rezaeivala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new asymmetrical tripodal amine, [H3L2]Br3 containing morpholine moiety was prepared from reacting of one equivalent of N-(3-aminopropylmorpholine and two equivalents of tosylaziridine, followed by detosylation with HBr/CH3COOH. The products were characterized by various spectroscopic methods such as FAB-MS, elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the hydrobromide salt of the latter amine, [H3L2]Br3, was also determined. For triprotonated form of the ligand L2 we can consider several microspecies and/or conformers. A theoretical study at B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ level of theory showed that the characterized microspecies is the most stable microspecies for the triprotonated form of the ligand. It was shown that the experimental NMR data for [H3L2]Br3 in solution have good correlation with the corresponding calculated data for the most stable microspecies of [H3L2]3+ in the gas phase.

  19. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  20. Coumarin derivatives bearing benzoheterocycle moiety: synthesis, cholinesterase inhibitory, and docking simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Hirbod

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the efficiency of a novel series of coumarin derivatives bearing benzoheterocycle moiety as novel cholinesterase inhibitors. Materials and Methods: Different 7-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were synthesized via Pechmann or Knoevenagel condensation and conjugated to different benzoheterocycle (8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-mercaptobenzoxazole or 2-mercaptobenzimidazole using dibromoalkanes 3a-m. Final compounds were evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE by Ellman's method. Kinetic study of AChE inhibition and ligand-protein docking simulation were also carried out for the most potent compound 3b. Results: Some of the compounds revealed potent and selective activity against AChE. Compound 3b containing the quinoline group showed the best activity with an IC50 value of 8.80 µM against AChE. Kinetic study of AChE inhibition revealed the mixed-type inhibition of the enzyme by compound 3b. Ligand-protein docking simulation also showed that the flexibility of the hydrophobic five carbons linker allows the quinoline ring to form π-π interaction with Trp279 in the PAS. Conclusion: We suggest these synthesized compounds could become potential leads for AChE inhibition and prevention of AD symptoms.

  1. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen M. van Rossum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1, nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2, and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2. Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle.

  2. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of novel pleuromutilin derivatives with a substituted pyrimidine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunpeng; Xu, Ximing; Liu, Yu; Xu, Shuijin; Huang, Xin; Liang, Jianping; Shang, Ruofeng

    2017-01-27

    The alarming growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) has become a major global health hazard. Therefore, urgent demand for new antibiotics with a unique mechanism of action is very necessary. The present study reports the design, synthesis, and antibacterial studies of a series of novel pleuromutilin derivatives with substituted 6-amino pyrimidine moieties. Most of the tested compounds exhibited highly potent anti-MRSA or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) activities. 14-O-[(4,6-Diamino -pyrimidine-2-yl) thioacetyl] mutilin (3) and 14-O-[(2-((3R)-3-Hydroxymethylpiperidine-1-yl)-acetamido-6-aminopyrimidine-2-yl) thioacetyl] mutilin (5h) were the most active compounds and showed higher antibacterial activities. Compound 3 displayed rapid bactericidal activity and affected bacterial growth with the same manner as tiamulin fumarate. Docking experiments for compounds 3 and 5h carried out on the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of 23S rRNA provided the information about the binding model. In vivo mouse systemic infection experimental results confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of compound 3, with ED 50 of 4.22 mg/kg body weight against MRSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulforaphane Analogues with Heterocyclic Moieties: Syntheses and Inhibitory Activities against Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Hui Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH+ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a. These SFN analogues were characterized by the replacement of the methyl group with heterocyclic moieties, and the replacement of the sulfoxide group with sulfide or sulfone. A growth inhibitory assay indicated that the tetrazole analogs 3d, 8d and 9d were significantly more potent than SFN against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 14c, the water soluble derivative of tetrazole sulfide 3d, demonstrated higher potency against KG-1a cell line than 3d. SFN, 3d and 14c significantly induced the activation of caspase-3, and reduced the ALDH+ subpopulation in the SUM159 cell line, while the marketed drug doxrubicin(DOX increased the ALDH+ subpopulation.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Thermally Stable Photocurable Polymer with Cyclohexane Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Mm; Yu, Seong Hun; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-03-01

    Photocurable polymers with high transparency and thermal stability were synthesized by reaction between a commercial epoxy resin (NC9110) containing cyclohexane moiety and various kinds of cinnamic acids such as trans-cinnamic acid (CA), 3-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acid (HCA) and 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (MCA). The photocurable polymers were synthesized with equal equivalent weight ratio of epoxy and cinnamate group. The chemical structures of the synthesized polymers were confirmed by 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Optical transmittance and thermal stability of the photocured polymers were investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. It was confirmed that the polymers could form thin films with very smooth surface and could be efficiently cured by UV irradiation. It was also found that the polymer after curing showed a good thermal stability and optical transmittance. There was no significant transmittance change after heat treatment at 250 degrees C for 1 h and showed no noticeable weight loss up to 360 degrees C.

