WorldWideScience

Sample records for dual fotonic bone

  1. Fotonäitus Underist Nõmmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Marie Underi 125. sünniaastapäeva tähistamiseks on Tallinnas Nõmme kultuurikeskuses avatud poetessile pühendatud fotonäitus. Väljapaneku koostas ja kujundas Tio Tepandi. Vt. ka Postimees, 8. sept., lk. 8

  2. Dual-controlled release system of drugs for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Controlled release systems have been noted to allow drugs to enhance their ability for bone regeneration. To this end, various biomaterials have been used as the release carriers of drugs, such as low-molecular-weight drugs, growth factors, and others. The drugs are released from the release carriers in a controlled fashion to maintain their actions for a long time period. Most research has been focused on the controlled release of single drugs to demonstrate the therapeutic feasibility. Controlled release of two combined drugs, so-called dual release systems, are promising and important for tissue regeneration. This is because the tissue regeneration process of bone formation is generally achieved by multiple bioactive molecules, which are produced from cells by other molecules. If two types of bioactive molecules, (i.e., drugs), are supplied in an appropriate fashion, the regeneration process of living bodies will be efficiently promoted. This review focuses on the bone regeneration induced by dual-controlled release of drugs. In this paper, various dual-controlled release systems of drugs aiming at bone regeneration are overviewed explaining the type of drugs and their release materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  4. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-06-02

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments.

  5. Bone infection in patients suspected of complicating osteomyelitis: the diagnostic value of dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thora; Stentzer, Kim; Hede, Adam

    2005-01-01

    : Simultaneous dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphic images were obtained in 42 consecutive patients in whom conventional X-ray, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein were also available. 99mTc MDP bone and 111In labelled granulocyte imaging was obtained simultaneously. The images were...... interpreted as positive for osteomyelitis if regions of interests of pathologic 111In granulocyte accumulation included 99mTc MDP activity on the bone images (except in the spine). RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84, 71 and 79%, respectively, for simultaneous, dual isotope bone......AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with known bone pathology clinically suspected of osteomyelitis, i.e. complicating osteomyelitis, using per-operative bacterial culture from bone as reference. METHODS...

  6. Comparison of dual photon and dual energy X-ray bone densitometers in a clinic setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.A.; Shaffer, S.; Brown, E.B.; Flynn, M.J.; Cody, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Two separate studies were conducted. We evaluated the relationships between results of lumbar spine measurements using two dual photon absorptiometry (DPA1 and DPA2) instruments and one dual energy X-ray (DXA) instrument with the same subject (49 volunteers), and also in 65 patients who were measured on the DPA1 and DXA machines. Second, we measured the lumbar spine and the proximal femur in three groups of 12 female volunteers three times on one instrument within 1 week. We purposely simulated a busy clinic setting with different technologists, older radioactive sources, and a heterogeneous patient group. The comparison study indicated a significant difference between the mean bone density values reported by the machines, but the results were highly correlated (R 2 = 0.89-0.96). This study emphasizes the differences between instruments, the potential for greater error in busy clinic environments, and the apparent superiority of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry under these less than ideal conditions. (orig./GDG)

  7. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.)

  8. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  9. Foton Crosses the High Threshold of Overseas Market--the First 40 Van Arrives at Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 14, 2006, after half year's planning, 40 Foton View Van start the expedition from the headquarter square of Foton Motor.It is believed that it is another achievement of Foton Motor's overseas "strategic market" export. The export is a landmark for Foton Motor. Iran, Russia and India are defined as the 3 major overseas strategic markets for the export thresholds are very high and hard to operate.

  10. Foton Crosses the High Threshold of Overseas Market--the First 40 Van Arrives at Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      On January 14, 2006, after half year's planning, 40 Foton View Van start the expedition from the headquarter square of Foton Motor.It is believed that it is another achievement of Foton Motor's overseas "strategic market" export. The export is a landmark for Foton Motor. Iran, Russia and India are defined as the 3 major overseas strategic markets for the export thresholds are very high and hard to operate.……

  11. Research of age changes of bone tissue of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizhik, V.M.; Kmetyuk, V.M.; Fed'kyiv, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    With the help of a method dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) mineral density bone tissue was defined in view of age, sex and individual features. Is established, that the parameters (DEXA) have precise interrelation with age changes in bone tissue, which aris with osteoporosis and have the certain clinical value

  12. Estimation of bone Calcium-to-Phosphorous mass ratio using dual-energy nonlinear polynomial functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, P; Koukou, V; Martini, N; Nikiforidis, G; Michail, C; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G; Kounadi, E

    2015-01-01

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO 4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors. (paper)

