WorldWideScience

Sample records for dual fuel compression

  1. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  2. Combustion characteristics of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)

  3. Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Sunil Kumar; Singla, Varun; Sandhu, Sarbjot Singh; Dhir, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Experimental investigation has been carried out to utilize biogas as an alternative source of energy in compression ignition (CI) engine under dual fuel operational mode. Biogas was inducted into the inlet manifold at different flow rates along with fresh air through inlet manifold and diesel was injected as a pilot fuel to initiate combustion under dual fuel mode. The engine performance and emission characteristics of dual fuel operational mode were analyzed at different biogas flow rates and compared with baseline conventional diesel fuel. Based upon the improved performance and lower emission characteristics under the dual fuel operation, the optimum flow rate of biogas was observed to be 2.2 kg/h. The lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) were noticed with biogas-diesel fuel under dual fuel mode when compared with neat diesel operation. Test results showed reduced NO x emissions and smoke opacity level in the exhaust tailpipe emissions. However, higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were noticed under dual fuel mode at entire engine loads when compared with baseline fossil petro-diesel. Hence, the use of low-cost gaseous fuel such as biogas would be an economically viable proposition to address the current and future problems of energy scarcity and associated environmental concerns.

  4. Compressed Biogas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine Optimization Study for Ultralow Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Koten

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the optimum operating conditions in a diesel engine fueled with compressed biogas (CBG and pilot diesel dual-fuel. One-dimensional (1D and three-dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD code and multiobjective optimization code were employed to investigate the influence of CBG-diesel dual-fuel combustion performance and exhaust emissions on a diesel engine. In this paper, 1D engine code and multiobjective optimization code were coupled and evaluated about 15000 cases to define the proper boundary conditions. In addition, selected single diesel fuel (dodecane and dual-fuel (CBG-diesel combustion modes were modeled to compare the engine performances and exhaust emission characteristics by using CFD code under various operating conditions. In optimization study, start of pilot diesel fuel injection, CBG-diesel flow rate, and engine speed were optimized and selected cases were compared using CFD code. CBG and diesel fuels were defined as leading reactants using user defined code. The results showed that significantly lower NOx emissions were emitted under dual-fuel operation for all cases compared to single-fuel mode at all engine load conditions.

  5. Effect of compression ratio on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Bhaskor J.; Saha, Ujjwal K.; Chatterjee, Soumya; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum brake thermal efficiency of 20.04% was obtained in dual fuel mode. • Compression ratio of 18 produced the maximum brake thermal efficiency. • Maximum replacement of diesel was found to be 79.46% at a compression ratio of 18. • CO gets reduced by 26.22% with the increase of compression ratio from 16 to18. • HC gets reduced by 41.97% with the increase of compression ratio from 16 to18. - Abstract: The energy consumption of the world is increasing at a staggering rate due to population explosion. The extensive use of energy has led to fossil fuel depletion and the rise in pollution. Renewable energy holds the key solution to these aforementioned problems. Biogas, one such renewable fuel, can be used in a diesel engine under dual fuel mode for the generation of power. This work attempts to unfold the effect of compression ratio on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas. For this investigation, a 3.5 kW single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio diesel engine is converted into a biogas run dual fuel diesel engine by connecting a venturi gas mixer at the inlet manifold. Experiments have been conducted at various compression ratios (18, 17.5, 17 and 16) and under different loading conditions fixing the standard injection timing at 23° before top dead centre. At 100% load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the dual fuel mode are found to be 20.04%, 18.25%, 17.07% and 16.42% at compression ratios of 18, 17.5, 17 and 16, respectively, whereas at the same load, the diesel mode shows an efficiency of 27.76% at a compression ratio of 17.5. The maximum replacement of the precious fossil fuel is found to be 79.46%, 76.1%, 74% and 72% at compression ratios of 18, 17.5, 17 and 16, respectively at 100% load. For the dual fuel mode, on an average, there is a reduction in carbon monoxide as well as hydrocarbon emission by 26.22% and 41.97% when compression

  6. Numerical Investigation of Injection Timing Influence on Fuel Slip and Influence of Compression Ratio on Knock Occurrence in Conventional Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sremec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressed natural gas can be used in diesel engine with great benefits, but because of its low reactivity it is usually used in a so called dual fuel combustion process. Optimal parameters for dual fuel engines are not yet investigated thoroughly which is the motivation for this work. In this work, a numerical study performed in a cycle simulation tool (AVL Boost v2013 on the influence of different injection timings on fuel slip into exhaust and influence of compression ratio on knock phenomena in port injected dual fuel engine was conducted. The introduction of natural gas into the intake port of a diesel engine usually results in some fuel slipping into the exhaust port due to valve overlap. By analysing the simulation results, the injection strategy that significantly decreases the natural gas slip is defined. The knock occurrence study showed that the highest allowed compression ratio that will result in knock free operation of the presented engine is 18 for ambient intake condition, while for charged intake conditions the compression ratio should be lowered to 16.

  7. Numerical investigation of the impact of gas composition on the combustion process in a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Wierzbicki, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the model of operation of a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine, powered by gaseous fuel with an initial dose of diesel fuel as the ignition inhibitor. The study used a zero-dimensional multiphase mathematical model of a dual-fuel engine to simulate the impact of enhancing

  8. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  9. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  10. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters. (author)

  11. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters

  12. Effect of engine load and biogas flow rate to the performance of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel (dieselbiogas) mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has released a target on reduction Green Houses Gases emissions (GHG) by 26% from level business-as-usual by 2020, and the target can be up to 41% by international supports. In the energy sector, this target can be reached effectively by promoting fossil fuel replacement or blending with biofuel. One of the potential solutions is operating compression ignition (CI) engine in dual-fuel (diesel-biogas) mode. In this study effects of engine load and biogas flow rate on the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel mode are investigated. In the present study, the used biogas is refined with methane content 70% of volume. The objectives are to explore the optimum operating condition of the CI engine run in dual-fuel mode. The experiments are performed on a four-strokes CI engine with rated output power of 4.41 kW. The engine is tested at constant speed 1500 rpm. The engine load varied from 600W to 1500W and biogas flow rate varied from 0 L/min to 6 L/min. The results show brake thermal efficiency of the engine run in dual-fuel mode is better than pure diesel mode if the biogas flow rates are 2 L/min and 4 L/min. It is recommended to operate the present engine in a dual-fuel mode with biogas flow rate of 4 L/min. The consumption of diesel fuel can be replaced up to 50%.

  13. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on some combustion characteristics of dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2003-03-01

    Combustion pressure rise rate and thermal efficiency data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. The experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion and the thermal efficiency at different EGR ratios. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and having an exhaust gas recycling system is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data and crank angle data are stored in a PC for offline analysis. The effects of EGR ratio, engine speeds, loads, temperature of recycled exhaust gases, intake charge pressure and engine compression ratio on combustion noise and thermal efficiency are examined for the dual fuel engine. The combustion noise and thermal efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when EGR is used in the dual fuel engine. (Author)

  14. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system. This article, which was originally published online on 14 September 2017, contained an error in the acknowledgment section. The corrected acknowledgment appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Knock in a Dual Fuel Gas/Diesel Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gharehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional compression ignition engines can easily be converted to a dual fuel mode of operation using natural gas as main fuel and diesel oil injection as pilot to initiate the combustion. At the same time, it is possible to increase the output power by increasing the diesel oil percentage. A detailed performance and combustion characteristic analysis of a heavy duty diesel engine has been studied in dual fuel mode of operation where natural gas is used as the main fuel and diesel oil as pilot. The influence of intake pressure and temperature on knock occurrence and the effects of initial swirl ratio on heat release rate, temperature-pressure and emission levels have been investigated in this study. It is shown that an increase in the initial swirl ratio lengthens the delay period for auto-ignition and extends the combustion period while it reduces NOx. There is an optimum value of the initial swirl ratio for a certain mixture intake temperature and pressure conditions that can achieve high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions while decreases the tendency to knock. Simultaneous increase of intake pressure and initial swirl ratio could be the solution to power loss and knock in dual fuel engine.

  16. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  17. Towards model-based control of RCCI-CDF mode-switching in dual fuel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrajuana, Armando; Bekdemir, C.; Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2018-01-01

    The operation of a dual fuel combustion engine using combustion mode-switching offers the benefit of higher thermal efficiency compared to single-mode operation. For various fuel combinations, the engine research community has shown that running dual fuel engines in Reactivity Controlled Compression

  18. An effort to enhance hydrogen energy share in a compression ignition engine under dual-fuel mode using low temperature combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 energy share increased from 18% with DDM to 36% with WDM (water injection). • H 2 energy share improved marginally with retarded injection timing mode (RDM). • Energy efficiency increased with increasing amount of H 2 in dual-fuel engine. • NO x emission decreased with water injection and retarded pilot fuel injection. • HC, CO and smoke emissions increased slightly with low temperature combustion. - Abstract: A limited hydrogen (H 2 ) energy share due to knocking is the major hurdle for effective utilization of H 2 in compression ignition (CI) engines under dual-fuel operation. The present study aims at improvement of H 2 energy share in a 7.4 kW direct injection CI engine under dual-fuel mode with two low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies; (i) retarded pilot fuel injection timing and (ii) water injection. Experiments were carried out under conventional strategies of diesel dual-fuel mode (DDM) and B20 dual-fuel mode (BDM); and LTC strategies of retarded injection timing dual-fuel mode (RDM) and water injected dual-fuel mode (WDM). The results explored that the H 2 energy share increased significantly from 18% with conventional DDM to 24, and 36% with RDM, and WDM respectively. The energy efficiency increased with increasing H 2 energy share under dual-fuel operation; however, for a particular energy share of 18% H 2 , it decreased from 34.8% with DDM to 33.7% with BDM, 32.7% with WDM and 29.9% with RDM. At 18% H 2 energy share, oxides of nitrogen emission decreased by 37% with RDM and 32% with WDM as compared to conventional DDM due to reduction of in-cylinder temperature, while it increased slightly about 5% with BDM. It is emerged from the study that water injection technique is the viable option among all other strategies to enhance the H 2 energy share in the engine with a slight penalty of increase in smoke, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions

  19. Notion Of Artificial Labs Slow Global Warming And Advancing Engine Studies Perspectives On A Computational Experiment On Dual-Fuel Compression-Ignition Engine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonye K. Jack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate clean energy applications of the dual-fuel internal combustion engine D-FICE with pilot Diesel fuel to aid public policy formulation in terms of present and future benefits to the modern transportation stationary power and promotion of oil and gas green- drilling the brief to an engine research team was to investigate the feasible advantages of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines guided by the following concerns i Sustainable fuel and engine power delivery ii The requirements for fuel flexibility iii Low exhausts emissions and environmental pollution iv Achieving low specific fuel consumption and economy for maximum power v The comparative advantages over the conventional Diesel engines vi Thermo-economic modeling and analysis for the optimal blend as basis for a benefitcost evaluation Planned in two stages for reduced cost and fast turnaround of results - initial preliminary stage with basic simple models and advanced stage with more detailed complex modeling. The paper describes a simplified MATLAB based computational experiment predictive model for the thermodynamic combustion and engine performance analysis of dual-fuel compression-ignition engine studies operating on the theoretical limited-pressure cycle with several alternative fuel-blends. Environmental implications for extreme temperature moderation are considered by finite-time thermodynamic modeling for maximum power with predictions for pollutants formation and control by reaction rates kinetics analysis of systematic reduced plausible coupled chemistry models through the NCN reaction pathway for the gas-phase reactions classes of interest. Controllable variables for engine-out pollutants emissions reduction and in particular NOx elimination are identified. Verifications and Validations VampV through Performance Comparisons were made using a clinical approach in selection of StrokeBore ratios greater-than and equal-to one amp88051 low-to-high engine speeds and medium

  20. Dual compression is not an uncommon type of iliac vein compression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Gu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jian; Lou, Wen-Sheng; He, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Typical iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is characterized by compression of left common iliac vein (LCIV) by the overlying right common iliac artery (RCIA). We described an underestimated type of IVCS with dual compression by right and left common iliac arteries (LCIA) simultaneously. Thirty-one patients with IVCS were retrospectively included. All patients received trans-catheter venography and computed tomography (CT) examinations for diagnosing and evaluating IVCS. Late venography and reconstructed CT were used for evaluating the anatomical relationship among LCIV, RCIA and LCIA. Imaging manifestations as well as demographic data were collected and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Sole and dual compression were found in 32.3% (n = 10) and 67.7% (n = 21) of 31 patients respectively. No statistical differences existed between them in terms of age, gender, LCIV diameter at the maximum compression point, pressure gradient across stenosis, and the percentage of compression level. On CT and venography, sole compression was commonly presented with a longitudinal compression at the orifice of LCIV while dual compression was usually presented as two types: one had a lengthy stenosis along the upper side of LCIV and the other was manifested by a longitudinal compression near to the orifice of external iliac vein. The presence of dual compression seemed significantly correlated with the tortuous LCIA (p = 0.006). Left common iliac vein can be presented by dual compression. This type of compression has typical manifestations on late venography and CT.

  1. An assessment of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion capabilities in a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine fueled with an intermediate ethanol-gasoline blend and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Balloul, Iyad; Pradel, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reactivity controlled compression ignition regime utilized from 25% to 35% load. • Dual-mode reduces the regeneration periods of the diesel particulate filter. • The use of near-term available biofuels allows good performance and emissions. • Dual-mode leads to 2% greater efficiency than diesel combustion at high engine speeds. - Abstract: This work investigates the capabilities of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion engine operation to cover the full operating range of a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5:1. This concept is based on covering all the engine map switching between the reactivity controlled compression ignition and the conventional diesel combustion operating modes. Specifically, the benefits of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion are exploited whenever possible according to certain restrictions, while the conventional diesel combustion operation is used to cover the zones of the engine map in which the reactivity controlled compression ignition operation is limited. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder research diesel engine derived from the multi-cylinder production engine. In addition, considering the mandatory presence of biofuels in the future context of road transport and the ability of ethanol to be blended with gasoline, the low reactivity fuel used in the study is a blend of 20% ethanol by volume with 80% of 95 octane number gasoline. Moreover, a diesel containing 7% of biodiesel has been used as high reactivity fuel. Firstly, a reactivity controlled compression ignition mapping is performed to check the operational limits of the concept in this engine platform. Later, based on the results, the potential of the dual-mode concept is discussed. Results suggest that, under the constraints imposed, reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion can be utilized between 25% and 35% load. In this region

  2. Experimental investigation on dual fuel operation of acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajarajeswari Engineering College, Adayalampattu, Chennai, 600095 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, 600025 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Depletion of fossils fuels and environmental degradation have prompted researchers throughout the world to search for a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engine. One such step is to utilize renewable fuels in diesel engines by partial or total replacement of diesel in dual fuel mode. In this study, acetylene gas has been considered as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engine, which has excellent combustion properties. Investigation has been carried out on a single cylinder, air cooled, direct injection (DI), compression ignition engine designed to develop the rated power output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm under variable load conditions, run on dual fuel mode with diesel as injected primary fuel and acetylene inducted as secondary gaseous fuel at various flow rates. Acetylene aspiration resulted in lower thermal efficiency. Smoke, HC and CO emissions reduced, when compared with baseline diesel operation. With acetylene induction, due to high combustion rates, NO{sub x} emission significantly increased. Peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise also increased in the dual fuel mode of operation due to higher flame speed. It is concluded that induction of acetylene can significantly reduce smoke, CO and HC emissions with a small penalty on efficiency. (author)

  3. Dual-fuel HCCI operation with DME/LPG/gasoline/hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines include usage of the different type of fuels, ultra low nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions and improved fuel economy. Disadvantages include an excessive combustion rate, engine noise, and hydrocarbon and carbon emissions. An experiment on dual-fuel HCCI operation with dimethyl ether (DME)/liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/gasoline/hydrogen was presented. The advantages and disadvantages were first presented and the dual-fuel HCCI combustion engine was illustrated through an experimental apparatus. The experimental conditions were also presented in terms of engine speed, DME injection quantity, LPC injection quantity, and LPC composition. Experimental results were discussed for output performance and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). It was concluded that the effect of LPG composition in a DME-LPG dual-fueled HCCI engine at various injection quantity and injective timing were observed. Specifically, it was found that propane was a more effective way to increase IMEP in this study, and that in a DME HCCI engine, higher load limit was extended by using LPG as an ignition inhibitor. tabs., figs.

  4. Validation of a zero-dimensional and 2-phase combustion model for dual-fuel compression ignition engine simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demands for the reduction of exhaust emissions and the pursuit to re-duce the use of fossil fuels require the search for new fuelling technologies in combustion engines. One of the most promising technologies is the multi-fuel compression ignition engine concept, in which a small dose of liquid fuel injected directly into the cylinder acts as the ignition inhibitor of the gaseous fuel. Achieving the optimum combustion process in such an engine requires the application of advanced control algorithms which require mathematical modelling support. In response to the growing demand for new simulation tools, a 0-D model of a dual-fuel engine was proposed and validated. The validation was performed in a broad range of engine operating points, including various speeds and load condition, as well as different natural gas/diesel blend ratios. It was demonstrated that the average model calculation error within the entire cycle did not exceed 6.2%, and was comparable to the measurement results cycle to cycle variations. The maximum model calculation error in a single point of a cycle was 15% for one of the complex (multipoint injection cases. In other cases, it did not exceed 11%.

  5. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels

  6. Achieving clean and efficient engine operation up to full load by combining optimized RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine load-speed map. • EURO VI NOx levels up to 14 bar IMEP with fully and highly premixed RCCI strategies. • Dual-fuel provides up to 7% higher efficiency than CDC if urea consumption is considered. - Abstract: This experimental work investigates the capabilities of the reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion concept to be operated in the whole engine map and discusses its benefits when compared to conventional diesel combustion. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder medium-duty diesel engine fueled with regular gasoline and diesel fuels. The main modification on the stock engine architecture was the addition of a port fuel injector in the intake manifold. In addition, with the aim of extending the reactivity controlled compression ignition operating range towards higher loads, the piston bowl volume was increased to reduce the compression ratio of the engine from 17.5:1 (stock) down to 15.3:1. To allow the dual-fuel operation over the whole engine map without exceeding the mechanical limitations of the engine, an optimized dual-fuel combustion strategy is proposed in this research. The combustion strategy changes as the engine load increases, starting from a fully premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to around 8 bar IMEP, then switching to a highly premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to 15 bar IMEP, and finally moving to a mainly diffusive dual-fuel combustion to reach the full load operation. The engine mapping results obtained using this combustion strategy show that reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion allows fulfilling the EURO VI NOx limit up to 14 bar IMEP. Ultra-low soot emissions are also achieved when the fully premixed combustion is promoted, however, the soot levels rise notably as the combustion strategy moves to a less premixed pattern. Finally, the direct comparison of

  7. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON ENERGY AND EMISSION OF VCR DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH DUAL BLENDS OF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. EKNATH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent 10 years biodiesel fuel was studied extensively as an alternative fuel. Most of researchers reported performance and emission of biodiesel and their blends with constant compression ratio. Also all the research was conducted with use of single biodiesel and its blend. Few reports are observed with the use of variable compression ratio and blends of more than one biodiesel. Main aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of compression ratio on the performance and emission of dual blends of biodiesel. In the present study Blends of Jatropha and Karanja with Diesel fuel was tested on single cylinder VCR DI diesel engine for compression ratio 16 and 18. High density of biodiesel fuel causes longer delay period for Jatropha fuel was observed compare with Karanja fuel. However blending of two biodiesel K20J40D results in to low mean gas temperature which is the main reason for low NOx emission.

  8. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  9. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2000-04-01

    It is well known that the operation of dual fuel engines at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To rectify this problem, tests have been conducted on a special single cylinder compression ignition research engine (Ricardo E6) to investigate the effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of an indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with gaseous fuel. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel and methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted into the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. Through experimental investigations, it is shown that, the low efficiency and excess emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the amount of pilot fuel, while increasing the amount of pilot fuel at high loads led to early knocking. (author)

  10. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  11. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  12. Performance and specific emissions contours throughout the operating range of hydrogen-fueled compression ignition engine with diesel and RME pilot fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and emissions contours of a hydrogen dual fueled compression ignition (CI engine with two pilot fuels (diesel and rapeseed methyl ester, and compares the performance and emissions iso-contours of diesel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME single fueling with diesel and RME piloted hydrogen dual fueling throughout the engines operating speed and power range. The collected data have been used to produce iso-contours of thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific oxides of nitrogen (NOX, specific hydrocarbons (HC and specific carbon dioxide (CO2 on a power-speed plane. The performance and emission maps are experimentally investigated, compared, and critically discussed. Apart from medium loads at lower and medium speeds with diesel piloted hydrogen combustion, dual fueling produced lower thermal efficiency everywhere across the map. For diesel and RME single fueling the maximum specific NOX emissions are centered at the mid speed, mid power region. Hydrogen dual fueling produced higher specific NOX with both pilot fuels as compared to their respective single fueling operations. The range, location and trends of specific NOX varied significantly when compared to single fueling cases. The volumetric efficiency is discussed in detail with the implications of manifold injection of hydrogen analyzed with the conclusions drawn.

  13. Use of a non-edible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel in compression ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, S.; Ramadhas, A.S.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2006-01-01

    Shortage of petroleum fuels is assumed predominance globally and hence efforts are being made in every country to look for alternative fuels, especially for running internal compression ignition engines. However, the limited availability of edible vegetable oils in excess amounts is a limiting factors, which limits their large usage as an alternative fuel. A remedy for this is the use of non-edible oils obtained mainly from seeds, which are otherwise dumped as waste material. An effort is made here to use rubber seed oil as fuel in compression ignition engine at various proportions, mixed with diesel oil. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine are measured under dual fuel operation. The compression ignition engine could be run satisfactorily without any noticeable problem, even with 100% rubber seed oil. A multi-layer artificial neural network model was developed for predicting the performance and emission characteristics of the engine under dual fuel operation. Experimental data has been used to train the network. The predicted engine performance and emission characteristics obtained by neural network model are validated by using the experimental data. The neural network model is found to be quite efficient in predicting engine performance and emission characteristics. It has been found that 60-80% diesel replacement by rubber seed oil is the optimum in order to get maximum engine performance and minimum exhaust emission

  14. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  15. Understanding the role of low reactivity fuel stratification in a dual fuel RCCI engine – A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Bekdemir, C.

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas - diesel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is currently one of the most promising combustion strategies for the next generation heavy-duty engines. A major issue to be addressed for this dual fuel concept to become practically applicable is its low combustion efficiency

  16. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation

  17. Effect of Biodiesel Fuel Injection Timing and Venture for Gaseous Fuel Induction on the Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancing or retarding pilot fuel injection timing in a diesel engine provided with either conventional mechanical fuel injection (CMFIS or high pressure injection as in common rail fuel injection (CRDI systems can significantly affect its performance and tail pipe emissions. Performance of diesel engine when fueled with various biofuels as well as gaseous fuels tends to vary with subsequent changes in pilot fuel injection timings. Biodiesel derived from rubber seed oil called Rubber Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RuOME and hydrogen (H2 and hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas called (HCNG both being renewable fuels when used in diesel engines modified to operate in dual fuel mode can provide complete replacement for fossil diesel. In the present study, effect of injection timings and venture design for gas mixing on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual fuel engine fitted with both CMFIS and CRDI injection systems and operated on RuOME and HCNG/hydrogen has been investigated. Results showed that high pressure CRDI assisted injection of RuOME with optimized mixing chamber (carburetor for hydrogen induction in dual fuel engine performed improved compared to that with CMFIS. In addition, for the same fuel combinations, CRDI resulted in lower biodiesel consumption, lower carbon monoxide (BSCO and hydrocarbon (BSHC emissions and increased NOx emissions than CMFIS operation.

  18. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  19. Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B.B. [Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Sahoo, N.; Saha, U.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2009-08-15

    Petroleum resources are finite and, therefore, search for their alternative non-petroleum fuels for internal combustion engines is continuing all over the world. Moreover gases emitted by petroleum fuel driven vehicles have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. There is universal acceptance of the need to reduce such emissions. Towards this, scientists have proposed various solutions for diesel engines, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines, which use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel, are referred to as 'dual-fuel engines'. Natural gas and bio-derived gas appear more attractive alternative fuels for dual-fuel engines in view of their friendly environmental nature. In the gas-fumigated dual-fuel engine, the primary fuel is mixed outside the cylinder before it is inducted into the cylinder. A pilot quantity of liquid fuel is injected towards the end of the compression stroke to initiate combustion. When considering a gaseous fuel for use in existing diesel engines, a number of issues which include, the effects of engine operating and design parameters, and type of gaseous fuel, on the performance of the dual-fuel engines, are important. This paper reviews the research on above issues carried out by various scientists in different diesel engines. This paper touches upon performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual-fuel engines which use natural gas, biogas, producer gas, methane, liquefied petroleum gas, propane, etc. as gaseous fuel. It reveals that 'dual-fuel concept' is a promising technique for controlling both NO{sub x} and soot emissions even on existing diesel engine. But, HC, CO emissions and 'bsfc' are higher for part load gas diesel engine operations. Thermal efficiency of dual-fuel engines improve either with increased engine speed, or with advanced injection timings, or with increased amount of pilot fuel. The ignition

  20. Simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S., E-mail: s.murugan@nitrkl.ac.in

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation.

  1. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  2. Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauhari, I.; Yusof, H.A.M.; Saidan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Superplastic boronizing. → Dual compression method has been developed. → Hard boride layer. → Bulk deformation was significantly thicker the boronized layer. → New data on boronizing could be expanded the application of DSS in industries. - Abstract: In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a minimal amount of boron powder under a fix pre-strained compression condition throughout the process. The compression strain is controlled in such a way that plastic deformation is restricted at the surface asperities of the substrate in contact with the boron powder. In the second method, the boronized specimen taken from the first mode is compressed superplastically up to a certain compressive strain under a certain strain rate condition. The process in the second method is conducted without the present of boron powder. As compared with the conventional boronizing process, through this SPB under dual compression methods, a much harder and thicker boronized layer thickness is able to be produced using a minimal amount of boron powder.

  3. Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhari, I., E-mail: iswadi@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yusof, H.A.M.; Saidan, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: {yields} Superplastic boronizing. {yields} Dual compression method has been developed. {yields} Hard boride layer. {yields} Bulk deformation was significantly thicker the boronized layer. {yields} New data on boronizing could be expanded the application of DSS in industries. - Abstract: In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a minimal amount of boron powder under a fix pre-strained compression condition throughout the process. The compression strain is controlled in such a way that plastic deformation is restricted at the surface asperities of the substrate in contact with the boron powder. In the second method, the boronized specimen taken from the first mode is compressed superplastically up to a certain compressive strain under a certain strain rate condition. The process in the second method is conducted without the present of boron powder. As compared with the conventional boronizing process, through this SPB under dual compression methods, a much harder and thicker boronized layer thickness is able to be produced using a minimal amount of boron powder.

  4. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  5. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance and emissions of a dual-fuel pilot diesel ignition engine operating on various premixed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Amin; Birouk, Madjid; Lawler, Benjamin; Gharehghani, Ayatallah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas/diesel, methanol/diesel, and hydrogen/diesel cases were investigated. • For leaner mixtures, the hydrogen/diesel case has the highest IMEP and ITE. • The methanol/diesel case has the maximum IMEP and ITE for richer mixtures. • Hydrogen/diesel case experiences soot and CO free combustion at rich regions. - Abstract: A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with chemical kinetics mechanisms was applied to investigate the effect of various premixed fuels and equivalence ratios on the combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics of a dual-fuel indirect injection (IDI) pilot diesel ignition engine. The diesel fuel is supplied via indirect injection into the cylinder prior to the end of the compression stroke. Various premixed fuels were inducted into the engine through the intake manifold. The results showed that the dual-fuel case using hydrogen/diesel has a steeper pressure rise rate, higher peak heat release rate (PHRR), more advanced ignition timing, and shorter ignition delay compared to the natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases. For leaner mixtures (Φ_P 0.32). For instance, with an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the ITE is 56.24% and 60.85% for hydrogen/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases, respectively. For an equivalence ratio of 0.15, the natural gas/diesel simulation exhibits partial burn combustion and thus results in a negative IMEP. At equivalence ratios of 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25, the methanol/diesel case experiences misfiring phenomenon which consequently deteriorates the engine performance considerably. As for the engine-out emissions, the hydrogen/diesel results display carbon monoxide (CO) free combustion relative to natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel engines; however, considerable amount of nitrogen oxides (NO_x) emissions are produced at an equivalence ratio of 0.35 which exceeds the Euro 6 NO_x limit. Due to the larger area exposed to high temperature regions

  7. Validation of a zero-dimensional and two-phase combustion model for dual-fuel compression ignition engine simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Wierzbicki, S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demands for the reduction of exhaust emissions and the pursuit to reduce the use of fossil fuels require the search for new fuelling technologies in combustion engines. One of the most promising technologies is the multi-fuel compression ignition engine concept, in which a small dose of

  8. Main conditions and effectiveness of gas fuel use for powering of dual fuel IC self-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are fuelled mostly with liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel. Nowadays the gaseous fuels are applied as driving fuel of combustion engines. In case of spark ignition engines the liquid fuel (petrol can be totally replaced by the gas fuels. This possibility in case of compression engines is essentially restricted through the higher self-ignition temperatures of the combustible gases in comparison to classical diesel oil. Solution if this problem can be achieved by using of the dual fuel system, where for ignition of the prepared fuel gas - air mixture a specified amount of the liquid fuel (diesel oil should be additionally injected into the combustion chamber. For assurance that the combustion process proceeds without mistakes and completely, some basic conditions should be satisfied. In the frame of this work, three main aspects of this problem are taken into account: a. filling efficiency of the engine, b. stoichiometry of the combustion, c. performance of mechanical parameters (torque, power. A complex analysis of these conditions has been done and some achieved important results are presented in the paper.

  9. Optimal dual-fuel propulsion for minimum inert weight or minimum fuel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of single-stage vehicles with multiple propulsion phases has been conducted with the phasing optimized to minimize a general cost function. Some results are presented for linearized sizing relationships which indicate that single-stage-to-orbit, dual-fuel rocket vehicles can have lower inert weight than similar single-fuel rocket vehicles and that the advantage of dual-fuel vehicles can be increased if a dual-fuel engine is developed. The results also indicate that the optimum split can vary considerably with the choice of cost function to be minimized.

  10. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  11. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  12. Development of design technology for dual-cooled fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho

    2010-03-01

    Primary purpose of the project is to complete a basic design of the power uprating dual-cooled fuel's structural components for an actual use in the existing nuclear power plants. It also includes a basic design of the components of a dual-cooled fuel rod. To this end, during the three years of the first stage (2007.03.∼2010.02.), concepts and technical issues of the structural components such as a supporting structure, guide thimbles and instrumentation tube and the top and bottom end pieces were derived in order to comply with the functional requirements and design criteria of them. Basic design was carried out to resolve the issues by using analytical methods as well as experiments, and observed finally is that a structural compatibility of the designed dual-cooled fuel to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (OPR-1000). As for the dual-cooled fuel rod's components such as a plenum spring, a spacer and end plugs, a concept of them was established by using the basic dimension and array produced by other sub-projects. In turn, the basic design was completed by using the finite element analysis and conventional mechanical design formulae. Additionally, a welding method and equipment for a dual-cooled fuel rod specimen was also successfully developed to prepare for the irradiation tests at the HANARO. It was shown that a dual-cooed fuel for the OPR-1000 can be designed after manufacturing the partial assembly with the designed components and their drawings. The first stage was completed with passing the Gate checks proposed at the beginning. During the second stage(2010.03.∼2012.02.), researches on the mechanical behavior and structural integrity of the designed dual-cooled fuel will be conducted for preparing a license of it, which should be done when the dual-cooled fuel is commercialized

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of LPG combustion in dual-fuel engines; Modelisation thermodynamique de la combustion du GPL dans les moteurs dual-fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilcan, A.; Le Corre, O.; Tazerout, M. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Ramesh, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2002-07-01

    Dual-fuel engines are modified diesel engines burning simultaneously two fuels inside the cylinder: a gaseous one, called the primary fuel and a liquid one, called the pilot fuel. The thermal efficiency of the dual-fuel engine and of the diesel engine are comparable; the level of emissions is lower compared to the diesel one. This article presents a new procedure for the combustion modeling in a LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine. The procedures deals with the ignition delay period and with the rate of heat release inside the cylinder. This procedure is validated using experimental data issued front a collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology from Madras, India. The used engine is a single-cylinder one, air-cooled. The pilot fuel is direct injected inside the cylinder The engine was run at constant load and with different diesel substitutions, i.e. for different air to fuel ratios of the primary fuel-air mixture. The general error of the procedure is below 10%. (authors)

  14. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  15. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Bakor, Radwan; AlRamadan, Abdullah; Almansour, Mohammed; Sim, Jaeheon; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Viollet, Yoann; Chang, Junseok

    2018-01-01

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  16. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2018-04-03

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  17. Effect of compressive force on PEM fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Colin Stephen

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells possess the potential, as a zero-emission power source, to replace the internal combustion engine as the primary option for transportation applications. Though there are a number of obstacles to vast PEM fuel cell commercialization, such as high cost and limited durability, there has been significant progress in the field to achieve this goal. Experimental testing and analysis of fuel cell performance has been an important tool in this advancement. Experimental studies of the PEM fuel cell not only identify unfiltered performance response to manipulation of variables, but also aid in the advancement of fuel cell modelling, by allowing for validation of computational schemes. Compressive force used to contain a fuel cell assembly can play a significant role in how effectively the cell functions, the most obvious example being to ensure proper sealing within the cell. Compression can have a considerable impact on cell performance beyond the sealing aspects. The force can manipulate the ability to deliver reactants and the electrochemical functions of the cell, by altering the layers in the cell susceptible to this force. For these reasons an experimental study was undertaken, presented in this thesis, with specific focus placed on cell compression; in order to study its effect on reactant flow fields and performance response. The goal of the thesis was to develop a consistent and accurate general test procedure for the experimental analysis of a PEM fuel cell in order to analyse the effects of compression on performance. The factors potentially affecting cell performance, which were a function of compression, were identified as: (1) Sealing and surface contact; (2) Pressure drop across the flow channel; (3) Porosity of the GDL. Each factor was analysed independently in order to determine the individual contribution to changes in performance. An optimal degree of compression was identified for the cell configuration in

  18. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  19. Dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engines: Technology, performance, and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S. H.; Weaver, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    An investigation of current dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engine design, performance, and emissions was conducted. The most pressing technological problems associated with dual-fuel engine use were identified along with potential solutions. It was concluded that dual-fuel engines can achieve low NO(sub x) and particulate emissions while retaining fuel-efficiency and BMEP levels comparable to those of diesel engines. The investigation also examined the potential economic impact of dual-fuel engines in diesel-electric locomotives, marine vessels, farm equipment, construction, mining, and industrial equipment, and stand-alone electricity generation systems. Recommendations for further additional funding to support research, development, and demonstration in these applications were then presented.

  20. A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas diesel dual-fuel automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhua Zhang; Yaozhang Bian; Lizeng Si; Junzhi Liao; Odbileg, N. [Chang' an Univ., Automobile Faculty, Xi' an (China)

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the control scheme of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-diesel dual-fuel engine with electronic control is illustrated, the external characteristics and load characteristics of the LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine and the diesel engine are compared and analysed, and the results of automobile road tests are also given. The experimental results show that, compared with diesel, the output performance of dual fuel is not reduced, while smoke emission of dual fuel is significantly reduced, NO{sub x} emission of dual fuel is hardly changed, but HC emission and CO emission of dual fuel are increased and fuel consumption of dual fuel is reduced. (Author)

  1. Bioethanol E85 as a fuel for dual fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An increase in the E85 fraction is changing the nature of the HRR course. • Change of combustion phasing with E85 fraction. • The ignition delay of dual fuel engine decreases with increasing E85 fuel. • Premixed combustion of E85 fuel reduces smoke emissions. - Abstract: This study investigates the potential of E85 fuelling in a diesel engine. Researches were performed using a three-cylinder a direct injection diesel engine. A dual-fuelling technology is implemented such that E85 is introduced into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector while diesel is injected directly into the cylinder. The primary aim of the study was to determine the operating parameters of the engine powered on E85 bioethanol fuel in dual fuel system. The parameters that were taken into account are: engine efficiency, indicated mean effective pressure, heat release rate, combustion duration and ignition delay, combustion phasing and exhaust toxicity. With E85 fuel participation, NO x and soot emissions were reduced, whereas CO and HC emissions increased considerably. It was found that E85 participation in a combustible mixture reduced the excess air factor for the engine and this led to increased emissions of CO and HC, but decreased emissions of nitrogen oxides and soot

  2. Effect of engine parameters and gaseous fuel type on the cyclic variability of dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Y.E. Selim [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variation as reflected in the combustion pressure data of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four stroke, Ricardo E6 engine converted to run as dual fuel engine on diesel and gaseous fuel of LPG or methane. A measuring set-up consisting of a piezo-electric pressure transducer with charge amplifier and fast data acquisition card installed on an IBM microcomputer was used to gather the data of up to 1200 consecutive combustion cycles of the cylinder under various combination of engine operating and design parameters. These parameters included type of gaseous fuel, engine load, compression ratio, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass, and engine speed. The data for each operating conditions were analyzed for the maximum pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise representing the combustion noise, and indicated mean effective pressure. The cycle-to-cycle variation is expressed as the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of these three parameters. It was found that the type of gaseous fuel and engine operating and design parameters affected the combustion noise and its cyclic variation and these effects have been presented. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Experimental study of dual fuel engine performance using variable LPG composition and engine parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnajjar, Emad; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Hamdan, Mohammad O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using variable LPG is studied. • Five fuels with propane to butane % volume ratio are: 100-70-55-25-0. • 100% Propane composition shows the highest noise levels with similar performance. • At 45° BTDC injection timing 55% Propane LPG the only fuel experience knocking. • LPG fuels gave similar engine performance, with differences in levels of noise. - Abstract: The present work investigates experimentally the effect of LPG fuel with different composition and engine parameters on the performance of a dual compression engine. Five different blends of LPG fuels are used with Propane to Butane volume ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 55:45, 25:75, and 0:100. A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four strokes, indirectly injected, water cooled modified Ricardo E6 engine, is used in this study. The study is carried out by measuring the cylinder pressure, engine load, engine speed, crank angle, and the fuel’s flow rate. The engine performance under variable LPG fuel composition, engine load, pilot fuel injection timing, compression ratio, pilot fuel mass and engine speed, are estimated by comparing the following engine parameters: the cylinder maximum pressure, the indicated mean effective pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, and the thermal efficiency. The experimental data indicates that the engine parameters are playing a major role on the engine’s performance. Different LPG fuel composition did not show a major effect on the engine efficiency but directly impacted the levels of generated combustion noise

  4. Pressure-time characteristics in diesel engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Helwan Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-04-01

    Combustion pressure data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas, and compared to the diesel engine case. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. Experimental investigation on diesel and dual fuel engines revealed the noise generated from combustion in both cases. A Ricardo E6 diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data are stored in a PC for off-line analysis. The effect of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, and pilot fuel quantity on combustion noise is examined for both diesel and dual engine. Maximum pressure rise rate and some samples of ensemble averaged pressure-crank angle data are presented in the present work. The combustion noise, generally, is found to increase for the dual fuel engine case as compared to the diesel engine case. (Author)

  5. Analysis of a combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a CNG-B20 fuelled diesel engine under dual fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj S. Shelke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the primary greenhouse gases emitted by various human activities. CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of carbon cycle. Human activities are altering the carbon cycle by adding or removing CO2 to the atmosphere. The main human activity that emits the CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels for energy and transportation. Compression ignition (CI engines emit high amount of CO2 emission as it is the end product of complete combustion of hydro carbon fuels. Moreover, they emit higher NOx (nitrogen oxides and PM (particulate matter emissions and have higher fuel consumption. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on a CI engine under dual fuel mode with biodiesel as a pilot fuel and compressed natural gas (CNG as a main fuel. The effects of 10 % and 20 % CNG energy shares on performance and emission characteristics of the engine at rated (100% loads were studied. Experimental results indicate the beneficial of CNG addition on improvement in the engine efficiency, and reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions. The NOx and CO2 emissions decreased by 14.24 % and 30 % respectively at the rated load with biodiesel + CNG (20 % energy share as compared to base diesel. No knocking combustion was observed during the tests which confirm the smooth operation. The dual fuel operation with combination of CNG-biodiesel is an effective method to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions with an additional benefit of lower specific energy consumption.