  5. Small endogenous molecules as moiety to improve targeting of CNS drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of novel neuro-therapeutic agents is to effectively overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a 'working dynamic barrier'. The core problem in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is failed delivery of potential medicines due to their inadequate permeation rate. Areas covered: The present review gives a summary of endogenous moieties used in synthesizing prodrugs, derivatives and bioisosteric drugs appositely designed to structurally resemble physiological molecular entities able to be passively absorbed or carried by specific carrier proteins expressed at BBB level. In particular, this overview focuses on aminoacidic, glycosyl, purinergic, ureic and acidic fragments derivatives, most of which can take advantage from BBB carrier-mediated transporters, where passive diffusion is not permitted. Expert opinion: In the authors' perspective, further progress in this field could expedite successful translation of new chemical entities into clinical trials. Careful rationalization of the linkage between endogenous molecular structures and putative transporters binding sites could allow to useful work-flows and libraries for synthesizing new BBB-crossing therapeutic substances and/or multifunctional drugs for treatments of central disorders.

  6. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of α-aminophosphonates containing thiadiazole moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Azaam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, α-aminophosphonates containing thiadiazole moiety (1–4 was synthesized, characterized and their antioxidant and anticancer activities were carried out. The compounds (1–4 were synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole with various aldehydes, triphenylphosphite and mixed valence Cu(I/Cu(II inorganic coordination polymer as a catalyst. The elucidation of compounds structures were carried out using different spectroscopic techniques. The antioxidant properties were carried out using radical scavenging methods (DPPH which exhibited excellent scavenging activity particularly with compound 3. The cytotoxic effects of the five compounds on the human hepato cellular carcinoma (HepG2 and breast adeno carcinoma (MCF7 cell lines were evaluated using MTT assay which revealed the presence of cytotoxic effect with highest activity for compound 3 on HepG2 and compound 1 on MCF7. This suggests that these five compounds, particularly compounds 1 and 3, have antioxidant and anticancer effect and could be used as novel chemotherapeutic compounds but this needs further in vivo investigation to confirm our in vitro results.

  7. Gold(I) thiolates containing amino acid moieties. Cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Gracia-Fleta, Lucia; Marzo, Isabel; Cativiela, Carlos; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-12-07

    Several gold(I) complexes containing a thiolate ligand functionalised with several amino acid or peptide moieties of the type [Au(SPyCOR)(PPh2R')] (where R = OH, amino acid or dipeptide and R' = Ph or Py) were prepared. These thiolate gold complexes bearing biological molecules possess potential use as antitumor agents. Cytotoxicity assays in different tumour cell lines such as A549 (lung carcinoma), Jurkat (T-cell leukaemia) and MiaPaca2 (pancreatic carcinoma) revealed that the complexes exhibit good antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Several structural modifications such as in the type of phosphine, number of metal atoms and amino acid (type, stereochemistry and functionalisation) were carried out in order to establish the structure-activity relationship in this family of complexes, which has led to the design of new and more potent cytotoxic complexes. Observations of different cellular events after addition of the complexes indicated the possible mechanism of action or the biological targets of this type of new gold(I) drug.

  8. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a dual-band dual-polarized antenna array design for WLAN applications. Four double-dipole elements are orthogonally interleaved to facilitate operation in both the standard WLAN frequency bands (IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11a...

  9. Effect of pendant isophthalic acid moieties on the adsorption properties of light hydrocarbons in HKUST-1-like tbo -MOFs: Application to methane purification and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption of methane (CH4), C2+ gases (ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and propylene (C3H6)), and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured on a series of tbo-MOFs (topological analogues of the prototypical MOF, HKUST-1, correspondingly dubbed tbo-MOF-1), which were developed via the supermolecular building layer (SBL) pillaring strategy. Specifically, tbo-MOF-2 and its isoreticular, functionalized analogue, tbo-MOF-2-{CH2O[Ph(CO2H)2]}2 (or tbo-MOF-3), which is characterized by pendant isophthalic acid moieties freely pointing into the cavities, were evaluated on the basis of potential use in methane storage and C2+/CH4 separation. The parent, tbo-MOF-2, showed high gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptake, close to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target for methane storage at 35 bar and room temperature. Though the presence of the pendant isophthalic acid moiety in the analogous compound, tbo-MOF-3, led to a decrease in total CH4 uptake, due mainly to the reduced size of the cavities, interestingly, it increased the affinity of the SBL-based tbo-MOF platform for propane, propene, ethane, and ethylene at low pressures compared with CH4, due additionally to the enhanced interactions of the highly polarizable light hydrocarbons with the isophthalic acid moiety. Using Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST), the predicted mixture adsorption equilibria for the C3H8/CH4, C3H6/CH4, C2H6/CH4, C2H4/CH4, and C3H8/CO2 systems showed high adsorption selectivity for C2+ over methane for tbo-MOF-3 compared with tbo-MOF-2. The high working storage capacity of tbo-MOF-2 and the high affinity of tbo-MOF-3 for C2+ over CH4 and CO2 make tbo-MOF an ideal platform for studies in gas storage and separation.