  13. Evaluation of bone mineral density with dual energy quantitative computed tomography (DEQCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Yamada, Naoyuki.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate the precision and accuracy of dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to investigate age-related changes of bone marrow density (BMD) in patients without metabolic disorders. Rapid kilovolt peak switching system, with which SOMATOM DR-H CT is equipped, allows dual energy scanning. KV-separated images and material-separated images were calculated from dual energy scan data. KV-separated data was regarded as single energy QCT. In phantom studies, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solution, water, and ethanol were used to simulate bone mineral, lean soft tissue, and fat, respectively. Values of BMD obtained by dual energy scanning method had an error of 5.5% per 10% increase of fat, as compared with 12% for BMD values obtained by single energy scanning method. However, single energy scanning method had a higher precision than dual energy scanning method in determining BMD. The selection of CT section is considered most important in the clinical determination of BMD. In a study of age-related changes of BMD in the vertebral trabecular and cortical bones in 161 patients, BMD was found to have two peaks for women in their twenties and thirties, and one peak for men in their twenties. Bone marrow density rapidly declined among women aged 50 years or more. These results suggest that the content of fat in the trabecular bone may increase progressively after the age of 40, regardless of sex. (N.K.)

  14. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Muranaka, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    To know bone mineral content of both cortical and spongy bones with aging and pathologic changes, bone mineral density (BMD) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and distal radius (DR) was measured using dual photon absorptiometry and single photon absorptiometry, respectively, in 151 normal subjects (N) and four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). In the N group, BMD in both L3 and DR decreased with aging. This was more noted, and occurred earlier in L3, irrespective of sex, than DR. In three PHP patients manifested as bone type, BMD was high in L3, and low in DR. Such a tendency was not seen in the remaining one patient with stone type PHP. The findings suggest the need to measure BMD in both cortical (L3) and spongy (DR) bones for elucidating bone pathophysiology in metabolic bone disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Bone mineral analysis through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujio, Masashi; Mizorogi, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Itsuko

    2009-01-01

    To determine how to eliminate species difference in animal bone experiment, bone mineral content (BMC) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the femurs of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus), and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Measures were taken on femurs in situ, detached from the body, skinned and defleshed, or dried completely. When the BMC of the bone measured in the intact limb attached to the trunk was set at 100%, the actual BMC of the dry bone was 58.7±11.5% in mice and 103.2±3.2% in rats. Similarly, the bone area (Area) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the dried femur was significantly lower in the mouse femurs than intact limb. Thus, soft limb tissue such as skin and muscle modified the BMC, Area, and BMD only in mouse but not in those from rats or marmosets. The bone mineral ratio (BMR; BMC divided by dry bone weight) was nearest to the human bone value in the rat femurs, whereas the mouse femur BMR was the most different. The BMR was proved to be a practical index in evaluating bone characteristics in laboratory animals, but the mouse femur might not be suitable as an animal model for research into the aging of human bone. (author)

  16. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  17. Clinical evaluation of dual-energy bone removal in CT angiography of the head and neck: comparison with conventional bone-subtraction CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, K.; Liu, C.; Ma, R.; Sun, C.; Wang, X.-M.; Ma, Z.-T.; Sun, X.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the bone-subtraction effect of dual-energy bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the head and neck in comparison with conventional bone-subtraction CTA. Material and Methods: The study comprised 52 patients who were divided into two groups at random, and examined using dual-source CT for head and neck CTA. Dual-energy bone removal CTA and conventional bone-subtraction CTA were applied to each of the two groups, respectively. The bone subtraction was performed automatically in both methods. Vascular structures, as well as brain tissue remained visible. The subtracted images were further processed with maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume-rendering technique (VRT) for image evaluation. Two experienced radiologists reviewed the resulting subtracted and non-subtracted volume data with respect to the delineation and detection of image quality and vascular pathology. Results: The means of the weighted CT dose index (CTDIvol) for bone-removal dual-energy CTA and conventional bone-subtraction CTA were 20.56 ± 0.01 mGy and 25.57 ± 0.56 mGy, respectively. There was a significant difference between them. The percentage of carotid and vertebral arteries and all other vessels that could be successfully assessed with these two methods were 87.8, 68, and 83%, and 93.5, 91.8, and 92.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the visualization of the carotid arteries; however, there were significant differences in the visualization of the vertebral arteries. Conclusion: Compared with conventional bone-subtraction CTA, dual-energy bone-removal CTA had a lower radiation dose. It eliminated most bones in the head and neck successfully; however, the bone subtraction effect around the vertebral artery was unsatisfactory. Dual-energy bone-removal CTA provides a new method for detecting vascular diseases in routine clinical work.

  18. Investigation of a dual modal method for bone pathologies using quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disease that has a catastrophic impact on patient's lives and overwhelming related healthcare costs. In recent works, we have developed a multi-spectral, frequency domain photoacoustic method for the evaluation of bone pathologies. This method has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it provides both molecular information from the bone absorption spectrum and bone mechanical status from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. These characteristics include both the Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasonic Attenuation (BUA). To test the method's quantitative predictions, we have constructed a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic setup. Here, we experimentally present a dual modality system, and compares between the methods on bone samples in-vitro. The differences between the two modalities are shown to provide valuable insight into the bone structure and functional status.