  6. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  7. An investigation on the particulate number and size distributions over the whole engine map from an optimized combustion strategy combining RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized dual-mode dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine map. • High coherence between smoke and total particles number for diffusive dual-fuel mode. • Fully premixed RCCI regime dominated by small particles of 30 nm diameter peak. • Highly premixed RCCI mode has a transitional behavior with two particle diameter peaks. - Abstract: Literature demonstrates that, for premixed low temperature combustion concepts, particulate matter cannot be directly extrapolated from soot emissions measurements, as typically done for conventional diesel combustion. This is because the particulate matter from low temperature combustion has low fraction of carbonaceous compounds and great amount of soluble organic fraction, which is not captured by the smoke measurement techniques such as the optical reflectometry. By this reason, the study of the particulate matter characteristics from this combustion techniques requires using specific equipment. The aim of the current work is to gain understanding on the particulate matter characteristics from the dual-mode dual-fuel combustion, which is an optimized combustion strategy that combines fully and highly premixed RCCI regimes at low and medium loads, and switches to dual-fuel diffusion combustion at full load. The study was performed over the whole engine map, using a 15.3:1 compression ratio medium-duty EURO VI diesel engine. In particular, the particulate number and size distributions were sampled using a scanning mobility particle sizer and a condensation particle counter, which allow measuring the size distribution and total number of particles from 5 to 250 nm. Results demonstrate that the fully premixed RCCI combustion is dominated by small particles (less than 30 nm in mobility diameter), the dual-fuel diffusion mode is dominated by larger particles (around 100 nm in mobility diameter) showing more diesel-like particle size distributions, and the highly premixed reactivity controlled compression

  8. Natural-gas fueled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakianitis, T.; Namasivayam, A.M.; Crookes, R.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gas is a fossil fuel that has been used and investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Compared with conventional gasoline engines, SI engines using natural gas can run at higher compression ratios, thus producing higher thermal efficiencies but also increased nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, while producing lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). These engines also produce relatively less power than gasoline-fueled engines because of the convergence of one or more of three factors: a reduction in volumetric efficiency due to natural-gas injection in the intake manifold; the lower stoichiometric fuel/air ratio of natural gas compared to gasoline; and the lower equivalence ratio at which these engines may be run in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. High NO{sub x} emissions, especially at high loads, reduce with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, EGR rates above a maximum value result in misfire and erratic engine operation. Hydrogen gas addition increases this EGR threshold significantly. In addition, hydrogen increases the flame speed of the natural gas-hydrogen mixture. Power levels can be increased with supercharging or turbocharging and intercooling. Natural gas is used to power CI engines via the dual-fuel mode, where a high-cetane fuel is injected along with the natural gas in order to provide a source of ignition for the charge. Thermal efficiency levels compared with normal diesel-fueled CI-engine operation are generally maintained with dual-fuel operation, and smoke levels are reduced significantly. At the same time, lower NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as well as higher HC and CO emissions compared with normal CI-engine operation at low and intermediate loads are recorded. These trends are caused by the low charge temperature and increased ignition delay, resulting in low combustion temperatures. Another factor is

  9. Comportamento de um motor de ignição por compressão trabalhando com óleo Diesel e gás natural A dual fuel compression ignition engine performance, running with Diesel fuel and natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Schlosser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A previsível escassez de petróleo aliada a uma consciência ecológica está levando pesquisadores a procurar novas fontes de energia e processos de combustão mais eficientes e menos poluentes. Entre os combustíveis menos poluentes está o gás natural, cujo consumo aumenta ano a ano. Os motores de combustão interna são transformadores de energia que têm baixa eficiência de conversão. Este trabalho avaliou um motor Diesel, bicombustível, movido a Diesel e gás natural. Nesse motor, a energia provém, basicamente, da combustão do gás natural. O Diesel tem a função de produzir o início da combustão do gás, que é o combustível principal. Assim, haverá uma substituição parcial de óleo Diesel por gás natural, aumentando o rendimento da combustão. Inicialmente, foi feito um ensaio-testemunha, somente com óleo Diesel e após foram feitos ensaios, com três repetições, para variadas proporções de óleo Diesel, gás natural e ângulos de avanço da injeção. O melhor desempenho foi obtido para 22% de óleo Diesel em relação ao máximo débito da bomba injetora e 13 L min-1 de gás natural com ângulo de avanço de injeção original (21º. Nesse caso, a potência média aumentou 14%, e o consumo específico (medido em valores monetários diminuiu 46% em relação ao ensaio-testemunha.The foresight of a petroleum shortage and an ecological conscience is moving scientists to look for new sources of energy and to develop more efficient combustion processes and reduced emissions. Natural gas is a reduced emission fuel, whose consumption increases every year. The present work evaluates a dual fuel compression ignition engine. The major portion of the fuel burned is natural gas. The Diesel fuel acts as combustion starter, which ignites under the compression heat. Diesel fuel is used only as an ignition source. The partial substitution of Diesel fuel by natural gas increases the combustion efficiency and achieves significant

  10. Experimental investigation of hydrogen energy share improvement in a compression ignition engine using water injection and compression ratio reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency (EE) increased with increase in hydrogen (H_2) energy share. • H_2 energy share increased from 19% to 79% with combined CR reduction and water. • In-cylinder temperature decreased significantly with water addition and CR reduction. • HC, CO, smoke and NO_x emissions with water and CR are lower than base diesel. - Abstract: This study deals with the effect of water addition on enhancement of maximum hydrogen energy share in a compression ignition engine (7.4 kW rated power at 1500 rpm) under dual fuel mode. The specific water consumption (SWC) was varied from 130 to 480 g/kW h in step of 70 g/kW h using manifold and port injection methods. Subsequently, the combined effect of reduction of compression ratio (CR) of the engine (from 19.5:1 (base) to 16.5:1 and 15.4:1) along with water addition on further enhancement of hydrogen energy share is investigated. The hydrogen energy share was limited to 18.8% with conventional dual fuel mode due to knocking. However, the energy share increased to 66.5% with water addition (maximum SWC: 480 g/kW h), and 79% with combined control strategies (SWC of 340 g/kW h and CR reduction to 16.5:1). Thermal efficiency of the engine under water added dual fuel mode is higher than base diesel mode (single fuel mode), but it is lower than the conventional dual fuel mode without water. The efficiency of the engine with reduced CR and water addition is lower than the conventional dual fuel mode, however at the CR of 16.5:1 and SWC of 340 g/kW h, the efficiency is comparable with base diesel mode efficiency. Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke, and oxides of nitrogen emissions of the engine with water addition (340 g/kW h) and CR reduction (to 16.5:1) decreased significantly as compared to base diesel mode, but slightly higher than conventional dual fuel mode.

  11. Theoretical study of the effects of pilot fuel quantity and its injection timing on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.; Rakopoulos, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Various solutions have been proposed for improving the combustion process of conventional diesel engines and reducing the exhaust emissions without making serious modifications on the engine, one of which is the use of natural gas as a supplement for the conventional diesel fuel, the so called dual fuel natural gas diesel engines. The most common type of these is referred to as the pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine (PINGDE). Here, the primary fuel is natural gas that controls the engine power output, while the pilot diesel fuel injected near the end of the compression stroke auto-ignites and creates ignition sources for the surrounding gaseous fuel mixture to be burned. Previous research studies have shown that the main disadvantage of this dual fuel combustion is its negative impact on engine efficiency compared to the normal diesel operation, while carbon monoxide emissions are also increased. The pilot diesel fuel quantity and injection advance influence significantly the combustion mechanism. Then, in order to examine the effect of these two parameters on the performance and emissions, a comprehensive two-zone phenomenological model is employed and applied on a high-speed, pilot ignited, natural gas diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. According to the results, the simultaneously increase of the pilot fuel quantity accompanied with an increase of its injection timing results to an improvement of the engine efficiency (increase) and of the emitted CO emissions (decrease) while it has a negative effect (increase) of NO emissions

  12. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  13. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  14. Evaluation of the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshiharu [The Japan Gas Association, Tokyo (Japan). NGV Project Dept.; Daisho, Yasuhiro; Saito, Takeshi [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Dual fuel operation, in which natural gas is mixed with the diesel engine intake air and ignition is by diesel fuel spray, has the advantage that engine conversion is simple. Under high load it has the same high efficiency as a diesel engine and it can be switched to normal diesel operation for long distance running. Also, NO{sub x} and black smoke emissions can also be reduced. However, the disadvantages are to increase HC and CO emissions, to reduce efficiency under low load, and to emit the large amount of NO{sub x} under high load. Waseda University was commissioned by Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. to conduct research program involving experimentation ragarding a dual fuel engine. It was then discovered that the most effective means of solving the problems mentioned above is Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and that the effect can be increased by heating the intake air. An old engine before the current emission standard was converted to dual fuel operation. It was found that these measures enables NO{sub x}, black smoke and CO{sub 2} to be reduced while high thermal efficiency was maintained. They did not reach the point of satisfying latest Japanese emission standard. But it seemed that good results would have been obtained, if a base engine with good emissions had been converted for dual fuel operation. The results of assessing the performance of the dual fuel engine at this time are reported here, centered on the effect of EGR and intake heating. (orig.)

  15. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  16. Measurement of Quasi-periodic Oscillating Flow Motion in Simulated Dual-cooled Annular Fuel Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Young; Shin, Chang Hwan; Park, Ju Yong; Oh, Dong Seok; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase a significant amount of reactor power in OPR1000, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developing a dual-cooled annular fuel. The dual-cooled annular fuel is simultaneously cooled by the water flow through the inner and the outer channels. KAERI proposed the 12x12 dual-cooled annular fuel array which was designed to be structurally compatible with the 16x16 cylindrical solid fuel array by maintaining the same array size and the guide tubes in the same locations, as shown in Fig. 1. In such a case, due to larger outer diameter of dual-cooled annular fuel than conventional solid fuel, a P/D (Pitch-to-Diameter ratio) of dual cooled annular fuel assembly becomes smaller than that of cylindrical solid fuel. A change in P/D of fuel bundle can cause a difference in the flow mixing phenomena between the dual-cooled annular and conventional cylindrical solid fuel assemblies. In this study, the rod bundle flow motion appearing in a small P/D case is investigated preliminarily using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) for dual-cooled annular fuel application

  17. Conceptual Design of Structural Components of a Dual Cooled Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Young-Ho; Lee, Kang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-15

    A dual cooled fuel, featured by an internal as well as an external coolant flow passage of a fuel rod, was suggested to enable a large-scaled power-uprate of PWR plant and launched as one of the National Nuclear R and D Projects in 2007. It is necessary to make the dual cooled fuel be compatible with an OPR-1000 system to maximize the economy. Also, the structural components of the dual cooled fuel should be designed to realize their features. To this end, a conceptual design of a spacer grid, outer and center guide tubes, and top and bottom end pieces has been carried out in the project 'Development of Design Technology for Dual Cooled Fuel Structure'. For the spacer grids, it is suggested that springs and dimples are located at or near the cross points of the straps due to a considerably narrowed rod-to-rod gap. Candidate shapes of the grids were also developed and applied for domestic patents. For the outer and center guide tubes, a dual tube like a fuel rod was suggested to make the subchannel areas around the guide tubes be similar to those around the fuel rods of enlarged diameter. It was applied for the domestic patent as well. For the top and bottom end pieces, the shape and pattern have been changed from the conventional ones reflecting the fuel rods' changes. Technical issues and method of resolution for each components were listed up for a basic design works in the following years.

  18. Fuel column retainer using radially compressed spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel rod construction including a fuel rod having an inside cylindrical diameter, cylindrical fuel pellets placed within the rod. The cylindrical fuel pellets having a diameter less than the inside cylindrical diameter and being stacked end to end for a distance less than the length of the fuel rod inside the fuel rod; Zircaloy end plugs for sealing the rod at either end; a compression spring adjacent one end of the rods for biasing the pellets to and towards the other end of the rod. An improvement in the Zircaloy spring is described

  19. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  20. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  1. Application of jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, E.

    2008-06-15

    a 10 kW load; thermal efficiency did not deteriorate up to 70% heat release fraction of methane. At 6 kW and 8 kW, thermal efficiency decreases with increasing heat release fraction from methane. The decrease is in the order of 5% to 10% of the initial efficiency. For dual fuel operation with pure methane thermal efficiency even decreased at a 10 kW load. Volumetric efficiency and air-excess ratio decreased under dual fuel operation as expected. The decrease did not result in a deficiency of oxygen. Enough oxygen was available to combust oil smoke-free. The amount of carbon dioxide in the biogas did not influence performance parameters; the smoke limit was not reached. The engine runs without problems up to a heat release fraction of 60% methane. Between 60% and 70% irregularities are observed. The irregularities are attributed to light end-gas knock. Therefore, it is advised against, to replace a larger part of the fuel by biogas. A different engine design (i.e. different compression ratio) might be able to operate without problems with more biogas in the fuel mixture. For a better understanding more research is required; heat release should be measured with an incylinder pressure measurement; this would give a better insight into changes in thermal efficiency and operation limits. It is possible to use a diesel engine to generate electricity with jatropha oil and biogas as fuels. The technologies used in the experimental set-up are low-tech and locally available; therefore it is considered an appropriate technology for the use in rural areas in developing countries.

  2. Effects of combustion efficiency on a Dual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsoysal, Osman Azmi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a Dual cycle model containing irreversibilities coming exclusively from expansion and compression processes. It is assumed that any fraction of the fuel's chemical energy can not fully released inside the engine because of the incomplete combustion. Utilizing the combustion efficiency is found to be more useful to realize the cycle feasibility. Amount of the released energy from fuel into the cylinder restricts the compression ratio. It is presented how the upper limit of compression ratio is evaluated by means of using some constraints for realizing a Dual cycle. Valid ranges of the constraints given in literature seriously affect the feasibility of cycle. Developed mathematical model leads to a qualitative understanding of how engine loss can be reduced. Thermal efficiency-work curves cannot have a closed loop shape because there is a close relationship between the fuel energy, air-fuel mass ratio, combustion efficiency, maximum cycle temperature and the heat losses into the cylinder wall. If these are all omitted, while heat losses are determined independently without establishing any relationship between the released fuel energy, the thermal efficiency versus work curves will just be able to have a closed loop shape. This is the original perspective and contribution of paper.

  3. Generator gas as a fuel to power a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of gasification process of dried sewage sludge and use of generator gas as a fuel for dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine are presented. The results of gasifying showed that during gasification of sewage sludge is possible to obtain generator gas of a calorific value in the range of 2.15  2.59 MJ/m3. It turned out that the generator gas can be effectively used as a fuel to the compression ignition engine. Because of gas composition, it was possible to run engine with partload conditions. In dual fuel operation the high value of indicated efficiency was achieved equal to 35%, so better than the efficiency of 30% attainable when being fed with 100% liquid fuel. The dual fuel engine version developed within the project can be recommended to be used in practice in a dried sewage sludge gasification plant as a dual fuel engine driving the electric generator loaded with the active electric power limited to 40 kW (which accounts for approx. 50% of its rated power, because it is at this power that the optimal conditions of operation of an engine dual fuel powered by liquid fuel and generator gas are achieved. An additional advantage is the utilization of waste generated in the wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Performance Study of Dual Fuel Engine Using Producer Gas as Secondary Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Shaw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, development of producer gas fuelled 4 stroke diesel engine has been investigated. Producer gas from biomass has been examined and successfully operated with 4 stroke diesel engine. The effects of higher and lower loads were investigated on the dual fuel mode. The experimental investigations revealed that at lower loads dual fuel operation with producer gas shows lower efficiency due to lower combustion rate cause by low calorific value of the producer gas. Beyond 40% load the brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel operation improved due to faster combustion rate of producer gas and higher level of premixing. It can be observed that at lower load and 20% opening of producer gas the gaseous fuel substitution found to be 56% whereas at 100% opening of producer gas it reaches 78% substitution. The CO2 emission increased at high producer gas opening and high load because at 100% producer gas maximum atoms of carbons were there and at high load condition the diesel use increased. At 80% load and producer gas varying from 20% to 100. Power output was almost comparable to diesel power with marginal higher efficiency. Producer gas is one such technology which is environmentally benign and holds large promise for future.

  5. Optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions for compression ignition engine fueled with pre-blended gasoline-diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seokhwon; Jeon, Joonho; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-blended gasoline-diesel fuel was used with direct injection system. • KIVA-CHEMKIN code modeled dual-fuel fuel spray and combustion processes with discrete multi-component model. • The characteristics of Combustion and emission on pre-blended fuel was investigated with various fuel reactivities. • Optimization of combustion chamber shape improved combustion performance of the gasoline-diesel blended fuel engine. - Abstract: In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were used to improve the fuel efficiency of compression ignition engine using a gasoline-diesel blended fuel and an optimization technology. The blended fuel is directly injected into the cylinder with various blending ratios. Combustion and emission characteristics were investigated to explore the effects of gasoline ratio on fuel blend. The present study showed that the advantages of gasoline-diesel blended fuel, high thermal efficiency and low emission, were maximized using the numerical optimization method. The ignition delay and maximum pressure rise rate increased with the proportion of gasoline. As the gasoline fraction increased, the combustion duration and the indicated mean effective pressure decreased. The homogeneity of the fuel-air mixture was improved due to longer ignition delay. Soot emission was significantly reduced up to 90% compared to that of conventional diesel. The nitrogen oxides emissions of the blended fuel increased slightly when the start of injection was retarded toward top dead center. For the numerical study, KIVA-CHEMKIN multi-dimensional CFD code was used to model the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-diesel blended fuel. The micro genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA-CHEMKIN code were used to optimize the combustion chamber shape and operating conditions to improve the combustion performance of the blended fuel engine. The optimized chamber geometry enhanced the fuel efficiency, for a level of nitrogen oxides

  6. Modelling for Fuel Optimal Control of a Variable Compression Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    Variable compression engines are a mean to meet the demand on lower fuel consumption. A high compression ratio results in high engine efficiency, but also increases the knock tendency. On conventional engines with fixed compression ratio, knock is avoided by retarding the ignition angle. The variable compression engine offers an extra dimension in knock control, since both ignition angle and compression ratio can be adjusted. The central question is thus for what combination of compression ra...

  7. Hydrogen as an Auxiliary Fuel in Compression-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Foster, H

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine whether a sufficient amount of hydrogen could be efficiently burned in a compression-ignition engine to compensate for the increase of lift of an airship due to the consumption of the fuel oil. The performance of a single-cylinder four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine operating on fuel oil alone was compared with its performance when various quantities of hydrogen were inducted with the inlet air. Engine-performance data, indicator cards, and exhaust-gas samples were obtained for each change in engine-operating conditions.

  8. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  9. KAJIAN TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PENGGUNAAN DUAL FUEL SYSTEM (LPG-SOLAR PADA MESIN DIESEL KAPAL NELAYAN TRADISIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan bahan bakar alternatif dalam rangka mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap bahan bakar minyak (BBM, telah menjadi agenda penting  pemerintah. Penggunaan LPG (Liquefied Petrolium Gas pada mesin diesel kapal nelayan tradisional didasarkan pada keberhasilan penggunaan LPG pada kendaraan-kendaraan darat. Penggunaan LPG pada mesin diesel dilakukan secara dual fuel. Penelitian dual fuel system pada mesin diesel kapal nelayan tradisional bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan bahan bakar dual fuel terhadap kinerja mesin dan sistem penggeraknya, meliputi konsumsi bahan bakar, daya, kecepatan kapal, serta efisiensi pada sistem penggerak kapal. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan DongFeng ZS-1100 dengan tiga putaran mesin yang berbeda yaitu 1000rpm, 1250 rpm dan 1500 rpm. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, penggunaan LPG secara dual fuel mampu menggantikan konsumsi solar hingga 71% dari konsumsi solar seluruhnya selama satu jam. Komposisi LPG yang dihasilkan mencapai lebih dari 60%  dari total pemakaian bahan bakar saat dual fuel. Kecepatan dan jarak tempuh saat menggunakan solar seluruhnya mencapai 5% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dual fuel. Daya dan torsi saat menggunakan dual fuel mencapai 9,8 % lebih tinggi dibandingkan solar seluruhnya. Penggunaan dual fuel mampu mengurangi biaya operasional penangkapan ikan hingga 24,6%, namun dengan waktu tempuh 1,3% lebih lama dari solar seluruhnya. Efisiensi propulsi solar seluruhnya 6% lebih besar dibandingkan efisiensi propulsi dual fuel.

  10. Influence of performance characteristic of a gaseous fuel supply system on hydrocarbon emissions of a dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Wang, Z.Y.; Zhong, H.; Hao, S.H. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Dept. of Automobile Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of the gaseous fuel supply and its influence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of dual-fuel engines have been investigated. A new design of manifold respirators with mixers is also presented in the paper. The design of the gaseous fuel supply system has a great influence on HC emissions in the dual-fuel engine at light load. The problem of scavenging is discussed and solved by using the manifold respirators in the dual-fuel engine. It performs the function of retarding the gaseous fuel entry timing from the moment of intake valve opening, and its delaying effects have been measured and tested. Experimental results show that the manifold respirator gives the best performance in reducing HC emissions compared with a common pipe mixer and a respirator with bo miser. In addition, the mixing effects are sensitive to the mixer configuration. (Author)

  11. A Priori Analysis of a Compressible Flamelet Model using RANS Data for a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; McDaniel, James C.; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to make large eddy simulation of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustors more computationally accessible using realistic chemical reaction mechanisms, a compressible flamelet/progress variable (FPV) model was proposed that extends current FPV model formulations to high-speed, compressible flows. Development of this model relied on observations garnered from an a priori analysis of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) data obtained for the Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HI-FiRE) dual-mode scramjet combustor. The RANS data were obtained using a reduced chemical mechanism for the combustion of a JP-7 surrogate and were validated using avail- able experimental data. These RANS data were then post-processed to obtain, in an a priori fashion, the scalar fields corresponding to an FPV-based modeling approach. In the current work, in addition to the proposed compressible flamelet model, a standard incompressible FPV model was also considered. Several candidate progress variables were investigated for their ability to recover static temperature and major and minor product species. The effects of pressure and temperature on the tabulated progress variable source term were characterized, and model coupling terms embedded in the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied. Finally, results for the novel compressible flamelet/progress variable model were presented to demonstrate the improvement attained by modeling the effects of pressure and flamelet boundary conditions on the combustion.

  12. Experimental investigations of effects of EGR on performance and emissions characteristics of CNG fueled reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Kalsi, Sunmeet; Subramanian, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NO_x emission decreased drastically in RCCI engine with EGR. • CO and HC emissions decreased with 8% EGR. • Smoke emission increased with EGR but is still less than base diesel. • Brake thermal efficiency does not change with EGR up to 15% • 8% EGR is optimum based on less CO, HC, NO_x except smoke. - Abstract: Experimental: tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine (7.4 kW rated power at 1500 rpm) under dual fuel mode (CNG-Diesel) with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Less reacting fuel (CNG) was injected inside the intake manifold using timed manifold gas injection system whereas high reactive diesel fuel was directly injected into the engine’s cylinder for initiation of ignition. EGR at different percentages (8%, 15% and 30%) was inducted to the engine through intake manifold and tests were conducted at alternator power output of 2 kW and 5 kW. The engine can operate under dual fuel mode with maximum CNG energy share of 85% and 92% at 5 kW and 2 kW respectively. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel engine improved marginally at 5 kW power output under conventional dual fuel mode with the CNG share up to 37% whereas the efficiency did not change with up to 15% EGR however it decreased beyond the EGR percentage. NO_x emission in diesel engine under conventional dual fuel mode decreased significantly and it further decreased drastically with EGR. The notable point emerged from this study is that CO and HC emissions, which are major problems at part load in reactivity controlled compression ignition engine (RCCI), decreased with 8% EGR along with further reduction of NO_x. However, smoke emission is marginally higher with EGR than without EGR but it is still less than conventional mode (Diesel alone). The new concept emerged from this study is that CO and HC emissions of RCCI engine at part load can be reduced using EGR.

  13. Effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance in a dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Saleh [Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Department of Mechanical Power Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper investigates the effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance characteristics in a dual fuel engine run on diesel fuel and five gaseous fuel of LPG with different composition. To quantify the best LPG composition for dual fuel operation especially in order to improve the exhaust emissions quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional diesel engine, a two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, DI diesel engine converted to run as pilot-injected dual fuel engine. The tests and data collection were performed under various conditions of load at constant engine speed. From the results, it is observed that the exhaust emissions and fuel conversion efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when different LPG composition is used as higher butane content lead to lower NOx levels while higher propane content reduces CO levels. Fuel No. 3 (70% propane, 30% butane) with mass fraction 40% substitution of the diesel fuel was the best LPG composition in the dual fuel operation except that at part loads. Also, tests were made for fuel No. 3-diesel blend in the dual fuel operation at part loads to improve the engine performances and exhaust emissions by using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) method. 26 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Improvement performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas; Tennen gas dual fuel diesel kikan no seino haishutsu gas tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S; Okamoto, T; Kusaka, J; Daisho, Y; Kihara, R; Saito, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper deals with a study on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas. Dual fueling systems tend to emit high unburned fuel especially at low load, resulting in a decreased thermal efficiency. This is because natural gas-air mixtures are too lean for flame to propagate under low load conditions. Intake charge heating and uncooled EGR are very useful to improve emissions and thermal efficiency at low load. Such favorable effects are supported by NO kinetic simulations. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  16. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF DUAL FUEL ENGINE OPERATED AT PART LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising petroleum prices, an increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions, global warming and the threat of supply instabilities has led to the choice of inedible Mahua oil (MO as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel oil in India. In the present work, MO was converted into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide. The cost of Mahua oil biodiesel (MOB is higher than diesel. Hence liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, which is one of the cheapest gaseous fuels available in India, was fumigated along with the air to reduce the operating cost and to reduce emissions. The dual fuel engine resulted in lower efficiency and higher emissions at part load. Hence in the present work, the injection time was varied and the performance of the dual fuel engine was studied. From the engine tests, it is observed that an advanced injection time results in higher efficiency and lower emissions. Hence, advancing the injection timing is one of the ways of increasing the efficiency of LPG+MOB dual fuel engine operated at part load.

  18. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  19. Linear chemically sensitive electron tomography using DualEELS and dictionary-based compressed sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAfeef, Ala, E-mail: a.al-afeef.1@research.gla.ac.uk [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); School of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bobynko, Joanna [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Cockshott, W. Paul. [School of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Craven, Alan J. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zuazo, Ian; Barges, Patrick [ArcelorMittal Maizières Research, Maizières-lès-Metz 57283 (France); MacLaren, Ian, E-mail: ian.maclaren@glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    We have investigated the use of DualEELS in elementally sensitive tilt series tomography in the scanning transmission electron microscope. A procedure is implemented using deconvolution to remove the effects of multiple scattering, followed by normalisation by the zero loss peak intensity. This is performed to produce a signal that is linearly dependent on the projected density of the element in each pixel. This method is compared with one that does not include deconvolution (although normalisation by the zero loss peak intensity is still performed). Additionally, we compare the 3D reconstruction using a new compressed sensing algorithm, DLET, with the well-established SIRT algorithm. VC precipitates, which are extracted from a steel on a carbon replica, are used in this study. It is found that the use of this linear signal results in a very even density throughout the precipitates. However, when deconvolution is omitted, a slight density reduction is observed in the cores of the precipitates (a so-called cupping artefact). Additionally, it is clearly demonstrated that the 3D morphology is much better reproduced using the DLET algorithm, with very little elongation in the missing wedge direction. It is therefore concluded that reliable elementally sensitive tilt tomography using EELS requires the appropriate use of DualEELS together with a suitable reconstruction algorithm, such as the compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm used here, to make the best use of the limited data volume and signal to noise inherent in core-loss EELS. - Highlights: • DualEELS is essential for chemically sensitive electron tomography using EELS. • A new compressed sensing based algorithm (DLET) gives high fidelity reconstruction. • This combination of DualEELS and DLET will give reliable results from few projections.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Hollow-Cone Injection and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion With Naphtha Fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad A.

    2016-01-29

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI), also known as partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) and gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI), engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines. Lean-burn combustion with the direct injection of fuel eliminates throttle losses for higher thermodynamic efficiencies, and the precise control of the mixture compositions allows better emission performance such as NOx and particulate matter (PM). Recently, low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and lighter evaporation compared to gasoline fuel (Chang et al., 2012, "Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine With Naphtha Fuel Through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion," SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0677). The feasibility of such a concept has been demonstrated by experimental investigations at Saudi Aramco (Chang et al., 2012, "Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine With Naphtha Fuel Through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion," SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0677; Chang et al., 2013, "Fuel Economy Potential of Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion With Naphtha Fuel," SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-2701). The present study aims to develop predictive capabilities for low octane gasoline fuel compression ignition (CI) engines with accurate characterization of the spray dynamics and combustion processes. Full three-dimensional simulations were conducted using converge as a basic modeling framework, using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulent mixing models. An outwardly opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated against existing and new experimental data. An emphasis was made on the spray penetration characteristics. Various spray breakup and collision models have been

  1. Emission and operating performance of a biomethane tractor with dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautner, Sebastian; Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual fuel technology is contributing to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any documented operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and the emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retrofitted dual-fuel technology of the former conventional diesel tractor simultaneously uses biomethane or natural gas and diesel as ignition fuel. During the field test over 590 working hours, the tractor showed overall high reliability. On average the operating range in dual-fuel mode with one complete filling of the gas tanks was about 11.5 hours. On the tractor test bench a significant improvement of the exhaust emissions could be observed, since the gas ECU had been optimized and changed by the manufacturer. For dual-fuel operation, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are lower, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter emissions (PM) are higher compared to solely diesel operation. In particular, HC emissions exceed the proposed limiting value, submitted by the European Commission. This is due to incomplete gas combustion and insufficient conversion by the exhaust after-treatment-system (methane slip). A big potential for optimization is expected by adjusting the operating point-specific gasdiesel ratio and improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

  2. Fracture Failure Analysis of Fuel Pump Transmission Shaft of Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pei-hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NTS6ZLCz-129 dual-fuel turbocharged and intercooled engine durability test at 1000h, fuel pump shaft fractured. Fracture analysis, chemical analysis, microstructure examination and finite element stress analysis were carried out on the fractured shaft. The analysis result showed that the shaft fracture cause is forging fold. By improving the forging process, the forging fold was solved, and the durability test can be carried out smoothly.

  3. Fuels for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Automotive fuels survey. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walwijk, M.

    2001-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a third mode of operation for internal combustion engines, beside spark ignition and conventional compression ignition. This report concentrates on the requirements that HCCI operation puts on fuels for these engines. For readers with limited time available, this summary describes the main findings. Policy makers that need some more background information may turn directly to chapter 7, 'Fuels for HCCI engines'. The rest of this report can be considered as a reference guide for more detailed information. The driving force to investigate HCCI engines is the potential of low emissions and simultaneously high energy efficiency. HCCI is gaining attention the last few years. However, HCCI engines are still in the research phase. After many experiments with prototype engines, people have now started working on computer simulations of the combustion process, to obtain a fundamental understanding of HCCI combustion and to steer future engine developments. In HCCI engines, an air/fuel mixture is prepared before it enters the combustion chamber. The homogeneous mixture is in the combustion chamber compressed to auto-ignition. Unlike in conventional engines, combustion starts at many different locations simultaneously and the speed of combustion is very high, so there is no flame front. Lean air/fuel mixtures (excess air) are used to control combustion speed. Because of the excess air, combustion temperature is relatively low, resulting in low NOx emissions. When the fuel is vaporised to a truly homogeneous mixture, complete combustion results in low particulate emissions. The most important advantages of HCCI engines are: - Emissions of NOx and particulates are very low. - Energy efficiency is high. It is comparable to diesel engines. - Many different fuels (one at a time) can be used in the HCCI concept. There are also some hurdles to overcome: - Controlling combustion is difficult, it complicates engine design

  4. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 in a 4-stroke cycle compression ignition engine. Furthermore, the engine tests were conducted with partial premixed charge compression ignition-direct injection (PCCI-DI dual fuel system to profoundly address the combustion phenomena. Analysis of cylinder pressure data and heat-release analysis of neat and premixed lemongrass oil were demonstrated in-detail and compared with conventional diesel. The experimental outcomes disclosed that successful ignition and energy release trends can be obtained from a compression ignition engine fueled with lemongrass oil.

  5. THE EFFECT OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of energy sources in the world, we are obliged to use our current energy sources in the most efficient way. Therefore, in the automotive industry, research works to manufacture more economic cars in terms of fuelconsumption and environmental friendly cars, at the same time satisfying the required performance have been intensively increasing. Some positive results have been obtained by the studies, aimed to change the compression ratio according to the operating conditions of engine. In spark ignition engines in order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy and exhaust emission in the partial loads, the compression ratio must be increased; but, under the high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running compression ratio must be decreased slightly. In this paper, various research works on the variable compression ratio with spark ignition engines, the effects on fuel economy, power output and thermal efficiency have been investigated. According to the results of the experiments performed with engines having variable compression ratio under the partial and mid-load conditions, an increase in engine power, a decrease in fuel consumption, particularly in partial loads up to 30 percent of fuel economy, and also severe reductions of some exhaust emission values were determined.

  6. Combustion performance, flame, and soot characteristics of gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel in an optical compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Joonho; Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Sang Il; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel was investigated in an optical direct-injection diesel engine. • KIVA3V-CHEMKIN code modeled blended fuel spray and combustion with discrete multi-component model. • Flame and soot characteristics in the combustion chamber were shown by optical kits. • Combustion performance and soot emissions for gasoline–diesel blended fuel were discussed. - Abstract: Among the new combustion technologies available for internal combustion engines to enhance performance and reduce exhausted emissions, the homogeneous charge compression ignition method is one of the most effective strategies for the compression-ignition engine. There are some challenges to realize the homogeneous charge compression ignition method in the compression-ignition engine. The use of gasoline–diesel blended fuel has been suggested as an alternative strategy to take advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition while overcoming its challenges. Gasoline and diesel fuels are reference fuels for the spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines, respectively, both of which are widely used. The application of both these fuels together in the compression-ignition engine has been investigated using a hybrid injection system combining port fuel injection (gasoline) and direct injection (diesel); this strategy is termed reactivity controlled compression ignition. However, the pre-blending of gasoline and diesel fuels for direct injection systems has been rarely studied. For the case of direct injection of pre-blended fuel into the cylinder, various aspects of blended fuels should be investigated, including their spray breakup, fuel/air mixing, combustion development, and emissions. In the present study, the use of gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel in an optical single-cylinder compression-ignition engine was investigated under various conditions of injection timing and pressure. Furthermore, KIVA-3V release 2 code was employed to model the

  7. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  8. An examination of the flame spread limits in a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O.; Karim, G.A.; Liu, B. [Calgary Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    The performance of a gas-fuelled diesel engine (dual fuel) is examined at light load and an effective threshold limit to the combustion of the gaseous fuel through bulk flame spread is identified. The relationship of such a limit to some of the key operating parameters is then discussed. A comparison between the measured values of the limit with those corresponding to the lower flammability limits of the gaseous fuel when evaluated under the prevailing cylinder conditions during pilot diesel fuel ignition showed similar trends. It is suggested that such a similarity may form a basis for estimating the lean operation limits for duel a fuel combustion in engines. A simple approach for estimating the limiting equivalence ratio for the apparent bulk flame spread limit is described for a methane-fuelled dual fuel engine. (Author)

  9. Geometric size optimization and behavior analysis of a dual-cooled annular fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yangbin; Wu Yingwei; Zhang Dalin; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Zhang Weixu; Wu Junmei

    2014-01-01

    The dual-cooled annular fuel is one of the innovative fuel concepts, which allows substantial power density increase while maintaining safety margins comparing with that used in currently operating PWRs. In this study, a thermal-hydraulic calculation code, on the basis of inner and outer cooling balance theory, was independently developed to optimize the geometric size of dual-cooled annular fuel elements. The optimization results show that the fuel element with the optimal geometric sizes presents fantastic symmetry in temperature distribution. The optimized geometric sizes agree well with the sizes obtained by MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), which on the other side validates the code reliability and accuracy as well. In addition, a thermo-mechanical-burnup coupling code was developed to study the thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics of fuel elements with considering the irradiation and burnup effects. This coupling program was applied to perform the behavior analysis of annular fuels. The calculation results show that, when the power density increases on the order of up to 50%, the dual-cooled annular fuel elements have much lower fuel temperature and much less fission gas release comparing with conventional fuel rods. Furthermore, the results indicate that the thicknesses of inner and outer gas gap cannot remain the same with the burnup increasing due to the mechanical deformations of fuel pellets and claddings, which results in significantly asymmetric temperature distribution especially at the last phase of burnup. (author)

  10. An experimental assessment on the influence of high octane fuels on biofuel based dual fuel engine performance, emission, and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masimalai Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the effect of different high octane fuels (such as eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol on engine’s performance behaviour of a biofuel based dual fuel engine. A single cylinder Diesel engine was modified and tested under dual fuel mode of operation. Initially the engine was run using neat diesel, neat mahua oil as fuels. In the second phase, the engine was operated in dual fuel mode by using a specially designed variable jet carburettor to supply the high octane fuels. Engine trials were made at 100% and 40% loads (power outputs with varying amounts of high octane fuels up-to the maximum possible limit. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine were obtained and analysed. Results indicated significant improvement in brake thermal efficiency simultaneous reduction in smoke and NO emissions in dual fuel operation with all the inducted fuels. At 100% load the brake thermal efficiency increased from 25.6% to a maximum of 32.3, 30.5, and 28.4%, respectively, with eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol as primary fuels. Smoke was reduced drastically from 78% with neat mahua oil a minimum of 41, 48, and 53%, respectively, with eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol at the maximum efficiency point. The optimal energy share for the best engine behaviour was found to be 44.6, 27.3, and 23.2%, respectively, for eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol at 100% load. Among the primary fuels tested, eucalyptus oil showed the maximum brake thermal efficiency, minimum smoke and NO emissions and maximum energy replacement for the optimal operation of the engine.

  11. High temperature compression tests performed on doped fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguay, C.; Mocellin, A.; Dehaudt, P.; Fantozzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of additives of corundum structure M 2 O 3 (M=Cr, Al) is an effective way of promoting grain growth of uranium dioxide. The high-temperature compressive deformation of large-grained UO 2 doped with these oxides has been investigated and compared with that of pure UO 2 with a standard microstructure. Such doped fuels are expected to exhibit enhanced plasticity. Their use would therefore reduce the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and thus improve the performances of the nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  12. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  13. Comparison of performance of biodiesels of mahua oil and gingili oil in dual fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental work was carried out to compare the performance of biodiesels made from non edible mahua oil and edible gingili oil in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification process and mahua oil methyl ester (MOME and gingili oil methyl ester (GOME were used as pilot fuels. The viscosity of MOME is slightly higher than GOME. The dual fuel engine runs smoothly with MOME and GOME. The test results show that the performance of the MOME is close to GOME, at the pilot fuel quantity of 0.45 kg/h and at the advanced injection timing of 30 deg bTDC. Also it is observed that the smoke, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydro carbon emissions of GOME lower than the MOME. But the GOME results in slightly higher NOx emissions. From the experimental results it is concluded that the biodiesel made from mahua oil can be used as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine.

  14. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Ishiyama, Takuji; Ikegami, Makoto; Mitani, Shinichi; Shibata, Hiroaki

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. Unburned hydrocarbon emission and thermal efficiency are improved by avoiding too lean natural gas mixture by restricting intake charge air. However, the improvement is limited because the ignition of pilot fuel deteriorates with excessive throttling. It is concluded that an adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation.