  10. Freudenthal Dual Lagrangians

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A

    2013-01-01

    The global U-dualities of extended supergravity have played a central role in differentiating the distinct classes of extremal black hole solutions. When the U-duality group satisfies certain algebraic conditions, as is the case for a broad class of supergravities, the extremal black holes enjoy a further symmetry known as Freudenthal duality (F-duality), which although distinct from U-duality preserves the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Here it is shown that, by adopting the doubled Lagrangian formalism, F-duality, defined on the doubled field strengths, is not only a symmetry of the black hole solutions, but also of the equations of motion themselves. A further role for F-duality is introduced in the context of world-sheet actions. The Nambu-Goto world-sheet action in any (t, s) signature spacetime can be written in terms of the F-dual. The corresponding field equations and Bianchi identities are then related by F-duality allowing for an F-dual formulation of Gaillard-Zumino duality on the world-sheet. An equi...

  11. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or “simple” (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model “modality atypical,” that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks. PMID:25767443

  12. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  13. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model "modality atypical," that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  14. Xenon ventilation CT using a dual-source dual-energy technique: dynamic ventilation abnormality in a child with bronchial atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Hong, Soo-Jong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Xenon ventilation CT using a dual-source dual-energy technique is a promising functional imaging method for the lung. We report the typical ventilation abnormalities, collateral ventilation and air trapping in the affected lung segment demonstrated on xenon ventilation CT in a child with bronchial atresia. (orig.)

  15. Hilbert series for theories with Aharony duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hwang, Chiung; Kim, Hyungchul [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaemo [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Postech Center for Theoretical Physics (PCTP), POSTECH,Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegi-ro, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    The algebraic structure of moduli spaces of 3d N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories is studied by computing the Hilbert series which is a generating function that counts gauge invariant operators in the chiral ring. These U(N{sub c}) theories with N{sub f} flavors have Aharony duals and their moduli spaces receive contributions from both mesonic and monopole operators. In order to compute the Hilbert series, recently developed techniques for Coulomb branch Hilbert series in 3d N=4 are extended to 3d N=2. The Hilbert series computation leads to a general expression of the algebraic variety which represents the moduli space of the U(N{sub c}) theory with N{sub f} flavors and its Aharony dual theory. A detailed analysis of the moduli space is given, including an analysis of the various components of the moduli space.

  16. Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.

  17. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  18. Dual – Temperature Electron distribution in a Laboratory Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual-temperature distribution function is used to investigate theoretically the effect of a perturbation of Maxwell distribution function on density ratios in a laboratory plasma produced solely by collision. By assuming a foreknowledge of collision coefficients and cross-sections and an atomic model which sets at two ...

  19. dual – temperature electron distribution in a laboratory plasma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVEERERRY

    The dual-temperature distribution function is used to investigate theoretically the effect of a perturbation of Maxwell distribution function on density ratios in a laboratory plasma produced solely by collision. By assuming a foreknowledge of collision coefficients and cross-sections and an atomic model which sets at two ...

  20. Dual Giant Gravitons in Sasaki-Einstein Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Dario; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of BPS D3-branes wrapped on a three-sphere in AdS_5 x L, so-called dual giant gravitons, where L is a Sasakian five-manifold. The phase space of these configurations is the symplectic cone X over L, and geometric quantisation naturally produces a Hilbert space of L^2-normalisable holomorphic functions on X, whose states are dual to scalar chiral BPS operators in the dual superconformal field theory. We define classical and quantum partition functions and relate them to earlier mathematical constructions by the authors and S.-T. Yau, hep-th/0603021. In particular, a Sasaki-Einstein metric then minimises an entropy function associated with the D3-brane. Finally, we introduce a grand canonical partition function that counts multiple dual giant gravitons. This is related simply to the index-character of the above reference, and provides an elegant method for counting multi-trace scalar BPS operators in the dual superconformal field theory.