  19. Accuracy of dual photon absorptiometry for assessment of bone mineral and body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Manabu; Iwamura, Akira; Goto, Eisuke; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji; Soshi, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    Accuracy of bone mineral measurement by the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was studied in comparison to ashed bone mineral (ash) on the lumbar spine of 23 cada vars. There was a high correlation (r=0.896) between the value of DPA and ash weight. Bone mineral content in the radius by the single photon absorptiometry (SPA) did not correlate to bone mineral density (BMD) by DPA in the patients with hemodialysis. SPA may be less useful to assess BMD of the whole body. Fat mass and lean mass measured by DPA were well correlated to the value obtained by the electrical impedance method. Precision in measurement of fat mass and lean mass was also confirmed by the electrical impedance method. These results suggest that DPA has a high precision for measurements of the bone mineral and the body composition. (author)

  20. Comparative analysis of bone mineral contents with dual-energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T. J.; Yoon, S. M.; Kim, O. B.; Lee, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The Dual-Energy Quantitative Computed Tomography(DEQCT) was compared with bone equivalent K 2 HPO 4 standard solution and ash weight of animal cadaveric trabecular bone in the measurement of bone mineral contents(BMC). The attenuation coefficient of tissues highly depends on the radiation energy, density and effective atomic number of composition. The bone mineral content of DEQCT in this experiments was determined from empirical constants and mass attenuation coefficients of bone, fat and soft tissue equivalent solution in two photon spectra. In this experiments, the BMC of DEQCT with 80 and 120kV p X rays was compared to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. We obtained the mass attenuation coefficient of 0.2409, 0.5608 and 0.2206 in 80kV p , and 0.2046, 0.3273 and 0.1971 cm 2 /g in 120kV p X-ray spectra for water, bone and fat equivalent materials, respectively. The BMC with DEQCT was accomplished with empirical constants K 1 =0.3232, K 2 =0.2450 and mass attenuation coefficients has very closed to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. The BMC of empirical DEQCT and that of manufacturing DEQCT were correlated with ash weight as a correlation r=0.998 and r=0.996, respectively. The BMC of empirical DEQCT using the experimental mass attenuation coefficients and that of manufacture have showed very close to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. (author)

  1. Dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the BMP2 gene enhance bone formation in a critical-sized defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo; Seol, Yang-Jo

    2013-11-01

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.

  2. Do dual-thread orthodontic mini-implants improve bone/tissue mechanical retention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang-Sung; Chang, Yau-Zen; Yu, Jian-Hong; Lin, Chun-Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand whether the pitch relationship between micro and macro thread designs with a parametrical relationship in a dual-thread mini-implant can improve primary stability. Three types of mini-implants consisting of single-thread (ST) (0.75 mm pitch in whole length), dual-thread A (DTA) with double-start 0.375 mm pitch, and dual-thread B (DTB) with single-start 0.2 mm pitch in upper 2-mm micro thread region for performing insertion and pull-out testing. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in these specimens in evaluating peri-implant bone defects using a non-contact vision measuring system. The maximum inserted torque (Tmax) in type DTA was found to be the smallest significantly, but corresponding values found no significant difference between ST and DTB. The largest pull-out strength (Fmax) in the DTA mini-implant was found significantly greater than that for the ST mini-implant regardless of implant insertion orientation. Mini-implant engaged the cortical bone well as observed in ST and DTA types. Dual-thread mini-implant with correct micro thread pitch (parametrical relationship with macro thread pitch) in the cortical bone region can improve primary stability and enhanced mechanical retention.

  3. Dual-energy digital radiography for the assessment of bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvanainen, Paeivi S.; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Tervonen, Osmo; Jaemsae, Timo; Nieminen, Miika T. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)), e-mail: paivi.tahvanainen@oulu.fi; Pulkkinen, Pasi (Dept. of Medical Technology, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is usually determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Digital radiography (DR) has enabled the application of dual-energy techniques for separating bone and soft tissue, but it is not clear yet whether BMD information can reliably be obtained using DR. Purpose: To determine the ability of dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR) to predict BMD as determined by DXA. Material and Methods: Reindeer femora (n=15) were imaged in a water bath at a typical clinical imaging voltage of 79 kVp and additionally at 100 kVp on a DR system. BMD was determined in four segmented regions (femoral neck, trochanter, inter-trochanter, Ward's triangle) from these images using the DXA calculation principle. BMD results as determined by DEDR were compared with BMD values as determined by DXA. Results: Significant moderate to high linear correlations (0.66-0.76) were observed at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter between BMD values as determined by the two techniques. The coefficient of variation (CVRMS) ranged between 2.2 and 4.7% and 0.2 and 1.8% for DEDR and DXA analyses, respectively. Conclusion: DXA-based BMD information can be obtained with moderate precision and accuracy using DEDR. In future, combining BMD measurements using DEDR with structural and geometrical information available on digital radiographs could enable a more comprehensive assessment of bone . Keywords: BMD, DXA, bone assessment