  15. High temperature compression tests performed on doped fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguay, C.; Mocellin, A.; Dehaudt, P. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, CEA Grenoble (France); Fantozzi, G. [INSA Lyon - GEMPPM, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    The use of additives of corundum structure M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M=Cr, Al) is an effective way of promoting grain growth of uranium dioxide. The high-temperature compressive deformation of large-grained UO{sub 2} doped with these oxides has been investigated and compared with that of pure UO{sub 2} with a standard microstructure. Such doped fuels are expected to exhibit enhanced plasticity. Their use would therefore reduce the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and thus improve the performances of the nuclear fuel. (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Near-optimal operation of dual-fuel launch vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardema, M.D.; Chou, H.C.; Bowles, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Current studies of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles are focused on all-rocket propulsion systems. One option for such vehicles is the use of dual-fuel (liquid hydrocarbon and liquid hydrogen (LH 2 )), for a portion of the mission. As compared with LH 2 , hydrocarbon fuel has higher density and produces higher thrust-to-weight, but has lower specific impulse. The advantages of hydrocarbon fuel are important early in the ascent trajectory, and its use may be expected to lead to reduced vehicle size and weight. Because LH 2 is also needed for cooling purposes, in the early portion of the trajectory both fuels must be burned simultaneously. Later in the ascent, when vehicle weight is lower, specific impulse is the key parameter, indicating single-fuel LH 2 use

  17. Design of the Flow Plates for a Dual Cooled Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    In a dual cooled fuel assembly, the array and position of fuels are changed from those of a conventional PWR fuel assembly to achieve a power uprating. The flow plate provides flow holes to direct the heated coolant into/out of the fuel assembly and structural intensity to insure that the fuel rod is axially restrained within the spacer grids. So, flow plates of top/bottom end pieces (TEP/BEP) have to be modified into proper shape. Because the flow holes' area of a flow plate affects pressure drop, the flow holes' area must be larger than/equal to that of conventional flow plates. And design criterion of the TEP/BEP says that the flow plate should withstand a 22.241 kN axial load during handling lest a calculated stress intensity should exceed the Condition I allowable stress. In this paper, newly designed flow plates of a TEP/BEP are suggested and stress analysis is conducted to evaluate strength robustness of the flow plates for the dual cooled fuel assembly

  18. Effect of main injection timing for controlling the combustion phasing of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine using a new dual injection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Pranab; Subbarao, P.M.V.; Subrahmanyam, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dual injection concept is developed by minimum geometry modification. • The occurrence of combustion parameters strongly depend on main injection timing. • At higher load, premixed equivalence ratio dominates over main injection timing. • Retarded of main injection timing tends to retard combustion phasing. • Slightly retarded main injection timing is recommended to avoid intense knocking. - Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of diesel fuel is implemented using a novel dual injection strategy. A new experimental technique is developed to modify a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine to run on homogeneous combustion mode. Effect of main injection timing is investigated covering a range from 26 to 8 crank angle degrees before top dead center with an interval of 3°. Retarded main injection timing is identified as a control strategy for delaying combustion phasing and a means of controlled combustion phasing of direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. Two load conditions were investigated and it was observed that at higher load, start of combustion depends more on fuel air equivalence ratio than main injection timing, whereas at low load, it significantly varies with varying main injection timing. Significant improvements in smoke and oxides of nitrogen emissions are observed when compared with the baseline conventional combustion. By studying different combustion parameters, it is observed that there is an improvement in performance and emissions with marginal loss in thermal efficiency when the main injection timing is 20° before top dead center. This is identified as the optimum main injection timing for such homogeneous combustion under the same operating condition

  19. Fuel octane effects in the partially premixed combustion regime in compression ignition engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildingsson, L.; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Tait, N.; Johansson, B.H.; Harrison, A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has showed that it may be advantageous to use fuels of lower cetane numbers compared to today's diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The benefits come from the longer ignition delays that these fuels have. There is more time available for the fuel and air to mix before

  20. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  1. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine and knock suppression using water diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [College of Engineering Guindy, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, a normal diesel engine was modified to work in a dual fuel (DF) mode with turpentine and diesel as primary and pilot fuels, respectively. The resulting homogeneous mixture was compressed to a temperature below the self-ignition point. The pilot fuel was injected through the standard injection system and initiated the combustion in the primary-fuel air mixture. The primary fuel (turpentine) has supplied most of the heat energy. Usually, in all DF engines, low-cetane fuels are preferred as a primary fuel. Therefore, at higher loads these fuels start knocking and deteriorating in performances. Usually, DF operators suppress the knock by adding more pilot-fuel quantity. But in the present work, a minimum pilot-fuel quantity was maintained constant throughout the test and a required quantity of diluent (water) was added into the combustion at the time of knocking. The advantages of this method of knock suppression are restoration of performance at full load, maintenance of the same pilot quantity through the load range and reduction in the fuel consumption at full load. From the results, it was found that all performance and emission parameters of turpentine, except volumetric efficiency, are better than those of diesel fuel. The emissions like CO, UBHC are higher than those of the diesel baseline (DBL) and around 40-45% reduction of smoke was observed at 100% of full load. The major pollutant of diesel engine, NO{sub x}, was found to be equal to that of DBL. From the above experiment, it was proved that approximately 80% replacement of diesel with turpentine is quite possible. (author)

  3. Economical and environmental assessments of compressed natural gas for diesel vehicle in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Chouykerd

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic assessments for the use of compressed natural gas as fuel for several types of diesel vehicles, rarely pick up, non-fixed route truck and private truck, were studied. It is noted that two main technologies of diesel natural gas vehicle (NGV, i.e. dedicated retrofit and diesel dual fuel (DDF, were considered in this work. It was found that the dedicated retrofit needs higher investment costs than dual fuel, but can achieve higher diesel saving than dual fuel. In detail, the payback period of dual fuel non-fixed route truck was found to be identical to dual fuel private truck both in the cases of6 wheel and 10 wheel, while dedicated retrofit non-fixed route truck and private truck are also identical and have longerpay back period than dual fuel due to its higher conversion costs.This work also presents the emissions released from all types of engines especially green house gas CO2. It was found that, in the case of light duty diesel i.e. pickup truck, dedicated retrofit emitted high level of CO2 than both dual fuel and conventional diesel engines. For heavy duty i.e. non-fixed route truck and private truck vehicles, dedicated retrofit emitted a lower level of CO2 than normal diesel engine. Other pollutants from engine emission, i.e. hydrocarbon (HC,nitric oxide (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter, (PM were also observed. The results indicated that, inthe case of light duty diesel, dedicated retrofit engine emits higher levels of HC and CO than diesel engine; in contrast, it emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel and dual fuel. Dual fuel emits HC and CO higher than diesel and dedicated retrofit but emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel. Lastly, for heavy duty diesel, it was demonstrated that non-fixed route truck and private truck heavy duty dedicated retrofit have potential to reduce emissions of HC, NOx, CO and PM when compared to normal heavy duty diesel. Engine efficiencies under dual fuel and dedicated

  4. Combustion Mode Design with High Efficiency and Low Emissions Controlled by Mixtures Stratification and Fuel Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixture stratification that have been conducted in the authors’ group, including the charge reactivity controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion, stratification controlled premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI combustion, and dual-fuel combustion concepts controlled by both fuel reactivity and mixture stratification. The review starts with the charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion, and the works on HCCI fuelled with both high cetane number fuels, such as DME and n-heptane, and high octane number fuels, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline and mixtures of gasoline/alcohols, are reviewed and discussed. Since single fuel cannot meet the reactivity requirements under different loads to control the combustion process, the studies related to concentration stratification and dual-fuel charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion are then presented, which have been shown to have the potential to achieve effective combustion control. The efforts of using both mixture and thermal stratifications to achieve the auto-ignition and combustion control are also discussed. Thereafter, both charge reactivity and mixture stratification are then applied to control the combustion process. The potential and capability of thermal-atmosphere controlled compound combustion mode and dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI/highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC mode to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion are then presented and discussed. Based on these results and discussions, combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixtures stratification in the whole operating range is proposed.

  5. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  6. An experimental and numerical investigation of the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Karim, G.A.; Xiao, F.; Sohrabi, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Dept.

    2007-07-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the performance of a small bore engine with a swirl chamber when operating as a dual fuel engine with commercial methane as the gaseous fuel were presented in this paper. The experiment involved using a 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to predict the performance of the engine. A detailed chemical kinetics for the gaseous fuel component, consisting primarily of methane and a reduced detailed chemical kinetics for the diesel fuel while considering the turbulent combustion processes an associated performance of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber were incorporated in the simulation. The study experimentally and numerically investigated the effects of changes in the quantities of the liquid fuel pilot and gaseous fuels on the combustion processes, engine performance, cyclic variations, and emissions. The paper discussed the experimental approach and results. It also discussed the simulation of the dual fuel engine combustion process. It was concluded that dual fuel combustion was an effective method to burn a gaseous fuel-air mixture with a low energy density. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... economy in a particular compliance category by more than the limits set forth in 49 U.S.C. 32906(a), the...

  8. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Viollet, Yoann; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.; Chang, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have

  9. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2018-01-30

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  10. Impact of thermodynamic properties and heat loss on ignition of transportation fuels in rapid compression machines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Hantouche, Mireille; Khurshid, Muneeb; Mohamed, Samah; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir; Roberts, William L.; Knio, Omar; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Rapid compression machines (RCM) are extensively used to study autoignition of a wide variety of fuels at engine relevant conditions. Fuels ranging from pure species to full boiling range gasoline and diesel can be studied in an RCM to develop a better understanding of autoignition kinetics in low to intermediate temperature ranges. In an RCM, autoignition is achieved by compressing a fuel/oxidizer mixture to higher pressure and temperature, thereby initiating chemical reactions promoting ignition. During these experiments, the pressure is continuously monitored and is used to deduce significant events such as the end of compression and the onset of ignition. The pressure profile is also used to assess the temperature evolution of the gas mixture with time using the adiabatic core hypothesis and the heat capacity ratio of the gas mixture. In such RCM studies, real transportation fuels containing many components are often represented by simpler surrogate fuels. While simpler surrogates such as primary reference fuels (PRFs) and ternary primary reference fuel (TPRFs) can match research and motor octane number of transportation fuels, they may not accurately replicate thermodynamic properties (including heat capacity ratio). This non-conformity could exhibit significant discrepancies in the end of compression temperature, thereby affecting ignition delay (τign) measurements. Another aspect of RCMs that can affect τign measurement is post compression heat loss, which depends on various RCM parameters including geometry, extent of insulation, pre-heating temperature etc. To, better understand the effects of these non-chemical kinetic parameters on τign, thermodynamic properties of a number of FACE G gasoline surrogates were calculated and simulated in a multi-zone RCM model. The problem was further investigated using a variance based analysis and individual sensitivities were calculated. This study highlights the effects on τign due to thermodynamic properties of

  11. Investigation on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel diesel engine with mixture combination of hydrogen and producer gas as secondary fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dhole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental investigation in to the effects of using mixture of producer gas and hydrogen in five different proportions as a secondary fuel with diesel as pilot fuel at wide range of load conditions in dual fuel operation of a 4 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled 62.5 kW gen-set diesel engine at constant speed of 1500 RPM. Secondary fuel Substitution is in different percentage of diesel at each load. To generate producer gas, the rice husk was used as source in the downdraft gasifier. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. It was found that of all the combinations tested, mixture combination of PG:H2=(60:40% is the most suited one at which the brake thermal efficiency is in good comparison to that of diesel operation. Decreased NOx emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to diesel fuel operation.

  12. Performance and exhaust emissions in a natural-gas fueled dual-fuel engine; Tennen gas dual fuel kikan no seino oyobi haiki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M.; Ishiyama, T.; Shibata, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Ikegami, M. [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-07-25

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, tests were made for some operational parameters and their combination on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the gas oil quantity should be increased and gas oil injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission at middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing should be retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. The unburned hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency are improved at the same load avoiding too lean natural gas premixture by restriction of intake charge air. However the improvement is limited because the ignition and initial combustion of pilot diesel fuel is deteriorated when the cylinder pressure is excessively lowered by throttling. The increase in pilot gas oil amount is effective for low-load operation and the adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation. (author)

  13. Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Variable Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Jatropha curcas Ethyl Ester Blends at Different Compression Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performance and emission characteristics of unmodified biodiesel fueled diesel engines are highly influenced by their ignition and combustion behavior. In this study, emission and combustion characteristics were studied when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B40 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 17.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The change of compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1 resulted in 27.1%, 27.29%, 26.38%, 28.48%, and 34.68% increase in cylinder pressure for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions. Higher peak heat release rate increased by 23.19%, 14.03%, 26.32%, 21.87%, and 25.53% for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The delay period decreased by 21.26%, CO emission reduced by 14.28%, and NOx emission increased by 22.84% for B40 blends at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. It is concluded that Jatropha oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  14. Tamanu oil. An alternative fuel for variable compression ratio engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Mohan T. [SASTRA Univ., Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kandasamy, Murugumohan Kumar K. [Pavendar Bharathidasan College of Engineering and Technology, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oils and also from waste fats. Biodiesel is a monoalkyl- ester of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock such as vegetable oils by transesterification process. The esterified cotton seed oil, pungam oil, rice bran oil, and tamanu oil are chosen as the alternative fuels. Among these oils, tamanu oil is considered for the first time as an alternative fuel. An experiment is conducted to obtain the operating characteristics of the variable compression ratio (VCR) engine run by chosen esterified oils, and the results are compared with esterified tamanu oil. From the comparison of results, it is inferred that the engine performance is improved with significant reduction in emissions for the chosen oils without any engine modification. The effective compression ratio can be fixed based on the experimental results obtained in the engine since the findings of the present research work infer that the biodiesel obtained from tamanu oil is a promising alternative fuel for direct-injection four-stroke VCR engine. (orig.)

  15. The influence of Compression Ratio to Performance of Four Stroke Engine Use of Arak Bali as a Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Made Krishna Muku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Arak bali is alternative fuel as ethanol. Ethanol has octane number 108. Octane number which was higher can over come adetonation, and can work at higher compression ratio. This experiment has done to now how the effect of compression ratiovariation to the performance four strokes engine by arak bali fuel. This research was done by changing the compressionratio that is 8,8 : 1, 8,9 : 1, 9 : 1 and 9,3 : 1. The change was done by reducing combustion chamber by scrap the cylinderhead. The result, for the used arak bali fuel to the vehicle is, if engine compression ratio to increase can be influence ofengine performance to be increase and engine fuel consumption to be decrease. For premium is, if engine compression ratioto increase to influence of engine performance to be decrease and engine fuel consumption to be increase.

  16. Study on using acetylene in dual fuel mode with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, T.; Nagarajan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in employing gaseous fuels to internal combustion (IC) engines whether for stationary or mobile automotive applications has gained importance because of the economical, sustainable and environmental technical features associated with their usage. However, the incidence of preignition and knock remains a significant barrier in achieving their optimum performance potential. With the advent of latest technologies, the above barriers are eliminated. One such technique is timed manifold injection (TMI) of the gaseous fuel, which is controlled electronically to precisely monitor the induction of fuel to overcome the preignition problem in the intake. In the present investigation, acetylene was injected in the intake manifold in a single cylinder diesel engine, with a gas flow rate of 240 g/h, start of injection time is 10 o aTDC and 90 o CA (9.9 ms) duration, operated in dual fuel mode. In order to decrease the NOx emissions from acetylene-diesel engine, cooled EGR was employed. The cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency and emissions such as NOx, smoke, CO, HC, CO 2 and exhaust gas temperature were studied. Dual fuel operation with acetylene induction coupled with cooled EGR results in lowered NOx emissions and improved part load performance. -- Highlights: → Acetylene was tried in SI engines, but due to backfire further research was hindered as an alternative fuel. → But it is not tried in CI engine. Timed manifold injection was tried in diesel engine in the present work to combat backfire. → Author was successful in running the diesel engine in dual fuel mode. → 21% maximum diesel replacement was achieved. Author is confident that acetylene will be commercialised as a fuel for diesel engine in future.

  17. Simulation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-13

    Standard practices of internal combustion (IC) engine experiments are to conduct the measurements of quantities averaged over a large number of cycles. Depending on the operating conditions, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of quantities, such as the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) are observed at different levels. Accurate prediction of CCV in IC engines is an important but challenging task. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using high performance computing (HPC) can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. In the present study, a dual fuel large engine is considered, with natural gas injected into the manifold accompanied with direct injection of diesel pilot fuel to trigger ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series as in the experiments to investigate the potential of HPC based high fidelity simulations to accurately capture the cycle to cycle variation in dual fuel engines. Open cycle simulations are conducted to predict the combined effect of the stratification of fuel-air mixture, temperature and turbulence on the CCV of pressure. The predicted coefficient of variation (COV) of pressure compared to the results from closed cycle simulations and the experiments.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Hollow Cone Injection and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion With Naphtha Fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad A.

    2016-01-11

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI), also known as partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) and gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI), engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. Lean burn combustion with the direct injection of fuel eliminates throttle losses for higher thermodynamic efficiencies, and the precise control of the mixture compositions allows better emission performance such as NOx and particulate matter (PM). Recently, low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and lighter evaporation compared to gasoline fuel [1]. The feasibility of such a concept has been demonstrated by experimental investigations at Saudi Aramco [1, 2]. The present study aims to develop predictive capabilities for low octane gasoline fuel compression ignition engines with accurate characterization of the spray dynamics and combustion processes. Full three-dimensional simulations were conducted using CONVERGE as a basic modeling framework, using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulent mixing models. An outwardly opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated against existing and new experimental data. An emphasis was made on the spray penetration characteristics. Various spray breakup and collision models have been tested and compared with the experimental data. An optimum combination has been identified and applied in the combusting GCI simulations. Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model and modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) break models proved to work the best for the investigated injector. Comparisons between various existing spray models and a parametric study have been carried out to study the effects of various spray parameters. The fuel effects have been tested by using three different primary reference fuel (PRF

  19. Studies on dual fuel operation of rubber seed oil and its bio-diesel with hydrogen as the inducted fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin Geo, V.; Nagalingam, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KCG College of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600097 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IC Engineering Division, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025 (India)

    2008-11-15

    The main problems with the use of neat vegetable oils in diesel engines are higher smoke levels and lower thermal efficiency as compared to diesel. The problem can be tackled by inducting a gaseous fuel in the intake manifold along with air. In this investigation, hydrogen is used as the inducted fuel and rubber seed oil (RSO), rubber seed oil methyl ester (RSOME) and diesel are used as main fuels in a dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine with rated output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm was converted to operate in the dual fuel mode. Dual fuel operation of varying hydrogen quantity with RSO and RSOME results in higher brake thermal efficiency and significant reduction in smoke levels at high outputs. The maximum brake thermal efficiency is 28.12%, 29.26% and 31.62% with RSO, RSOME and diesel at hydrogen energy share of 8.39%, 8.73% and 10.1%, respectively. Smoke is reduced from 5.5 to 3.5 BSU with RSOME and for RSO it is from 6.1 to 3.8 BSU at the maximum efficiency point. The peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise increase with hydrogen induction. Heat release rate indicates an increase in the combustion rate with hydrogen induction. On the whole it is concluded that hydrogen can be inducted along with air in order to reduce smoke levels and improve thermal efficiency of RSO and its bio-diesel fuelled diesel engines. (author)

  20. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine's thermal efficiency η t , volumetric efficiency η v and air-excess ratio λ versus output power. An extensive parameter study is done to predict/explain the effect of dual fuel operation on η v and λ. Dual fuel experiments, adding different qualities (CH 4 /CO 2 ratios) of synthetic biogas to the intake air, show that thermal efficiency is hardly affected for higher loads. For lower loads, biogas addition results in a decrease up to 10% in thermal efficiency, independent of biogas quality. Both η v and λ decrease with addition of biogas, in quantitative agreement with predictions. The engine runs well up to a certain heat release fraction of methane; at higher fractions irregularities are observed, probably attributable to light end-gas knock.

  1. Dual-fuel engine with cylinder pressure based control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritscher, Bert [Caterpillar Motoren GmbH und Co. KG, Kiel (Germany). Large Power Systems Div.

    2013-10-15

    Cylinder pressure sensors were initially used to detect knocking and misfiring on spark ignited gas engines. On its latest MaK brand dual-fuel engine, Caterpillar Motoren is harnessing the deep insights into combustion and engine condition that can be derived direct from the origin of engine power in sophisticated control, monitoring and diagnostic systems. (orig.)

  2. Recuperative dual fuel bruner with low NO{sub x} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munko, A.; Kleine Jaeger, F.; Koehne, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Energie- und Stofftransport

    2003-07-01

    In a current research project of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen e.V. (AIF) (a German research association) a new dual fuel burner for radiant tubes is being developed at the Department tof Heat and Mass Transfer (EST, RWTH Aachen University). As combustible gas (natural gas type H / Erdgas H) and fuel oil (Heizoel Extra Leicht) are used. These research activities represent the further development of the radiant tube oil burner that was developed on behalf of the AIF and in cooperation with the Forschungsgemeinschaft Industrieofenbau (FOGI e.V.) (AIF project 12345B). The radiant tube burner was designed for the furnace temperature 1000 C can the firing rate 20 to 40 kW. Due to the vaporization of the fuel oil and the homogeneous fuel mixing with a flue gas flow, at the furnace temperature 1000 C and preheated air temperature 850 C NO{sub x}-emissions below 200 mg/m{sup 3} (5% O{sub 2}, Heizoel Extra Leicht) are reached. Using gas (natural gas type H) the burner tests indicate a high NO{sub x}-reduction potential - in gas operation at a lab furnace (furnace temperature 700 C) NO{sub x}-emissions below 40 mg/m{sup 3} result. The future works within the project are the construction of a dual-fuel mixing-device for the alternative use of liquid and gaseous fuel as well as further burner operation tests at furnace temperature 1000 C. (orig.)

  3. Design and Performance of LPG Fuel Mixer for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrial; Saputro, W.; Garcia, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    Small horizontal diesel engines are commonly used for agricultural machinery, however, availability of diesel fuel become one of big problems especially in remote area. Conversely, in line with government policy for conversion of kerosene into LPG for cooking, then LPG become more popular and available even in remote area. Therefore, LPG is potential fuel to replace the shortage of diesel fuel for operating diesel engine in remote area. The purpose of this study was to design mixing device for using dual fuel i.e. LPG and diesel fuel and evaluate its performance accordingly. Simulation by using CFD was done in order to analyze mixture characteristics of LPG in air intake manifold. The performance test was done by varying the amount of LPG injected in intake air at 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, until 40%, respectively. Result of CFD contour simulation showed the best combination when mixing 30% LPG into the intake air. Performance test of this research revealed that mixing LPG in air intake can reduce the diesel fuel consumption about 0.7 l/hour (without load) and 1.14 l/hour (with load). Diesel engine revolution increases almost 300 rpm faster than when using diesel fuel only. Based on economic analysis, using the fuel combination (diesel fuel – LPG) is not recommended in the area near SPBU where the price of diesel fuel is standard. However, using the fuel combination LPG-diesel fuel is highly recommended in the remote areas in Indonesia where price of diesel fuel is comparatively expensive which will provide cheaper total fuel cost for diesel engine operation.

  4. Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Shihnan, A.H.; Nasri, N.S.; Sharer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine and emission characteristics of biodiesel DDF engine system were measured. • Biodiesel DDF fuelled system produced high engine performance. • Lower hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide was emitted by biodiesel DDF system. • Biodiesel DDF produced slightly higher carbon monoxide and nitric oxides emission. - Abstract: Biodiesel derived from biomass is a renewable source of fuel. It is renovated to be the possible fuel to replace fossil derived diesel due to its properties and combustion characteristics. The integration of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engine known as diesel dual fuel (DDF) system offered better exhaust emission thus become an attractive option for reducing the pollutants emitted from transportation fleets. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emission of HINO H07C DDF engine; fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, diesel–CNG, and biodiesel–CNG, were experimentally studied. Biodiesel and diesel fuelled engine system respectively generated 455 N m and 287 N m of torque. The horse power of biodiesel was found to be 10–20% higher compared to diesel. Biodiesel–CNG at 20% (B20-DDF) produced the highest engine torque compared to other fuel blends Biodiesel significantly increase the carbon monoxide (15–32%) and nitric oxides (6.67–7.03%) but in contrast reduce the unburned hydrocarbons (5.76–6.25%) and carbon dioxide (0.47–0.58%) emissions level. These results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel especially the heavy transportation fleets

  5. High-Temperature, Dual-Atmosphere Corrosion of Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Paul; Amendola, Roberta

    2012-12-01

    High-temperature corrosion of ferritic stainless steel (FSS) surfaces can be accelerated and anomalous when it is simultaneously subjected to different gaseous environments, e.g., when separating fuel (hydrogen) and oxidant (air) streams, in comparison with single-atmosphere exposures, e.g., air only. This so-called "dual-atmosphere" exposure is realized in many energy-conversion systems including turbines, boilers, gasifiers, heat exchangers, and particularly in intermediate temperature (600-800°C) planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. It is generally accepted that hydrogen transport through the FSS (plate or tube) and its subsequent integration into the growing air-side surface oxide layer can promote accelerated and anomalous corrosion—relative to single-atmosphere exposure—via defect chemistry changes, such as increased cation vacancy concentrations, decreased oxygen activity, and steam formation within the growing surface oxide layers. Establishment of a continuous and dense surface oxide layer on the fuel side of the FSS can inhibit hydrogen transport and the associated effects on the air side. Minor differences in FSS composition, microstructure, and surface conditions can all have dramatic influences on dual-atmosphere corrosion behaviors. This article reviews high-temperature, dual-atmosphere corrosion phenomena and discusses implications for SOFC stacks, related applications, and future research.

  6. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2

  7. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  8. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  9. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 6500 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine's thermal efficiency {eta}{sub t}, volumetric efficiency {eta}{sub v} and air-excess ratio {lambda} versus output power. An extensive parameter study is done to predict/explain the effect of dual fuel operation on {eta}{sub v} and {lambda}. Dual fuel experiments, adding different qualities (CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratios) of synthetic biogas to the intake air, show that thermal efficiency is hardly affected for higher loads. For lower loads, biogas addition results in a decrease up to 10% in thermal efficiency, independent of biogas quality. Both {eta}{sub v} and {lambda} decrease with addition of biogas, in quantitative agreement with predictions. The engine runs well up to a certain heat release fraction of methane; at higher fractions irregularities are observed, probably attributable to light end-gas knock. (author)

  10. Development of Test Methods for Structural Components of a Dual Cooled Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong

    2009-01-15

    The most unique feature of a dual-cooled fuel is that the outer diameter of a fuel rod is considerably increased due to an internal coolant passage additionally formed inside the rod. This increases the fuel rod's weight and decreases the gap between the fuel rods. Change of the weight and gap causes the shape and the performance of a fuel rod support structure to be necessarily altered. It also alters the flow-induced vibration (FIV) as well as the fretting wear characteristics of a fuel rod. These are directly related with the integrity of the rod so that they should be investigated in the design stage. Finite element analysis and semi-empirical formulae can be used to roughly investigate the support performance and FIV of a fuel rod, respectively. However, the fretting wear characteristic can be investigated only through an experiment. The support performance and FIV need experiment as well to obtain the characteristics more accurately. Therefore, experimental investigation of those has been included in the present project scope. In the second year, it has been planned to establish the experimental devices and technologies to accommodate the altered dimensions and feature of a dual-cooled fuel. As a result, devices to obtain the characteristics of fuel rod supports and holddown springs were developed. As for the FIV and fretting wear characteristics, the existing facilities were modified. Experimental procedures were also re-established this year.

  11. Improving the performance and fuel consumption of dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S.C.; Pan, S.S.; Bruckbauer, J.J.; Gehrke, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the nature of the combustion processes in a dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engine is described. This work concentrated on understanding the mixing process in the main chamber gases. A specially constructed single cylinder engine was used to both conduct experiments to study mixing effects and to obtain experimental data for the validation of the computer model which was constructed in the theoretical portion of the study. The test procedures are described. Studies were conducted on the effect of fuel injection timing on performance and emissions using the combination of orifice size and prechamber to main chamber flow rate ratio which gave the best overall compromise between emissions and performance. In general, fuel injection gave slightly higher oxides of nitrogen, but considerably lower hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions than the carbureted form of the engine. Experiments with engine intake port redesign to promote swirl mixing indicated a substantial increase in the power output from the engine and, that an equivalent power levels, the nitric oxide emissions are approximately 30% lower with swirl in the main chamber than without swirl. The development of a computer simulation of the combustion process showed that a one-dimensional combustion model can be used to accurately predict trends in engine operation conditions and nitric oxide emissions even though the actual flame in the engine is not completely one-dimensional, and that a simple model for mixing of the main chamber and prechamber intake gases at the start of compression proved adequate to explain the effects of swirl, ignition timing, overall fuel air ratio, volumetric efficiency, and variations in prechamber air fuel ratio and fuel rate percentage on engine power and nitric oxide emissions. (LCL)

  12. Transient simulation of a catalytic converter for a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Checkel, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Enginering, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hayes, R. E. [Alberta Univ., Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    A catalytic converter of a ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate, coated with a washcoat of catalyst and attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine was simulated and studied experimentally. The paper describes the application of one-dimensional finite element model for the transient and steady state operation. Laminar flow was approximated using a dispersed plug flow model, and chemical kinetics were simulated using LHHW (Langmuir/ Hinshelwood/ Hougan/ Watson) type expressions. Simulation results were compared with experimental results for heating and cooling cycles which resulted from speed and load changes on the engine. The comparison showed a maximum difference between the two sets of emission levels of about 10 per cent, showing that the one-dimensional model is acceptable model for this dual fuel engine converter combination. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. Likelihood and consequences of fuel string compression at Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, P.J.; Gibb, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    During an accident which results in fuel heatup, axial thermal expansion of the fuel string relative to the pressure tube will occur. If the temperature transient is sufficiently severe, the fuel string may contact the shieled plugs at both ends of the channel. Any additional axial thermal expansion will result in deformation of fuel and fuel channel components, leading to tensile or compressive stresses in the different fuel channel components. If these loads become sufficiently large, they could result in failure of a fuel channel component or to channel failure due to bending of a fuel element under load. The analysis described in this paper demonstrates that this process would not result in fuel channel failure for a design basis accident at Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS), even if the station were retubed to 'as-built' channel lengths. (author)

  14. Assessment of maximum available work of a hydrogen fueled compression ignition engine using exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, Venkateswarlu; Subramanian, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at study of maximum available work and irreversibility (mixing, combustion, unburned, and friction) of a dual-fuel diesel engine (H 2 (hydrogen)–diesel) using exergy analysis. The maximum available work increased with H 2 addition due to reduction in irreversibility of combustion because of less entropy generation. The irreversibility of unburned fuel with the H 2 fuel also decreased due to the engine combustion with high temperature whereas there is no effect of H 2 on mixing and friction irreversibility. The maximum available work of the diesel engine at rated load increased from 29% with conventional base mode (without H 2 ) to 31.7% with dual-fuel mode (18% H 2 energy share) whereas total irreversibility of the engine decreased drastically from 41.2% to 39.3%. The energy efficiency of the engine with H 2 increased about 10% with 36% reduction in CO 2 emission. The developed methodology could also be applicable to find the effect and scope of different technologies including exhaust gas recirculation and turbo charging on maximum available work and energy efficiency of diesel engines. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency of diesel engine increases with hydrogen under dual-fuel mode. • Maximum available work of the engine increases significantly with hydrogen. • Combustion and unburned fuel irreversibility decrease with hydrogen. • No significant effect of hydrogen on mixing and friction irreversibility. • Reduction in CO 2 emission along with HC, CO and smoke emissions

  15. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  16. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  17. Systems studies of dual purpose electric/synthetic fuels fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.

    1975-02-01

    A reactor power plant is proposed that can meet base load electrical demand, while the remainder can generate synthetic fuels and meet intermittent electrical demands. Two principal objectives of this study are: (1) to examine how strongly various economic demand and resource factors affect the amount of installed CTR capacity, and (2) to examine what increase in CTR capacity can be expected with dual purpose electric/synthetic fuel fusion plants, and also the relative importance of the different production modes

  18. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi H.; Hasan M.M; Rahman M.M; Noor M.M; Kadirgama K.; Ramasamy D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend). A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5) and 10% ethanol (E10) (in vo...

  19. FeCrAl/Zr dual layer fuel cladding for improved safety margin under accident scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.J.; Park, J.H.; Jung, Y.I.; Kim, H.G.; Park, J.Y.; Koo, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    For application of advanced steel as a cladding material in light water reactor (LWR), FeCrAl/Zr dual layer tube was manufactured by using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. To optimize HIP condition for joining both FeCrAl and Zr alloys, HIP was carried out under various temperature conditions. Tensile test and 3-point bend test performed for measuring mechanical properties of HIPed sample. To better understand microstructural characteristics in interface region between two alloys, SEM and TEM study were conducted by using HIPed sample with different process conditions. Based on this optimization study and analyzed results, optimized HIP condition was determined and FeCrAl/Zr dual layer fuel cladding having same wall thickness with current LWR fuel cladding was manufactured. Simulated loss-of-coolant accident test was carried out using FeCrAl/Zr dual layer cladding sample and fuel integrity was measured by mechanical test. (authors)

  20. A Study on the Structural Integrity Issues of a Dual-Cooled Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Kang-Hee; Lee, Young-Ho; Yoon, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Yong; Song, Kun-Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero Yuseong Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    A dual-cooled fuel rod has an internal coolant flow passage in addition to the external one. A remarkable power up-rate can be achieved due to the increased surface area, which may draw great interests from the fuel researchers, designers and vendors. However, it requires effective resolution to the difficult technical issues when a fuel assembly is to be realized. It becomes much more difficult if a tough boundary condition needs to be satisfied such as a compatibility with the existing reactor internal structures. This kind of challenge is tackled through a national R and D project in Korea: to develop the structural components of a dual-cooled fuel that should be compatible with the current OPR 1000 (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) internal structures. Fuel rod supporting structures, top and bottom end pieces and guide tubes are the components. Besides, the fuel rod components have to be developed as well since the fuel rod's geometry becomes much different from the conventional rod's one. The dimension change may well affect the above mentioned structural components. As a part of the work, structural integrity of the components of a dual-cooled fuel rod is studied in this paper. The investigated topics are: i) the thickness determination of a cladding tube (especially outer tube of a large diameter), ii) vibration issue of an inner cladding tube, iii) design concern of plenum spring and spacer. The cladding thickness issue arises due to the increased outside diameter of a fuel rod, which is caused by an internal flow passage formation. Among the criteria for the thickness determination, an elastic buckling criteria was focused on. Theoretical background for the well-known formula (such as a stability problem) was revisited. Verification tests were carried out independently with using a cladding tube of PHWR fuel rod. Results showed that the formula was not conservative to apply for the cladding thickness determination. Minimum thickness for the

  1. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  2. Basket criticality design of a dual purpose cask for VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaeian, Mahdi [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, Jamshid [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dual purpose cask technology is one of the most prominent options for interim storage of spent fuels following their removal from reactors. Criticality safety of the spent fuel assemblies are ensured by design of the basket within these casks. In this study, a set of criticality design calculations of a dual purpose cask for 12 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies of Bushehr nuclear power plant were carried out. The basket material of borated stainless steel with 0.5 to 2.5 wt% of boron and Boral (Al-B{sub 4}C) with 1.5 to 40 wt% of boron carbide, were investigated and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. Using the calculated receptacle pitch of the basket, the minimum required diameter of the cavity could be established.

  3. Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Pritinika; Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilisation of Used transformer oil (UTO) as a fuel in a diesel engine. • UTO with acetylene in a diesel engine, on a dual fuel mode technique. • Analysis of combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. • Analysis of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. - Abstract: Used transformer oil (UTO) is a waste oil obtained from power transformers and welding transformers. It possesses considerable heating value and properties similar to diesel fuel. A preliminary investigation on the utilization of the UTO in a single cylinder, four stroke small powered direct injection (DI) diesel engine revealed that at an optimum injection timing of 20°CA the engine exhibited lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher smoke emissions, compared to that of diesel operation. In order to improve the performance and reduce the smoke emission, a dual fuel operation was attempted in the present investigation. Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at four different flow rates viz 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air, to study the combustion, performance and emission behavior of a four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine, while the UTO was injected as pilot fuel with the optimized injection timing. The experimental results were compared with diesel-acetylene dual fuel operation in the same engine. Acetylene aspiration reduced the ignition delay and maximum cylinder pressure by about 3°CA, and 25% respectively at full load in comparison with the sole UTO operation. Higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas were also observed at full load. Smoke was reduced by about 13.7%, in comparison with the UTO operation at full load

  4. Effect of Variable Compression Ratio on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Karanja Biodiesel and its Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rahul Kumar; soota, Tarun, Dr.; singh, Ranjeet

    2017-08-01

    Rapid exploration and lavish consumption of underground petroleum resources have led to the scarcity of underground fossil fuels moreover the toxic emissions from such fuels are pernicious which have increased the health hazards around the world. So the aim was to find an alternative fuel which would meet the requirements of petroleum or fossil fuels. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable and bio-degradable fuel having several advantages, one of the most important of which is being its eco-friendly and better knocking characteristics than diesel fuel. In this work the performance of Karanja oil was analyzed on a four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled, variable compression ratio diesel engine. The fuel used was 5% - 25% karanja oil methyl ester by volume in diesel. The results such obtained are compared with standard diesel fuel. Several properties i.e. Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions, Exhaust Gas Temperature are determined at all operating conditions & at variable compression ratio 17 and 17.5.

  5. Experimental investigation and combustion analysis of a direct injection dual-fuel diesel-natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlucci, A.P.; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D.; Naccarato, F. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, CREA, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG-air charge. The CNG was injected into the intake manifold via a gas injector on purpose designed for this application. The main performance of the gas injector, such as flow coefficient, instantaneous mass flow rate, delay time between electrical signal and opening of the injector, have been characterized by testing the injector in a constant-volume optical vessel. The CNG jet structure has also been characterized by means of shadowgraphy technique. The engine, operating in dual-fuel mode, has been tested on a wide range of operating conditions spanning different values of engine load and speed. For all the tested operating conditions, the effect of CNG and diesel fuel injection pressure, together with the amount of fuel injected during the pilot injection, were analyzed on the combustion development and, as a consequence, on the engine performance, in terms of specific emission levels and fuel consumption. (author)

  6. Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Injection pressure of pilot fuel in dual fuel combustion (DFC) affects the engine power and exhaust emissions. • In the biodiesel–CNG DFC mode, the combustion begins and ends earlier as the pilot-fuel injection pressure increases. • The ignition delay in the DFC mode is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer than that in the diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode. • The smoke and NOx emissions are significantly reduced in the DFC mode. - Abstract: Biodiesel–compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel combustion (DFC) system is studied for the simultaneous reduction of particulate matters (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel is used as a pilot injection fuel to ignite the main fuel, CNG of DFC system. In particular, the pilot injection pressure is controlled to investigate the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is lower than that of diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode at higher injection pressure. However, the combustion stability of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is increased with the increase of pilot injection pressure. At the same injection pressure, the start of combustion of biodiesel–CNG DFC is delayed compared to diesel SFC due to the increase of ignition delay of pilot fuel. On the contrary, it is observed that as the pilot injection pressure increase, the combustion process begins and ends a little earlier for biodiesel–CNG DFC. The ignition delay in the DFC is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer compared to diesel SFC, but decreases with increases of pilot injection pressure. Smoke and NOx emissions are decreased and increased, respectively, as the pilot injection pressure increases in the biodiesel–CNG DFC. In comparison to diesel SFC, smoke emissions are significantly reduced over all the operating conditions and NOx emissions also exhibited similar

  7. Hydrogen Fueling Station Using Thermal Compression: a techno-economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriha, Kenneth [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Petitpas, Guillaume [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Melchionda, Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soto, Herie [Shell, Houston TX (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of using thermal compression to create the hydrogen pressure necessary to operate vehicle hydrogen fueling stations. The concept of utilizing the exergy within liquid hydrogen to build pressure rather than mechanical components such as compressors or cryogenic liquid pumps has several advantages. In theory, the compressor-less hydrogen station will have lower operating and maintenance costs because the compressors found in conventional stations require large amounts of electricity to run and are prone to mechanical breakdowns. The thermal compression station also utilizes some of the energy used to liquefy the hydrogen as work to build pressure, this is energy that in conventional stations is lost as heat to the environment.

  8. Hydrogen energy share improvement along with NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emission reduction in a hydrogen dual-fuel compression ignition engine using water injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 energy share increased from 20% without water to 39% with SWC 270 g/kWh. • Specific water consumption (SWC) 200 g/kWh was selected as the optimum quantity. • NO x decreased about 24% with the optimum water quantity at 20% H 2 energy share. • At 20% H 2 share, energy efficiency decreased about 5.5% with the optimum water. • HC, CO and smoke emissions increased 38%, 100% and 69% with optimum water at 20% H 2 share. - Abstract: The study aims at enhancement of Hydrogen (H 2 ) energy share and reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) emission in a 7.4 kW-CI engine at 1500 rpm using water injection. The test engine was modified to run under dual-fuel operation with diesel–biodiesel blend (B20) and H 2 fuels for different Specific Water Consumption (SWC) of 130, 200, and 270 g/kWh. Under conventional H 2 dual-fuel mode, energy efficiency and NO x emission increased significantly while Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and smoke emissions decreased. The maximum H 2 energy share increased from 20% without water to 32%, 36%, and 39% with SWC of 130, 200, and 270 g/kWh respectively. However, SWC of 200 g/kWh was selected as an optimum water quantity for knock free operation, better performance and lower emissions. At the optimum SWC with 20% H 2 energy share, the NO x emission and energy efficiency decreased about 24% and 5.7%, while HC and smoke emissions increased about 38% and 69%. At 20% H 2 energy share, the CO emission increased from 0.0 g/kWh without water to 1.2 g/kWh with the optimum SWC. However, reduction of these HC and CO emissions using oxidation catalysts needs to be studied further. A new methodology for determining heat release rate with consideration of crevice gas was proposed in the study

  9. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  10. Stress Linearization and Strength Evaluation of the BEP's Flow Plates for a Dual Cooled Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    A fuel assembly is composed of 5 major components, such as a top end piece (TEP), a bottom end piece (BEP), spacer grids (SGs), guide tubes (GTs) and an instrumentation tube (IT) and fuel rods (FRs). There are no ASME criteria about all components except for a TEP/BEP. The TEP/BEP should satisfy stress intensity limits in case of condition A and B of ASME, Section III, Division 1 . Subsection NB. In a dual cooled fuel assembly, the array and position of fuels are changed from those of a conventional PWR fuel assembly to achieve a power uprating. The flow plates of top/bottom end pieces (TEP/BEP) have to be modified into proper shape to provide flow holes to direct the heated coolant into/out of the fuel assembly but structural intensity of these plates within a 22.241 kN axial loading should satisfy Tresca stress limits in ASME code. In this paper, stress linearization procedure and strength evaluation of a newly designed BEP for the dual cooled fuel assembly are described

  11. Modeling the emissions of a dual fuel engine coupled with a biomass gasifier-supplementing the Wiebe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Caligiuri, Carlo; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris; Renzi, Massimiliano; Baratieri, Marco

    2018-03-12

    There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines. This study introduces a thermodynamic model that works in parallel with the Wiebe function and calculates the emissions of the engines. This "vis-à-vis" approach takes into consideration the actual conditions inside the cylinders-as they are returned by the Wiebe function-and calculates the final thermodynamic equilibrium of the flue gases mixture. This approach aims to enhance the operation of the dual fuel internal combustion engines by identifying the optimal operating conditions and-at the same time-advance pollution control and minimize the environmental impact.