  4. Three dimensional mapping of strontium in bone by dual energy K-edge subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D M L; Chapman, L D; Carter, Y; Zhouping, W; Wu, Y; Panahifar, A; Duke, M J M; Doschak, M; Britz, H M; Bewer, B

    2012-01-01

    The bones of many terrestrial vertebrates, including humans, are continually altered through an internal process of turnover known as remodeling. This process plays a central role in bone adaptation and disease. The uptake of fluorescent tetracyclines within bone mineral is widely exploited as a means of tracking new tissue formation. While investigation of bone microarchitecture has undergone a dimensional shift from 2D to 3D in recent years, we lack a 3D equivalent to fluorescent labeling. In the current study we demonstrate the ability of synchrotron radiation dual energy K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging to map the 3D distribution of elemental strontium within rat vertebral samples. This approach has great potential for ex vivo analysis of preclinical models and human tissue samples. KES also represents a powerful tool for investigating the pharmokinetics of strontium-based drugs recently approved in many countries around the globe for the treatment of osteoporosis. (paper)

  5. Comparison between femoral bone mineral parameters assessed by QCT and dual X-ray densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Stroemsoee, K.; Alho, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between different femoral bone mineral measures and their agreement with some biomechanical parameters. By means of quantitative CT (QCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measurements were made in different locations of 33 pairs of human femur specimens. There was a principal distinction between bone density as measured by QCT and bone mass as measured by QCT and DXA. Bone mass measured by QCT and the bone mineral content (BMC) measured by DXA are true mass parameters. However, bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by DXA agreed substantially better with the mass measures than with the densities. The mass measures, including the BMD, had good agreements with each other, with a common reference parameter and with the biomechanical parameters. The QCT densities had, on the average, poor agreements with each other, with the other bone mineral measures (including the MBDs), and with the mechanical parameters. The gender differences were less for the QCT densities than for the mass parameters, whereas in this regard the BMDs were intermediate. All measures had approximately similar reproducibilities. (orig.)

  6. Dual-energy CT for detection of traumatic bone bruises in the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Hyun; Sohn, Young Jun; Lee, Chong Ho; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hye Won; Juhng, Seon Kwan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in detecting traumatic bone marrow lesions in patients with acute knee injury. Between August 2011 and June 2012, 22 patients presenting with an acute knee injury, including 4 patients who were referred for bilateral knee trauma, underwent DECT (80 kVp and 140 kVp) and MR imaging. DECT data were postprocessed using a three-dimensional, color-coded, virtual non-calcium technique (VNC). DECT data were graded by 2 blinded independent readers using a four-point system (1 = distinct bone marrow lesion, 2 = less distinct bone marrow lesion, 3 = equivocal, 4 = none) for 6 femoral and tibial regions and 2 patellar regions. Routine MR knee imaging served as the reference standard. MR images showed bone bruises in 81 of 364 regions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of DECT for bone bruises were 65.4%, 98.2%, 91.4%, and 90.8%, respectively, for Reader 1 and 70.3%, 93.6%, 76.0%, and 91.7%, respectively, for Reader 2. In particular, tibial bone bruises could be found more easily with better sensitivity (80.2%). The color-coded VNC technique with reconstructions from the DECT maybe helpful in detecting traumatic bone bruises with moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity compared to MR imaging.

  7. Dual-energy CT for detection of traumatic bone bruises in the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sang Hyun; Sohn, Young Jun; Lee, Chong Ho; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hye Won; Juhng, Seon Kwan [Dept. of Radiology, Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in detecting traumatic bone marrow lesions in patients with acute knee injury. Between August 2011 and June 2012, 22 patients presenting with an acute knee injury, including 4 patients who were referred for bilateral knee trauma, underwent DECT (80 kVp and 140 kVp) and MR imaging. DECT data were postprocessed using a three-dimensional, color-coded, virtual non-calcium technique (VNC). DECT data were graded by 2 blinded independent readers using a four-point system (1 = distinct bone marrow lesion, 2 = less distinct bone marrow lesion, 3 = equivocal, 4 = none) for 6 femoral and tibial regions and 2 patellar regions. Routine MR knee imaging served as the reference standard. MR images showed bone bruises in 81 of 364 regions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of DECT for bone bruises were 65.4%, 98.2%, 91.4%, and 90.8%, respectively, for Reader 1 and 70.3%, 93.6%, 76.0%, and 91.7%, respectively, for Reader 2. In particular, tibial bone bruises could be found more easily with better sensitivity (80.2%). The color-coded VNC technique with reconstructions from the DECT maybe helpful in detecting traumatic bone bruises with moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity compared to MR imaging.

  8. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry predicts bone formation in lower limb callotasis lengthening.

    OpenAIRE

    Maffulli, N.; Cheng, J. C.; Sher, A.; Lam, T. P.

    1997-01-01

    The rate of regenerate bone mineral content (BMC) acceleration was studied using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in callotasis lengthening of the lower limb. Eleven youngsters (age range 5-17 years) undergoing callotasis lengthening for congenital, post-traumatic or post-infective conditions were studied longitudinally. Patients were initially scanned once a week until completion of the lengthening phase, and at 2-week intervals thereafter until removal of the fixator. They were subse...