  12. Evaluation of bundle duct interaction by out-of-pile compression test of FBR fuel pin bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2001-06-01

    Bundle duct interaction (BDI) caused by expansion of fuel pin bundle is a main factor to limit the fuel lifetime. Therefore, it is important for the design of fast reactor fuel assembly to understand the fuel pin deformation behavior under BDI condition. In order to understand the fuel pin deformation behavior under BDI condition, out-of-pile compression tests were conducted for FBR fuel pin bundle by use of X-ray CT equipment. In these compression tests, two kinds of fuel pin bundles were conducted. One was the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch and the other was the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch and large diameter claddings. The general discussions were also performed based on the results of out-of-pile compression tests obtained by use of X-ray CT equipment in the previous work. Following results were obtained. 1) The occurrence of the pin-to-duct contact depends on the wire-pitch. In the fuel pin bundle with large wire-pitch, the pin-to-duct contact occurred at the early stage of BDI. The reason of this result is due to the low bowing rigidity of the fuel pins with long wire-pitch. 2) The value of the ovalation stiffness strongly depends on the geometry of cladding (diameter, thickness) and especially on wire-pitch. This result in this work revealed that the occurrence of the pin-to-duct contact depends on the value of the ovalation stiffness. 3) The occurrence of wire dispersion and dispersive displacement of pins depends on the wire-pitch strongly. In the fuel pin bundle with the long wire-pitch, the occurrence of the above-mentioned suppression mechanism to BDI is remarkable. 4) The suppression mechanism to BDI of the fuel pin bundle with the long wire-pitch is elastic oval deformation of cladding, wire dispersion and dispersive displacement of pins. On the other hand, the elastic and plastic oval deformation of cladding is the major suppression mechanism to BDI in the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch. 5) The appearance of

  13. Knock-Limited Performance of Triptane and 28-R Fuel Blends as Affected by Changes in Compression Ratio and in Engine Operating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Fisher, William F.

    1947-01-01

    A knock-limited performance investigation was conducted on blends of triptane and 28-P fuel with a 12-cylinder, V-type, liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement at three compression ratios: 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect of changes in temperature of the inlet air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger and in fuel-air ratio were investigated at engine speeds of 2280 and. 3000 rpm. The results show that knock-limited engine performance, as improved by the use of triptane, allowed operation at both take-off and cruising power at a compression ratio of 9.68. At an inlet-air temperature of 60 deg F, an engine speed of 3000 rpm ; and a fuel-air ratio of 0,095 (approximately take-off conditions), a knock-limited engine output of 1500 brake horsepower was possible with 100-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65; 20-percent triptane was required for the same power output at a compression ratio of 7.93, and 75 percent at a compression ratio of 9.68 allowed an output of 1480 brake horsepower. Knock-limited power output was more sensitive to changes in fuel-air ratio as the engine speed was increased from 2280 to 3000 rpm, as the compression ratio is raised from 6.65 to 9.68, or as the inlet-air temperature is raised from 0 deg to 120 deg F.

  14. Studying the effect of compression ratio on an engine fueled with waste oil produced biodiesel/diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL_Kassaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wasted cooking oil from restaurants was used to produce neat (pure biodiesel through transesterification, and then used to prepare biodiesel/diesel blends. The effect of blending ratio and compression ratio on a diesel engine performance has been investigated. Emission and combustion characteristics was studded when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B50 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 14 to 16 to 18. The result shows that the engine torque for all blends increases as the compression ratio increases. The bsfc for all blends decreases as the compression ratio increases and at all compression ratios bsfc remains higher for the higher blends as the biodiesel percent increase. The change of compression ratio from 14 to 18 resulted in, 18.39%, 27.48%, 18.5%, and 19.82% increase in brake thermal efficiency in case of B10, B20, B30, and B50 respectively. On an average, the CO2 emission increased by 14.28%, the HC emission reduced by 52%, CO emission reduced by 37.5% and NOx emission increased by 36.84% when compression ratio was increased from 14 to 18. In spite of the slightly higher viscosity and lower volatility of biodiesel, the ignition delay seems to be lower for biodiesel than for diesel. On average, the delay period decreased by 13.95% when compression ratio was increased from 14 to 18. From this study, increasing the compression ratio had more benefits with biodiesel than that with pure diesel.

  15. Mechanical design issues and resolutions of a dual cooled fuel for the OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung-Kyu, E-mail: hkkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Innovative Nuclear Fuel Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Kyung-Ho [Innovative Nuclear Fuel Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Thickness of outer cladding tube is determined by using the elastic buckling criterion. > Growth difference of the inner and outer claddings will not cause fuel rod bowing. > Structural components are designed without a drastic change of the conventional ones. - Abstract: A dual cooled fuel is recently brought into focus due to its potential of considerable power uprating. The purpose of present work is to realize the innovative concept of a dual cooled fuel to be a fuel assembly structure compatible with the OPR-1000 system. Under the framework, the critical issues such as the outer cladding thickness and the growth difference of the inner and outer cladding tubes are dealt with in this paper. We designed the thickness of outer cladding tube by using the elastic buckling criterion and safety factor analysis. From the concern of the inner cladding's bowing during irradiation, it was suggested that the outer cladding would grow more than the inner one by applying different microstructures to the inner and outer cladding tubes. It was noted that the gap between fuel rods would not be narrowed further during the different irradiation growth. The structural components such as fuel rod supporting structure, top and bottom end pieces and guide tubes could be designed without a drastic change of those of the conventional fuel. Candidate designs of the components are also presented.

  16. Experimental and modelling study of reverse flow catalytic converters for natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.

    2000-07-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of natural gas vehicles in response to the challenge to reduce urban air pollution and consumption of petroleum. The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is one way to apply natural gas to the conventional diesel engine. Dual fuel engines operating on natural gas and diesel emit less nitrogen oxides, and less carbon soot to the air compared to conventional diesel engines. The problem is that at light loads, fuel efficiency is reduced and emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are increased. This thesis focused on control methods for emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the dual fuel engine at light loads. This was done by developing a reverse flow catalytic converter to complement dual fuel engine exhaust characteristics. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of reverse flow catalytic converters were conducted. Reverse flow creates a high reactor temperature even when the engine is run at low exhaust temperature levels at light loads. The increase in reactor temperature from reverse flow could be 2 or 3 times higher than the adiabatic temperature increase, which is based on the reactor inlet temperature and concentration. This temperature makes it possible for greater than 90 per cent of the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide to be converted with a palladium based catalyst. Reverse flow appears to be better than conventional unidirectional flow to deal with natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution at light loads. Reverse flow could also maintain reactor temperature at over 800 K and hydrocarbon conversion at about 80 per cent during testing. The newly presented model simulates reactor performance with reasonable accuracy. Both carbon monoxide and methane oxidation over the palladium catalyst in excess oxygen and water were described using first order kinetics.

  17. Combustion and emissions control in diesel-methane dual fuel engines: The effects of methane supply method combined with variable in-cylinder charge bulk motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio P.; Laforgia, Domenico; Saracino, Roberto; Toto, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We studied dual fuel combustion in diesel engines. → Bulk flow structure of in-cylinder charge and methane supply method were investigated. → Swirl charge motion is capable to enhance air-methane mixture oxidation at low loads. → Methane port injection is capable to reduce unburned hydrocarbons and nitric oxides. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of an extensive experimental campaign about dual fuel combustion development and the related pollutant emissions are reported, paying particular attention to the effect of both the in-cylinder charge bulk motion and methane supply method. A diesel common rail research engine was converted to operate in dual fuel mode and, by activating/deactivating the two different inlet valves of the engine (i.e. swirl and tumble), three different bulk flow structures of the charge were induced inside the cylinder. A methane port injection method was proposed, in which the gaseous fuel was injected into the inlet duct very close to the intake valves, in order to obtain a stratified-like air-fuel mixture up to the end of the compression stroke. For comparison purposes, a homogeneous-like air-fuel mixture was obtained injecting methane more upstream the intake line. Combining the different positions of the methane injector and the three possible bulk flow structures, seven different engine inlet setup were tested. In this way, it was possible to evaluate the effects on dual fuel combustion due to the interaction between methane injector position and charge bulk motion. In addition, methane injection pressure and diesel pilot injection parameters were varied setting the engine at two operating conditions. For some interesting low load tests, the combustion development was studied more in detail by means of direct observation of the process, using an in-cylinder endoscope and a digital CCD camera. Each combustion image was post-processed by a dedicated software, in order to extract only those portions with flame

  18. Flow-Induced Vibration Measurement of an Inner Cladding Tube in a Simulated Dual-Cooled Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    To create an internal coolant flow passage in a dual cooled fuel rod, an inner cladding tube cannot have intermediate supports enough to relieve its vibration. Thus it can be suffered from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) more severely than an outer cladding tube which will be supported by series of spacer grids. It may cause a fatigue failure at welding joints on the cladding's end plug or fluid elastic instability of long, slender inner cladding due to decrease of a critical flow velocity. This is one of the challenging technical issues when a dual cooled fuel assembly is to be realized into a conventional reactor core To study an actual vibration phenomenon of a dual cooled fuel rod, FIV tests using a small-scale test bundle are being carried out. Measurement results of inner cladding tube of two typically simulated rods are presented. Causes of the differences in the vibration amplitude and response spectrum of the inner cladding tube in terms of intermediate support condition and pellet stacking are discussed.

  19. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Duc Cung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline compression ignition (GCI has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI, which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually postinjection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline usually has longer ignition delay than diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON. Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to autoignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, aromatic, alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multicylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of exhaust gas recirculating (EGR, start of injection, and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing (location of 50% of fuel mass burned was kept constant during the experiments. This provides similar thermodynamic conditions to study the effect of fuels on emissions. Emission characteristics at different levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (<90 dB and stable combustion (coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure <3% were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this article contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection and also more intense

  20. Emission and operating performance of a biomethane tractor with dual fuel engine; Emissions- und Betriebsverhalten eines Biomethan-Traktors mit Zuendstrahlmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, Sebastian [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual fuel technology is contributing to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any documented operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and the emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retrofitted dual-fuel technology of the former conventional diesel tractor simultaneously uses biomethane or natural gas and diesel as ignition fuel. During the field test over 590 working hours, the tractor showed overall high reliability. On average the operating range in dual-fuel mode with one complete filling of the gas tanks was about 11.5 hours. On the tractor test bench a significant improvement of the exhaust emissions could be observed, since the gas ECU had been optimized and changed by the manufacturer. For dual-fuel operation, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are lower, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter emissions (PM) are higher compared to solely diesel operation. In particular, HC emissions exceed the proposed limiting value, submitted by the European Commission. This is due to incomplete gas combustion and insufficient conversion by the exhaust after-treatment-system (methane slip). A big potential for optimization is expected by adjusting the operating point-specific gasdiesel ratio and improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

  1. Transient Temperature Distribution in a Reactor Core with Cylindrical Fuel Rods and Compressible Coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, H

    1968-04-15

    Applying linearization and Laplace transformation the transient temperature distribution and weighted temperatures in fuel, canning and coolant are calculated analytically in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry for constant material properties in fuel and canning. The model to be presented includes previous models as special cases and has the following novel features: compressibility of the coolant is accounted for. The material properties of the coolant are variable. All quantities determining the temperature field are taken into account. It is shown that the solution for fuel and canning temperature may be given by the aid of 4 basic transfer functions depending on only two variables. These functions are calculated for all relevant rod geometries and material constants. The integrals involved in transfer functions determining coolant temperatures are solved for the most part generally by application of coordinate and Laplace transformation. The model was originally developed for use in steam cooled fast reactor analysis where the coolant temperature rise and compressibility are considerable. It may be applied to other fast or thermal systems after suitable simplifications.

  2. The evaluation of minimum cooling period for loading of PWR spent nuclear fuel of a dual purpose metal cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dho, Ho Seog; Kim, Tae Man; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Recently, because the wet pool storage facilities of NPPs in Korea has become saturated, there has been much active R and D on an interim dry storage system using a transportation and storage cask. Generally, the shielding evaluation for the design of a spent fuel transportation and storage cask is performed by the design basis fuel, which selects the most conservative fuel among the fuels to be loaded into the cask. However, the loading of actual spent fuel into the transportation metal cask is not limited to the design basis fuel used in the shielding evaluation; the loading feasibility of actual spent fuel is determined by the shielding evaluation that considers the characteristics of the initial enrichment, the maximum burnup and the minimum cooling period. This study describes a shielding analysis method for determining the minimum cooling period of spent fuel that meets the domestic transportation standard of the dual purpose metal cask. In particular, the spent fuel of 3.0-4.5wt% initial enrichment, which has a large amount of release, was evaluated by segmented shielding calculations for efficient improvement of the results. The shielding evaluation revealed that about 81% of generated spent fuel from the domestic nuclear power plants until 2008 could be transported by the dual purpose metal cask. The results of this study will be helpful in establishing a technical basis for developing operating procedures for transportation of the dual purpose metal cask.

  3. The evaluation of minimum cooling period for loading of PWR spent nuclear fuel of a dual purpose metal cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dho, Ho Seog; Kim, Tae Man; Cho, Chun Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, because the wet pool storage facilities of NPPs in Korea has become saturated, there has been much active R and D on an interim dry storage system using a transportation and storage cask. Generally, the shielding evaluation for the design of a spent fuel transportation and storage cask is performed by the design basis fuel, which selects the most conservative fuel among the fuels to be loaded into the cask. However, the loading of actual spent fuel into the transportation metal cask is not limited to the design basis fuel used in the shielding evaluation; the loading feasibility of actual spent fuel is determined by the shielding evaluation that considers the characteristics of the initial enrichment, the maximum burnup and the minimum cooling period. This study describes a shielding analysis method for determining the minimum cooling period of spent fuel that meets the domestic transportation standard of the dual purpose metal cask. In particular, the spent fuel of 3.0-4.5wt% initial enrichment, which has a large amount of release, was evaluated by segmented shielding calculations for efficient improvement of the results. The shielding evaluation revealed that about 81% of generated spent fuel from the domestic nuclear power plants until 2008 could be transported by the dual purpose metal cask. The results of this study will be helpful in establishing a technical basis for developing operating procedures for transportation of the dual purpose metal cask

  4. Thermofluidic compression effects to achieve combustion in a low-compression scramjet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. F.; Wheatley, V.; Jahn, I.

    2017-12-01

    The compression provided by a scramjet inlet is an important parameter in its design. It must be low enough to limit thermal and structural loads and stagnation pressure losses, but high enough to provide the conditions favourable for combustion. Inlets are typically designed to achieve sufficient compression without accounting for the fluidic, and subsequently thermal, compression provided by the fuel injection, which can enable robust combustion in a low-compression engine. This is investigated using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations of a simplified scramjet engine designed to have insufficient compression to auto-ignite fuel in the absence of thermofluidic compression. The engine was designed with a wide rectangular combustor and a single centrally located injector, in order to reduce three-dimensional effects of the walls on the fuel plume. By varying the injected mass flow rate of hydrogen fuel (equivalence ratios of 0.22, 0.17, and 0.13), it is demonstrated that higher equivalence ratios lead to earlier ignition and more rapid combustion, even though mean conditions in the combustor change by no more than 5% for pressure and 3% for temperature with higher equivalence ratio. By supplementing the lower equivalence ratio with helium to achieve a higher mass flow rate, it is confirmed that these benefits are primarily due to the local compression provided by the extra injected mass. Investigation of the conditions around the fuel plume indicated two connected mechanisms. The higher mass flow rate for higher equivalence ratios generated a stronger injector bow shock that compresses the free-stream gas, increasing OH radical production and promoting ignition. This was observed both in the higher equivalence ratio case and in the case with helium. This earlier ignition led to increased temperature and pressure downstream and, consequently, stronger combustion. The heat release from combustion provided thermal compression in the combustor, further

  5. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  6. Investigation of GDL compression effects on the performance of a PEM fuel cell cathode by lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaeimanesh, G. R.; Nazemian, M.

    2017-08-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with a great potential for application in vehicle propulsion systems will have a promising future. However, to overcome the exiting challenges against their wider commercialization further fundamental research is inevitable. The effects of gas diffusion layer (GDL) compression on the performance of a PEM fuel cell is not well-recognized; especially, via pore-scale simulation technique capturing the fibrous microstructure of the GDL. In the current investigation, a stochastic microstructure reconstruction method is proposed which can capture GDL microstructure changes by compression. Afterwards, lattice Boltzmann pore-scale simulation technique is adopted to simulate the reactive gas flow through 10 different cathode electrodes with dissimilar carbon paper GDLs produced from five different compression levels and two different carbon fiber diameters. The distributions of oxygen mole fraction, water vapor mole fraction and current density for the simulated cases are presented and analyzed. The results of simulations demonstrate that when the fiber diameter is 9 μm adding compression leads to lower average current density while when the fiber diameter is 7 μm the compression effect is not monotonic.

  7. Comparison of thermal and radical effects of EGR gases on combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Sohrabi, A.; Niaei, A.

    2007-01-01

    Dual fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. This work is conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel (Diesel-gas) engine at part loads using a single zone combustion model with detailed chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel. In this home made software, the presence of the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source that is deriving form two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for its contribution to ignition of the gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. The chemical kinetics mechanism consists of 112 reactions with 34 species. This combustion model is able to establish the development of the combustion process with time and the associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. Therefore, this work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the above mentioned problems. Also, the results of this work show that each of the different cases of EGR (thermal, chemical and radical cases) has an important role on the combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads. It is found that all the different cases of EGR have positive effects on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel engines at part loads despite the negative effect of some diluent gases in the chemical case, which moderates too much the positive effects of the thermal and radical cases of EGR. Predicted values show good agreement with corresponding experimental values over the whole range of engine operating conditions. Implications will be discussed in detail

  8. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  9. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the combustion process at low loads of a diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu

    2016-01-01

    To construct an effective method to analyze the combustion process of dual fuel engines at low loads, effects of combustion boundaries on the combustion process of an electronically controlled diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine at low loads were investigated. Three typical combustion modes, including h, m and n, appeared under different combustion boundaries. In addition, the time-sequenced characteristic and the heat release rate-imbalanced characteristic were found in the dual fuel engine combustion process. To quantify these characteristics, two quantitative indicators, including the TSC (time-sequenced coefficient) and the HBC (HRR-balanced coefficient) were defined. The results show that increasing TSC and HBC can decrease HC (hydrocarbon) emissions and improve the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) significantly. The engine with the n combustion mode can obtain the highest BTE and the lowest HC emissions, followed by m, and then h. However, the combustion process of the engine will deteriorate sharply if boundary conditions are not strictly controlled in the n combustion mode. Based on the n combustion mode, advancing the start of diesel injection significantly, using large EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate and appropriately intake throttling can effectively reduce HC emissions and improve the BTE of dual fuel engines at low loads with relatively high natural gas PES (percentage energy substitution). - Highlights: • We reported three typical combustion modes of a dual-fuel engine at low loads. • Time-sequenced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • HRR-imbalanced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • Three combustion modes appeared as equivalence ratio/diesel injection timing varied. • The engine performance varied significantly with different combustion mode.

  10. Cow Power: A Case Study of Renewable Compressed Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure—to fuel 42 heavy-duty milk tanker trucks operating in Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, and Kentucky.

  11. Experimental investigation of performance, exhaust emission and combustion parameters of stationary compression ignition engine using ethanol fumigation in dual fuel mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamuwa, D.K.; Sharma, D.; Soni, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of renewable fuels as diesel replacement is being emphasized. • Effect of ethanol fumigation on the performance of diesel engine is investigated. • NOx, CO_2 and smoke decreases with simultaneous increase in HC and CO. • Increase in ignition delay with decrease in combustion duration for ethanol substitution observed. - Abstract: Dwindling reserves and steeply increasing prices of the fossil-fuels, concern over climatic change due to release of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and the strict environmental regulations have motivated the researchers for the search for renewable alternative fuel that has clean burning characteristics and may be produced indigenously. Alcohols, being oxygenated fuel improve the combustion and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thus enhancing agrarian economies and encouraging national economy as a whole. The objective of this paper is to investigate the thermal performance, exhaust emissions and combustion behaviour of small capacity compression ignition engine using fumigated ethanol. Fumigated ethanol at different flow rates is supplied to the cylinder during suction with the help of a simplified low cost ethanol fuelling system. With ethanol fumigation, brake thermal efficiency decreased upto 11.2% at low loads due to deteriorated combustion, whereas improved combustion increased efficiency up to 6% at higher loads, as compared to pure diesel. Maximum reduction of 22%, 41% and 27% respectively in nitrogen oxide, smoke and carbon-di-oxide emissions with simultaneous increase in hydrocarbon and carbon-mono-oxide emissions upto maximum of 144% and 139% respectively for different rates of ethanol fumigation have been observed, when compared to pure diesel operation. This is due to the changes in physico-chemical properties of air fuel mixture, viz combustion temperature, oxygen concentration, latent heat of vaporisation, fuel distribution, cetane number and ignition delay, that occurred with addition of

  12. The use of modified tyre derived fuel for compression ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, T J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated physical and chemical modification of tyre-derived fuel oil (TDFO) obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres and rubber products for application as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines (CIE's). TDFO collected from a local waste tyre treatment facility was refined via a novel "oxidative gas-phase fractional distillation over 13× molecular sieves" to recover the light to medium fractions of the TDFO while oxidising and capturing some sulphur compounds in a gas phase. This was followed by desulphurization and chemical modification to improve cetane number, kinematic viscosity and fuel stability. The resulting fuel was tested in an ADE407T truck engine to compare its performance with petroleum diesel fuel. It was discovered that gas phase oxidative fractional distillation reduces the low boiling point sulphur compounds in TDFO such as mercaptans. Using petroleum diesel fuel as a reference, it was observed that the produced fuel has a lower cetane number, flash point and viscosity. On storage the fuel tends to form fibrous microstructures as a result of auto-oxidation of asphaltenes present in the fuel. Mixtures of alkyl nitrate, vinyl acetate, methacrylic anhydride, methyl-tert butyl ether, n-hexane and n-heptane were used to chemically modify the fuel in accordance with the minimum fuel specifications as per SANS 342. The engine performance tests results did not show any sign of engine ceasing or knocking effect. The power-torque trend was very consistent and compared well with petroleum diesel fuelled engine. The levels of total sulphur are still considerably high compared to other cleaner fuel alternatives derived from zero sulphur sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Operating a locomotive on liquid methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that several years ago, Burlington Northern Railroad looked into the feasibility of operating a diesel railroad locomotive to also run on compressed natural gas in a dual-fuel mode. Recognizing the large volume of on-board storage required and other limitations of CNG in the application, a program was begun to fuel a locomotive with liquefied natural gas. Because natural gas composition can vary with source and processing, it was considered desirable to use essentially pure liquid methane as the engine fuel. Initial testing results show the locomotive system achieved full diesel-rated power when operating on liquid methane and with equivalent fuel efficiency. Extended testing, including an American Association of Railroad 500-hour durability test, was undertaken to obtain information on engine life, wear rate and lubrication oil life

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of a turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [I.C. Engines Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using bio-oil namely turpentine obtained from the resin of pine tree. The emission and performance characteristics of a D.I. diesel engine were studied through dual fuel (DF) mode. Turpentine was inducted as a primary fuel through induction manifold and diesel was admitted into the engine through conventional fueling device as an igniter. The result showed that except volumetric efficiency, all other performance and emission parameters are better than those of diesel fuel with in 75% load. The toxic gases like CO, UBHC are slightly higher than that of the diesel baseline (DBL). Around 40-45% smoke reduction is obtained with DF mode. The pollutant No{sub x} is found to be equal to that of DBL except at full load. This study has proved that approximately 75% diesel replacement with turpentine is possible by DF mode with little engine modification. (author)

  15. Performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.M.; Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Harada, Y.; Sakane, A. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-12-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first without EGR condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.65. A maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 1425 kPa and a thermal efficiency of 39% were obtained. However, the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were high. A simulated EGR up to 50% was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The maximum reduction of NOx was 60% or more maintaining the similar levels of IMEP and thermal efficiency. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion.

  16. Experimental evaluation of a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine operated on micro-trigeneration system for power, drying and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis; Herrera, Bernardo; Gallego, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A micro-trigeneration system based in a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was obtained. • Heat from engine exhaust gases was used for drying and refrigeration applications. • Energy efficiency of the microtrigeneration system in dual mode was 40%. • Peppermint was dried in the microtrigeneration system. - Abstract: A micro-trigeneration system based on a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was evaluated experimentally. In this system, waste heat from the engine exhaust was used for heating air using a heat pipe exchanger and for driving an absorption unit freezer. The air heated was used in a convective trays dryer designed to dry peppermint. The global energy efficiency of this system at the engine full load was 40% and 31% in diesel and dual mode, respectively, while the same efficiencies of the engine at the original single generation were 23% and 18%, respectively. On the other hand, a maximum diesel substitution level of 50% was achieved in dual mode.

  17. Mechanical Performance Evaluation of a Top End Piece for Dual Cooled Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Choi, Woo Seok

    2011-01-01

    A fuel assembly consists of five major components, i.e., a top end piece (TEP), a bottom end piece (BEP), spacer grids (SGs), guide tubes (GTs) and an instrumentation tube (IT): in addition, it also includes fuel rods (FRs). The TEP/BEP should satisfy stress intensity limits according to the conditions A and B of ASME, Section III, Division 1.Subsection NB. In a dual-cooled fuel assembly, the array and position of fuel rods are different from those in a conventional PWR fuel assembly; these changes are necessary for achieving power uprating. The flow plates of the TEP and BEP have to be modified accordingly. The pattern and shape of the flow holes were newly designed. To verify the strength compatibility, the Tresca stress limit according to the ASME code was investigated in the case of an axial load of 22.241 kN. In this paper, the stress linearization procedure for strength evaluation of a newly designed TEP is presented

  18. Investigation of TIG welding characteristics with a dual cooled rod for the fuel irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    To establish the fabrication process, and for satisfying the requirements of the irradiation test, an TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding machine for the dual cooled rods specimens was developed, and the preliminary welding experiments were performed to optimize the welding process conditions. Cladding tubes of 15.9 and 9 mm for the outer and inner diameters, respectively with a 0.57 mm thickness and end caps were used for the specimens. This paper describes the experimental results of the TIG welds and the micrograph examinations of the TIG welded specimens corresponding to various welding conditions for the dual cooled fuel irradiation test. The investigations revealed that the present TIG process satisfied the requirements for the fuel irradiation test in the HANARO research reactor

  19. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  20. Combustion of simulated biogas in a dual-fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henham, A.; Makkar, M.K. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Technology related to biogas has been steadily developed over the last 50 years from small individually designed units to larger production plants. The development, however, has largely taken place on the side of biogas production and anaerobic waste treatment. Utilization of the gas produced by these methods has only recently been the subject of more scientific evaluation. The transformation of energy through biogas into the thermodynamically higher valued mechanical energy successfully and economically is now the most important research area in this field. Of the engine work already published, most concerns spark-ignited engines. The authors` research work concerns the use of biogas in dual-fuel diesel engines. It examines engine performance using simulated biogas of varying quality representing the range of methane:carbon dioxide composition which may be encountered in gas from different sources. The total programme includes the effects of biogas quality and of the proportion of energy from pilot fuel injection over a range of speeds and loads, investigations into the performance parameters over a range of compositions of gaseous mixture. A two-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine of stationary type is being used as the first experimental test bed in this work and the variation of quality is provided by mixing natural gas and carbon dioxide. A data acquisition system for an in-cylinder pressure and crank angle is being used successfully and some emissions measurements are also available, particularly for CO and O{sub 2}. The nature of combustion process in the dual-fuel engine is examined through pressure-crank angle data and studies of characteristics affecting engine efficiency. (author)

  1. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo; Melaina, Marc W.

    2011-01-01

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  2. Burn characteristics of compressed fuel pellets for D-3He inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Y.; Honda, T.; Honda, Y.; Kudo, K.; Nakashima, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using D- 3 He fuel in inertial confinement fusion is examined by using a hydrodynamics code that includes neutron and charged-particle transport routines. The use of a small amount of deuterium-tritium (D-T) ignitor is indispensable. Burn simulations are made for quasi-isobaric D-T/D- 3 He pellet models compressed to 5000 times the liquid density. Substantial fuel gains (∼500) are obtained from pellets having parameters ρR D-T = 3 g/cm 2 and ρR total = 14 g/cm 2 and a central spark temperature of 5 keV. The amount of driver energy needed to achieve these gains is estimated to be ∼ 30 MJ when the coupling efficiency is 10%. The driver energy requirement can be reduced by using spin-polarized D-T and D- 3 He fuels

  3. Effect of fuel injection parameters on combustion stability and emissions of a mineral diesel fueled partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ayush; Singh, Akhilendra Pratap; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NOx and PM emissions were lowest at 700 bar fuel injection pressure (FIP). • PCCI showed lower knocking than compression ignition combustion mode. • Increasing FIP reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides and smoke opacity in PCCI mode. • Increasing FIP reduced nucleation mode particle concentration. • Increasing FIP with advanced main injection timings improved PCCI combustion. - Abstract: This experimental study focuses on developing new combustion concept for compression ignition (CI) engines by achieving partially homogeneous charge, leading to low temperature combustion (LTC). Partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is a single-stage phenomenon, with combustion shifting towards increasingly premixed combustion phase, resulting in lower in-cylinder temperatures. PCCI leads to relatively lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously. To investigate combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the PCCI engine, experiments were performed in a mineral diesel fueled single cylinder research engine, which was equipped with flexible fuel injection equipment (FIE). Effects of fuel injection pressure (FIP) were investigated by changing the FIP from 400 bar to 1000 bar. Experiments were carried out by varying start of main injection (SoMI) timings (from 12° to 24° before top dead center (bTDC)), when using single pilot injection. This experimental study included detailed investigations of particulate characteristics such as particulate number-size distribution using engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), particulate bound trace metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), and soot morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCCI combustion improved with increasing FIP (up to 700 bar) due to superior fuel atomization however further increasing FIP deteriorated PCCI combustion and engine performance due to intense

  4. Combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine fueled with n-butanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusri, I. M.; Mamat, R.; Ali, O. M.; Aziz, A.; Akasyah, M. K.; Kamarulzaman, M. K.; Ihsan, C. K.; Mahmadul, H. M.; Rosdi, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomass based renewable fuel, n-butanol blends for compression ignition (CI) engine has attracted wide attention due to its superior properties such as better miscibility, higher energy content, and cetane number. In this present study the use of n-butanol 10% blends (Bu10) with diesel fuel has been tested using 4-cylinder, 4-stroke common rail direct injection CI engine to investigate the combustion and emissions of the blended fuels. Based on the tested engine at BMEP=3.5Bar Bu10 fuel indicates lower first and second peak pressure by 5.4% and 2.4% for engine speed 1000rpm and 4.4% and 2.1% for engine speed 2500rpm compared to diesel fuel respectively. Percentage reduction relative to diesel fuel at engine speeds 1000rpm and 2500rpm for Bu10: Exhaust temperature was 7.5% and 5.2% respectively; Nitrogen oxides (NOx) 73.4% and 11.3% respectively.

  5. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine’s thermal efficiency eta_t, volumetric efficiency eta_v and air excess ratio lambda

  6. Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Pinaki; Probst, Daniel; Pei, Yuanjiang; Zhang, Yu; Traver, Michael; Cleary, David; Som, Sibendu

    2017-03-28

    Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels. To aid the design and optimization of a compression ignition (CI) combustion system using such fuels, a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was conducted to understand the relative influence of various design parameters on efficiency, emissions and heat release rate. The design parameters included injection strategies, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) fraction, temperature and pressure at intake valve closure and injector configuration. These were varied simultaneously to achieve various targets of ignition timing, combustion phasing, overall burn duration, emissions, fuel consumption, peak cylinder pressure and maximum pressure rise rate. The baseline case was a three-dimensional closed-cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with a sector mesh at medium load conditions. Eleven design parameters were considered and ranges of variation were prescribed to each of these. These input variables were perturbed in their respective ranges using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to generate a set of 256 CFD simulations and the targets were calculated from the simulation results. GSA was then applied as a screening tool to identify the input parameters having the most

  7. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  8. Compressed hydrogen fuelled vehicle at ENEA: Status and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pede, G.; Ciancia, A.

    1993-01-01

    The world's 500 million road vehicles using internal combustion engines account for roughly half of global oil consumption and, in Italy, for about 50% of all nitrogen oxide and 90% of carbon monoxide emissions. In efforts to conserve petroleum reserves and reduce air pollution, research programs are being conducted to develop hydrogen fueled automotive engines. Hydrogen combustion products are carbon dioxide free, and when burned with a large excess of air, this fuel produces water vapour and only small amounts of nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen fueled vehicles can be made to operate in a dual fuel mode so as to allow the use of petrol or diesel fuel in travel over long distances. Currently, because technical and economic difficulties relevant to hydrogen fuel storage limit driving range and payload (there are bulk and weight problems in compressed gas and metal hydride storage systems, and cost problems in cryogenic storage), only limited research programs are being performed, mainly in Germany (by Mercedes Benz) and Japan. Some recent advances, however, relevant to research in gas storage and gaseous mixtures have been made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment). This paper outlines the progress being made in ENEA's research efforts which include the development of an electronically controlled hydrogen fuel injection system prototype

  9. Fuel Vaporization and Its Effect on Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1933-01-01

    The tests discussed in this report were conducted to determine whether or not there is appreciable vaporization of the fuel injected into a high-speed compression-ignition engine during the time available for injection and combustion. The effects of injection advance angle and fuel boiling temperature were investigated. The results show that an appreciable amount of the fuel is vaporized during injection even though the temperature and pressure conditions in the engine are not sufficient to cause ignition either during or after injection, and that when the conditions are such as to cause ignition the vaporization process affects the combustion. The results are compared with those of several other investigators in the same field.

  10. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  11. A study on the amount of pilot injection and its effects on rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture for a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang Lin; Wanhua Su [Tianjin University (China). State Key Laboratory of Engines

    2003-07-01

    A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimisation of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and premixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NO{sub x} and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NO{sub x} emissions, because the premixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase. However, the soot emissions remain almost unchanged at a very low level. (author)

  12. Dual photon excitation microscopy and image threshold segmentation in live cell imaging during compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, Eng Kuan; Abusara, Ziad; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Herzog, Walter

    2013-08-09

    Morphological studies of live connective tissue cells are imperative to helping understand cellular responses to mechanical stimuli. However, photobleaching is a constant problem to accurate and reliable live cell fluorescent imaging, and various image thresholding methods have been adopted to account for photobleaching effects. Previous studies showed that dual photon excitation (DPE) techniques are superior over conventional one photon excitation (OPE) confocal techniques in minimizing photobleaching. In this study, we investigated the effects of photobleaching resulting from OPE and DPE on morphology of in situ articular cartilage chondrocytes across repeat laser exposures. Additionally, we compared the effectiveness of three commonly-used image thresholding methods in accounting for photobleaching effects, with and without tissue loading through compression. In general, photobleaching leads to an apparent volume reduction for subsequent image scans. Performing seven consecutive scans of chondrocytes in unloaded cartilage, we found that the apparent cell volume loss caused by DPE microscopy is much smaller than that observed using OPE microscopy. Applying scan-specific image thresholds did not prevent the photobleaching-induced volume loss, and volume reductions were non-uniform over the seven repeat scans. During cartilage loading through compression, cell fluorescence increased and, depending on the thresholding method used, led to different volume changes. Therefore, different conclusions on cell volume changes may be drawn during tissue compression, depending on the image thresholding methods used. In conclusion, our findings confirm that photobleaching directly affects cell morphology measurements, and that DPE causes less photobleaching artifacts than OPE for uncompressed cells. When cells are compressed during tissue loading, a complicated interplay between photobleaching effects and compression-induced fluorescence increase may lead to interpretations in

  13. Advancing the Limits of Dual Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest; the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors the Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, engine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the DDF engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste; commonly referred to as biomethane, can provide a reduction in greenhouse gases unmatched by any other fuel. The DDF engine is from a combustion point of view a hybrid between the diesel and the otto engine and it shares characteristics with both. This work identifies the main challenges of DDF operation and suggests methods to overcome them. Injector tip temperature and pre-ignitions have been found to limit performance in addition to the restrictions known from literature such as knock and emissions of NO{sub x} and HC. HC emissions are especially challenging at light load where throttling is required to promote flame propagation. For this reason it is desired to increase the lean limit in the light load range in order to reduce pumping losses and increase efficiency. It is shown that the best results in this area are achieved by using early diesel injection to achieve HCCI/RCCI combustion where combustion phasing is controlled by the ratio between diesel and methane. However, even without committing to HCCI/RCCI combustion and the difficult control issues associated with it, substantial gains are accomplished by splitting the diesel injection into two and allocating most of the diesel fuel to the early injection. HCCI/RCCI and PPCI combustion can be used with great effect to reduce the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons at light load. At high load, the challenges that need to be overcome are mostly related to heat. Injector tip temperatures need to be observed since the cooling effect of

  14. A comparative experimental study on engine operating on premixed charge compression ignition and compression ignition mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhiogade Girish E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New combustion concepts have been recently developed with the purpose to tackle the problem of high emissions level of traditional direct injection Diesel engines. A good example is the premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A strategy in which early injection is used causing a burning process in which the fuel burns in the premixed condition. In compression ignition engines, soot (particulate matter and NOx emissions are an extremely unsolved issue. Premixed charge compression ignition is one of the most promising solutions that combine the advantages of both spark ignition and compression ignition combustion modes. It gives thermal efficiency close to the compression ignition engines and resolves the associated issues of high NOx and particulate matter, simultaneously. Premixing of air and fuel preparation is the challenging part to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. In the present experimental study a diesel vaporizer is used to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A vaporized diesel fuel was mixed with the air to form premixed charge and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke. Low diesel volatility remains the main obstacle in preparing premixed air-fuel mixture. Exhaust gas re-circulation can be used to control the rate of heat release. The objective of this study is to reduce exhaust emission levels with maintaining thermal efficiency close to compression ignition engine.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Methane Slip in Dual Fuel Marine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jaehyun; Jensen, Michael Vincent; Pang, Kar Mun; Walther, Jens Honore; Schramm, Jesper; Bae, Choongsik

    2017-01-01

    The methane slip is the problematic issue for the engines using natural gas(NG). Because methane is more powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2, understanding of the methane slip during gas exchange process of the engines is essential. In this study, the influence of the gas pipe geometry and the valve timings on the methane slip was investigated. MAN L28/32DF engine was modeled to simulate the gas exchange process of the four stroke NG-diesel dual fuel engines. The mesh size of the model was...

  16. Prospects of biogas as dual fuel in small diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Irvinder; Mittal, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on diesel engines to find out the effect of induction rate of biogas on engine performance indices. The results of dual fuel engine performance was compared with diesel mode for various levels of biogas induction rate (0.3 to 7.2 l/s) engine load (20% to full load) and injection timing (20.6 to 48 before top dead centre). At full and 80% brake load, the best energy mix between diesel and biogas was 1.5:1 and 4:1 respectively. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  17. On the effects of fuel properties and injection timing in partially premixed compression ignition of low octane fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-06-29

    A better understanding on the effects of fuel properties and injection timing is required to improve the performance of advanced engines based on low temperature combustion concepts. In this work, an experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the effects of physical and chemical kinetic properties of low octane fuels and their surrogates in partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines. The main objective was to identify the relative importance of physical versus chemical kinetic properties in predicting practical fuel combustion behavior across a range of injection timings. Two fuel/surrogate pairs were chosen for comparison: light naphtha (LN) versus the primary reference fuel (PRF) with research octane number of 65 (PRF 65), and FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) I gasoline versus PRF 70. Two sets of parametric studies were conducted: the first varied the amount of injected fuel mass at different injection timings to match a fixed combustion phasing, and the second maintained the same injected fuel mass at each injection timing to assess resulting combustion phasing changes. Full-cycle computational fluid dynamic engine simulations were conducted by accounting for differences in the physical properties of the original and surrogate fuels, while employing identical chemical kinetics. The simulations were found to capture trends observed in the experiments, while providing details on spatial mixing and chemical reactivity for different fuels and injection timings. It was found that differences in physical properties become increasingly important as injection timing was progressively delayed from premixed conditions, and this was rationalized by analysis of mixture stratification patterns resulting from injection of fuels with different physical properties. The results suggest that accurate descriptions of both physical and chemical behavior of fuels are critical in predictive simulations of PPCI engines for a wide range of

  18. On the effects of fuel properties and injection timing in partially premixed compression ignition of low octane fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Jaasim, Mohammed; Atef, Nour; Chung, Suk-Ho; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding on the effects of fuel properties and injection timing is required to improve the performance of advanced engines based on low temperature combustion concepts. In this work, an experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the effects of physical and chemical kinetic properties of low octane fuels and their surrogates in partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines. The main objective was to identify the relative importance of physical versus chemical kinetic properties in predicting practical fuel combustion behavior across a range of injection timings. Two fuel/surrogate pairs were chosen for comparison: light naphtha (LN) versus the primary reference fuel (PRF) with research octane number of 65 (PRF 65), and FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) I gasoline versus PRF 70. Two sets of parametric studies were conducted: the first varied the amount of injected fuel mass at different injection timings to match a fixed combustion phasing, and the second maintained the same injected fuel mass at each injection timing to assess resulting combustion phasing changes. Full-cycle computational fluid dynamic engine simulations were conducted by accounting for differences in the physical properties of the original and surrogate fuels, while employing identical chemical kinetics. The simulations were found to capture trends observed in the experiments, while providing details on spatial mixing and chemical reactivity for different fuels and injection timings. It was found that differences in physical properties become increasingly important as injection timing was progressively delayed from premixed conditions, and this was rationalized by analysis of mixture stratification patterns resulting from injection of fuels with different physical properties. The results suggest that accurate descriptions of both physical and chemical behavior of fuels are critical in predictive simulations of PPCI engines for a wide range of

  19. EFFECT OF INJECTOR OPENING PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF LPG - METHYL ESTER OF MAHUA OIL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine is injection pressure. Hence in the present work, effect of Injector opening pressure on the performance of the engine was studied.  A four stroke single cylinder engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. Three injector opening pressures (180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar were considered for the present work. Methyl ester of mahua oil was used as pilot fuel and LPG was used as primary fuel.    From the test results, it was observed that the injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. The higher injector opening pressure results in better atomization and peneatration of methyl ester of mahua oil. The exhaust emissions such as Smoke, unburnt hydro carbon and carbon monoxide of 200 bar is lower than other pressures.

  20. A study of diesel-hydrogen fuel exhaust emissions in a compression ignition engine/generator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, V.; Hafez, H.A.; Kirkegaard, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A compression engine and duel-fuel supply system was studied in order to determine the influence of hydrogen gas on a diesel engine's exhaust system. Commercially available solenoid valves and pulse actuators were used in a customized mechatronic control unit (MICU) to inject the hydrogen gas into the cylinders during the experiments. The MICU was designed as a generic external attachment. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the hydrogen gas-air mixture after compression. Various different electrical loads were then applied using an alternator in order to stimulate the engine governor and control diesel flow. Results of the study showed that measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) loads of exhaust emissions increased, while emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) decreased. Results also showed that higher temperatures and levels of NO x occurred when hydrogen was mixed with the induced air. It was concluded that higher levels of hydrogen may be needed to reduce emissions. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Effects of diluent admissions and intake air temperature in exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions of an indirect injection dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd-Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2001-05-01

    The operation of Diesel engines on gaseous fuels, commonly known as dual fuel engines, uses Diesel fuel as the pilot fuel and gaseous fuel (methane and sometimes propane in the present work) as the main fuel. The gaseous fuel was inducted in the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. The investigation was conducted on a high speed indirect injection (Ricardo-E6) dual fuel engine and was concerned with the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the dual fuel engine combustion and emissions, in particular, the effects of intake air temperature and diluent admissions (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) on combustion and emissions. The use of diluents to displace oxygen (O{sub 2}) in the intake air resulted in a reduction in the O{sub 2} supplied to the engine, increased the inlet charge thermal capacity (thermal effect) and, potentially, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} participated in the combustion process (chemical effect). In a separate series of tests, the temperature of the engine inlet charge was raised gradually in order to simulate the effect of mixing hot EGR with the engine inlet gaseous fuel air mixture. It was found that the admission of diluents resulted in reductions in the exhaust oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). Higher inlet charge temperature increases the exhaust NO{sub x} but reduces the unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Finally, when carbon dioxide was added to the inlet gaseous fuel air charge, large reductions in NO{sub x} were observed. (author)

  2. Studi Eksperimen Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Menggunakan Sistem Dual Fuel Solar Gas CNG Dengan Variasi Tekanan Injeksi Gas Dan Derajat Waktu Injeksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Yoko Exoryanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar gas ini jika ditinjau dari ekonomis tergolong sangat murah dan ramah lingkungan. Namun, pengaplikasian bahan bakar gas CNG pada generator diesel dengan sistem dual fuel berdampak pada penurunan performansinya. Hal ini terjadi karena rasio campuran udara dan bahan bakar pada sistem dual fuel belum sesuai, sehingga perlunya penelitian lebih lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan performa pada mesin diesel dengan memodifikasi saluran masuk udara dengan memasang injector gas CNG untuk memasukkan bahan bakar tersebut kedalam ruang bakar sehingga mesin diesel berubah menjadi sitem dual fuel. Tidak hanya saluran masuk udara saja yang di modifikasi tetapi, variasi start of injection dan tekanan gas yang masuk juga di variasikan. Penelitian ini di lakukan secara eksperimental dengan menginjeksikan gas CNG ke dalam ruang bakar melalui saluran hisap yang sudah terpasang injector. Proses pengaturan injeksi gas CNG diatur oleh ECU programamble melalui software VEMSTUNE. Sistem pengaturan yang dilakukan adalah mengatur derajat waktu injection (SOI dengan nilai 5o, 30o, 55o, dan 80o CA BTDC dan variasi tekanan masuk gas CNG dengan nilai 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 N/m2. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan putaran mesin konstan sebesar 2000 rpm dengan beban 0 sampai 100 %. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen yang dilakukan kali ini, antara lain : performa dual fuel lebih optimal dibandingkan saat pengoperasian single fuel. Pengaturan paling optimal terjadi pada start of injection 80° CA BTDC dengan tekanan 1,5 gas CNG. Gas CNG dapat menggantikan porsi bahan bakar minyak solar sebesar 45,30 %. Nilai subtitusi minyak solar yang optimal sebesar 61,39 % dan SFC minyak solar rata-rata mengalami penurunan sebesar 47,10 %, tetapi SFC dual fuel rata-rata meningkat sebesar 47,67 % dibandingkan SFC single fuel. Nilai rata-rata efisiensi thermal turun sebesar 40,89 %, nilai AFR rata-rata turun dari 25,60 menjadi 12,90 dan Temperatur gas buang meningkat dari

  3. Effect of hydrogen-diesel combustion on the performance and combustion parameters of a dual fuelled diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, P.K.; Banerjee, Rahul; Deb, Madhujit [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura-799055 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Petroleum crude is expected to remain main source of transport fuels at least for the next 20 to 30 years. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. In this paper, experiments are performed in a fur stroke, single cylinder, compression ignition diesel engine with dual fuel mode. Diesel and hydrogen are used as pilot liquid and primary gaseous fuel, respectively. The objective of this study is to find out the effects on combustion and performance parameters observed at diesel hydrogen fuel mixture for all the different loadings (2kg,4kg,6kg,8kg,10kg and 12kg) in the engine.

  4. Performance and emissions of a heavy-duty diesel/LPG dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, Paul [Sasol Technology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty truck engine which has been equipped with an aftermarket conversion kit to enable operation as a diesel/LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) dual fuel engine. During operation diesel fuel is displaced by LPG which is vaporised and metered into the inlet manifold by means of solenoid injectors. It was found that, as the LPG fuelling rate is increased, the cylinder pressure rise rates and peak cylinder pressures increase, as do the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. At higher loads it was found that the LPG autoignites independently of the diesel fuel, resulting in very high rates of cylinder pressure rise. Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions remain largely unchanged, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced due to the lower carbon content of the LPG fuel. Different LPG compositions were also investigated and it was found that the LPG properties that have the most significant effect on combustion and emissions were the autoignition and volatility characteristics. (orig.)

  5. Compressive strength and microstructural analysis of fly ash/palm oil fuel ash based geopolymer mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Behnia, Arash; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results show POFA is adaptable as replacement in FA based geopolymer mortar. • The increase in POFA/FA ratio delay of the compressive development of geopolymer. • The density of POFA based geoploymer is lower than FA based geopolymer mortar. - Abstract: This paper presents the effects and adaptability of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as a replacement material in fly ash (FA) based geopolymer mortar from the aspect of microstructural and compressive strength. The geopolymers developed were synthesized with a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as activator and POFA and FA as high silica–alumina resources. The development of compressive strength of POFA/FA based geopolymers was investigated using X-ray florescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was observed that the particle shapes and surface area of POFA and FA as well as chemical composition affects the density and compressive strength of the mortars. The increment in the percentages of POFA increased the silica/alumina (SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ) ratio and that resulted in reduction of the early compressive strength of the geopolymer and delayed the geopolymerization process

  6. The Effect of Inhomogeneous Compression on Water Transport in the Cathode of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multicomponent, two-fluid model developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS Inc.) is used to investigate the effect of porous media compression on water transport in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model only consist of the cathode channel, gas....... Furthermore, the presence of irreducible liquid water is taken into account. In order to account for compression, porous media morphology variations are specified based on the gas diffusion layer (GDL) through-plane strain and intrusion which are stated as a function of compression. These morphology...... variations affect gas and liquid water transport, and hence liquid water distribution and the risk of blocking active sites. Hence, water transport is studied under GDL compression in order to investigate the qualitative effects. Two simulation cases are compared; one with and one without compression....

  7. Feasibility Study on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel for OPR-1000 Power Uprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee; Oh, Dong Suck

    2010-04-01

    A dual-cooled annular fuel (DCAF) is a highly promising concept as a high power density fuel for PWR power-uprate. The purpose of this study is to assess a feasibility of 120% core power for OPR-1000 with the DCAF. So the feasibility study were done through the code establishments for annular fuel analysis, evaluations of core physics, thermal-hydraulics and safety analyses at a 120% power with OPR-1000 and the preliminary economic benefits of 20% power-uprate. As results of the analyses, DCAF at 120% power showed sufficient margins available on DNB, PCT and fuel pellet temperature relative to the solid fuel at 100% power. However, judging from an anticipated wide range of the gap conductance variation in inner and outer clearances as fuel burn-up in the reactor core, irradiation behavior of DCAF has to be observed through research reactor test. On the other hand, the nuclear physics parameters like moderator temperature coefficient, power coefficient and so on comply with the technical specifications. An impact of 20% power-uprate on NSSS and BOP was also investigated, and accordingly some components and parts need to be changed were identified. Moreover, the economical benefits from the power-uprate was roughly estimated. It turned out that the power-uprating with DCAF could give an enormous profit even considering the expenses of components and parts to be replaced, additional fuel cycle cost and extended overhaul period

  8. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshaiah, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, M.I.T.S, Madanapalle, Angallu-517325, A.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene), and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  9. Investigation on parameters of methanol fuel and its blend on a diesel dual fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Prashant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been performed on a 4 cylinder (turbocharged and intercooled 62.5 kW gen-set dual fuel diesel engine. Break specific fuel consumption (bsfc, break thermal efficiency (bte along with HC, CO, CO2 and NOx at various mixture ratios of methanol substitutions and loads have been investigated. The minimum and maximum BSFC were found to be 0.18 and 1.01 at 40 and 10% of full engine load and 40 and 60% of methanol substitution compared to pure diesel operation where the minimum and maximum BSFC were found to be 0.26 and 0.434 at 20 and 10% of full load condition. The minimum and maximum BTE were found to be 7.19 and 40.8 at 60 and 40% methanol substitution and at 10 and 40% load conditions whilst for pure diesel operation it was found to be 19.7 and 40.4 at 10 and 40% load conditions respectively. A two factor, three-level full factorial design was employed and the experimental results are in accordance with the results obtained.

  10. Comparison of thermal, radical and chemical effects of EGR gases using availability analysis in dual-fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, A.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Seyed Mahmoudi, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual-fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. A quasi-two-zone combustion model has been developed for studying the second-law analysis of a dual-fuel (diesel-gas) engine operating under part-load conditions. The model is composed of two divisions: a single-zone combustion model with chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel and a subsidiary zone for combustion of pilot fuel. In the latter zone, the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source derived from two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for contribution of pilot fuel in ignition of gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. This quasi-two-zone combustion model is able to establish the development of combustion process with time and associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. The present work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon from second-law point of view at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the aforementioned problems. Therefore, the availability analysis is applied to the engine from inlet valve closing (IVC) until exhaust valve opening (EVO). Various availability components are identified and calculated separately with crank position. In this paper, the various availability components are identified and calculated separately with crank position. Then the different cases of EGR (chemical, radical and thermal cases) are applied to the availability analysis in dual-fuel engines at part loads. It is found that the chemical case of EGR has negative effect and in this case the unburned chemical availability is increased and the work availability decreases in comparison with baseline engine (without EGR). While the thermal and radical cases have positive effects on the availability terms especially on the unburned chemical availability and work availability

  11. Assessment of Gap Conductance Impact on Heat Split in Dual Cooled Annular Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kun Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee; Yang, Yong Sik; Song, Kun Woo

    2007-07-15

    As a next generation fuel for PWR, a dual cooling annular fuel is being considered promisingly due to various advantage. It is able to increase the thermal margin significantly from not only large heat transfer area but also thin fuel pellet thickness. But the thermal margin at nominal condition could be degraded at certain burnup range because of the inappropriate heat split to inner and outer flow channels. A key factor to influence the heat split is the gap conductances in inner and outer clearances, which varies in terms of thermal expansion, swelling, creep, and so on in the cladding and pellet. As results of the investigation, particularly in the case of low gap conductance when the fuel rod burnup is relatively high, there is high probability that design targets might be violated. Therefore some effort is inevitable to address the concern. But, in parallel, it is necessary to more in detail investigate whether the assumed gap conductance for this analysis and the present design targets are reasonable through further reviews.

  12. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Bian, Y.ZH.; Ma, ZH.Y.; Zhang, CH.H.; Liu, SH.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  13. Numerical investigation on the effect of reactivity gradient in an RCCI engine fueled with gasoline and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Yang, W.M.; An, H.; Zhou, D.Z.; Yu, W.B.; Wang, J.X.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical reaction mechanism is newly developed for dual fuel combustion. • The developed chemical kinetics is coupled with KIVA4 to model the combustion. • The role of reactivity gradient in RCCI combustion is investigated. • The RCCI (dual fuel mode) combustion is compared with blend fuel mode. - Abstract: The reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), which belongs to dual fuel mode (DFM) combustion has been considered as a promising way to achieve high fuel conversion efficiency and low emissions. By this strategy, a fuel reactivity gradient is formed in the combustion chamber which offers the probability of controlling combustion phasing. In this study, the role of fuel reactivity gradient was examined numerically by comparing a DFM (i.e., RCCI) combustion with other hypothetical cases under one specific load condition. Firstly, a chemical reaction mechanism was developed aiming at a modelling study on dual fuel and blend fuel combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines fueled by gasoline/diesel and gasoline/biodiesel. Ignition delays were validated for 100% diesel, 100% gasoline and 100% biodiesel under 102 conditions in total. Subsequently, the validated reaction mechanism which consists of 107 species and 425 reactions was implemented in coupled KIVA4-CHEMKIN code. Three dimensional validations were further conducted under 3 conditions including pure diesel combustion, and gasoline/diesel DFM combustion with both single and double injection strategies in the engine. To investigate the fuel reactivity gradient, the gasoline/diesel DFM combustion with single injection was compared with other three hypothetical cases, one of which was DFM without fuel reactivity gradient, two were the blend fuel mode but with different start of injection (SOI) timings. The results showed that the fuel reactivity gradient could retard the ignition timing, reduce heat release rate, and ease peak pressure rise rate. In addition, low levels of NO

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  15. Characterization and effect of using Mahua oil biodiesel as fuel in compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilan, N.; Ashok Babu, T. P.; Reddy, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and compression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the engine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emissions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.

  16. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have been investigated in single cylinder engine running in GCI combustion mode at part-load conditions both experimentally and numerically. The studied fuels are: Saudi Aramco light naphtha (SALN) (Research octane number (RON) = 62 and final boiling point (FBP) = 91 °C), Haltermann straight run naphtha (HSRN) (RON = 60 and FBP = 140 °C) and a primary reference fuel (PRF65) (RON = 65 and FBP = 99 °C). Injection sweeps, where the start of injection (SOI) is changed between −60 and −11 CAD aTDC, have been performed for the three fuels. Full cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were executed using PRFs as chemical surrogates for the naphtha fuels. Physical surrogates based on the evaporation characteristics of the naphtha streams have been developed and their properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. It was found that the three fuels have similar combustion phasings and emissions at the conditions tested in this work with minor differences at SOI earlier than −30 CAD aTDC. These trends were successfully reproduced by the CFD calculations. The chemical and physical effects were further investigated numerically. It was found that the physical characteristics of the fuel significantly affect the combustion for injections earlier than −30 CAD aTDC because of the low evaporation rates of the fuel because of the higher boiling temperature of the fuel and the colder in-cylinder air during injection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Effect of palm oil fuel ash on compressive strength of palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Zamri, N. A.; Kusbiantoro, A.; Lim, N. H. A. S.; Ariffin, M. A. Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Both palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and palm oil boiler stone (POBS) are by-products which has been continuously generated by local palm oil mill in large amount. Both by products is usually disposed as profitless waste and considered as nuisance to environment. The present research investigates the workability and compressive strength performance of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) made of palm oil boiler stone (POBS) known as palm oil boiler stone lightweight aggregate concrete (POBS LWAC) containing various content of palm oil fuel ash. The control specimen that is POBS LWAC of grade 60 were produced using 100% OPC. Then, another 4 mixes were prepared by varying the POFA percentage from 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of cement. Fresh mixes were subjected to slump test to determine its workability before casted in form of cubes. Then, all specimens were subjected to water curing up to 28 days and then tested for its compressive strength. It was found out that utilizing of optimum amount of POFA in POBS LWAC would improve the workability and compressive strength of the concrete. However, inclusion of POFA more than optimum amount is not recommended as it will increase the water demand leading to lower workability and strength reduction.

  18. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  19. Performance and emission comparison of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by producer gases with varying hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohon Roy, Murari [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated the effect of hydrogen content in producer gas on the performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual-fuel engine. Two types of producer gases were used in this study, one with low hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 13.7%) and the other with high hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 20%). The engine was tested for use as a co-generation engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant injection pressure and injection quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion. Better combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x}) were obtained with the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas than with the low H{sub 2}-content producer gas, especially under leaner conditions. Moreover, a broader window of fuel-air equivalence ratio was found with highest thermal efficiencies for the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas. (author)

  20. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  1. Manufacturing of FeCrAl/Zr Dual Layer tube for its application to LWR Fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Jun; Lim, Do Wan; Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Jeong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Many advanced materials such as MAX phases, Mo, SiC, and Fe-based alloys are being considered a possible candidate to substitute the Zr-based alloy cladding has been used in light water reactors. Among the proposed candidate materials, Fe-based alloy is one of the most promising candidates owing to its excellent formability, very good high strength, and corrosion resistance at high temperature. However, neutron cross section of FeCrAl alloy is much higher than that of existing Zr-based alloys. In this study, FeCrAl/Zr dual layer tube was manufactured by using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. The thickness of outer FeCrAl layer was varied from 50 to 250 μm but all the FeCrAl/Zr dual layer tube samples maintained its total thickness of 570 μm. For a detailed microstructural characterization of FeCrAl/Zr dual layer, polarized optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study carried out and its mechanical property was measured by ring compression test. FeCrAl/Zr dual layer tube sample was successfully manufactured with good adhesion between both layers. Inter layer showing gradual element variation was observed at interface. Result obtained from simulated LOCA test indicates that FeCrAl/Zr dual layer tube may maintain its integrity during LOCA and its accident tolerance had greatly improved compared to that of Zr-based alloy.

  2. A complete fuel development facility utilizing a dual core TRIGA reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, A; Law, G C [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1974-07-01

    A TRIGA Dual Core Reactor System has been chosen by the Romanian Government as the heart of a new fuel development facility which will be operated by the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Technologies. The Facility, which will be operational in 1976, is an integral part of the Romanian National Program for Power Reactor Development, with particular emphasis being placed on fuel development. The unique combination of a new 14 MW steady state TRIGA reactor, and the well-proven TRIGA Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR) in one below-ground reactor pool resulted in a substantial construction cost savings and gives the facility remarkable experimental flexibility. The inherent safety of the TRIGA fuel elements in both reactor cores means that a secondary containment building is not necessary, resulting in further construction cost savings. The 14 MW steady state reactor gives acceptably high neutron fluxes for long- term testing of various prototype fuel-cladding-coolant combinations; and the TRIGA ACPR high pulse capability allows transient testing of fuel specimens, which is so important for accurate prediction of the performance of power reactor fuel elements under postulated failure conditions. The 14 MW steady state reactor has one large and three small in-core irradiation loop positions, two large irradiation loop positions adjacent to the core face, and twenty small holes in the beryllium reflector for small capsule irradiation. The power level of 14 MW will yield peak unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes in the central experiment position approaching 3.0 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}-sec. The ACPR has one large dry central experimental cavity which can be loaded at pool level through a shielded offset loading tube; a small diameter in-core flux trap; and an in-core pneumatically-operated capsule irradiation position. A peak pulse of 15,000 MW will yield a peak fast neutron flux in the central experimental cavity of about 1.5 x 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}-sec. The pulse width at

  3. Transformation of a car diesel engine with direct injection and common rail into a dual fuel engine; Trasformazione di un motore automobilistico diesel ad iniezione diretta dotato di common rail in un motore dual fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali

    1999-08-01

    The reduced polluting emissions make natural gas a quite interesting alternative fuel for automotive applications. Therefore a car diesel engine has been transformed into a dual fuel engine with pilot injection via the common rail injection system used to ignite the methane-air charge. Standard injection pumps show a certain instability at low flow rates and high engine speed. On the opposite the new common rail system allows to ignite the fuel in all conditions with an amount of gas oil less than 8% of the entire energy required by the engine was enough to ignite the fuel. Furthermore, a power increase has been obtained, with an overall efficiency equal to or even higher than a conventional engine. The article deals with a series of test carried out on 1929 cm{sup 3} direct injection turbo-charged engine and presents the preliminary results. [Italian] La riduzione delle emissioni inquinanti rende il metano un combustibile alternativo piuttosto interessante per applicazioni automobilistiche. Per quasta ragione e' stata realizzata la trasformazione di un motore automobilitico diesel ad iniezione diretta in un motore dual fuel con iniezione pilota prodotta da un sistema common rail. L'adozione del sistema common rail consente l'accensione in ogni condizione con una quantita' di combustibile inferiore all'8% dell'intera energia richiesta alla potenza nominale del motore risolvendo i problemi di instabilita' che una pompa normale presenta a basse portate e ad alta velocita'. In alcuni casi e' stato sufficiente il 3% dell'energia totale richiesta dal motore per accendere la carica. Inoltre si e' ottenuto un aumento della potenza con un'efficienza globale analoga a qualla del motore tradizionale o addirittura migliore. Si riportano i risultati di una campagna di prove condotta su un motore sovralimentato ad iniezione diretta (1929 cm{sup 3}).

  4. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GARBALA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI engines (diesel. Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel. A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.

  5. The flow behavior and constitutive equation in isothermal compression of FGH4096-GH4133B dual alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanhui; Yao, Zekun; Ning, Yongquan; Nan, Yang; Guo, Hongzhen; Qin, Chun; Shi, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot compression behaviors of the FGH4096-GH4133B dual alloy were investigated. • Constitutive equation also represented deformation behavior of a dual alloy. • The effects of deformation activation energy on the microstructures were discussed. • Constitutive equation represented an accurate and precise estimate of flow stress. - Abstract: The electron beam welding of superalloy FGH4096 and GH4133B was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam weldments. Isothermal compression tests were carried out on electron beam weldments FGH4096-GH4133B alloy at the temperatures of 1020–11140 °C (the nominal γ′-transus temperature is about 1080 °C) and the strain rates of 0.001–1.0 s −1 with the height reduction of 50%. True stress–true strain curves are sensitive to the deformation temperature and strain rate, and the flow stress decreases with the increasing deformation temperature and the decreasing strain rate. The true stress–true strain curves can indicate the intrinsic relationship between the flow stress and the thermal-dynamic behavior. The apparent activation energy of deformation at the strain of 0.6 was calculated to be 550 kJ/mol, and the apparent activation energy has a great effect on the microstructure. The constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling the hot deformation process of FGH4096-GH4133B electron beam weldments. The constitutive equation at the strain of 0.6 was established using the hyperbolic law. The relationship between the strain and the values of parameters was studied, and the cubic functions were built. The constitutive equation during the whole process can be obtained based on the parameters under different strains. Comparing the experimental flow stress and the calculated flow stress, the constitutive equation obtained in this paper can be very good

  6. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  7. Pressure loss coefficient and flow rate of side hole in a lower end plug for dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: shinch@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Ju-Yong, E-mail: juyong@kaeri.re.kr; In, Wang-Kee, E-mail: wkin@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A lower end plug with side flow holes is suggested to provide alternative flow paths of the inner channel. • The inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug is estimated from the experiment. • The flow rate through the side holes is estimated in a complete entrance blockage of inner channel. • The consequence in the reactor core condition is evaluated with a subchannel analysis code. - Abstract: Dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been introduced for a significant increase in reactor power. KAERI has been developing a dual-cooled annular fuel for a power uprate of 20% in an optimized PWR in Korea, the OPR1000. This annular fuel can help decrease the fuel temperature substantially relative to conventional cylindrical fuel at a power uprate. Annular fuel has dual flow channels around itself; however, the inner flow channel has a weakness in that it is isolated unlike the outer flow channel, which is open to other neighbouring outer channels for a coolant exchange in the reactor core. If the entrance of the inner channel is, as a hypothetical event, completely blocked by debris, the inner channel will then experience a rapid increase in coolant temperature such that a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) may occur. Therefore, a remedy to avoid such a postulated accident is indispensable for the safety of annular fuel. A lower end plug with side flow holes was suggested to provide alternative flow paths in addition to the central entrance of the inner channel. In this paper, the inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug and the flow rate through the side holes were estimated from the experimental results even in a complete entrance blockage of the inner channel. An optimization for the side hole was also performed, and the results are applied to a subchannel analysis to evaluate the consequence in the reactor core condition.

  8. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  9. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  10. Fossil fuel subsidy reform in the WTO : Options for constraining dual pricing in the multilateral trading system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Fossil fuel subsidies harm the environment, add to health hazards caused by air pollution, and delay the energy transition. Scholars and practitioners have therefore been exploring ways to reform and eliminate them. This paper discusses the practice of energy dual pricing in the broader context of

  11. Development of mats composed by TiO{sub 2} and carbon dual electrospun nanofibers: A possible anode material in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Nora A.; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología, PIIT, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); Mosqueda, Hugo A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Dual nanofiber of TiO{sub 2}–C/C showed excellent electrical performance. • TiO{sub 2}–C/C dual nanofiber can host a dense biofilm of electroactivated Escherichia coli. • Dual nanofibers can be applied as anode to obtain electricity in microbial fuel cells. - Abstract: A new material based on TiO{sub 2(rutile)}–C{sub (semi-graphitic)}/C{sub (semi-graphitic)} dual nanofiber mats is presented, whose composition and synthesis methodology are fundamental factors for the development of exoelectrogenic biofilms on its surface. Therefore, this material shows the required characteristics for possible applications in the bioconversion process of an organic substrate to electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrical conductivity analyses showed excellent electrical performance of the material for the application intended; a resistance as low as 3.149 Ω was able to be measured on this material. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the morphology sought on the material for the application intended, dual nanofibres TiO{sub 2(rutile)}–C{sub (semi-graphitic)}/C{sub (semi-graphitic)} with a side by side configuration. The difference in composition of the fibers forming the dual nanofibers was clearly observed and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and their crystal structure was evident in the results obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies. This nanostructured material presented a high surface area and is biocompatible, given that it can host a dense biofilm of electroactivated Escherichia coli. In this study, the maximum current density obtained in a half microbial fuel cell was 8 A/m{sup 2} (0.8 mA/cm{sup 2})

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the performance of dual fuel diesel engine with hydrogen and LPG as secondary fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata, D.B.; Misra, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215 (India)

    2010-11-15

    The mathematical models to predict pressure, net heat release rate, mean gas temperature, and brake thermal efficiency for dual fuel diesel engine operated on hydrogen, LPG and mixture of LPG and hydrogen as secondary fuels are developed. In these models emphasis have been given on spray mixing characteristics, flame propagation, equilibrium combustion products and in-cylinder processes, which were computed using empirical equations and compared with experimental results. This combustion model predicts results which are in close agreement with the results of experiments conducted on a multi cylinder turbocharged, intercooled gen-set diesel engine. The predictions are also in close agreement with the results on single cylinder diesel engine obtained by other researchers. A reasonable agreement between the predicted and experimental results reveals that the presented model gives quantitatively and qualitatively realistic prediction of in-cylinder processes and engine performances during combustion. (author)

  13. Future combustion technology for synthetic and renewable fuels in compression ignition engines (REFUEL). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakko-Saksa, P.; Brink, A.; Happonen, M. [and others

    2012-07-01

    This domestic project, Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (ReFuel), was part of a Collaborative Task 'Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Transport' of International Energy Agency (IEA) Combustion Agreement. This international Collaborative Task is coordinated by Finland. The three-year (2009-2011) prooject was a joint research project with Aalto University (Aalto), Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Aabo Akademi University (AAU). The project was funded by TEKES, Waertsilae Oyj, Agro Sisu Power, Aker Arctic Technology Oy and the research partners listed above. Modern renewable diesel fuels have excellent physical and chemical properties, in comparison to traditional crude oil based fuels. Purely paraffinic fuels do not contain aromatic compounds and they are totally sulphur free. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) was studied as an example of paraffinic high cetane number (CN) diesel fuels. HVO has no storage and low temperature problems like the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have. The combustion properties are better than those of crude oil based fuels and FAME, because they have very high cetane numbers and contain no polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). With low HVO density, viscosity and distillation temperatures, these advantageous properties allow far more advanced combustion strategies, such as very high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates or extreme Miller timings, than has been possible with current fossil fuels. The implementation of these advanced combustion technologies, together with the novel renewable diesel fuel, brought significant nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), particulate matter (PM) emission reductions with no efficiency losses. (orig.)

  14. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  15. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  16. Development of a 1200 KW/CYL low pressure dual fuel engine for LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, G. [S.E.M.T.-Pielstick, Thermodynamical Project Dept. (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design and feasibility tests of a 570 mm bore 4 stroke low pressure (L.P.) dual fuel engine rated at 20.9 bar BMEP meant for the propulsion of LNG carriers. The basic design features which are to be in accordance with classification societies safety rules are described: individual electro hydraulic valves located in the air manifold ducts, pilot injection, monitoring system etc. The engine capability to burn variable liquid/gas fuel proportions have been investigated with diesel oil and heavy fuel and possible running zones are defined. This ensures the possibility of the engine to cope with the different boil off gas quantity emanating from the ship`s tank during her loaded - and ballast - journeys. With the very lean setting of this engine, no adverse influence of the high ash lube-oil additives were found during the tests. Further tests are necessary to confirm that possible more significant fouling of the combustion chamber is still acceptable. (au)

  17. Applicability of dimethyl ether (DME) in a compression ignition engine as an alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Lee, Chang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall characteristics of DME fueled engine are reviewed. • Fuel properties characteristics of DME are introduced. • New technologies for DME vehicle are systemically reviewed. • Research trends for the development of DME vehicle in the world are introduced. - Abstract: From the perspectives of environmental conservation and energy security, dimethyl-ether (DME) is an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This review article deals with the application characteristics of DME in CI engines, including its fuel properties, spray and atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emission characteristics. We also discuss the various technological problems associated with its application in actual engine systems and describe the field test results of developed DME-fueled vehicles. Combustion of DME fuel is associated with low NO x , HC, and CO emissions. In addition, PM emission of DME combustion is very low due to its molecular structure. Moreover, DME has superior atomization and vaporization characteristics than conventional diesel. A high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate can be used in a DME engine to reduce NO x emission without any increase in soot emission, because DME combustion is essentially soot-free. To decrease NO x emission, engine after-treatment devices, such as lean NO x traps (LNTs), urea-selective catalytic reduction, and the combination of EGR and catalyst have been applied. To use DME fuel in automotive vehicles, injector design, fuel feed pump, and the high-pressure injection pump have to be modified, combustion system components, including sealing materials, have to be rigorously designed. To use DME fuel in the diesel vehicles, more research is required to enhance its calorific value and engine durability due to the low lubricity of DME, and methods to reduce NO x emission are also required

  18. A numerical study on RCCI engine fueled by biodiesel/methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.Z.; Yang, W.M.; An, H.; Li, J.; Shu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical study is done to investigate RCCI engine fueled by biodiesel/methanol. • A new biodiesel/methanol dual-fuel chemical reaction mechanism is developed. • Engine performance is improved with fuel reactivity stratification formed. • Soot and NO x significant reduce with methanol induction and fuel reactivity stratification. - Abstract: A 3-D numerical simulation platform based on the KIVA4-CHEMKIN code was constructed by incorporating a newly developed skeletal chemical kinetics mechanism to study the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics. In the present study, methanol is assumed to be induced into the engine through the intake port, while biodiesel is directly injected into the engine by the end of the compression stroke. The skeletal biodiesel and methanol dual fuel chemical reaction mechanism coupled with CO, NO x and soot formation mechanisms was developed and validated by comparing the ignition delay predicted by the developed mechanism with that of the detailed biodiesel and methanol mechanisms, and also by comparing the simulation results of KIVA-CHEMKIN with the experimental results under different engine operating conditions. A good agreement has been achieved in terms of ignition delay, in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR). The methanol mass fraction was varied from 0% to 80% at an interval of 20% to form different reactivity stratification. Simulation results revealed that under 10% load conditions, the increasing methanol reduced the peak pressure and heat release rate, whereas under 50% and 100% loads, the peak pressure both appeared at 60% methanol induction. Also, the reactivity distribution and ringing intensity were discussed, aiming at investigating the fuel gradient effects and knocking level, respectively. For the emissions, a general decreasing trend on CO emission was observed at both 50% and 100% loads while at 10% load, a slight

  19. Processing of dual-orthogonal cw polarimetric radar signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babur, G.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the theory of dual-orthogonal polarimetric radar signals with continuous waveforms. The thesis presents a comparison of the signal compression techniques, namely correlation and de-ramping methods, for the dual-orthogonal sophisticated

  20. Autoignition of straight-run naphtha: A promising fuel for advanced compression ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Issayev, Gani; Badra, Jihad; Voice, Alexander K.; Giri, Binod; Djebbi, Khalil; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Naphtha, a low-octane distillate fuel, has been proposed as a promising low-cost fuel for advanced compression ignition engine technologies. Experimental and modelling studies have been conducted in this work to assess autoignition characteristics of naphtha for use in advanced engines. Ignition delay times of a certified straight-run naphtha fuel, supplied by Haltermann Solutions, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid comparison machine over wide ranges of experimental conditions (20 and 60 bar, 620–1223 K, ϕ = 0.5, 1 and 2). The Haltermann straight-run naphtha (HSRN) has research octane number (RON) of 60 and motor octane number (MON) of 58.3, with carbon range spanning C3–C9. Reactivity of HSRN was compared, via experiments and simulations, with three suitably formulated surrogates: a two-component PRF (n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, a three-component TPRF (toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, and a six-component surrogate. All surrogates reasonably captured the ignition delays of HSRN at high and intermediate temperatures. However, at low temperatures (T < 750 K), the six-component surrogate performed the best in emulating the reactivity of naphtha fuel. Temperature sensitivity and rate of production analyses revealed that the presence of cyclo-alkanes in naphtha inhibits the overall fuel reactivity. Zero-dimensional engine simulations showed that PRF is a good autoignition surrogate for naphtha at high engine loads, however, the six-component surrogate is needed to match the combustion phasing of naphtha at low engine loads.

  1. Autoignition of straight-run naphtha: A promising fuel for advanced compression ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-11-24

    Naphtha, a low-octane distillate fuel, has been proposed as a promising low-cost fuel for advanced compression ignition engine technologies. Experimental and modelling studies have been conducted in this work to assess autoignition characteristics of naphtha for use in advanced engines. Ignition delay times of a certified straight-run naphtha fuel, supplied by Haltermann Solutions, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid comparison machine over wide ranges of experimental conditions (20 and 60 bar, 620–1223 K, ϕ = 0.5, 1 and 2). The Haltermann straight-run naphtha (HSRN) has research octane number (RON) of 60 and motor octane number (MON) of 58.3, with carbon range spanning C3–C9. Reactivity of HSRN was compared, via experiments and simulations, with three suitably formulated surrogates: a two-component PRF (n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, a three-component TPRF (toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, and a six-component surrogate. All surrogates reasonably captured the ignition delays of HSRN at high and intermediate temperatures. However, at low temperatures (T < 750 K), the six-component surrogate performed the best in emulating the reactivity of naphtha fuel. Temperature sensitivity and rate of production analyses revealed that the presence of cyclo-alkanes in naphtha inhibits the overall fuel reactivity. Zero-dimensional engine simulations showed that PRF is a good autoignition surrogate for naphtha at high engine loads, however, the six-component surrogate is needed to match the combustion phasing of naphtha at low engine loads.

  2. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend. A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5 and 10% ethanol (E10 (in vol. under full load condition at variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 2750 rpm with 250 rpm increment. The model was then validated with other researcher’s experimental result. Model consists of intake and exhaust systems, cylinder, head, valves and port geometries. Performance tests were conducted for volumetric efficiency, brake engine torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC. The results showed that blending diesel with ethanol increases the volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while it decreases brake engine torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure. In term of emission characteristics, the CO emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease significantly with ethanol as additive. But for HC emission, its concentration increase when apply in high engine speed. In conclusion, using Ethanol as fuel additive blend with Diesel operating in HCCI shows a good result in term of performance and emission in low speed but not recommended to use in high speed engine. Ethanol-diesel blends need to researched more to make it commercially useable.

  3. Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaeian, M.; Kamali, J.

    2017-01-01

    Dual-purpose casks can be utilized for dry interim storage and transportation of the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Criticality safety analysis was carried out using the MCNP code for the cask containing 12, 18, or 19 SFAs. The basket materials of borated stainless steel and Boral (Al-B_4C) were investigated, and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. - Highlights: • Criticality safety analysis for a dual purpose cask was carried out. • The basket material of borated stainless steel and Boral were investigated. • Minimum receptacle pitch was determined for 12, 18, or 19 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies.

  4. Characterization of Diesel and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine using OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sundar Rajan; Srinivasan, Kalyan Kumar; Stegmeir, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Direct-injection compression ignition combustion of diesel and gasoline were studied in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) using high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The RCEM (bore = 84 mm, stroke = 110-250 mm) was used to simulate engine-like operating conditions at the start of fuel injection. The fuels were supplied by a high-pressure fuel cart with an air-over-fuel pressure amplification system capable of providing fuel injection pressures up to 2000 bar. A production diesel fuel injector was modified to provide a single fuel spray for both diesel and gasoline operation. Time-resolved combustion pressure in the RCEM was measured using a Kistler piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted on the cylinder head and the instantaneous piston displacement was measured using an inductive linear displacement sensor (0.05 mm resolution). Time-resolved, line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence images were obtained using a Phantom V611 CMOS camera (20.9 kHz @ 512 x 512 pixel resolution, ~ 48 μs time resolution) coupled with a short wave pass filter (cut-off ~ 348 nm). The instantaneous OH* distributions, which indicate high temperature flame regions within the combustion chamber, were used to discern the characteristic differences between diesel and gasoline compression ignition combustion. The authors gratefully acknowledge facilities support for the present work from the Energy Institute at Mississippi State University.

  5. Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

    2009-07-01

    The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission.

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIOXANE AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS TO REDUCE EMISSION AND TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    SENDILVELAN S.; SUNDAR RAJ C.

    2017-01-01

    Performance of a compression ignition engine fuelled with 1, 4 Dioxane- diesel blends is evaluated. A single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 5.2 kW at 1500 rev/min is used. Base data is generated with standard diesel fuel subsequently; five fuel blends namely 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 percentages by volume of diesel and dioxane were prepared and tested in the diesel engine. Engine performance and emission data were used to optimize ...

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual...

  8. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  9. Effects of ethanol added fuel on exhaust emissions and combustion in a premixed charge compression ignition diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yungjin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of diesel engines for vehicle has been increasing recently due to its higher thermal efficiency and lower CO2 emission level. However, in the case of diesel engine, NOx increases in a high temperature combustion region and particulate matter is generated in a fuel rich region. Therefore, the technique of PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition is often studied to get the peak combustion temperature down and to make a better air-fuel mixing. However it also has got a limited operating range and lower engine power produced by the wall wetting and the difficulty of the ignition timing control. In this research, the effect of injection strategies on the injected fuel behavior, combustion and emission characteristics in a PCCI engine were investigated to find out the optimal conditions for fuel injection, and then ethanol blended diesel fuel was used to control the ignition timing. As a result, the combustion pressures and ROHR (rate of heat release of the blended fuel became lower, however, IMEP showed fewer differences. Especially in the case of triple injection, smoke could be reduced a little and NOx emission decreased a lot by using the ethanol blended fuel simultaneously without much decreasing of IMEP compared to the result of 100% diesel fuel.