  9. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  10. Measurement of bone mineral contents in Pakistan by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, R.

    1990-01-01

    Vertebral bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual photon absorptiometry in 144 normal males and 219 females (ages 11-85 years), 118 patients of hyperthyroidism, 7 of chronic renal failure and 5 each of postmenopausal osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism. Generally males had higher BMC than females. Pattern of age related bone gain and diminution was same in both sexes but the rate of bone loss differed significantly, females having higher rate of bone loss. When compared to Western population lower BMC values in our normals were seen. However, rate of bone loss in our population was lower than that reported in the west. BMC values in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure were not significantly different that of age matched normals. The small numbers of cases of post menopausal osteoporosis and hyperpara- thyroidism, tough precluding any generalization, did show lower BMC values. Lower BMC values in our normal population could possibly be explained on racial ground. But in spite of less than ideal dietary status in our normal population in general, the lower rate of bone loss and a lower incidence of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid and chronic renal failure cases can raise the possibility of active vitamin D metabolism component, triggered by utraviolet radiation, having an overall beneficiary effect on the calcium cycle. This calls for a more comprehensive workup. (author)

  11. Quantitation of bone mineral by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA): Evaluation of instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.L.; O'Duffy, A.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitation of bone mineral is used with increasing frequency for clinical studies. This paper details the principle of DPA and present an evaluation of the technique. DPA measurements were performed with a scanning dual photon system constructed at this institution and modeled after the device developed at the University of Wisconsin. The components are a rectilinear scanner frame, 1.5 Ci Gd-153 source, NaI(TL) detector and a PDP 11/03 computer. Dual discriminator windows are set on the 44 and 100 keV photon energies of Gd-153. Instrument linearity, accuracy and reproducibility were evaluated with ashed bone standards and simulated tissue covering. In these experiments computed and actual bone mineral have a correlation coefficient of 1.0 and a SEE of approximately 1.0% (Linear regression analysis). Precision and accuracy of a standard were studied over a period of two years. Mean error between actual and measured bone mineral was 0.28%. In vivo precision in six subjects averaged 2.3% (CV) for lumbar spine measurements. The effect of soft tissue compositional change was studied with ashed bone standards and human cadaver spine specimens. Intraosseous fat changes of 50% produced an average bone mineral measurement error of 1.4%. A 20% change in fat thickness produced a 2.5% error. In situ and in vitro scans of 9 cadaver spines were performed to study the effect of extraosseous fat. The mean percent difference between the two measurements was 0.7% (SEE=3.2%)

  12. Foton-M3 Unmanned Russian Research Satellite- Development, Implementation and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene A.; Skidmore, Michael G.

    2008-06-01

    The Foton-M3 spacecraft launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan) on 14 September 2007 and landed 12 days later approximately 130 km south of Kustanay, Northern Kazakhstan. Following the successful National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Institute for Biomedical Problems (IMBP) collaboration on the Russian Foton-M2 spaceflight (June 2005), IMBP invited NASA to continue and broaden its participation in four Russian biomedical studies on the Foton-M3 spaceflight. Where the Foton-M2 collaboration had been accomplished without an exchange of funds, the basis for the ongoing bilateral interaction on Foton-M3 was both a cooperative Space Act Agreement and a NASA contract with IMBP. As in Foton-M2, NASA scientists agreed to focus their efforts on research that would be complementary and would facilitate the accomplishment of the original Russian science goals. Foton-M3 hardware enhancements included NASA inserts installed in the IMBP flight hardware to provide programmable in-flight video recording for newts and geckos, drinking water for the geckos, and a preflight "shower" of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for the newts.

  13. Fundamental evaluation of bone densitometry using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu (Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamaho (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-02-01

    A newly developed instrument based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Hologic QDR-1000, was evaluated fundamentally and clinically. Image quality was quite satisfactory though radiation exposure was minimal, 780.2 nC/kg (3.024 mR) for lumbar measurement. Reproducibility of the repeated measurement of a phantom was fairly good; 0.343 CV% in a same day and 0.520 CV% in a long period. Accuracy determined by measurement of potassium phosphate solution was also satisfactory. Bone mineral densities measured by this instrument were fairly correlated with those measured by single energy quantitative CT; coefficient was 0.740 for 17 patients. Mix-DP plates of more than 10 cm thick overestimated the bone mineral densities of a phantom. Bone mineral densities of Japanese normal volunteers were in the normal range (mean {plus minus} 2SD) of the Americans though mostly lower than the mean. In patients with spondylosis deformans or prominent aortic calcification, bone mineral densities might be overestimated. Lateral view was obtainable though its reproducibility was not good. Positioning especially for measuring femoral neck was quite critical for reproducible measurement. In conclusion, this new instrument is quite accurate and satisfactory for clinical application to measuring bone mineral densities. (author).