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  11. Dual Pressure versus Hybrid Recuperation in an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle – Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) cycle running on natural gas was integrated with a ST (steam turbine) cycle. The fuel is desulfurized and pre-reformed before entering the SOFC. A burner was used to combust the remaining fuel after the SOFC stacks. The off-gases from the burner were used to produce...... pressure configuration steam cycle combined with SOFC cycle (SOFC-ST) was new and has not been studied previously. In each of the configuration, a hybrid recuperator was used to recovery the remaining energy of the off-gases after the HRSG. Thus, four different plants system setups were compared to each...... other to reveal the most superior concept with respect to plant efficiency and power. It was found that in order to increase the plant efficiency considerably, it was enough to use a single pressure with a hybrid recuperator instead of a dual pressure Rankine cycle....

  12. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  14. Electricity generation from palm oil tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) using dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, N. F.; Mahmood, N. A. B. N.; Ibrahim, K. A.; Muhammad, S. A. F. S.; Amalina, N. S.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been discovered and utilized in laboratory scale for electricity production based on microbial degradation of organic compound. However, various source of fuel has been tested and recently complex biomass such as lignocellulose biomass has been focused on. In the present research, oil palm tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been tested for power production using dual chamber MFC and power generation analysis has been conducted to address the performance of MFC. In addition, two microorganisms (electric harvesting microbe and cellulose degrading microbe) were used in the MFC operation. The analysis include voltage produced, calculated current and power. The first section in your paper

  15. Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Pasunurthi, Shyamsundar

    2017-03-28

    The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series like in the experiments to investigate the potential of high fidelity RANS simulations coupled with detailed chemistry, to accurately predict the CCV. Cycle to cycle variation (CCV) is expected to be due to variabilities in operating and boundary conditions, in-cylinder stratification of diesel and natural gas fuels, variation in in-cylinder turbulence levels and velocity flow-fields. In a previous publication by the authors [1], variabilities in operating and boundary conditions are incorporated into several closed cycle simulations performed in parallel. Stochastic variations/stratifications of fuel-air mixture, turbulence levels, temperature and internal combustion residuals cannot be considered in such closed cycle simulations. In this study, open cycle simulations with port injection of natural gas predicted the combined effect of the stratifications on the CCV of in-cylinder pressure. The predicted Coefficient of Variation (COV) of cylinder pressure is improved compared to the one captured by closed cycle simulations in parallel.

  16. Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsri, Seksan; Martin, Andrew R.; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2010-01-01

    Finding environmentally benign methods related to sound municipal solid waste (MSW) management is of highest priority in Southeast Asia. It is very important to study new approaches which can reduce waste generation and simultaneously enhance energy recovery. One concrete example of particular significance is the concept of hybrid dual-fuel power plants featuring MSW and another high-quality fuel like natural gas. The hybrid dual-fuel cycles provide significantly higher electrical efficiencies than a composite of separate single-fuel power plant (standalone gas turbine combined cycle and MSW incineration). Although hybrid versions are of great importance for energy conversion from MSW, an economic assessment of these systems must be addressed for a realistic appraisal of these technologies. This paper aims to further examine an economic assessment and energy model analysis of different conversion technologies. Energy models are developed to further refine the expected potential of MSW incineration with regards to energy recovery and environmental issues. Results show that MSW incineration can play role for greenhouse gas reduction, energy recovery and waste management. In Bangkok, the electric power production via conventional incineration and hybrid power plants can cover 2.5% and 8% of total electricity consumption, respectively. The hybrid power plants have a relative short payback period (5 years) and can further reduce the CO 2 levels by 3% in comparison with current thermal power plants.

  17. An insight on hydrogen fuel injection techniques with SCR system for NO{sub X} reduction in a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ICE Division, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University-Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Internal combustion engines continue to dominate in many fields like transportation, agriculture and power generation. Among the various alternative fuels, hydrogen is a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel (Produced from renewable energy sources). In the present experimental investigation, the performance and emission characteristics were studied on a direct injection diesel engine in dual fuel mode with hydrogen inducted along with air adopting carburetion, timed port and manifold injection techniques. Results showed that in timed port injection, the specific energy consumption reduces by 15% and smoke level by 18%. The brake thermal efficiency and NO{sub X} increases by 17% and 34% respectively compared to baseline diesel. The variation in performance between port and manifold injection is not significant. The unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are lesser in port injection. The oxides of nitrogen are higher in hydrogen operation (both port and manifold injection) compared to diesel engine. In order to reduce the NO{sub X} emissions, a selective catalytic converter was used in hydrogen port fuel injection. The NO{sub X} emission reduced upto a maximum of 74% for ANR (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. Selective catalytic reduction technique has been found to be effective in reducing the NO{sub X} emission from hydrogen fueled diesel engines. (author)

  18. Prediction of an optimum biodiesel-diesel blended fuel for compression ignition engine using GT-power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shah, F.H.; Shahid, E.M.; Gardezi, S.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a turbocharged direct-injection compression ignition (CI) engine model using fluid-dynamic engine simulation codes through a simulating tool known as GT Power. The model was first fueled with diesel, and then with various blends of biodiesel and diesel by allotting suitable parameters to predict an optimum blended fuel. During the optimization, main focus was on the engine performance, combustion, and one of the major regulated gaseous pollutants known as oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The combustion parameters such as Premix Duration (DP), Main Duration (DM), Premix Fraction (FP), Main Exponent (EM) and ignition delay (ID) affect the start of injection (SOI) angle, and thus played significant role in the prediction of optimum blended fuel. The SOI angle ranging from 5.2 to 5.7 degree crank angle (DCA) measured before top dead center (TDC) revealed an optimum biodiesel-diesel blend known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). B20 exhibited the minimum possible NOx emissions, better combustion and acceptable engine performance. Moreover, experiments were performed to validate the simulated results by fueling the engine with B20 fuel and operating it on AC electrical dynamometer. Both the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement revealing maximum deviations of only 3%, 3.4%, 4.2%, and 5.1% for NOx, maximum combustion pressure (MCP), engine brake power (BP), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), respectively. Meanwhile, a positive correlation was found between MCP and NOx showing that both the parameters are higher at lower speeds, relative to higher engine speeds. (author)

  19. Ni/Ni-YSZ current collector/anode dual layer hollow fibers for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanawka, K.; Othman, M.H.D.; Droushiotis, N.; Wu, Z.; Kelsall, G.; Li, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    A co-extrusion technique was employed to fabricate a novel dual layer NiO/NiO-YSZ hollow fiber (HF) precursor which was then co-sintered at 1,400 C and reduced at 700 C to form, respectively, a meshed porous inner Ni current collector and outer Ni-YSZ anode layers for SOFC applications. The inner thin and highly porous ''mesh-like'' pure Ni layer of approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness functions as a current collector in micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), aiming at highly efficient current collection with low fuel diffusion resistance, while the thicker outer Ni-YSZ layer of 260 {mu}m acts as an anode, providing also major mechanical strength to the dual-layer HF. Achieved morphology consisted of short finger-like voids originating from the inner lumen of the HF, and a sponge-like structure filling most of the Ni-YSZ anode layer, which is considered to be suitable macrostructure for anode SOFC system. The electrical conductivity of the meshed porous inner Ni layer is measured to be 77.5 x 10{sup 5} S m{sup -1}. This result is significantly higher than previous reported results on single layer Ni-YSZ HFs, which performs not only as a catalyst for the oxidation reaction, but also as a current collector. These results highlight the advantages of this novel dual-layer HF design as a new and highly efficient way of collecting current from the lumen of micro-tubular SOFC. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.

  1. Viability of fuel switching of a gas-fired power plant operating in chemical looping combustion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraja, R.J.; Jayanti, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLC (chemical looping combustion) promises to be a more efficient way of CO 2 capture than conventional oxy-fuel combustion or post-combustion absorption. While much work has been done on CLC in the past two decades, the issue of multi-fuel compatibility has not been addressed sufficiently, especially with regard to plant layout and reactor design. In the present work, it is shown that this is non-trivial in the case of a CLC-based power plant. The underlying factors have been examined in depth and design criteria for fuel compatibility have been formulated. Based on these, a layout has been developed for a power plant which can run with either natural gas or syngas without requiring equipment changes either on the steam side or on the furnace side. The layout accounts for the higher CO 2 compression costs associated with the use of syngas in place of natural gas. The ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiency, after accounting for the energy penalty of CO 2 compression, is 43.11% and 41.08%, when a supercritical steam cycle is used with natural gas and syngas, respectively. It is shown that fuel switching can be enabled by incorporating the compatibility conditions at the design stage itself. - Highlights: • Concept of fuel sensitivity of plant layout with carbon capture and sequestration. • Power plant layout for natural gas and syngas as fuels. • Criteria for compatibility of air and fuel reactors for dual fuel mode operation. • Layout of a plant for carbon-neutral or carbon negative power generation

  2. Study of emissions for a compression ignition engine fueled with a mix of DME and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurchiş, Bogdan; Nicolae, Burnete; Călin, Iclodean; Nicolae Vlad, Burnete

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand for diesel engines, primarily due to the relatively low fuel consumption compared to spark-ignition engines. However, these engines have a great disadvantage in terms of pollution because they produce solid particles that ultimately form particulate matter (PM), which has harmful effects on human health and also on the environment. The toxic emissions from the diesel engine exhaust, like particulate matter (PM) and NOx, generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, lead to the necessity to develop green fuels which on one hand should be obtained from regenerative resources and on the other hand less polluting. In this paper, the authors focused on the amount of emissions produced by a diesel engine when running with a fuel mixture consisting of diesel and DME. Dimethyl ether (DME) is developed mainly by converting natural gas or biomass to synthesis gas (syngas). It is an extremely attractive resource for the future used in the transport industry, given that it can be obtained at low costs from renewable resources. Using DME mixed with diesel for the combustion process, besides the fact that it produces less smoke, the emission levels of particulate matter is reduced compared to diesel and in some situations, NOx emissions may decrease. DME has a high enough cetane number to perform well as a compression-ignition fuel but due to the poor lubrication and viscosity, it is difficult to be used as the main fuel for combustion

  3. ISO New England Dual Fuel Capabilities to Limit Natural Gas and Electricity Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adder, Justin M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Since 2000, natural gas has seen tremendous growth as a fuel source for electricity generation in the United States (U.S.) with annual installations exceeding 20 GW in all but four years. It also accounts for an increasingly significant share of the nation’s electricity generation, growing from around 15 percent in the early part of the 2000s to between 26 and 29 percent in the last three years. (1) Increasing reliance on natural gas has led to concerns that an extreme weather event – which may cause curtailments in gas delivery – or a natural gas infrastructure failure could lead to local or regional electric reliability issues. (2) These concerns stem from differences in delivery methods of natural gas to electric generating units (EGUs) contrasted with the fuel delivery and storage methods for traditional baseload power systems (i.e. coal and nuclear units).1 (3) Although it seems that there is an abundance of natural gas in a post-shale gas world, infrastructure limitations and differences in electric and natural gas markets persist that differentiate natural gas-fired generators from traditional baseload power generators. Such concerns can be partially mitigated by modifying natural gas EGUs for operation on secondary fuels and installing on-site fuel storage for the secondary fuel, thus ensuring continuity of operation in the case of a gas delivery problem.2 This report examines technical, regulatory, and market issues associated with operating power plants primarily fueled with natural gas, on a secondary fuel, such as fuel oil or liquefied natural gas (LNG). In addition, a regional case study was completed to identify the current and near-term potential for dual fuel operation in New England, along with a market impact analysis of potential cost savings during an extreme weather event. The New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE) was selected as the study area based on a preponderance of natural gas-fired generators contributing to the

  4. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  5. THE EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO VARIATIONS ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETRES IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the spark ignition engines may be increased by changing the geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging in cylinders. The designed geometrical compression ratio can be realized as an effective compression ratio under the full load and full open throttle conditions since the effective compression ratio changes with the amount of charging into the cylinder in spark ignition engines. So, this condition of the spark ignition engines forces designers to change their geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging into the cylinder for improvement of performance and fuel economy. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy, power output, exhaust emissions at partial loads, compression ratio must be increased; but, under high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running the compression ratio must be decreased gradually. In this paper, relation of the performance parameters to compression ratio such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, cylindir pressure, exhaust gas temperature, combustion chamber surface area/volume ratio, thermal efficiency, spark timing etc. in spark ignition engines have been investigated and using of engines with variable compression ratio is suggested to fuel economy and more clear environment.

  6. Dual throat engine design for a SSTO launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salmon, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of a dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle application was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data are presented to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined. Dual throat engine performance, envelope, and weight parametric data were generated over the parametric range of thrust from 890 to 8896 KN (200K to 2M lb-force), chamber pressure from 6.89 million to 34.5 million N/sq m (1000 to 5000 psia) thrust ratio from 1.2 to 5, and a range of mixture ratios for the two tripropellant combinations: LO2/RP-1 + LH2 and LO2/LCH4 + LH2. The results of the study indicate that the dual fuel dual throat engine is a viable single stage to orbit candidate.

  7. Reversing flow catalytic converter for a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, E.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental and modelling study was performed for a reverse flow catalytic converter attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine. The catalytic converter had a segmented ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate and a catalytic washcoat containing a predominantly palladium catalyst. A one-dimensional single channel model was used to simulate the operation of the converter. The kinetics of the CO and methane oxidation followed first-order behaviour. The activation energy for the oxidation of methane showed a change with temperature, dropping from a value of 129 to 35 kJ/mol at a temperature of 874 K. The reverse flow converter was able to achieve high reactor temperature under conditions of low inlet gas temperature, provided that the initial reactor temperature was sufficiently high. (author)

  8. Economics of compressed air energy storage employing thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, S.C.; Reilly, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The approach taken in this study is to adopt system design and capital cost estimates from three independent CAES studies (eight total designs) and, by supplying a common set of fuel/energy costs and economic assumptions in conjunction with a common methodology, to arrive at a series of levelized energy costs over the system's lifetime. In addition, some analyses are provided to gauge the sensitivity of these levelized energy costs to fuel and compression energy costs and to system capacity factors. The systems chosen for comparison are of four generic types: conventional CAES, hybrid CAES, adiabatic CAES, and an advanced-design gas turbine (GT). In conventional CAES systems the heat of compression generated during the storage operation is rejected to the environment, and later, during the energy-generation phase, turbine fuel must be burned to reheat the compressed air. In the hybrid systems some of the heat of compression is stored and reapplied later during the generation phase, thereby reducing turbine fuel requirements. The adiabatic systems store adequate thermal energy to eliminate the need for turbine fuel entirely. The gas turbine is included within the report for comparison purposes; it is an advanced-design turbine, one that is expected to be available by 1985.

  9. The mathematical theory of signal processing and compression-designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2006-05-01

    The mathematical theory of signal processing, named processor coding, will be shown to inherently arise as the computational time dual of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication which is also known as source coding. Source coding is concerned with signal source memory space compression while processor coding deals with signal processor computational time compression. Their combination is named compression-designs and referred as Conde in short. A compelling and pedagogically appealing diagram will be discussed highlighting Conde's remarkable successful application to real-world knowledge-aided (KA) airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) radar.

  10. Design and neutronic investigation of the Nano fluids application to VVER-1000 nuclear reactor with dual cooled annular fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansarifar, G.R.; Ebrahimian, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The change in neutronic parameters to the use of nanofluid as coolant is presented. • Nanoparticle deposition on fuel clad is investigated. • Radial and axial local power peaking factors are presented. • ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 have the lowest rate of K eff drop off. - Abstract: Nowadays, many efforts have been made to improve the efficiency of nuclear power plants. One of which is use of the dual cooled annular fuel which is an internally and externally cooled annular fuel with many advantages in heat transfer characteristics. Another is the use of nanoparticle/water (nanofluid) as coolant. In this paper, by combining these two methods, the change in neutronic parameters of the VVER-1000 nuclear reactor core with dual cooled annular fuel attributable to the use of nanoparticle/water (nanofluid) as coolant is presented. Optimization of type and volume fraction of nanoparticles in water that affect the safety enhancement of core primary parameters is intended in this study. Reactivity change, radial and axial local power peaking factors (LPPF), and the consequence of nanoparticle deposition on fuel clad are investigated. As a result of changing the effective multiplication factor and PPF calculations for six types of nanoparticles which have been studied extensively for their heat transfer properties including Alumina, Aluminum, Copper oxide, Copper, Titania, and Zirconia with different volume fractions, it can be concluded that at low concentration (0.03 volume fraction), Zirconia and Alumina are the optimum nanoparticles for normal operation. The maximum radial and axial PPF are found to be invariant to the type of nanofluid at low volume fractions. With an increase in nanoparticle deposition thickness on the outer and inner clad, a flux and K eff depression occurred and ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 have the lowest rate of drop off.

  11. Influence of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and W/B Ratios on Compressive Strength, Water Permeability, and Chloride Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachilakorn Sanawung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the effects of W/B ratios and palm oil fuel ash (POFA on compressive strength, water permeability, and chloride resistance of concrete. POFA was ground until the particles retained on sieve number 325 were less than 5% by weight. POFA was used to partially replace OPC at rates of 15, 25, and 35% by weight of binder. The water to binder (W/B ratios of concrete were 0.40 and 0.50. The compressive strength, water permeability, and chloride resistance of concrete were investigated up to 90 days. The results showed that POFA concrete with W/B ratio of 0.40 had the compressive strengths ranging from 45.8 to 55.9 MPa or 82–94% of OPC concrete at 90 days, while POFA concrete with W/B ratio of 0.50 had the compressive strengths of 33.9–41.9 MPa or 81–94% of OPC concrete. Furthermore, the compressive strength of concrete incorporation of ground POFA at 15% was the same as OPC concrete. The water permeability coefficient and the chloride ion penetration of POFA concrete were lower than OPC concrete when both types of concrete had the same compressive strengths. The findings also indicated that water permeability and chloride ion penetration of POFA concrete were significantly reduced compared to OPC concrete.

  12. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  13. Effects of Fuel Type and Fuel Delivery System on Pollutant Emissions of Pride and Samand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Sarhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of the type of fuel delivery system (petrol, dedicated or bifuel, the type of consumed fuel (petrol or gas, the portion of consumed fuel and also the duration of dual-fuelling in producing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons from Pride and Samand. According to research objectives, data gathering from 2000 vehicles has been done by visiting Hafiz Vehicle Inspection Center every day for 2 months. The results of this survey indicated that although there is no significant difference between various fuel delivery systems in terms of producing the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons by Samand, considering the emission amount of carbon dioxide, the engine performance of Pride in bifuel and dedicated state in GTXI and 132 types is more unsatisfactory than that of petrol state by 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. On the other hand, consuming natural gas increases the amount of carbon monoxide emission in dual- fuel Pride by 0.18% and decreases that in dual-fuel Samand by 1.2%, which signifies the better design of Samand in terms of fuel pumps, used kit type and other engine parts to use this alternative fuel compared to Pride. Since the portion of consumed fuel and also duration of dual-fuelling does not have a significant effect on the amount of output pollutants from the studied vehicles, it can be claimed that the output substances from the vehicle exhaust are more related to the vehicle’s condition than the fuel type.

  14. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  15. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Mehresh, Parag [Peoria, IL; Schuh, David [Peoria, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  16. Experimental Analysis of a Small Generator set Operating on Dual Fuel Diesel-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Alex Vailatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the operation of a generator set on single fuel mode with diesel oil, and on dual fuel mode using diesel–ethanol blends. The engine used to realize the experimental analysis was a diesel cycle model, single cylinder, direct injection, air refrigerated and coupled to a three-phase electric generator, whose set capacity was 8.0 kVA. The generated electric energy was dissipated in electrical resistances inside a reservoir with running water. Fuels were blended in different volumetric ratios, using a small portion of vegetable castor oil to promote the homogenization. The percentages of substitutions of diesel oil were by 10% to 50%, increasing by 10% the replacement for each sample. Also, the engine was operated with 100% substitution of diesel oil, i.e., for this condition, the samples were composed of ethanol/castor oil 90/10 (volume/volume, 80/20 and 75/25. The blends of diesel and ethanol did not obtain good performance, mainly in taxes of substitution above 40%, causing combustion failures, operational instability, and increase of fuel consumption, although it has achieved a greatly reduction on opacity percentages. The blends with 100% of substitution of diesel oil obtained good performance except to blend with 90% ethanol, where occurred combustion failures, which caused operational instability. To these conditions, the results achieved are increase of consumption by 17%, decrease of opacity by 79%, decrease of exhaust gas temperature by 3.5% and increase of engine thermal efficiency by 1.3%. At the ethanol – castor oil blends there was a decrease in the percentage of opacity by 96%, decrease of exhaust gas temperature by 17.6%, with a minimum of operational irregularities, although fuel consumption has increased by 52.4% and the engine thermal efficiency has decreased almost 1.7%.

  17. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  18. Dual-wavelength OR-PAM with compressed sensing for cell tracking in a 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rou-Xuan; Fu, Ying; Liu, Wang; Ma, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching; Sun, Mingjian; Li, Pai-Chi

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring dynamic interactions of T cells migrating toward tumor is beneficial to understand how cancer immunotherapy works. Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM) can provide not only high spatial resolution but also deeper penetration than conventional optical microscopy. With the aid of exogenous contrast agents, the dual-wavelength OR-PAM can be applied to map the distribution of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with gold nanospheres (AuNS) under 523nm laser irradiation and Hepta1-6 tumor spheres with indocyanine green (ICG) under 800nm irradiation. However, at 1K laser PRF, it takes approximately 20 minutes to obtain a full sample volume of 160 × 160 × 150 μm3 . To increase the imaging rate, we propose a random non-uniform sparse sampling mechanism to achieve fast sparse photoacoustic data acquisition. The image recovery process is formulated as a low-rank matrix recovery (LRMR) based on compressed sensing (CS) theory. We show that it could be stably recovered via nuclear-norm minimization optimization problem to maintain image quality from a significantly fewer measurement. In this study, we use the dual-wavelength OR-PAM with CS to visualize T cell trafficking in a 3D culture system with higher temporal resolution. Data acquisition time is reduced by 40% in such sample volume where sampling density is 0.5. The imaging system reveals the potential to understand the dynamic cellular process for preclinical screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  19. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  20. Application of a dual-resolution voxelization scheme to compressed-sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction in digital tomosynthesis (DTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, G. A.; Cho, H. S.; Park, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.; Lim, H. W.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, K. S.; Kang, S. Y.; Park, J. E.; Kim, W. S.; Jeon, D. H.; Je, U. K.; Woo, T. H.; Oh, J. E.

    2018-02-01

    In recent digital tomosynthesis (DTS), iterative reconstruction methods are often used owing to the potential to provide multiplanar images of superior image quality to conventional filtered-backprojection (FBP)-based methods. However, they require enormous computational cost in the iterative process, which has still been an obstacle to put them to practical use. In this work, we propose a new DTS reconstruction method incorporated with a dual-resolution voxelization scheme in attempt to overcome these difficulties, in which the voxels outside a small region-of-interest (ROI) containing target diagnosis are binned by 2 × 2 × 2 while the voxels inside the ROI remain unbinned. We considered a compressed-sensing (CS)-based iterative algorithm with a dual-constraint strategy for more accurate DTS reconstruction. We implemented the proposed algorithm and performed a systematic simulation and experiment to demonstrate its viability. Our results indicate that the proposed method seems to be effective for reducing computational cost considerably in iterative DTS reconstruction, keeping the image quality inside the ROI not much degraded. A binning size of 2 × 2 × 2 required only about 31.9% computational memory and about 2.6% reconstruction time, compared to those for no binning case. The reconstruction quality was evaluated in terms of the root-mean-square error (RMSE), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the universal-quality index (UQI).

  1. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  2. Performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by dual-layered membrane electrode assembly structures with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bom; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dual-layered membrane electrode assemblies (d-MEAs) on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated using the following characterization techniques: single cell performance test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been shown that the PEMFC with d-MEAs has better cell performance than that with typical mono-layered MEAs (m-MEAs). In particular, the d-MEA whose inner layer is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) showed the best fuel cell performance. This is due to the fact that the d-MEAs with MWCNTs have the highest electrochemical surface area and the lowest activation polarization, as observed from the CV and EIS test.

  3. Optimization experiment of gas oil direct injection valve for CNG dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.Y. [Chonnam National University Graduate School, Jeonju (Korea); Park, C. K. [Chonnam National University, Jeonju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, we studied for a conversion from diesel engine to natural gas dual fuel engine. For this experimental, we tested about the injection quantity characteristics of pilot valve with the plunger diameter at the retraction volume and investigated to the engine performance and exhaust emissions with the nozzle hole number and injection nozzle diameter. As a result, when the plunger diameter is 7.5 mm at the retraction volume, 25 mm{sup 3}/st, the injection quantity characteristics develop. Also, when a nozzle type is 4*{phi} 0.24, total hydrocarbon(THC) emission reduce at low equivalence ratio. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  5. Development of dual-purpose metal cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (1). Outline of cask structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masashi; Hayashi, Makoto; Kashiwakura, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plants in Japan are planed to be reprocessed at the nuclear fuel recycle plant under construction at Rokkasho-mura. Since the amount of the spent fuels exceeds that of recycled fuel, the spent fuels have to be properly stored and maintained as recycle fuel resource until the beginning of the reprocessing. For that sake, interim storage installations are being constructed outside the nuclear power plants by 2010. The storage dry casks have been practically used as the interim storage in the nuclear power plants. From this reason, the storage system using the storage dry casks is promising as the interim storage installations away form the reactors, which are under discussion. In the interim storage facilities, the storage using the dry cask of the storage metal cask with business showings, having the function of transportation is now under discussion. By employing transportation and storage dual-purpose cask, the repack equipments can be exhausted, and the reliability of the interim storage installations can be increased. Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing the high reliable and economical transportation and storage dry metal cask. In this report, the outline of our developing transportation and storage dry cask is described. (author)

  6. Improved Hypersonic Inlet Performance Using Validated Strut Compression Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, M. J.; Stout, P. W.; Fernandez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Aerojet is currently executing two Strutjet propulsion contracts: one a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for a NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Reusable Transportation Technology (ARTT) program, the second a Dual Mode Ram/Scramjet engine for a USAF Wright Laboratories Storable Fuel Scramjet Flow Path Concepts program. The engines employed in both programs operate at supersonic and low hypersonic speeds and use inlets employing forebody external and sidewall compression. Aerojet has developed and validated a successful design methodology applicable to these inlet types. Design features include an integrated vehicle forebody, external side compression struts, strut sidewall and throat bleed, a throat shock trap, and variable geometry internal contraction. Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) predictions and test data show these inlets allow substantially increased flow turning angles over other designs. These increased flow turning angles allow shorter and lighter engines than current designs, which in turn enables higher performing vehicles with broad operating characteristics. This paper describes the designs of two different inlets evaluated by the NASA-MSFC and USAF programs, discusses the results of wind tunnel tests performed by NASA-Lewis Research Center, and provides correlations of test data with CFD predictions. Parameters of interest include low Mach number starting capability, start sensitivity as a function of back pressure at various contraction ratios, flow turning angles, strut and throat bleed effects, and pressure recovery at various Mach numbers.

  7. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  8. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  9. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  10. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  11. Using gasoline in an advanced compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, R.F.; Ariztegui, J.; Dubois, T.; Hamje, H.D.C.; Pellegrini, L.; Rickeard, D.J.; Rose, K.D. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium); Heuser, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Schnorbus, T.; Kolbeck, A.F. [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Future vehicles will be required to improve their efficiency, reduce both regulated and CO{sub 2} emissions, and maintain acceptable driveability, safety, and noise. To achieve this overall performance, they will be configured with more advanced hardware, sensors, and control technologies that will also enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties. Fuel flexibility has already been demonstrated in previous studies on a compression ignition bench engine and a demonstration vehicle equipped with an advanced engine management system, closed-loop combustion control, and air-path control strategies. An unresolved question is whether engines of this sort can also operate on market gasoline while achieving diesel-like efficiency and acceptable emissions and noise levels. In this study, a compression ignition bench engine having a higher compression ratio, optimised valve timing, advanced engine management system, and flexible fuel injection could be operated on a European gasoline over full to medium part loads. The combustion was sensitive to EGR rates, however, and optimising all emissions and combustion noise was a considerable challenge at lower loads. (orig.)

  12. Design and multifidelity analysis of dual mode scramjet compression system using coupled NPSS and fluent simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandakumar

    Hypersonic airbreathing engines mark a potential future development of the aerospace industry and immense efforts have been taken in gaining knowledge in them for the past decades. The physical phenomenon occurring at the hypersonic flow regime makes the design and performance prediction of a scramjet engine hard. Though cutting-edge simulation tools fight their way toward accurate prediction of the environment, the time consumed by the entire process in designing and analyzing a scramjet engine and its component may be exorbitant. A multi-fidelity approach for designing a scramjet with a cruising Mach number of 6 is detailed in this research where high-order simulations are applied according to the physics involved in the component. Two state-of-the-art simulation tools were used to take the aerodynamic and propulsion disciplines into account for realistic prediction of the individual components as well as the entire scramjet. The specific goal of this research is to create a virtual environment to design and analyze a hypersonic, two-dimensional, planar inlet and isolator to check its operability for a dual-mode scramjet engine. The dual mode scramjet engine starts at a Mach number of 3.5 where it operates as a ramjet and accelerates to Mach 6 to be operated as a scramjet engine. The intercomponent interaction between the compression components with the rest of the engine is studied by varying the fidelity of the numerical simulation according to the complexity of the situation. Efforts have been taken to track the transition Mach number as it switches from ramjet to scramjet. A complete scramjet assembly was built using the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) and the performance of the engine was evaluated for various scenarios. Different numerical techniques were opted for varying the fidelity of the analysis with the highest fidelity consisting of 2D RANS CFD simulation. The interaction between the NPSS elements with the CFD solver is governed by the

  13. Hydrogen fuel : well-to-pump pathways for 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mintz, M.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.

    2002-07-01

    The authors discussed the topic of hydrogen fuels, and began the presentation by stating that the carbon intensity of world primary energy has been falling and hydrogen intensity has been rising. The declines in carbon can be explained by efficiency gains and fuel switches. There are several alternatives to gasoline fuel for vehicles, such as hydrogen, compressed natural gas, compressed natural gas/hydrogen. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere represent a growing concern. The authors discussed four hydrogen pathways that have been modeled. They indicated that both natural gas pathways required additional natural gas transmission and storage. To better illustrate the hydrogen pathway, a conceptual representation of hydrogen pipeline loop supporting local hydrogen delivery was displayed. Some hydrogen distribution assumptions for centralized hydrogen production were examined. A cost modeling procedure was described, with the following topics: defining paths, determining tank-in fuel requirement, size pathway components, estimating component costs, and calculating pathway costs. The results indicated that the natural gas-based pathways were sensitive to feedstock cost, while coal and nuclear were not. Some of the conclusions that were arrived at were: (1) on a well-to-pump basis, with current technologies, the unit cost of hydrogen is expected to be 2 to 3 time that of gasoline, (2) the mpge of hydrogen-fueled vehicles must be more than double gasoline, and (3) hydrogen transport and production are the largest components of all pathways. For the future, the focus has to be on transition, including total and unit costs through study time frame, penetration of hydrogen blends, and niche markets. One must compare apples to apples, i e cost of infrastructure components over time, and learning curves. Pathways and scenarios must be re-examined, to include issues such as truck, rail marine market penetration; and hydrogen carrier pathways. Disruptive

  14. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  15. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  16. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Merida, Walter; Harrington, David A. [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed. (author)

  17. Spark ignition engine performance and emissions in a high compression engine using biogas and methane mixtures without knock occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Montoya Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to use biogas in an internal combustion engine with high compression ratio and in order to get a high output thermal efficiency, this investigation used a diesel engine with a maximum output power 8.5 kW, which was converted to spark ignition mode to use it with gaseous fuels. Three fuels were used: Simulated biogas, biogas enriched with 25% and 50% methane by volume. After conversion, the output power of the engine decreased by 17.64% when using only biogas, where 7 kW was the new maximum output power of the engine. The compression ratio was kept at 15.5:1, and knocking did not occur during engine operation. Output thermal efficiency operating the engine in SI mode with biogas enriched with 50% methane was almost the same compared with the engine running in diesel-biogas dual mode at full load and was greater at part loads. The dependence of the diesel pilot was eliminated when biogas was used in the engine converted in SI mode. The optimum condition of experiment for the engine without knocking was using biogas enriched with 50% methane, with 12 degrees of spark timing advance and equivalence ratio of 0.95, larger output powers and higher values of methane concentration lead the engine to knock operation. The presence of CO2 allows operating engines at high compression ratios with normal combustion conditions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt methane all in g/kWh decreased when the biogas was enriched with 50% methane.

  18. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  19. Wartsila 32DF, the dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-06-01

    This paper gives details of the development of the Wartsila 32DF duel-fuel lean-burn engine that can burn liquid or gaseous fuels, and reports on the installation of four of the engines in Turkey. The combustion process, and the design of the gas admission, pilot fuel, cylinder control, air-fuel control, and engine control and monitoring systems are described. The advantages of the engine are discussed.

  20. Desempeño y emisiones de un motor de combustión interna con combustible dual Diesel – Gas natural ;Performance and emissions study of an internal combustion engine with dual fuel diesel - natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los problemas reportados para los sistemas duales diesel- gas natural ocurren por mala dosificación del gas. Por esta razón se adaptó un sistema de alimentación dual con inyección electrónica de gas natural a un motor de combustión interna encendido por compresión. Se plantea un diseño experimental controlando el dosado de gas natural.Como resultado se obtiene un análisis comparativo entre los valoresde desempeño y emisiones desde la operación Diesel y Diesel-Gas natural. A partir de este análisis es posible observar que el desempeño del motor no se ve afectado por la operación del motor bajo el esquema Dual Diesel-GN, es decir que el motor funcionando bajo modo dual puede sostener las cargas solicitadas al motor. También se observa que la eficiencia volumétrica mejora bajo todas las condiciones de operación dual y las emisiones son mejores sólo cuando el motor trabaja a altas cargas. Many of the problems reported for dual diesel-natural gas systems occur due to poor gas dosage. For this reason a natural gas electronic injection feeding system was adapted to a compression ignitios internal combustion engine. An experimental design controlling the natural gas dosage is considered. As a result a comparative analysis between performance and emissions from the Diesel-and diesel-Natural Gas operation is obtained. From this analysis it is possible to see that engine performance is not affected by operation of the engine under the dual mode, i.e. the motor running under dual mode can support the loads applied to the engine. It is also observed that the volumetric efficiency improves under all conditions of operation and emissions from the dual mode of operation are better only when working at high engine loads.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIOXANE AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS TO REDUCE EMISSION AND TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SENDILVELAN S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance of a compression ignition engine fuelled with 1, 4 Dioxane- diesel blends is evaluated. A single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 5.2 kW at 1500 rev/min is used. Base data is generated with standard diesel fuel subsequently; five fuel blends namely 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 percentages by volume of diesel and dioxane were prepared and tested in the diesel engine. Engine performance and emission data were used to optimize the blends for reducing emission and improving performance. Results show improved performance with B10 blends compared to neat fuel for all conditions of the engine. Other blends recorded marginal decrease in brake thermal efficiency. The maximum efficiency for B30, B50 blends at peak load are 26.3%, 25.2% respectively against 29.1% for sole fuel. NOx emissions were found to be high or the blends. Peak pressure and rate of pressure rise are increased with increase in dioxane ratio due to improved combustion rate. Heat release pattern shows higher premixed combustion rate with the blends. Higher ignition delay and lower combustion duration are found with all blends than neat diesel fuel.

  2. Alvar engine. An engine with variable compression ratio. Experiments and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Olof

    1998-09-01

    This report is focused on tests with Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engines, according to the Alvar engine principle. Variable compression ratio means an engine design where it is possible to change the nominal compression ratio. The purpose is to increase the fuel efficiency at part load by increasing the compression ratio. At maximum load, and maybe supercharging with for example turbocharger, it is not possible to keep a high compression ratio because of the knock phenomena. Knock is a shock wave caused by self-ignition of the fuel-air mix. If knock occurs, the engine will be exposed to a destructive load. Because of the reasons mentioned it would be an advantage if it would be possible to change the compression ratio continuously when the load changes. The Alvar engine provides a solution for variable compression ratio based on well-known engine components. This paper provides information about efficiency and emission characteristics from tests with two Alvar engines. Results from tests with a phase shift mechanism (for automatic compression ratio control) for the Alvar engine are also reviewed Examination paper. 5 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs, 5 appendices

  3. Potential for using a tyre pyrolysis oil-biodiesel blend in a diesel engine at different compression ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Murugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of operating a compression ignition engine with a non petroleum diesel fuel. • A possible solution to replace certain amount of biodiesel by tyre pyrolysis oil in a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. • The optimum compression ratio for engine fueled with biodiesel-tyre pyrolysis oil blend. - Abstract: This study is aimed at investigating effects of varying the compression ratio at optimum injection timing and nozzle opening pressure on the behaviour of a diesel engine, using a non-petroleum fuel, i.e. a blend of 80% biodiesel, and 20% oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste tyres. The engine was subjected to one lower (16.5) and one higher (18.5) compression ratio in addition to the standard compression ratio of 17.5. At the higher compression ratio of 18.5 and full load, shorter ignition delay, maximum cylinder pressure and higher heat release rate were found for the blend, compared to those of the original compression ratio. The increase in the compression ratio from 17.5 to 18.5 for the blend improved the brake thermal efficiency by about 8% compared to that of the original compression ratio at full load. The experimental results indicated that for the blend at a higher compression ratio of 18.5, the brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbon emission (BSHC) and smoke opacity were reduced by about 10.5%, 32%, and 17.4% respectively, than those of the original compression ratio at full load

  4. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam

    2017-04-03

    The worldwide demand for transport fuels will increase significantly but will still be met substantially (a share of around 90%) from petroleum-based fuels. This increase in demand will be significantly skewed towards commercial vehicles and hence towards diesel and jet fuels, leading to a probable surplus of lighter low-octane fuels. Current diesel engines are efficient but expensive and complicated because they try to reduce the nitrogen oxide and soot emissions simultaneously while using conventional diesel fuels which ignite very easily. Gasoline compression ignition engines can be run on gasoline-like fuels with a long ignition delay to make low-nitrogen-oxide low-soot combustion very much easier. Moreover, the research octane number of the optimum fuel for gasoline compression ignition engines is likely to be around 70 and hence the surplus low-octane components could be used without much further processing. Also, the final boiling point can be higher than those of current gasolines. The potential advantages of gasoline compression ignition engines are as follows. First, the engine is at least as efficient and clean as current diesel engines but is less complicated and hence could be cheaper (lower injection pressure and after-treatment focus on control of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions rather than on soot and nitrogen oxide emissions). Second, the optimum fuel requires less processing and hence would be easier to make in comparison with current gasoline or diesel fuel and will have a lower greenhouse-gas footprint. Third, it provides a path to mitigate the global demand imbalance between heavier fuels and lighter fuels that is otherwise projected and improve the sustainability of refineries. The concept has been well demonstrated in research engines but development work is needed to make it feasible on practical vehicles, e.g. on cold start, adequate control of exhaust carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and control of noise at medium to high loads

  5. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  6. Effect of the use of olive–pomace oil biodiesel/diesel fuel blends in a compression ignition engine: Preliminary exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, I.; Quintana, C.E.; Ruiz, J.J.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Dorado, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Olive–pomace oil (OPO) biodiesel constitute a new second-generation biofuel. • Exergy efficiency and performance of OPO biodiesel, straight and blended with diesel fuel was evaluated. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided similar performance parameters. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided similar exergy efficiency compared to diesel fuel. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided no exergy cost increment compared to diesel fuel. - Abstract: Although biodiesel is among the most studied biofuels for diesel engines, it is usually produced from edible oils, which gives way to controversy between the use of land for fuel and food. For this reason, residues like olive–pomace oil are considered alternative raw materials to produce biodiesel that do not compete with the food industry. To gain knowledge about the implications of its use, olive–pomace oil methyl ester, straight and blended with diesel fuel, was evaluated as fuel in a direct injection diesel engine Perkins AD 3-152 and compared to the use of fossil diesel fuel. Performance curves were analyzed at full load and different speed settings. To perform the exergy balance of the tested fuels, the operating conditions corresponding to maximum engine power values were considered. It was found that the tested fuels offer similar performance parameters. When straight biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, maximum engine power decreased to 5.6%, while fuel consumption increased up to 7%. However, taking into consideration the Second Law of the Thermodynamics, the exergy efficiency and unitary exergetic cost reached during the operation of the engine under maximum power condition for the assessed fuels do not display significant differences. Based on the exergy results, it may be concluded that olive–pomace oil biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel may substitute the use of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines without any exergy cost increment

  7. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  8. A fast spectrum dual path flow cermet reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J.; Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A cermet fueled, dual path fast reactor for space nuclear propulsion applications is conceptually designed. The reactor utilizes an outer annulus core and an inner cylindrical core with radial and axial reflector. The dual path flow minimizes the impact of power peaking near the radial reflector. Basic neutronics and core design aspects of the reactor are discussed. The dual path reactor is integrated into a 25000 lbf thrust nuclear rocket

  9. Standardized, utility-DOE compatible, spent fuel storage-transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Power has developed and licensed a facility for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in metal spent fuel storage casks. The modifications to the design of these casks necessary for licensing for both storage and transport of spent fuel are discussed along with the operational advantages of dual purpose storage-transport casks. Dual purpose casks can be used for storage at utility and DOE sites (MRS or repository) and for shipment between these sites with minimal spent fuel handling. The cost for a standardized system of casks that are compatible for use at both DOE and utility sites is discussed along with possible arrangements for sharing both the cost and benefits of dual purpose storage-transport casks

  10. On the effect of injection timing on the ignition of lean PRF/air/EGR mixtures under direct dual fuel stratification conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau; Sankaran, Ramanan; Yu, Gwang Hyeon; Chung, Suk-Ho; Yoo, Chun Sang

    2017-01-01

    The ignition characteristics of lean primary reference fuel (PRF)/air/exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixture under reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and direct duel fuel stratification (DDFS) conditions are investigated by 2-D direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 116-species reduced chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The 2-D DNSs of the DDFS combustion are performed by varying the injection timing of iso-octane (i-C8H18) with a pseudo-iso-octane (PC8H18) model together with a novel compression heating model to account for the compression heating and expansion cooling effects of the piston motion in an engine cylinder. The PC8H18 model is newly developed to mimic the timing, duration, and cooling effects of the direct injection of i-C8H18 onto a premixed background charge of PRF/air/EGR mixture with composition inhomogeneities. It is found that the RCCI combustion exhibits a very high peak heat release rate (HRR) with a short combustion duration due to the predominance of the spontaneous ignition mode of combustion. However, the DDFS combustion has much lower peak HRR and longer combustion duration regardless of the fuel injection timing compared to those of the RCCI combustion, which is primarily attributed to the sequential injection of i-C8H18. It is also found that the ignition delay of the DDFS combustion features a non-monotonic behavior with increasing fuel-injection timing due to the different effect of fuel evaporation on the low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The budget and Damköhler number analyses verify that although a mixed combustion mode of deflagration and spontaneous ignition exists during the early phase of the DDFS combustion, the spontaneous ignition becomes predominant during the main combustion, and hence, the spread-out of heat release rate in the DDFS combustion is mainly governed by the direct injection process of i-C8H18. Finally, a misfire is observed for the DDFS combustion when

  11. On the effect of injection timing on the ignition of lean PRF/air/EGR mixtures under direct dual fuel stratification conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau

    2017-06-10

    The ignition characteristics of lean primary reference fuel (PRF)/air/exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixture under reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and direct duel fuel stratification (DDFS) conditions are investigated by 2-D direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 116-species reduced chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The 2-D DNSs of the DDFS combustion are performed by varying the injection timing of iso-octane (i-C8H18) with a pseudo-iso-octane (PC8H18) model together with a novel compression heating model to account for the compression heating and expansion cooling effects of the piston motion in an engine cylinder. The PC8H18 model is newly developed to mimic the timing, duration, and cooling effects of the direct injection of i-C8H18 onto a premixed background charge of PRF/air/EGR mixture with composition inhomogeneities. It is found that the RCCI combustion exhibits a very high peak heat release rate (HRR) with a short combustion duration due to the predominance of the spontaneous ignition mode of combustion. However, the DDFS combustion has much lower peak HRR and longer combustion duration regardless of the fuel injection timing compared to those of the RCCI combustion, which is primarily attributed to the sequential injection of i-C8H18. It is also found that the ignition delay of the DDFS combustion features a non-monotonic behavior with increasing fuel-injection timing due to the different effect of fuel evaporation on the low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The budget and Damköhler number analyses verify that although a mixed combustion mode of deflagration and spontaneous ignition exists during the early phase of the DDFS combustion, the spontaneous ignition becomes predominant during the main combustion, and hence, the spread-out of heat release rate in the DDFS combustion is mainly governed by the direct injection process of i-C8H18. Finally, a misfire is observed for the DDFS combustion when

  12. Influence of several factors on ignition lag in a compression-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the influence of fuel quality, injection advance angle, injection valve-opening pressure, inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed on the time lag of auto-ignition of a Diesel fuel oil in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine as obtained from an analysis of indicator diagrams. Three cam-operated fuel-injection pumps, two pumps cams, and an automatic injection valve with two different nozzles were used. Ignition lag was considered to be the interval between the start of injection of the fuel as determined with a Stroborama and the start of effective combustion as determined from the indicator diagram, the latter being the point where 4.0 x 10(exp-6) pound of fuel had been effectively burned. For this particular engine and fuel it was found that: (1) for a constant start and the same rate of fuel injection up the point of cut-off, a variation in fuel quantity from 1.2 x 10(exp-4) to 4.1 x 10(exp-4) pound per cycle has no appreciable effect on the ignition lag; (2) injection advance angle increases or decreases the lag according to whether density, temperature, or turbulence has the controlling influence; (3) increase in valve-opening pressure slightly increases the lag; and (4) increase of inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed reduces the lag.

  13. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  14. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  15. Torque Modeling and Control of a Variable Compression Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The SAAB variable compression engine is a new engine concept that enables the fuel consumption to be radically cut by varying the compression ratio. A challenge with this new engine concept is that the compression ratio has a direct influence on the output torque, which means that a change in compression ratio also leads to a change in the torque. A torque change may be felt as a jerk in the movement of the car, and this is an undesirable effect since the driver has no control over the compre...

  16. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a supercharged H{sub 2}-diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Murari Mohon [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged engine fueled by hydrogen and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel in dual-fuel mode. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with charge dilution. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first with hydrogen-operation condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.3. A maximum IMEP of 908 kPa and a thermal efficiency of about 42% were obtained. Equivalence ratio could not be further increased due to knocking of the engine. The emission of CO was only about 5 ppm, and that of HC was about 15 ppm. However, the NOx emissions were high, 100-200 ppm or more. The charge dilution by N{sub 2} was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The 100% reduction of NOx was achieved. Due to the dilution by N{sub 2} gas, higher amount of energy could be supplied from hydrogen without knocking, and about 13% higher IMEP was produced than without charge dilution. (author)

  17. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biogas Utilization as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Indahsari Devi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the feasibility and economic analysis of biogas energy as a supply for the diesel engine generator. The techno-economic analysis was performed by using three parameters which are Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP as the feasibility indicators of the biogas power plant project. Calculation of substitution was obtained from the comparison between data of diesel engine using diesel fuel and dual-fuel with biogas. Economic calculations include the substitution percentage of diesel fuel by biogas for dual-fuel. Meanwhile, the calculation of savings was based on the ratio of energy content between diesel fuel and biogas. The eventual outcome is determined using economic comparison between the use of diesel fuel and dual-fuel mode. Feasibility shows that the pilot plant of 1 to 6 kWh using diesel fuel and dual-fuel are not feasible while techno-economic parameter analysis shows that NPV<0, IRRfuel is still not.

  18. Compressed natural gas for vehicles and how we can develop and meet the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state and federal legislation have mandated the use of clean burning fuels. Clean fuels include: compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol, methanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electricity, and reformulated gasoline. The Clean Air Amendments 1990 have created support for the rapid utilization of the compressed natural gas (CNG). Responsively, diverse occupations related to this industry are emerging. A coordinated infrastructure is vital to the successful promotion of clean fuels and synchronized endorsement of the law

  19. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  20. Influence of Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Annona Methyl Ester Operated DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Ramalingam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the optimum performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR engine with different blends of Annona methyl ester (AME as fuel. The performance parameters such as specific fuel consumption (SFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE, and emission levels of HC, CO, Smoke, and NOx were compared with the diesel fuel. It is found that, at compression ratio of 17: 1 for A20 blended fuel (20% AME + 80% Diesel shows better performance and lower emission level which is very close to neat diesel fuel. The engine was operated with different values of compression ratio (15, 16, and 17 to find out best possible combination for operating engine with blends of AME. It is also found that the increase of compression ratio increases the BTE and reduces SFC and has lower emission without any engine in design modifications.

  1. Influence of fuel type, dilution and equivalence ratio on the emission reduction from the auto-ignition in an Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, TIPs - Fluid Physics, CP165/67, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    One technology that seems to be promising for automobile pollution reduction is the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). This technology still faces auto-ignition and emission-control problems. This paper focuses on the emission problem, since it is incumbent to realize engines that pollute less. For this purpose, this paper presents results concerning the measurement of the emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbons. HCCI conditions are used, with equivalence ratios between 0.26 and 0.54, inlet temperatures of 70 C and 120 C and compression ratios of 10.2 and 13.5, with different fuel types: gasoline, gasoline surrogate, diesel, diesel surrogate and mixtures of n-heptane/toluene. The effect of dilution is considered for gasoline, while the effect of the equivalence ratio is considered for all the fuels. No significant amount of NO{sub x} has been measured. It appeared that the CO, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbon emissions were reduced by decreasing the toluene content of the fuel and by decreasing the dilution. The opposite holds for CO{sub 2}. The reduction of the hydrocarbon emission appears to compete with the reduction of the CO{sub 2} emission. Diesel seemed to produce less CO and hydrocarbons than gasoline when auto-ignited. An example of emission reduction control is presented in this paper. (author)

  2. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  3. Use of a single-zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemistry to study a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junnian; Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Auto-ignition characteristics of a natural gas fueled HCCI engine. ► Engine speed had the greatest effect on the auto-ignition process. ► Increases of C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 improved the auto-ignition process. ► Engine performance was not sensitive to small changes in C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 . ► Nitric oxides concentrations decreased as engine speed or EGR level was increased. - Abstract: A single zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model employed Chemkin and used chemical kinetics for natural gas with 53 species and 325 reactions. This simulation was used to complete analyses for a modified 0.4 L single cylinder engine. The engine possessed a compression ratio of 21.5:1, and had a bore and stroke of 86 and 75 mm, respectively. Several sets of parametric studies were completed to investigate the minimal initial temperature, engine performance, and nitric oxide emissions of HCCI engine operation. The results show significant changes in combustion characteristics with varying engine operating conditions. Effects of varying equivalence ratios (0.3–1.0), engine speeds (1000–4000 RPM), EGR (0–40%), and fuel compositions were determined and analyzed in detail. In particular, every 0.1 increase in equivalence ratio or 500 rpm increase in engine speed requires about a 5 K higher initial temperature for complete combustion, and leads to around 0.7 bar increase in IMEP.

  4. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  5. Starting up a programme of atomic piles using compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, J.; Yvon, J.

    1959-01-01

    1) An examination of the intellectual and material resources which have directed the French programme towards: a) the natural uranium and plutonium system, b) the use of compressed gas as heat transfer fluid (primary fluid). 2) The parts played in exploring the field by the pile EL2 and G1, EL2 a natural uranium, heavy water and compressed gas pile, G1 a natural uranium, graphite and atmospheric air pile. 3) Development of the neutronics of graphite piles: physical study of G1. 4) The examination of certain problem posed by centres equipped with natural uranium, graphite and compressed carbon dioxide piles: structure, special materials, fluid circuits, maximum efficiency. Economic aspects. 5) Aids to progress: a) piles for testing materials and for tests on canned fuel elements, b) laboratory and calculation facilities. 6) Possible new orientations of compressed gas piles: a) raising of the pressure, b) enriched fuel, c) higher temperatures, d) use of heavy water. (author) [fr

  6. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  7. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in investigating......Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesting...

  8. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  9. Dual-energy subtraction radiography of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaga, Taro; Masuzawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Satoru; Motohashi, Hisahiko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tamura, Nobuo

    1988-01-01

    Dual-energy projection radiography was applied to breast examination. To perform the dual-energy subtraction radiography using a digital radiography unit, high and low-energy exposures were made at an appropriate time interval under differing X-ray exposure conditions. Dual-energy subtraction radiography was performed in 41 cancer patients in whom the tumor shadow was equivocal or the border of cancer infiltration was not clearly demonstrated by compression mammography, and 15 patients with benign diseases such as fibrocystic disease, cyst and fibroadenoma. In 21 cases out of the 41 cancer patients, the dual-energy subtraction radiography clearly visualized the malignant tumor shadows and the border of cancer infiltration and the daughter nodules by removing the shadows of normal mammary gland. On the other hand, beign diseases such as fibrocystic disease and cyst could be diagnosed as such, because the tumor shadow and the irregularly concentrated image of mammary gland disappeared by the dual-energy subtraction. These results suggest that this new technique will be useful in examination of breast masses. (author)

  10. Dual-energy subtraction radiography of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaga, Taro; Masuzawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Satoru; Motohashi, Hisahiko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tamura, Nobuo

    1988-06-01

    Dual-energy projection radiography was applied to breast examination. To perform the dual-energy subtraction radiography using a digital radiography unit, high and low-energy exposures were made at an appropriate time interval under differing X-ray exposure conditions. Dual-energy subtraction radiography was performed in 41 cancer patients in whom the tumor shadow was equivocal or the border of cancer infiltration was not clearly demonstrated by compression mammography, and 15 patients with benign diseases such as fibrocystic disease, cyst and fibroadenoma. In 21 cases out of the 41 cancer patients, the dual-energy subtraction radiography clearly visualized the malignant tumor shadows and the border of cancer infiltration and the daughter nodules by removing the shadows of normal mammary gland. On the other hand, beign diseases such as fibrocystic disease and cyst could be diagnosed as such, because the tumor shadow and the irregularly concentrated image of mammary gland disappeared by the dual-energy subtraction. These results suggest that this new technique will be useful in examination of breast masses.

  11. A new type of hydrogen generator-HHEG (high-compressed hydrogen energy generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.; Tojima, K.; Takeda, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' We have developed a new type of hydrogen generator named HHEG (High-compressed Hydrogen Energy Generator). HHEG can produce 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle without any mechanical compressor. HHEG is a kind of PEM(proton exchange membrane)electrolysis. It was well known that compressed hydrogen could be generated by water electrolysis. However, the conventional electrolysis could not generate 35 MPa or higher pressure that is required for fuel cell vehicle, because electrolysis cell stack is destroyed in such high pressure. In HHEG, the cell stack is put in high-pressure vessel and the pressure difference of oxygen and hydrogen that is generated by the cell stack is always kept at nearly zero by an automatic compensator invented by Mitsubishi Corporation. The cell stack of HHEG is not so special one, but it is not broken under such high pressure, because the automatic compensator always offsets the force acting on the cell stack. Hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle must be produce by no emission energy such as solar and atomic power. These energies are available as electricity. So, water electrolysis is the only way of producing hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen fuel is also 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen and will become 70 MPa in near future. But conventional mechanical compressor is not useful for such high pressure hydrogen fuel, because of the short lifetime and high power consumption. Construction of hydrogen station network is indispensable in order to come into wide use of fuel cell vehicles. For such network contraction, an on-site type hydrogen generator is required. HHEG can satisfy above these requirements. So we can conclude that HHEG is the only way of realizing the hydrogen economy. (author)

  12. Irradiated fuel performance evaluation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Bang, J. G.; Kim, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Alpha version performance code for dual-cooled annular fuel under steady state operation, so called 'DUOS', has been developed applying performance models and proposed methodology. Furthermore, nonlinear finite element module which could be integrated into transient/accident fuel performance code was also developed and evaluated using commercial FE code. The first/second irradiation and PIE test of annular pellet for dual-cooled annular fuel in the world have been completed. In-pile irradiation test DB of annular pellet up to burnup of 10,000 MWd/MTU through the 1st test was established and cracking behavior of annular pellet and swelling rate at low temperature were studied. To do irradiation test of dual-cooled annular fuel under PWR's simulating steady-state conditions, irradiation test rig/rod design/manufacture of mock-up/performance test have been completed through international collaboration program with Halden reactor project. The irradiation test of large grain pellets has been continued from 2002 to 2011 and completed successfully. Burnup of 70,000 MWd/MTU which is the highest burnup among irradiation test pellets in domestic was achieved

  13. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Dual-Photoelectrode Fuel Cell towards Cost-Effective Electricity Production from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fan, Wenjun; Yao, Tingting; Liao, Shichao; Li, Ailong; Li, Deng; Liu, Mingyao; Shi, Jingying; Liao, Shijun; Li, Can

    2017-01-10

    A photo fuel cell (PFC) offers an attractive way to simultaneously convert solar and biomass energy into electricity. Photocatalytic biomass oxidation on a semiconductor photoanode combined with dark electrochemical reduction of oxygen molecules on a metal cathode (usually Pt) in separated compartments is the common configuration for a PFC. Herein, we report a membrane-free PFC based on a dual electrode, including a W-doped BiVO 4 photoanode and polyterthiophene photocathode for solar-stimulated biomass-to-electricity conversion. Air- and water-soluble biomass derivatives can be directly used as reagents. The optimal device yields an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.62 V, a short-circuit current density (J SC ) of 775 μA cm -2 , and a maximum power density (P max ) of 82 μW cm -2 with glucose as the feedstock under tandem illumination, which outperforms dual-photoelectrode PFCs previously reported. Neither costly separating membranes nor Pt-based catalysts are required in the proposed PFC architecture. Our work may inspire rational device designs for cost-effective electricity generation from renewable resources. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Numerical investigation to the dual-fuel spray combustion process in an ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuhan; Hong, Guang; Huang, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 5D PDF table was used to model the dual-fuel turbulence–chemistry interactions. • The cooling effect of ethanol direct injection (EDI) was examined. • The higher flame speed of ethanol in EDI + GPI increased the thermal efficiency. • The partially premixed combustion in EDI + GPI reduced the combustion temperature. • Ethanol’s low evaporation rate in low temperature led to incomplete combustion. - Abstract: Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) is a new technology to make the use of ethanol fuel more effective and efficient in spark ignition engines. Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modelling was conducted on an EDI + GPI engine in both single and dual fuelled conditions. The in-cylinder flow field was solved in the realizable k−ε turbulence model with detailed engine geometry. The temporal and spatial distributions of the liquid and vapour fuels were simulated with the spray breakup and evaporation models. The combustion process was modelled with the partially premixed combustion concept in which both mixture fraction and progress variable were solved. The three-dimensional and five-dimensional presumed Probability Density Function (PDF) look-up tables were used to model the single-fraction-mixture and two-fraction-mixture turbulence–chemistry interactions respectively. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of spray pattern and cylinder pressure. The simulation results showed that the combustion process of EDI + GPI dual-fuelled condition was partially premixed combustion because of the low evaporation rate of ethanol spray in low temperature environment before combustion. Compared with GPI only, the higher flame speed of ethanol fuel contributed to the greater pressure rise rate and maximum cylinder pressure in EDI + GPI condition, which consequently resulted in higher power output and thermal efficiency. The lower adiabatic flame temperature of

  16. A RCCI operational limits assessment in a medium duty compression ignition engine using an adapted compression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; Pastor, José V.; García, Antonio; Boronat, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • RCCI with CR 12.75 reaches up to 80% load fulfilling mechanical limits. • Ultra-low levels in NOx and soot emissions are obtained in the whole engine map. • Ultra-high levels of CO and uHC have been measured overall at low load. • RCCI improves fuel consumption from 25% to 80% engine loads comparing with CDC. - Abstract: Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition concept offers an ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions with a high thermal efficiency. This work investigates the capabilities of this low temperature combustion concept to work on the whole map of a medium duty engine proposing strategies to solve its main challenges. In this sense, an extension to high loads of the concept without exceeding mechanical stress as well as a mitigation of carbon oxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at low load together with a fuel consumption penalty have been identified as main Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition drawbacks. For this purpose, a single cylinder engine derived from commercial four cylinders medium-duty engine with an adapted compression ratio of 12.75 is used. Commercial 95 octane gasoline was used as a low reactivity fuel and commercial diesel as a high reactivity fuel. Thus, the study consists of two different parts. Firstly, the work is focused on the development and evaluation of an engine map trying to achieve the maximum possible load without exceeding a pressure rise rate of 15 bar/CAD. The second part holds on improving fuel consumption and carbon oxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at low load. Results suggest that it is possible to achieve up to 80% of nominal conventional diesel combustion engine load without overpassing the constraints of pressure rise rate (below 15 bar/CAD) and maximum pressure peak (below 190 bar) while obtaining ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. Regarding low load challenges, it has developed a particular methodology sweeping the gasoline-diesel blend together

  17. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J P [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  18. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  19. Performance study of a four-stroke spark ignition engine working with both of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol as supplementary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, M.A.-R.S. [Babylon Univ. (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NO{sub x} emission with increase in the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. The addition of 8 mass% of hydrogen, with 30 vol% of ethyl alcohol into a gasoline engine operating at 9 compression ratio and 1500 rpm causes a 48.5% reduction in CO emission, 31.1% reduction in NO{sub x} emission and 58.5% reduction in specific fuel consumption. Moreover, the engine thermal efficiency and output power increased by 10.1 and 4.72%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both the break power and efficiency. (Author)

  20. 40 CFR 94.108 - Test fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fuels. 94.108 Section 94.108... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.108 Test fuels. (a) Distillate diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines designed to...

  1. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name &apos

  2. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  3. Research on high-temperature compression and creep behavior of porous Cu–Ni–Cr alloy for molten carbonate fuel cell anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of porosity on high temperature compression and creep behavior of porous Cu alloy for the new molten carbonate fuel cell anodes was examined. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate and analyze the details of the microstructure and surface deformation. Compression creep tests were utilized to evaluate the mechanical properties of the alloy at 650 °C. The compression strength, elastic modulus, and yield stress all increased with the decrease in porosity. Under the same creep stress, the materials with higher porosity exhibited inferior creep resistance and higher steadystate creep rate. The creep behavior has been classified in terms of two stages. The first stage relates to grain rearrangement which results from the destruction of large pores by the applied load. In the second stage, small pores are collapsed by a subsequent sintering process under the load. The main deformation mechanism consists in that several deformation bands generate sequentially under the perpendicular loading, and in these deformation bands the pores are deformed by flattering and collapsing sequentially. On the other hand, the shape of a pore has a severe influence on the creep resistance of the material, i.e. every increase of pore size corresponds to a decrease in creep resistance.

  4. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr

    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests...... were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio depended on the equivalence ratio used. A lower equivalence ratio requires a higher compression ratio...... before the fuel is burned completely, due to lower in-cylinder temperatures and lower reaction rates. The study provided some insight in the importance of operating at the correct compression ratio, as well as the operational limitations and emission characteristics of HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion...

  5. Treatment of soak liquor and bioelectricity generation in dual chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Selvi, Adikesavan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Babujanarthanam, Ranganathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-02-08

    The discharge of untreated soak liquor from tannery industry causes severe environmental pollution. This study is characterizing the soak liquor as a substrate in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for remediation along with electricity generation. The dual chamber MFC was constructed and operated. Potassium permanganate was used as cathode solution and carbon felt electrode as anodic and cathodic material, respectively. The soak liquor was characterized by electrochemical studies viz., cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization studies, respectively. The removal percentage of protein, lipid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured before and after treatment with MFC. The results of MFC showed a highest current density of 300 mA/cm 2 and a power density of 92 mW/m 2 . The removal of COD, protein, and lipid were noted as 96, 81, and 97% respectively during MFC process. This MFC can be used in tannery industries for treating soak liquor and simultaneous electricity generation.

  6. Biodiesel production from Cynara cardunculus L. and Brassica carinata A. Braun seeds and their suitability as fuels in compression ignition engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania De Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of energy crops can provide environmental benefits and may represent an opportunity to improve agriculture in areas considered at low productivity. In this work, we studied the energy potential of two species (Brassica carinata A. Braun and Cynara cardunculus L. and their seed oil productivity under different growth conditions. Furthermore, the biodiesel from the oil extracted from the seeds of these species was produced and analysed in term of utilisation as fuels in compression ignition engines. In particular, the spray penetration and shape ratio were measured in a constant-volume chamber and compared with the results obtained with a standard diesel fuel. These results were obtained using a standard common rail injection system at different injection pressure, injection duration, and constant-volume chamber pressure.

  7. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  8. Neutronics optimization of LiPb-He dual-cooled fuel breeding blanket for the fusion-driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the liquid Li 17 Pb 83 and Helium gas dual-cooled Fuel Breeding Blanket (FBB) for the Fusion-Driven sub-critical System (FDS) is presented and analyzed. Taking self-sustaining tritium (TBR > 1.05) and annual output of 100 kg or more fissile 239 Pu (FBR > 0.238) as objective parameters, and based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4A, a neutronics-optimized calculation of different cases was carried out and the concept is proved feasible. In addition, the total breeding ratio (Br = Tbr + Fbr) is listed corresponding to different cases

  9. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  10. Effects of Direct Fuel Injection Strategies on Cycle-by-Cycle Variability in a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Sample Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we summarize and analyze experimental observations of cyclic variability in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion in a single-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was configured with negative valve overlap (NVO to trap residual gases from prior cycles and thus enable auto-ignition in successive cycles. Correlations were developed between different fuel injection strategies and cycle average combustion and work output profiles. Hypothesized physical mechanisms based on these correlations were then compared with trends in cycle-by-cycle predictability as revealed by sample entropy. The results of these comparisons help to clarify how fuel injection strategy can interact with prior cycle effects to affect combustion stability and so contribute to design control methods for HCCI engines.

  11. Performance and heat release analysis of a pilot-ignited natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.R.; Biruduganti, M.; Mo, Y.; Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C. [Alabama Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of engine operating variables on the performance, emissions and heat release in a compression ignition engine operating in normal diesel and dual-fuel modes (with natural gas fuelling) was investigated. Substantial reductions in NO{sub x} emissions were obtained with dual-fuel engine operation. There was a corresponding increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions as the substitution of natural gas was increased. Brake specific energy consumption decreased with natural gas substitution at high loads but increased at low loads. Experimental results at fixed pilot injection timing have also established the importance of intake manifold pressure and temperature in improving dual-fuel performance and emissions at part load. (Author)

  12. Customer loyalty program for the dual-energy clientele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagace, C.

    1997-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec''s plans to provide a dual energy residential heating program, combining a main electric heating system and a fossil fuel back-up system, were described as an example of a customer loyalty program. It provides a portfolio of products and services answering to the different needs of customers. Dual-energy heating systems were first offered in Quebec as far back as the 1980s. Currently there are 115,000 Quebec households making use of this service. Some 35,000 of them have heat pumps and subscribe to Hydro-Quebec''s DT rate which is based on fuel mode usage being determined by exterior temperatures. The dual-energy system permits a peak-saving of some 600 MW, while maintaining electricity sales of 1,000 GWh in off-peak periods. Experiences with this system and some of the important lessons learned, especially in terms of consumer relations, were summarized. 2 refs., 1 tab

  13. Temperature Calculation of Annular Fuel Pellet by Finite Difference Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Sun Ki; Lim, Ik Sung; Song, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    KAERI has started an innovative fuel development project for applying dual-cooled annular fuel to existing PWR reactor. In fuel design, fuel temperature is the most important factor which can affect nuclear fuel integrity and safety. Many models and methodologies, which can calculate temperature distribution in a fuel pellet have been proposed. However, due to the geometrical characteristics and cooling condition differences between existing solid type fuel and dual-cooled annular fuel, current fuel temperature calculation models can not be applied directly. Therefore, the new heat conduction model of fuel pellet was established. In general, fuel pellet temperature is calculated by FDM(Finite Difference Method) or FEM(Finite Element Method), because, temperature dependency of fuel thermal conductivity and spatial dependency heat generation in the pellet due to the self-shielding should be considered. In our study, FDM is adopted due to high exactness and short calculation time.

  14. Emission, efficiency, and influence in a diesel n-butanol dual-injection engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanchun; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-injection combustion for diesel n-butanol dual-fuel is investigated. • Higher EGR rate results in lower NOx and ITE, but higher smoke, HC and CO. • Larger butanol fraction results in lower smoke and ITE, but higher NOx, HC and CO. • Advanced injection can decrease smoke, HC and CO, and increase ITE. • Coupling of butanol fraction, EGR and injection timing makes for a better performance. - Abstract: In this work, a dual-injection combustion mode for diesel n-butanol dual-fuel, combined direct injection (DI) of diesel with port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol, was introduced. Effects of n-butanol fraction, EGR rate and injection timing on this mode were studied on a modified single-cylinder diesel engine at the speed of 1400 r/min and the IMEP of 1.0 MPa. The results indicate that with increased EGR rate, NOx emissions reduce, but smoke emissions increase. As n-butanol fraction is increased, smoke emissions decrease with a small increase in NOx. However, higher HC and CO emissions, higher indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) and lower indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) have to be paid with increased n-butanol fraction, especially at high EGR condition. Advancing diesel injection timing suitably has the capacity of mitigating those costs and further decreasing smoke emissions with a small penalty in NOx emissions. Coupling of large butanol fraction, high EGR rate, and advanced injection suitably contributes to a better balance between emissions and efficiency in the diesel n-butanol dual-injection engine

  15. STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND ENGINE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Sarjito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a case study during the sabatical program at Kingston University London in February 2007. It has been studied by team of motorsport automotive department Kingston University London and it has been elaborated as a final project on Master Program. This study takes into account some of the issues surrounding the debate about alcohol fuels in Motorsport and the wider automotive sector and is primarily concerned to add data where there seems to be little existing research since Motorsport is a secretive business. Motorsport plays an important part in the automotive industry and is a sport enjoyed worldwide. Racing practice is regarded as using the best available resources and technology as it requires optimal performance. The racing arena gives engineers the opportunity to test valuable technological solutions to prove their merits. Therefore, racing is the natural starting point for introducing new technological solutions to the public and could lead to the wholesale conversion to renewable fuels to meet our automotive energy needs. Alcohol has unique properties that make superior in many ways to ordinary gasoline. The higher knock resistance allows for higher compression ratios to be utilized resulting in higher power outputs and thermal efficiency. The efficient use of energy is of growing concern in all spheres of life and the automotive sector needs to be front runner in these efforts.

  16. Certain investigation in a compression ignition engine using rice bran methyl ester fuel blends with ethanol additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study and analysis, the physical properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash, and fire point temperatures of rice bran oil methyl ester were found. The rice bran oil biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification process from pure rice bran oil in the presence of methanol and NaOH. Moreover, property enhancement of rice bran oil methyl ester was also made by adding different additives such as ethanol in various proportions. Rice bran oil methyl ester with 1, 3, and 5% ethanol were analyzed for its fuel properties. The effects of diesel-B20ROME blends with ethanol additive of 1, 3, and 5% on a compression ignition engine were examined considering its emissions. It is found that the increase in biodiesel concentration in the fuel blend influences CO2 and NOx emissions. On the other hand CO and HC emissions are reduced. It is interesting to observe the emission as ethanol-B20ROME blends, reduces CO2 and NOx which are the major contributors to global warming. As the NOx and CO2 can be reduced drastically by the proposed blends, the global warming can be reduced considerably.

  17. Evaluación energética de un sistema de generación de 400 kWe en modo diesel‐gas licuado de petróleo//Energy analysis of a 400 kWe power system operated on dual fuel mode with diesel‐liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos‐A. Forero-Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El constante aumento en los precios de los combustibles impulsó el desarrollo de sistemas energéticos cada vez más eficientes y flexibles, los cuales permitan el uso de distintos tipos de combustibles, tales como el gas licuado de petróleo (GLP. El presente trabajo buscó analizar el comportamiento energético y ambiental que tiene una planta de generación de 400 kWe operada en modo diesel y dual diesel-GLP de pozo. La eficiencia energética total del sistema en el punto de máxima carga fue igual a 39,9 % en modo diesel y 35,1 % con una relación de sustitución del 28,5 % en modo dual. La adición de GLP resultó en una disminución del índice de emisiones de CO2 de 0,76 a 0,71 kgkWh-1. El adecuado comportamiento del sistema genera interesantes oportunidades para la disminución del impacto ambiental causado por los sistemas diesel, la diversificación de la canasta energética y la reducción de costos de generación eléctrica en pozos petroleros.Palabras claves: eficiencia energética, diesel, GLP, modo dual.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe continuous increase of the fuel costs promoted the development of more efficient and flexible power systems, which could use alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. This work aimed to analyze the performance and environmental effect of a 400kWe power system fed with diesel and diesel-LGP on a dual fuel mode. The total electric efficiency of this system at his maximum load was 39,9 % with diesel and 35,1 % at a 28,5 % substitution level on a dual fuel mode. The addition of LPG decreased the CO2 emission index from 0,76 to 0,71 kgkWh-1. The proper behavior of this system on a dual fuel mode mitigated the environmental impact of diesel internal combustion engines, diversified the energy market, and reduced the power generation costs onto petroleum extraction wells.Key words: energy efficiency, diesel, LPG, dual fuel mode.

  18. The influence of the mechanical properties on fuel rod support characteristics – A case study of dual cooled fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Ko, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Spring characterization test and analysis were performed to obtain characteristic curves of modified H-type spring. • Using an actual mechanical property is needed to correctly predict the spring characteristics. • The characteristics during unloading should be used for a spacer grid support design. - Abstract: This paper concerns a finite element analysis for a spacer grid support (spring and dimple) design. An accurate prediction of the support characteristics (contact force vs. deflection) is the most crucial in the design by analysis. It is found that the mechanical properties are the key parameter to simulate the characteristics as close as the experimental results after using three different sets of mechanical property data including the actual tensile test results of the present material for a spacer grid of a dual cooled fuel. Besides, the validity of using the characteristics during unloading process is also discussed incorporating a possible overshoot of the support. The coincidence between the present finite element prediction and experimental results is quite good: less than 3.09% at most

  19. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  20. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  1. Microgeneration of electricity with producer gas in dual fuel mode operation Microgeração de eletricidade com gás de gaseificação num motor gerador dual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the alternatives to meet the increasing of world demand for energy, the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a technological process of biomass energy production of a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas has a low calorific value that can be used in Diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil Diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 7.36 kW (10 HP coupled to an electric generator 5.5 kW. Diesel oil mixed with intake air was injected, as the oil was injected via an injector of the engine (dual mode. The fuel gas was produced in a downdraft gasifier. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through a set of electrical resistances. Diesel oil consumption was measured with a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood decreased Diesel consumption by up to 57%.Dentre as alternativas à crescente demanda energética mundial, o uso da biomassa como fonte de energia é uma das formas mais promissoras, pois contribui para a redução das emissões de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera. A gaseificação é uma tecnologia de transformação energética da biomassa num biocombustível gasoso. O gás de gaseificação é um combustível de baixo poder calorífico que pode ser utilizado em motor ciclo Diesel no modo dual para geração de energia elétrica em comunidades isoladas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a redução no consumo de Diesel num motor gerador, com a utilização de gás da gaseificação da madeira. O motor avaliado foi da marca BRANCO, com injeção direta e potência de 7,36 kW (10 cv acoplado a um gerador elétrico de 5

  2. An experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio on the HCCI auto-ignition process of Primary Reference Fuels in an engine

    OpenAIRE

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the pressure, the heat release and the ignition delays were measured, The inlet temperature was changed from 25 to 70 degrees C and the equivalence ratio from 0.18 to 0.41, while the compression ratio varied from 6 to 13.5. The fuels t...

  3. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  4. Dual-Pump CARS Measurements in the University of Virginia's Dual-Mode Scramjet: Configuration "C"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Danehy, Paul M.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James

    2013-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted at the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility in configuration C of the dual-mode scramjet. This is a continuation of previously published works on configuration A. The scramjet is hydrogen fueled and operated at two equivalence ratios, one representative of the scram mode and the other of the ram mode. Dual-pump CARS was used to acquire the mole fractions of the major species as well as the rotational and vibrational temperatures of N2. Developments in methods and uncertainties in fitting CARS spectra for vibrational temperature are discussed. Mean quantities and the standard deviation of the turbulent fluctuations at multiple planes in the flow path are presented. In the scram case the combustion of fuel is completed before the end of the measurement domain, while for the ram case the measurement domain extends into the region where the flow is accelerating and combustion is almost completed. Higher vibrational than rotational temperature is observed in those parts of the hot combustion plume where there is substantial H2 (and hence chemical reaction) present.

  5. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address rising fuel costs and environmental concerns, many transit agencies across Florida have introduced alternative fuel technologies to their traditional diesel-powered fleets. Fuel types include biodiesel, compressed natural gas,...

  6. QCD as a dual superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariasen, F.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the construction of an effective action describing long-range Yang-Mills theory. This action is motivated by a study of the system of Dyson equations and Ward identities, but cannot (yet) be derived from the underlying quantum theory. The effective action turns out to describe a medium very much like a dual relativistic superconductor; that is, with electric and magnetic fields interchanged. There is a dual Meissner effect, which serves to compress color electric fields into flux tubes, containing quantized units of color electric flux. This produces electric confinement. There is a magnetic condensate, resulting from a spontaneous symmetry breaking analogous to that in the relativistic superconductor, as in the Abelian Higgs model. He gives the motivation leading to the effective action, and describes the quantized electric flux tube solutions. Finally, he mentions briefly some other applications

  7. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  8. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  9. Exploration of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME as fuel in compression ignition engines: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kathirvel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing human population and the corresponding economic development of mankind have caused a relentless surge in the energy demand of the world. The fast diminishing fossil fuel reserves and the overdependence of petroleum based fuels have already prompted the world to look for alternate sources of energy to offset the fuel crisis in the future. Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCOME has proven itself as a viable alternate fuel that can be used in Compression Ignition (CI engines due to its low cost, non-toxicity, biodegradability and renewable nature. It also contributes a minimum amount of net greenhouse gases, such as CO2, SO2 and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the study of the performance, combustion and emission parameters of CI engines using WCOME and to explore the possibility of utilizing WCOME blends with diesel extensively in place of diesel. The production methods used for transesterification play a vital role in the physiochemical properties of the methyl esters produced. Various production intensification technologies such as hydrodynamic cavitation and ultrasonic cavitation were employed to improve the yield of the methyl esters during transesterification. This review includes the study of WCOME from different origins in various types of diesel engines. Most of the studies comply with the decrease in carbon monoxide (CO emissions and the increase in brake thermal efficiency while using WCOME in CI engines. Many researchers reported slight increase in the emissions of oxides of nitrogen. ANN modeling has been widely used to predict the process variables of the diesel engine while using WCOME. The versatility of ANN modeling was proven by the minimum error percentages of the actual and predicted values of the performance and emission characteristics.

  10. CNG: a potential transport fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an alternative transport fuel. Advantages of its use are briefly described. Infra structural requirements, if it is to be used in India are outlined. Applications of CNG as transport fuel for buses and trucks in India are discussed. (P.R.K.). 5 refs

  11. Highly Efficient and Visible Light Responsive Heterojunction Composites as Dual Photoelectrodes for Photocatalytic Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a novel photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC system involving a dual heterojunction photoelectrodes, viz. polyaniline/TiO2 nanotubes (PANI/TiO2 NTs photoanode and CuO/Co3O4 nanorods (CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode, has been designed. Compared to TiO2 NTs electrode of PFC, the present heterojunction design not only enhances the visible light absorption but also offers the higher efficiency in degrading Rhodamine B–a model organic pollutant. The study includes an evaluation of the dual performance of the photoelectrodes as well. Under visible-light irradiation of 3 mW cm−2, the cell composed of the photoanode PANI/TiO2 NTs and CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode forms an interior bias of +0.24 V within the PFC system. This interior bias facilitated the transfer of electrons from the photoanode to photocathode across the external circuit and combined with the holes generated therein along with a simultaneous power production. In this manner, the separation of electron/hole pair was achieved in the photoelectrodes by releasing the holes and electrons of PANI/TiO2 NTs photoanode and CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode, respectively. Using this PFC system, the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous media was achieved to an extent of 68.5% within a reaction duration of a four-hour period besides a simultaneous power generation of 85 μA cm−2.

  12. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through......-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. •The energy...

  13. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  14. Effect Of Compression Ratio On The Performance Of Diesel Engine At Different Loads.

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Reddy G; Nirmal Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Variable compression ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method for improving the automobile engine performance, efficiency, fuel economy with reduced emission. The main feature of the VCR engine is to operate at different compression ratio, by changing the combustion chamber volume, depending on the vehicle performance needs .The need to improve the performance characteristics of the IC Engine has necessitated the present research. Increasing the compression rati...