  14. Fundamental evaluation of bone densitometry using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed instrument based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Hologic QDR-1000, was evaluated fundamentally and clinically. Image quality was quite satisfactory though radiation exposure was minimal, 780.2 nC/kg (3.024 mR) for lumbar measurement. Reproducibility of the repeated measurement of a phantom was fairly good; 0.343 CV% in a same day and 0.520 CV% in a long period. Accuracy determined by measurement of potassium phosphate solution was also satisfactory. Bone mineral densities measured by this instrument were fairly correlated with those measured by single energy quantitative CT; coefficient was 0.740 for 17 patients. Mix-DP plates of more than 10 cm thick overestimated the bone mineral densities of a phantom. Bone mineral densities of Japanese normal volunteers were in the normal range (mean ± 2SD) of the Americans though mostly lower than the mean. In patients with spondylosis deformans or prominent aortic calcification, bone mineral densities might be overestimated. Lateral view was obtainable though its reproducibility was not good. Positioning especially for measuring femoral neck was quite critical for reproducible measurement. In conclusion, this new instrument is quite accurate and satisfactory for clinical application to measuring bone mineral densities. (author)

  15. Clinical Utility of Dual-Energy CT Analysis of Bone Marrow Edema in Acute Wrist Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ismail T; Wong, William D; Liang, Teresa; Khosa, Faisal; Mian, Memoona; Jalal, Sabeena; Nicolaou, Savvas

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for assessing carpal fractures and to obtain an attenuation value cutoff (in Hounsfield units) to identify bone marrow edema due to an acute carpal fracture. In this retrospective study, 24 patients who presented with wrist fractures from September 3, 2014, through March 9, 2015, underwent imaging with DECT (80 and 140 kVp). Using the three-material decomposition algorithm specific for virtual noncalcium to construct images, two radiologists identified carpal fractures and associated bone marrow edema. Readers noted the attenuation at areas with and without bone marrow edema. The cutoff value was obtained by ROC analysis and was internally validated on 13 separate patients with suspected wrist fractures. A p edema than in areas without it (p edema associated with acute wrist fractures with 100% sensitivity and 99.5% specificity, compared with visual DECT interpretation. In the 13 validation cases, the cutoff of 5.90 HU identified bone marrow edema with 100% accuracy, compared with visual interpretation. Kappa values were 0.83 between the two readings by reader 1, and 0.73 and 0.96 comparing the two readings of reader 1 with the reading by reader 2. DECT is a useful tool for identifying bone marrow edema in the setting of acute wrist fractures, providing an alternative to MRI. A cutoff value of 5.90 HU can be used for accurate diagnosis and exclusion of carpal fractures.

  16. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD spine ) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC forearm ) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD spine and BMC forearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD spine or BMC forearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC forearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMD spine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD spine or BMC forearm , whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author)

  17. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, Alessandro [National Scientific and Technological Development Council, Ministry of Science and Technology, SEPN 509, Bloco A, Sala 204, 70750-901 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil); Reichmann, Peter [Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Agricultural Science Centre/Londrina State University, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Gamba, Humberto Remigio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Post-Graduate Programme in Electrical Engineering and Applied Computer Science, Av. 7 de setembro 3165, 80230-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-12-07

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s{sup -1}, in steps of 1 mm s{sup -1}, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  18. Dual mode antibacterial activity of ion substituted calcium phosphate nanocarriers for bone infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar eT.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has tremendous potential for the management of infectious diseases caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria, through the development of newer antibacterial materials and efficient modes of antibiotic delivery. Calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics are commonly used as bone substitutes due to their similarity to bone mineral and are widely researched upon for the treatment of bone infections associated with bone loss. CaPs can be used as local antibiotic delivery agents for bone infections and can be substituted with antibacterial ions in their crystal structure to have a wide spectrum, sustained antibacterial activity even against drug resistant bacteria. In the present work, a dual mode antibiotic delivery system with antibacterial ion substituted calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA nanoparticles has been developed. Antibacterial ions such as zinc, silver and strontium have been incorporated into CDHA at concentrations of 6 at. %, 0.25-0.75 at. % and 2.5-7.5 at. % respectively. The samples were found to be phase pure, acicular nanoparticles of length 40-50 nm and width 5-6 nm approximately. The loading and release profile of doxycycline, a commonly used antibiotic, was studied from the nanocarriers. The drug release was studied for five days and the release profile was influenced by the ion concentrations. The release of antibacterial ions was studied over a period of 21 days. The ion substituted CDHA samples were tested for antibacterial efficacy on S.aureus and E.coli by MIC/MBC studies and time-kill assay. AgCDHA and ZnCDHA showed high antibacterial activity against both bacteria while SrCDHA was weakly active against S.aureus. Present study shows that the antibiotic release can provide the initial high antibacterial activity and the sustained ion release can provide a long-term antibacterial activity. Such dual mode antibiotic and antibacterial ion release offers an efficient and potent way to treat an incumbent drug

  19. The clinical determination of absolute density in bone utilizing single and dual energy compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, A.L.; Weaver, J.