  15. Understanding Turbulence in Compressing Plasmas and Its Exploitation or Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth

    Unprecedented densities and temperatures are now achieved in compressions of plasma, by lasers and by pulsed power, in major experimental facilities. These compressions, carried out at the largest scale at the National Ignition Facility and at the Z Pulsed Power Facility, have important applications, including fusion, X-ray production, and materials research. Several experimental and simulation results suggest that the plasma in some of these compressions is turbulent. In fact, measurements suggest that in certain laboratory plasma compressions the turbulent energy is a dominant energy component. Similarly, turbulence is dominant in some compressing astrophysical plasmas, such as in molecular clouds. Turbulence need not be dominant to be important; even small quantities could greatly influence experiments that are sensitive to mixing of non-fuel into fuel, such as compressions seeking fusion ignition. Despite its important role in major settings, bulk plasma turbulence under compression is insufficiently understood to answer or even to pose some of the most fundamental questions about it. This thesis both identifies and answers key questions in compressing turbulent motion, while providing a description of the behavior of three-dimensional, isotropic, compressions of homogeneous turbulence with a plasma viscosity. This description includes a simple, but successful, new model for the turbulent energy of plasma undergoing compression. The unique features of compressing turbulence with a plasma viscosity are shown, including the sensitivity of the turbulence to plasma ionization, and a "sudden viscous dissipation'' effect which rapidly converts plasma turbulent energy into thermal energy. This thesis then examines turbulence in both laboratory compression experiments and molecular clouds. It importantly shows: the possibility of exploiting turbulence to make fusion or X-ray production more efficient; conditions under which hot-spot turbulence can be prevented; and a

  16. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  17. Experimental investigation of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of biodiesel fuel with external mixture formation in a CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, D; Nagarajan, G; Ganesan, S

    2014-01-01

    In parallel to the interest in renewable fuels, there has also been increased interest in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. HCCI engines are being actively developed because they have the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low emissions. Even though HCCI has been researched extensively, few challenges still exist. These include controlling the combustion at higher loads and the formation of a homogeneous mixture. To obtain better homogeneity, in the present investigation external mixture formation method was adopted, in which the fuel vaporiser was used to achieve excellent HCCI combustion in a single cylinder air-cooled direct injection diesel engine. In continuation of our previous works, in the current study a vaporised jatropha methyl ester (JME) was mixed with air to form a homogeneous mixture and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke to analyze the combustion, emission and performance characteristics. To control the early ignition of JME vapor-air mixture, cooled (30 °C) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technique was adopted. The experimental result shows 81% reduction in NOx and 72% reduction in smoke emission.

  18. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  19. Tracing Supermassive Black Hole Growth with Offset and Dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Julia

    The growth of supermassive black holes is tied to the evolution of their host galaxies, but we are still missing a fundamental understanding of how and when supermassive black holes build up their mass. Black hole mass growth can be traced when the black holes are powered as active galactic nuclei (AGN), and AGN activity can be triggered by the stochastic accretion of gas or by gas inflows driven by galaxy mergers. Galaxy merger simulations make a series of predictions about the AGN that are triggered by mergers: (1) major mergers preferentially trigger higher-luminosity AGN, (2) minor mergers more often trigger AGN activity in one supermassive black hole while major mergers more often trigger AGN activity in both black holes in a merger, and (3) black hole mass growth peaks when the black holes approach the center (theory have been limited by the difficulty in defining a clean observational sample of AGN in galaxy mergers and the observational challenge of spatially resolving two AGN with small (dual AGN as a new observational tool that can be used to address how and when supermassive black hole mass growth occurs. A merger of two galaxies brings two supermassive black holes together, and the two black holes exist at kpc-scale separations for 100 Myr before ultimately merging. While the black holes are at kpc-scale separations, they are known as dual AGN when both of them are fueled as AGN and offset AGN when only one is fueled as an AGN. Since offset and dual AGN only occur in galaxy mergers, by their very definition, they provide a clean observational sample of black hole mass growth in galaxy mergers. The small, kpc-scale separations of offset and dual AGN also enable an observational test of black hole fueling near the centers of merger-remnant galaxies. The full potential of offset and dual AGN for such studies of black hole mass growth has not yet been realized, due to the small number of such systems known. To date, only 13 confirmed offset and dual AGN are

  20. Fuel flexibility in power generation onboard offshore floating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keep, Jeroen van [Waertsilae Corporation, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Power Plants for offshore oil and gas installations utilizing dual fuel (DF) reciprocating engines are by many owners seen as an interesting alternative to conventional solutions due to the apparent advantages in fuel flexibility, fuel efficiency and lower emission. The paper summarizes the dual fuel technology, typical solutions for FPSO's and operational. Items that are discussed: DF operation and how it works; fuel flexibility, including transfer between fuel modes; fuel efficiency, also in production an important cost saver; emissions of the different fuel modes; size and weights, constraints; experiences of the P-63 project. With the above it is safe to conclude that the DF-technology is mature with important benefits for the offshore production market in certain specific applications, most notably the FPSO's for fields in low gas to oil ratios, bringing important fuel cost savings and also for new-built F-LNG/FSO/FPSO's where the power plant can be accommodated below decks, freeing up valuable deck space for the process plant. (author)

  1. Effect of compression ratio, equivalence ratio and engine speed on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, M.A.R. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    The present energy situation has stimulated active research interest in non-petroleum and non-polluting fuels, particularly for transportation, power generation, and agricultural sectors. Researchers have found that hydrogen presents the best and an unprecedented solution to the energy crises and pollution problems, due to its superior combustion qualities and availability. This paper discusses analytically and provides data on the effect of compression ratio, equivalence ratio and engine speed on the engine performance, emissions and pre-ignition limits of a spark ignition engine operating on hydrogen fuel. These data are important in order to understand the interaction between engine performance and emission parameters, which will help engine designers when designing for hydrogen. (author)

  2. Environmental impact of alternative fuel on Tehran air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebtekar, T.

    1995-01-01

    Seventy percent of the air pollution in the city of Tehran stems from mobile sources, and in comparison with other major cities of the world, Iran's capital experiences one of the most polluted metropolitan areas. There exists a surplus of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the Persian Gulf and Iranian market, in addition, Iran possesses the second largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. These alternative energy resources create a favorable potential fuel for city of Tehran. Experiments carried out in Tehran indicate that in converting the taxis from gasoline to a dual fuel (LPG/gasoline) car or to a dual fuel natural gas vehicle (NGV) reduce all major pollutants (CO, HC, NOX, Pb) substantially. Following the author's recommendation, the number of LPG dispensing units in gas stations are increasing and the number of dual fuel taxis amount to several thousands in the metropolitan area. The conversion of diesel buses in the Tehran Public Transportation Corporation to natural gas (NGV) has been recommended by the author and vast experimental works are underway at the present time

  3. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Schluns, Kyle; Greene, Jenny E.; Cool, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6 -1.9 % to 18 +5 -5 %). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9 +3 -2 % to 29 -19 +26 %). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs

  4. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled wth petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Education

    2007-04-15

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO{sub x} increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO{sub x} and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. (author)

  5. Economic evaluation of dual purpose desalination plants by fuel type in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung-Su, Kim; Man-Ki, Lee

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent rapid increase in the fossil fuel prices it is meaningful to evaluate the impact of these price changes in the economics of dual-purpose desalination projects producing electricity and fresh water simultaneously. The price of crude oil and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased by about 200% and 100% during the past three or four years. The uranium price has also increased by nearly 500% during the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is being developed as a small size PWR type and the LNG Combine Cycle coupled with MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) which are being acknowledged as promising energy sources for the future in Korea. The methods of analysis used in this paper are the lifetime leveled cost method for the power and water cost calculation and the power credit method for the total cost allocation. DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program) developed by IAEA was used to perform an economic comparison between the two dual-purpose desalination projects. From the results of the analysis it is found that the desalination by SMART-MED is much superior to that of LNG CC-MED under the current economic and technical situations. It is also shown that the relative superiority of SMART-MED to LNG CC-MED will be maintained even in case where an increase in the uranium price and the SMART construction cost would reach a maximum in the sensitivity analysis. In the case that the discount rate declines to 5% per year, the relative attractiveness of SMART-MED which is a capital intensive plant will be enhanced when compared to that for a 7% discount rate. In addition to this, it is thought that a nuclear energy source will be favored much more than now in the field of desalination if the regulations for the emission of greenhouse gases are to be strengthened. (authors)

  6. E85 Optimized Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Stanley [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) EcoBoost engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

  7. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  8. Development of compaction technique for spent fuel skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Jung, Jae Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    To increase the utilization of uranium resources contained in the spent fuel, the spent fuel is reused. For this, the spent fuel is dismantled or spent fuel rod is extracted from the spent fuel assembly. When the rod is extracted, the remaining components of spent fuel assembly, so called a NFBC(Non-Fuel Bearing Components), should be compacted for the final disposal. To this end, several companies developed the NFBC compactors. German company, named as GNS has developed the direct compression devices of the NFBCs for the rod consolidation and installed it at the PKA(2) of pilot conditioning plant. B and W (Babcock and Wilcox) in USA adopted cutting method rather than the compression method and developed the special cutting devices of NFBC which can be applied underwater environment. In this study the characteristics of these two methods was investigated, in terms of fabrication cost of devices, maintainability in a high radioactive environment, required power and work volume for operation. Also, the optimal power source is selected by comparing the maximum power versus the work volume for operation. In addition to these, the reduction ratio of the bulk volume is obtained while varying the cutting length of the NFBC through a series of experiments. Based on the results of analysis and experiments, the cutting method after compression is selected as an optimal volume reduction method and its design specification is obtained. 8 refs., 62 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  9. A novel full-field experimental method to measure the local compressibility of gas diffusion media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Li, Yongqiang [Electrochemical Energy Research Lab, GM R and D, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472 (United States); Rock, Jeffrey A. [GM Powertrain, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The gas diffusion medium (GDM) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell needs to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of transporting reactant gases, removing product water, conducting electrons and heat, and providing mechanical support to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Concerning the localized over-compression which may force carbon fibers and other conductive debris into the membrane to cause fuel cell failure by electronically shorting through the membrane, we have developed a novel full-field experimental method to measure the local thickness and compressibility of GDM. Applying a uniform air pressure upon a thin polyimide film bonded on the top surface of the GDM with support from the bottom by a flat metal substrate and measuring the thickness change using the 3-D digital image correlation technique with an out-of-plane displacement resolution less than 0.5 {mu}m, we have determined the local thickness and compressive stress/strain behavior in the GDM. Using the local thickness and compressibility data over an area of 11.2 mm x 11.2 mm, we numerically construct the nominal compressive response of a commercial Toray trademark TGP-H-060 based GDM subjected to compression by flat platens. Good agreement in the nominal stress/strain curves from the numerical construction and direct experimental flat-platen measurement confirms the validity of the methodology proposed in this article. The result shows that a nominal pressure of 1.4 MPa compressed between two flat platens can introduce localized compressive stress concentration of more than 3 MPa in up to 1% of the total area at various locations from several hundred micrometers to 1 mm in diameter. We believe that this full-field experimental method can be useful in GDM material and process development to reduce the local hard spots and help to mitigate the membrane shorting failure in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  10. A novel full-field experimental method to measure the local compressibility of gas diffusion media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Li, Yongqiang; Rock, Jeffrey A.

    The gas diffusion medium (GDM) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell needs to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of transporting reactant gases, removing product water, conducting electrons and heat, and providing mechanical support to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Concerning the localized over-compression which may force carbon fibers and other conductive debris into the membrane to cause fuel cell failure by electronically shorting through the membrane, we have developed a novel full-field experimental method to measure the local thickness and compressibility of GDM. Applying a uniform air pressure upon a thin polyimide film bonded on the top surface of the GDM with support from the bottom by a flat metal substrate and measuring the thickness change using the 3-D digital image correlation technique with an out-of-plane displacement resolution less than 0.5 μm, we have determined the local thickness and compressive stress/strain behavior in the GDM. Using the local thickness and compressibility data over an area of 11.2 mm × 11.2 mm, we numerically construct the nominal compressive response of a commercial Toray™ TGP-H-060 based GDM subjected to compression by flat platens. Good agreement in the nominal stress/strain curves from the numerical construction and direct experimental flat-platen measurement confirms the validity of the methodology proposed in this article. The result shows that a nominal pressure of 1.4 MPa compressed between two flat platens can introduce localized compressive stress concentration of more than 3 MPa in up to 1% of the total area at various locations from several hundred micrometers to 1 mm in diameter. We believe that this full-field experimental method can be useful in GDM material and process development to reduce the local hard spots and help to mitigate the membrane shorting failure in PEM fuel cells.

  11. A Study on Structural Strength of Irradiated Spacer Grid for PWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baek, S. J.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. J. [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A fuel assembly consists of an array of fuel rods, spacer grids, guide thimbles, instrumentation tubes, and top and bottom nozzles. In PWR (Pressurized light Water Reactor) fuel assemblies, the spacer grids support the fuel rods by the friction forces between the fuel rods and springs/dimples. Under irradiation, the spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow, and also bear static and dynamic loads during operation inside the nuclear reactor and transportation for spent fuel storage. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of deformation behavior and the change in structural strength of an irradiated spacer grid.. In the present study, the static compression test of a spacer grid was conducted to investigate the structural strength of the irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. To evaluate the structural strength of an irradiated spacer grid, hot cell tests were carried out at IMEF of KAERI. The fuel assembly was dismantled and the irradiated spacer grid was obtained for the compression test. The apparatus for measuring the compression strength of the irradiated spacer grid was developed and installed successfully in the hot cell.

  12. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  13. Investigating the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy in a natural gas/diesel fueled engine with a pre-chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahi, Mohammad Mahdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Gharehghani, Ayatallah; Mirsalim, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combustion strategy, RCCI with a pre-chamber, is proposed and investigated. • The proposed strategy extends the RCCI operating range to use less intake air temperatures. • The new concept extends the RCCI operating range to use lower portions of the active fuel. • The proposed strategy is sensitive to engine load and is more efficient for high loads. - Abstract: Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept has been proven to be a promising combustion mode for the next generations of internal combustion engines. This strategy is still subject of extensive studies to overcome its operational limitations. In the present work, the effect of using a pre-chamber to extend some operating ranges in a RCCI engine is investigated using coupled multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. To accomplish this, the combustion and flow field in a single cylinder engine with a pre-chamber, working in RCCI mode and fueled with natural gas/diesel are numerically modeled. Experimental data is used to validate the simulation results and then, combustion characteristics and engine emissions in some various operating regions, in terms of initial temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and portions of the two fuels are discussed. The results reveal that the proposed strategy provides the ability to extend the engine operating ranges to use lower intake temperatures, even to 50 K lower for some cases, and also using a larger portion of natural gas instead of diesel fuel. On the other hand, the new strategy could result in incomplete combustion and formation of related emissions in low loads, but for higher engine loads it shows better combustion characteristics.

  14. Fuel integrity project: analysis of light water reactor fuel rods test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, M.; Werle, J.; McCreesh, G.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services and COGEMA LOGISTICS started in the year 2000 a joint project known as FIP (Fuel Integrity Project) with the aim of developing realistic methods by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions could be evaluated. To this end BNFL organised tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel pin samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS took responsibility for evaluating the test results. Interpretation of test results included simple mechanical analysis as well as simulation by Finite Element Analysis. The first tests that were available for analysis were an irradiated 3 point bending commissioning trial and a lateral irradiated hull compression test, both simulating the loading during a 9 m lateral regulatory drop. The bending test span corresponded roughly to a fuel pin intergrid distance. The outcome of the test was a failure starting at about 35 mm lateral deflection and a few percent of total deformation. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS code employing a shell and brick model. The hull lateral compaction test corresponds to a conservative compression by neighbouring pins at the upper end of the fuel pin. In this pin region there are no pellets inside. The cladding broke initially into two and later into four parts, all of which were rather similar. Initial calculations were carried out with LS-DYNA3D models. The models used were optimised in meshing, boundary conditions and material properties. The calculation results compared rather well with the test data, in particular for the detailed ANSYS approach of the 3 point bending test, and allowed good estimations of stresses and deformations under mechanical loading as well as the derivation of material rupture criteria. All this contributed to the development of realistic numerical analysis methods for the evaluation of LWR fuel rod behaviour under both normal and accident transport conditions. This paper describes the results of the 3 point bending

  15. Fuel integrity project: analysis of light water reactor fuel rods test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallongeville, M.; Werle, J. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); McCreesh, G. [BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services and COGEMA LOGISTICS started in the year 2000 a joint project known as FIP (Fuel Integrity Project) with the aim of developing realistic methods by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions could be evaluated. To this end BNFL organised tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel pin samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS took responsibility for evaluating the test results. Interpretation of test results included simple mechanical analysis as well as simulation by Finite Element Analysis. The first tests that were available for analysis were an irradiated 3 point bending commissioning trial and a lateral irradiated hull compression test, both simulating the loading during a 9 m lateral regulatory drop. The bending test span corresponded roughly to a fuel pin intergrid distance. The outcome of the test was a failure starting at about 35 mm lateral deflection and a few percent of total deformation. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS code employing a shell and brick model. The hull lateral compaction test corresponds to a conservative compression by neighbouring pins at the upper end of the fuel pin. In this pin region there are no pellets inside. The cladding broke initially into two and later into four parts, all of which were rather similar. Initial calculations were carried out with LS-DYNA3D models. The models used were optimised in meshing, boundary conditions and material properties. The calculation results compared rather well with the test data, in particular for the detailed ANSYS approach of the 3 point bending test, and allowed good estimations of stresses and deformations under mechanical loading as well as the derivation of material rupture criteria. All this contributed to the development of realistic numerical analysis methods for the evaluation of LWR fuel rod behaviour under both normal and accident transport conditions. This paper describes the results of the 3 point bending

  16. A dual-wavelength tunable laser with superimposed fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Durán-Sánchez, M; Pottiez, O; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2013-01-01

    We report a dual-wavelength tunable fiber laser. The cavity is formed by two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a temperature tunable high-birefringence fiber optical loop mirror (FOLM). FBGs with wavelengths of 1548.5 and 1538.5 nm were printed in the same section of a fiber using two different masks. The superimposed FBGs were placed on a mechanical mount that allows stretch or compression of the FBGs. As a result of the FBG strain both lines are shifted simultaneously. Dual-wavelength generation requires a fine adjustment of the cavity loss for both wavelengths. (paper)

  17. Impact of methanol and CNG fuels on motor-vehicle toxic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, F.; Gabele, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the Environmental Protection Agency investigate the need for reduction of motor vehicle toxic emissions such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic organic matter. Toxic organic emissions can be reduced by utilizing the control technologies employed for regulated THC (NMHC) and CO emissions, and by changing fuel composition. The paper examines emissions associated with the use of methanol and compressed natural gas fuels. Both tailpipe and evaporative emissions are examined at varied ambient temperatures ranging from 20 C to 105 F. Tailpipe emissions are also examined over a variety of driving cycles with average speeds ranging from 7 to 48 mph. Results suggest that an equivalent ambient temperatures and average speeds, motor vehicle toxic emissions are generally reduced with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels relative to those with gasoline, except for formaldehyde emissions, which may be elevated. As with gasoline, tailpipe toxic emissions with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels generally increase when ambient temperature or average speed decreases (the sensitivity to these variables is greater with methanol than with compressed natural gas). Evaporative emissions generally increase when fuel volatility or ambient temperature increases (however, the relative contribution of evaporative sources to the aggregate toxic compound emissions is small)

  18. Fluid flow and fuel-air mixing in a motored two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Stegeman, J.

    1986-01-01

    The implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to obtain numerical solutions to the conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and energy to study the unsteady, multidimensional flow and mixing of fuel and air inside the combustion chambers of a two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine under motored conditions. The effects of the following engine design and operating parameters on fluid flow and fuel-air mixing during the intake and compression cycles were studied: engine speed, angle of gaseous fuel injection during compression cycle, and speed of the fuel leaving fuel injector.

  19. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua, E-mail: lijinhua@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A dual photoelcetrode PFC for converting hazardous organics into electricity. • The PFC possesses high cell performance operating in various model compounds. • Parameters were studied for optimization of the PFC performance. • Significant removal rate of chroma was observed in azo dyes solutions. -- Abstract: Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC{sup 2}) based on TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode and Cu{sub 2}O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO{sub 2}/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.36 10{sup −4} W cm{sup −2} was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8 h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively.

  20. Approaches to Improve Mixing in Compression Ignition Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boot, M.D.

    2010-04-20

    This thesis presents three approaches to suppress soot emissions in compression ignition (CI) engines. First, a fuel chemistry approach is proposed. A particular class of fuels - cyclic oxygenates - is identified which is capable of significantly reducing engine-out soot emissions. By means of experiments in 'closed' and optical engines, as well as on an industrial burner, two possible mechanisms are identified that could account for the observed reduction in soot: a) an extended ignition delay (ID) and b) a longer flame lift-length (FLoL). Further analysis of the available data suggests that both mechanisms are related to the inherently low reactivity of the fuel class in question. These findings are largely in line with data found in literature. In the second approach, it is attempted to reduce soot by adopting an alternative combustion concept: early direct injection premixed charge compression ignition (EDI PCCI). In this concept, fuel is injected relatively early in the compression stroke instead of conventional, close to top-dead-center (TDC), injection schemes. While the goal of soot reduction can indeed be achieved via this approach, an important drawback must be addressed before this concept can be considered practically viable. Due to the fact that combustion chamber temperature and pressure is relatively low early in the compression stroke, fuel impingement against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) often occurs. Consequently, high levels of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), oil dilution and poor efficiency are observed. Several strategies, combining a limited engine modification with dedicated air management and fueling settings, are investigated to tackle this drawback. All of these strategies, and especially their combination, resulted in significantly lower UHC emissions and improved fuel economy. Although UHC emissions are typically a tell-tale sign of wall-wetting, as mentioned earlier, the relation between these two has long been hypothetical

  1. Characterizing Gaseous Fuels for Their Knock Resistance based on the Chemical and Physical Properties of the Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco

    2016-01-01

    A method is described to characterize the effects of changes in the composition of gaseous fuels on engine knock by computing the autoignition process during the compression and burn periods of the engine cycle. To account for the effects of fuel composition on the in-cylinder pressure and

  2. Effectiveness of the neutron-shield nanocomposites for a dual-purpose cask of Bushehr's Water–Water Energetic Reactor (VVER 1000 nuclear-power-plant spent fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezaeian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform dry interim storage and transportation of the spent-fuel assemblies of the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, dual-purpose casks can be utilized. The effectiveness of different neutron-shield materials for the dual-purpose cask was analyzed through a set of calculations carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP code. The dose rate for the dual-purpose cask utilizing the recently developed materials of epoxy/clay/B4C and epoxy/clay/B4C/carbon fiber was less than the allowable radiation level of 2 mSv/h at any point and 0.1 mSv/h at 2 m from the external surface of the cask. By utilization of epoxy/clay/B4C instead of an ethylene glycol/water mixture, the dose rates on the side surface of the cask due to neutron sources and consequent secondary gamma rays will be reduced by 17.5% and 10%, respectively. The overall dose rate in this case will be reduced by 11%.

  3. NRC/UBC fuelling station with intelligent compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dada, A.; Boyd, B.; Law, L.; Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    BOC Canada Ltd. will design, integrate and construct the second fueling station on the Hydrogen Highway. This station will be located at the National Research Council's Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation on the campus of the University of British Columbia. BOC's design will bring together an existing alkaline electrolyser, new compression, storage and dispensing. The station will be designed to serve fuel cell passenger vehicles using 350-bar storage. However, the flexible design concept will allow for many other user needs including the potential for servicing larger vehicles, as well as filling portable storage systems for use at satellite stations. The novel station design also offers the potential to fuel from multiple hydrogen sources. Together with NRC, this fueling station will be used to increase public, consumer and investor awareness of hydrogen technologies. Design and construction of this facility will assist in the development of industry codes and standards and familiarize authorities having jurisdiction with hydrogen fueling. The system concept offers the utmost attention to safety, novelty and flexibility. (author)

  4. Experimental study of the effects of natural gas injection timing on the combustion performance and emissions of a turbocharged common rail dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xing; Xi, Chengxun; Liu, Yifu; Zeng, Ke; Lai, Ming-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas injection timing has obvious effects on combustion of dual-fuel engine. • Combustion performance is improved with optimized natural gas injection timing. • BSHC and BSCO decreased with retarded natural gas injection timing at low load. • BSNO x increased at part load while reduced at high load with delay N.G. injection. • PM is very low and insensitive to the variation of natural gas injection timing. - Abstract: Natural gas combustion with pilot ignition has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to utilize natural gas in existing diesel engine without serious engine modification and it has been widely researched all over the world. In this study, three experiments of different loads (BMEP 0.240 MPa, 0.480 MPa and 0.767 MPa) were performed on a 2.8 L four-cylinder, natural gas manifold injection dual-fuel engine to investigate the effects of natural gas injection timing on engine combustion performance and emissions. The pilot injection parameters (pilot injection timing and pressure) and natural gas injection pressure remain constant at a speed of 1600 rpm in the experiment. The cylinder pressure, HRR, CoV imep , flame development duration, CA50 and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The results indicated that under low and part engine loads, the flame development duration and CA50 can be reduced by properly retarding natural gas injection timing, while the CoV imep increased with retarded natural gas injection timing. As a result, the brake thermal efficiency is increased and the combustion stability slightly deteriorates. Meanwhile, under low and part engine loads, PM emissions in the dual-fuel engine is much lower than that in conventional diesel engines, furthermore, at high load, the PM emissions are near zero. CO and HC emissions are reduced with retarded natural gas injection timing under low and part loads, however, NO x emissions are slightly increased. Under high load, the flame development duration

  5. Possible use of dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future storage of spent nuclear fuel from IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, L.; Baltiyski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the present paper is related to one of the priority goals stipulated in Bulgarian Governmental Decision No.332 from May 17, 1999 - removal of SNF from IRT-Sofia site and its exporting for reprocessing and/or for temporary storage at Kozloduy NPP site. The variant of using dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future temporary storage of SNF from IRT-Sofia aims to find out a reasonable alternative of the existing till now variant for temporary SNF storage under water in the existing Kozloduy NPP Spent Fuel Storage Facility until its export for reprocessing. Results: Based on the given data for the condition of 73 Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies (SNFA) stored in the storage pool and technical data as well as data for available equipment and IRT-Sofia layout the following framework are specified: draft technical features of dual purpose dry storage casks and their overall dimensions; the suitability of the available equipment for safety and reliable performance of transportation and handling operations of assemblies from storage pool to dual purpose dry storage casks; the necessity of new equipment for performance of the above mentioned operations; Assemblies' transportation and handling operations are described; requirements to and conditions for future safety and reliable storage of SNFA loaded casks are determined. When selecting the technical solutions for safety assurance during performance of site handling operations of IRT-Sofia and for description of the exemplary casks the Effective Bulgarian Regulations are considered. The experience of other countries in performance of transfer and transportation of SNFA from such types of research reactors is taken into account. Also, Kozloduy NPP experience in SNF handling operations is taken into account. Conclusions: The Decision of Council of Minister for refurbishment of research reactor into a low power one and its future utilization for experimental and training

  6. The Miller cycle effects on improvement of fuel economy in a highly boosted, high compression ratio, direct-injection gasoline engine: EIVC vs. LIVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng; Chen, Ziqian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • At high load, LIVC is superior over EIVC in improving fuel economy. • The improvement with LIVC is due to advanced combustion phasing and increased pumping work. • At low load, EIVC is better than LIVC in improving fuel economy. • Pumping loss with EIVC is smaller than with LIVC at low load. • But heat release rate with EIVC is slower than with LIVC. - Abstract: A combination of downsizing, highly boosting and direct injection (DI) is an effective way to improve fuel economy of gasoline engines without the penalties of reduced torque or power output. At high loads, however, knock problem becomes severer when increasing the intake boosting. As a compromise, geometric compression ratio (CR) is usually reduced to mitigate knock, and the improvement of fuel economy is discounted. Application of Miller cycle, which can be realized by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC), has the potential to reduce the effective CR and suppress knock. In this paper, the effects of EIVC and LIVC on the fuel economy of a boosted DI gasoline production engine reformed with a geometric CR of 12.0 are experimentally compared at low and high loads. Compared to the original production engine with CR 9.3, at the high load operation, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is improved by 4.7% with CR12.0 and LIVC, while the effect of EIVC on improving BSFC is negligibly small. At the low load operation, combined with CR12.0, LIVC and EIVC improve the fuel economy by 6.8% and 7.4%, respectively, compared to the production engine. The mechanism behind the effects of LIVC and EIVC on improving the fuel economy is discussed. These results will be a valuable reference for engine designers and researchers

  7. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  9. Conventional transport fuels quality and ATF : recent Asian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbiens, R. [Consultec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The experience gained in Manila, Philippines, with regard to transport fuels, was discussed during this presentation. It is estimated that 70 to 80 per cent of air pollution in the city of Manila is generated by vehicular traffic. Diesel-fueled vehicles operate all hours of the day, and motorized tricycles powered by a two-stroke engine, are cause for concern for local authorities. Several factors play a role in the problems experienced: vehicle ownership, poor air, congestion and noise in urban areas, poor transport infrastructure, coupled with policy problems such as fuel and vehicle quality standards, poor monitoring, ancient technologies, etc. The motorization of cities was examined, and special emphasis was places on the situation in Asia. The situation in China was looked at, where approximately 15 million automobiles are in use, with an annual increase of 11 to 13 per cent. The air pollution caused by motor vehicles in China was discussed, and new vehicle emission standards for China were presented. The issue of fuel injection systems for motorcycles in China was discussed, and the author mentioned that cost and reliability problems require further improvement. The use of compressed natural gas vehicles in Beijing was looked at, and some of the barriers are lack of public awareness, capital shortages, high price of natural gas, and shortage of advanced technologies. A feasibility study for the introduction of compressed natural gas vehicles in Beijing was conducted and the main findings presented. Public transport management in Hong Kong was reviewed, including the use of alternative environmentally friendly vehicles and fuel. A look at India, and specifically Delhi, was presented. The norms concerning vehicle emissions in India were briefly reviewed, followed by fuel quality improvements, and compressed natural gas vehicles. The author then discussed alternative fuels in Korea and the country's compressed natural gas bus promotion policy. The next

  10. Dual-phase ULCB steels thermomechanically processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.

    2001-01-01

    The design philosophy of the processing of dual-phase (D-P) ultra low carbon steels (ULCB) by thermomechanical treatment has been briefly discussed. Modelling of the structure evolution during thermomechanical rolling of ULCB steel was based upon the established empirical equations for yield flow at different conditions of: deformation temperatures, strain rates and stresses for applied amount of deformation during hot deformation compression tests. The critical amount of deformation needed for the occurrence of dynamic or static recrystallization was determined. The dependence of grain refinement of the acicular bainitic and polygonal ferrite of the accelerated cooling and amount of stored energy of deformation in steel has been evaluated. Effect of the decreasing of the finishing temperature of thermomechanical processing on the increase of the impact toughness of dual-phase microstructure consisted of the bainitie-martensite islands in the ferrite matrix has been shown. The effect of ageing process after thermomechanical rolling of heavy plates on fracture toughness values of J 0.2 for ULCB-Ni steels has been established from cod tests measurements. New low cost technology of rolling of ULCB steels dual-phase is proposed. (author)

  11. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  12. Analytical model for super-compression of multi-structured pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, T.; Niu, K.

    1975-09-01

    We present a one-dimensional analytical model which can be applied to the super-compression of the multistructured pellet. The main result shows that the time dependence of the input power E for the optimal compression is given by E proportional to (1 - t/tsub(s))sup(-3(G+1)/2G) where G=(rho 1 /rho 2 )sup(1/4), rho 1 and rho 2 are the densities of the D-T fuel and the high Z material respectively, and tsub(s) if the characteristic time interval. (auth.)

  13. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, E.

    1984-06-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF INCREASE THE COMPRESSION RATIO ON PERFORMANCE OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan PARLAK

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimisation of the Diesel cycle has been performed for power output and thermal efficiency with respect to compression ratio for various extreme temperature ratio. The relation between compression ratio and extreme temperature ratio, which gives optimum performance is derived. As the compression ratio of the diesel engine is increased in comparison to the optimum value of the engine, it is shown that the performance of the engine is decreased. The experimental study agrees with these results. In this study, compression ratio of a single cylinder pre-combustion chamber variable compression ratio Ricardo E6 type engine with the optimum compression ratio of 18.20 was increased to 19.60. As a results of this increase, specific fuel consumption was increased about 8 % and brake thermal efficiency was decreased about 7.5 %.

  15. Effect of fuel oxygen on the energetic and exergetic efficiency of a compression ignition engine fuelled separately with palm and karanja biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Jibanananda; Misra, Rahul Dev

    2014-01-01

    Exergy analysis of any thermodynamic system can take care of the limitations of energy analysis such as irreversible losses, their magnitude and the source of thermodynamic inefficiencies apart from energy losses. In the present study, both the analyses along with heat release analysis are conducted on a natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled separately with palm biodiesel (PB), karanja biodiesel (KB), and petrodiesel (PD) using the experimental data. Since the engine performs best at about 85% loading condition, the energetic and exergetic performance parameters of the engine are evaluated at 85% loading condition for each type of fuel. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of fuel oxygen on energy and exergy efficiencies of a CI (compression ignition) engine. Various exergy losses, exergy destruction and their ratios associated with the heat transfer through cooling water, radiation, exhaust gas, friction, and some uncounted exergy destruction are investigated. Apart from exergy loss due to heat transfer; the uncounted exergy destruction (due to combustion) also plays a major role in the system inefficiency. Based on the comparative assessment of the obtained results, it is concluded that a better combustion with less irreversibility is possible with the increase in O 2 content in the fuel. - Highlights: • Efficiency of a CI engine increases with the increase in oxygen quantity in the fuel. • Irreversibility of a CI engine decreases with increase in oxygen content in the fuel. • Palm biodiesel performs better than karanja biodiesel and petrodiesel for a CI engine

  16. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included

  17. Preliminary engineering design and cost of Advanced Compressed-Air Storage (ACAS) A-5 hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowicz, E. J.; Blackman, J.; Woodhull, A. S.; Zaugg, P.

    1981-08-01

    The advanced compressed air energy (ACAS) plant investiated operates on a partial adiabatic, partial fuel fired cycle. Only a limited advancement in state-of-the-art technology is projected for this hybrid arrangement. The A-5 hybrid systems stores the heat of compression from the low pressure and intermediate pressure compressors in a thermal energy store (TES). The heat collected in the TES is available for preheating the air from the storage cavern prior to its entering the low pressure turbine combustor. This reduces the amount of fuel consumed during power generation. The fuel heat rate for the hybrid cycle is 2660 Btu/kWh as compared to approximately 4000 Btu/kWh for a conventional CAES plant. A virtual stand-off between the hybrid plant and a conventional CAES plant at 235 mills/kWh in 1990 dollars is shown. With a lower cost and increased fuel cost projections, the hybrid system operating cost is less than that for a conventional CAES plant.

  18. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Minamino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+-protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration.

  19. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Hara, Noritaka; Aldridge, Phillip D; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+-protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF) in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration.

  20. A New Concept of Dual Fuelled SI Engines Run on Gasoline and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Zdzisław

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses tests results of dual-fuel spark ignition engine with multipoint injection of alcohol and gasoline, injected in area of inlet valve. Fuelling of the engine was accomplished via prototype inlet system comprising duplex injectors controlled electronically. Implemented system enables feeding of the engine with gasoline only or alcohol only, and simultaneous combustion of a mixture of the both fuels with any fraction of alcohol. The tests were performed on four cylinders, spark ignition engine of Fiat 1100 MPI type. The paper presents comparative results of dual-fuel engine test when the engine runs on changing fraction of methyl alcohol. The tests have demonstrated an advantageous effect of alcohol additive on efficiency and TCH and NOx emission of the engine, especially in case of bigger shares of the alcohol and higher engine loads.

  1. Fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shinji; Kajiwara, Koichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the safety for the fuel rod failures by adapting plenum springs to function when small forces such as during transportation of fuel rods is exerted and not to function the resilient force when a relatively great force is exerted. Constitution: Between an upper end plug and a plenum spring in a fuel rod, is disposed an insertion member to the lower portion of which is mounted a pin. This pin is kept upright and causes the plenum spring to function resiliently to the pellets against the loads due to accelerations and mechanical vibrations exerted during transportation of the fuel rods. While on the other hand, if a compression force of a relatively high level is exerted to the plenum spring during reactor operation, the pin of the insertion member is buckled and the insertion member is inserted to the inside of the plenum spring, whereby the pellets are allowed to expand freely and the failures in the fuel elements can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. An experimental and numerical analysis of the HCCI auto-ignition process of primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel in an engine, varying the engine parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France); Gilbert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France)

    2008-11-15

    For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice of the fuel is crucial. For this purpose, this paper presents an auto-ignition investigation concerning the primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel, in order to study the effect of linear alkanes, branched alkanes and aromatics on the auto-ignition. The auto-ignition of these fuels has been studied at inlet temperatures from 25 to 120 C, at equivalence ratios from 0.18 to 0.53 and at compression ratios from 6 to 13.5, in order to extend the range of investigation and to assess the usability of these parameters to control the auto-ignition. It appeared that both iso-octane and toluene delayed the ignition with respect to n-heptane, while toluene has the strongest effect. This means that aromatics have higher inhibiting effects than branched alkanes. In an increasing order, the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio had a promoting effect on the ignition delays. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. (author)

  3. Nuclear reactor fuel element containing an end piece for maintaining the column of fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajot, Jacques; Rabellino, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear reactor fuel element described has an end piece for maintaining the column of fuel pellets in position inside the element cladding. This end piece has a central compression spring one end of which presses against the pellets and the other against a plug shaped piece fitted with a seat for the spring, a conical piece with an elastic ring around it diverging towards the end in contact with the spring and a head at the opposite end. The connection between the compression spring and the pellets is through an application piece. A central bore provided in the end piece helps balance the pressure inside the element. This element is particularly intended for liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactors [fr

  4. Microbial fuel cell: A green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Muhamad Lebai Juri; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Leo Kwee Wah; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) was developed which was able to generate bio energy continuously while consuming wastewater containing organic matters. Even though the bio energy generated is not as high as hydrogen fuel cell, the MFC demonstrated great potential in bio-treating wastewater while using it as fuel source. Thus far, the dual-ability of the MFC to generate bio energy and bio-treating organic wastewater has been examined successfully using synthetic acetate and POME wastewaters. (author)

  5. Assessment of microalgae biodiesel fuels using a fuel property estimation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, Jonas Colen Ladeia; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho; Mariano, Andre Bellin [Center for Research and Development of Sustainable Energy. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Recently, depleting supplies of petroleum and the concerns about global warming are drawing attention to alternative sources of energy. In this context, advanced biofuels, derived from non edible superior plants and microorganisms, are presented as promising options for the transportation sector. Biodiesel, which is the most prominent alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, have a large number as potential feedstock, such as plants (e.g., soybean, canola, palm) and microorganism (i.e., microalgae, yeast, fungi and bacterium). In order to determine their potential, most studies focus on the economic viability, but few discuss the technical viability of producing high quality fuels from such feedstock. Since the fuel properties depend on the composition of the parent oil, and considering the variability of the fatty acid profile found in these organisms, it is clear that the fuels derived may present undesirable properties, e.g., high viscosity, low cetane number, low oxidative stability and poor cold flow properties. Therefore, it is very important to develop ways of analysing the fuel quality prior to production, specially considering the high cost of producing and testing several varieties of plants and microorganisms. In this aim, this work presents the use of fuel properties estimation methods on the assessment of the density, viscosity, cetane number and cold filter plugging point of several microalgae derived biofuels, comparing then to more conventional biodiesel fuels. The information gathered with these methods helps on the selection of species and cultivation parameters, which have a high impact on the derived fuel quality, and have been successfully employed on the Center for Research and Development of Sustainable Energy. The results demonstrate that some species of microalgae have the potential to produce high quality biodiesel if cultivated with optimised conditions, associated with the possibility of obtaining valuable long chain

  6. Robust equivalent consumption-based controllers for a dual-mode diesel parallel HEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio; Venditti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-plug-in dual-mode parallel hybrid architecture. • Cross-validation machine-learning for robust equivalent consumption-based controllers. • Optimal control strategy based on fuel consumption, NOx and battery aging. • Impact of different equivalent consumption definitions on HEV performance. • Correlation between vehicle braking energy and SOC variation in the traction stages. - Abstract: New equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) tools have been developed and applied to identify the optimal control strategy of a dual-mode parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a compression-ignition engine. In this architecture, the electric machine is coupled to the engine through either a single-speed gearbox (torque-coupling) or a planetary gear set (speed-coupling). One of the main novelties of the present study concerns the definition of the instantaneous equivalent consumption (EC) function, which takes into account not only fuel consumption (FC) and the energy flow through the electric components, but also NO_x emissions, battery aging, and the battery SOC. The EC function has been trained using a cross-validation machine-learning technique, based on a genetic algorithm, where the training data set has been selected in order to maximize performances over a testing data set. The adoption of this technique, in conjunction with the new definition of EC, have led to the identification of very robust controllers, which provide an accurate control for different driving scenarios, even when the EC function is not specifically trained on the same missions over which it is tested. To this aim, a data set of fifty driving cycles and six user-defined missions, which cover a total distance of 70–100 km, has been considered as a training driving set. The ECMS controllers can be implemented in a vehicle control unit, and their performance has resulted to be close to that of a dynamic programming tool, which has here been used as benchmark

  7. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

  8. Application of Dimethyl Ether in Compression Ignition Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene

    -Marathon. The diesel engine test results from 1995 showed that DME is a superb diesel fuel. DME is easy to ignite by compression ignition and it has a molecular structure that results in near-zero emission of particulates when burned. These are features of a fuel that are highly desirable in a diesel engine....... The challenges with DME as a diesel engine fuel are mainly related to poor