    1980-01-01

    Several methods important in the clinical diagnosis of skeletal diseases have been proposed for the determination of bone mass, such as photon absorptiometry, computed tomography, and neutron activation. None of these present methods provides for the determination of the physical density of bone. In the Radiological Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the principles of Compton scattering are being investigated with the intent of determining the electron density and the physical density of human bone. A Compton-scatter densitometer has been constructed for the in vivo density determination of the femoral head. This technique utilizes of collimated low energy gamma source and detector system. The method has been tested in cadavers and in known density samples and has an accuracy of 2 %. A second densitometer has been designed for the in vivo determination of electron density of the vertebrae based upon a new technique which employs dual energy Compton scattering in the spinal column. These systems will be discussed; and the principles of dual energy Compton scatter densitometry will be presented. The importance of these isotope techniques and the feasibility of in vivo density determination in the vertebrae and femoral head will be discussed as they relate to clinical diagnosis and research. (author)

  20. Quantitative assessment of metabolic bone disease in rat models by dual tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Fumishige; Seto, Hikaru

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of radionuclide techniques for early differential diagnosis of metabolic bone disease has been controversial. We tried to develop a new method to distinguish alterations in bone metabolism prior to radiologic changes, measuring 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) and femoral uptake of two radiopharmaceuticals (/sup 47/Ca-chloride, /sup 99m/Tc-MDT). Control normal (C), osteoporosis (P), osteomalacia (M) and steroid-induced osteoporosis (S) were produced in 60 eight-week old Wistar male rats by means of dietary manipulation and steroid administration. Fine detail radiographs of the femurs and bone specimens were obtained over six weeks at two week intervals. Good correlation between WBR and femoral uptake of /sup 47/Ca was noted (r=0.86, p<0.01). WBR ratios of /sup 47/Ca were significantly higher in the M and S groups and were lower in the P group when compared to the C group throughout the study. WBR ratios of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP were significantly higher in the M group and were lower in the S group from the 2nd week. Fine detail radiographs analyzed by microdensitometry revealed significant osteopenia in the S, M and P groups from the 4th week. The dual tracer method was found to distinguish alterations in bone metabolism in the groups examined prior to detectable radiologic changes. (author).

  1. Comparison of Singh index accuracy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density measurement for evaluating osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamat, M. R.; Rostampour, N.; Zofaghari, Sh. J.; Hoseyni-Panah, H.; Javdan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Singh index is an inexpensive simple method to evaluate bone density, commonly used to assess osteoporosis is based on the radiological appearance of the trabecular bone structure of the proximal femur on a plain antero-posterior radiograph. The purpose of this study was to compare between Singh index and bone mineral density measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Materials and Methods: Three orthopedists evaluated radiographs of 72 patients suspected with osteoporosis. The inter-observer agreements of the Singh index were obtained by using kappa statistics. The bone mineral density of proximal femur was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in all patients, and then the bone mineral density results were compared with those of Singh index by using reference radiographic charts of the Singh index method. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density. A Norland XR46 system was used for the investigations. Results: The inter-observer agreement kappa values were 0.01, 0.07 and 0.09 (mean value: 0.05) and the strength of the observer agreements was negligible. The obtained Osteoporosis prevalence among the studied patients was 38.9%. Conclusion: The inter-observer variation was large, there was no any correlation between the Singh index and bone densitometry. So, the index cannot be used; for evaluating and osteoporosis diagnosis, because of its low reliability.

  2. Bone images from dual-energy subtraction chest radiography in the detection of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Lautenschlager, Katrin; Flach, Patricia M; Ott, Daniel; Strautz, Tamara; Vock, Peter; Ruder, Thomas D

    2011-08-01

    To assess the sensitivity and image quality of chest radiography (CXR) with or without dual-energy subtracted (ES) bone images in the detection of rib fractures. In this retrospective study, 39 patients with 204 rib fractures and 24 subjects with no fractures were examined with a single exposure dual-energy subtraction digital radiography system. Three blinded readers first evaluated the non-subtracted posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs alone, and 3 months later they evaluated the non-subtracted images together with the subtracted posteroanterior bone images. The locations of rib fractures were registered with confidence levels on a 3-grade scale. Image quality was rated on a 5-point scale. Marks by readers were compared with fracture localizations in CT as a standard of reference. The sensivity for fracture detection using both methods was very similar (34.3% with standard CXR and 33.5% with ES-CXR, p=0.92). At the patient level, both sensitivity (71.8%) and specificity (92.9%) with or without ES were identical. Diagnostic confidence was not significantly different (2.61 with CXR and 2.75 with ES-CXR, p=0.063). Image quality with ES was rated higher than that on standard CXR (4.08 vs. 3.74, prib fractures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual photon absorptiometry for bone mineral measurements using a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.; Prpic, H.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Camps, J.A.J.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma camera was equipped with a special collimator and arm assembly for bone mineral measurements with dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). The system was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared both with a rectilinear DPA and a dual energy X-ray (DEXA) system. All 3 systems showed a linear response in measurements of 4 vials, containing different amounts of hydroxyapatite. Phantom measurements with the gamma camera system showed a precision of 1.6% to 2.8%. Results obtained in 8 healthy volunteers with rectilinear and gamma camera systems were well correlated (R 2 = 0.78). With the photon beam directed from posterior to anterior, the separation of vertebrae was easy with the gamma camera system. We conclude that bone mineral measurements can be made with a gamma camera for assessment of fracture risk and in the decision process whether a patient needs treatment or not. For follow-up, the precision of DPA with a gamma camera is inadequate. (orig.)

  4. X-ray dual energy spectral parameter optimization for bone Calcium/Phosphorus mass ratio estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, P I; Martini, N D; Koukou, V N; Nikiforidis, G C; Fountos, G P; Michail, C M; Valais, I G; Kandarakis, I S

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) bone mass ratio has been identified as an important, yet underutilized, risk factor in osteoporosis diagnosis. The purpose of this simulation study is to investigate the use of effective or mean mass attenuation coefficient in Ca/P mass ratio estimation with the use of a dual-energy method. The investigation was based on the minimization of the accuracy of Ca/P ratio, with respect to the Coefficient of Variation of the ratio. Different set-ups were examined, based on the K-edge filtering technique and single X-ray exposure. The modified X-ray output was attenuated by various Ca/P mass ratios resulting in nine calibration points, while keeping constant the total bone thickness. The simulated data were obtained considering a photon counting energy discriminating detector. The standard deviation of the residuals was used to compare and evaluate the accuracy between the different dual energy set-ups. The optimum mass attenuation coefficient for the Ca/P mass ratio estimation was the effective coefficient in all the examined set-ups. The variation of the residuals between the different set-ups was not significant. (paper)

  5. [Quantitative image of bone mineral content--dual energy subtraction in a single exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T

    1990-09-25

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiography system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within +/- 4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within +/- 11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of +/- 10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease.

  6. Dual-energy computed tomographic virtual noncalcium algorithm for detection of bone marrow edema in acute fractures: early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Adrian C; Mallinson, Paul I; O'Connell, Timothy; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Krauss, Bernhard; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas; Ouellette, Hugue A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is often used to assess the presence of occult fractures when plain radiographs are equivocal in the acute traumatic setting. While providing increased spatial resolution, conventional computed tomography is limited in the assessment of bone marrow edema, a finding that is readily detectable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Dual-energy CT has recently been shown to demonstrate patterns of bone marrow edema similar to corresponding MRI studies. Dual-energy CT may therefore provide a convenient modality for further characterizing acute bony injury when MRI is not readily available. We report our initial experiences of 4 cases with imaging and clinical correlation.

  7. Bone images from dual-energy subtraction chest radiography in the detection of rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt, E-mail: zsolt.szuecs@insel.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland); Lautenschlager, Katrin, E-mail: katrin@students.unibe.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland); Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: patricia.flach@irm.unibe.ch [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland); Ott, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.ott@insel.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland); Strautz, Tamara, E-mail: tamara.strautz@insel.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland); Vock, Peter, E-mail: peter.vock@insel.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas D., E-mail: thomas.ruder@irm.unibe.ch [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 4, Bern CH-3010 (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and image quality of chest radiography (CXR) with or without dual-energy subtracted (ES) bone images in the detection of rib fractures. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, 39 patients with 204 rib fractures and 24 subjects with no fractures were examined with a single exposure dual-energy subtraction digital radiography system. Three blinded readers first evaluated the non-subtracted posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs alone, and 3 months later they evaluated the non-subtracted images together with the subtracted posteroanterior bone images. The locations of rib fractures were registered with confidence levels on a 3-grade scale. Image quality was rated on a 5-point scale. Marks by readers were compared with fracture localizations in CT as a standard of reference. Results: The sensivity for fracture detection using both methods was very similar (34.3% with standard CXR and 33.5% with ES-CXR, p = 0.92). At the patient level, both sensitivity (71.8%) and specificity (92.9%) with or without ES were identical. Diagnostic confidence was not significantly different (2.61 with CXR and 2.75 with ES-CXR, p = 0.063). Image quality with ES was rated higher than that on standard CXR (4.08 vs. 3.74, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite a better image quality, adding ES bone images to standard radiographs of the chest does not provide better sensitivity or improved diagnostic confidence in the detection of rib fractures.

  8. Quantification of bone mineral density at 3rd lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato

    1987-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD), by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA), at the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L 3 ) was measured in healthy subjects (37 males and 49 females). BMD values on 1 slice of vertebral body (L 3 ), employed as a routine, showed good correlation to the mean BMD values, calculated from multiple slices of whole L 3 . BMD values, by DPA, at L 3 were better correlation to concentrations of bone mineral equivalent material, by quantitative computed tomography, at the trabecular bone of L 3 than to BMD values, by single photon absorptiometry, at distal radius (predominantly cortical bone). Furthermore, by this DPA technique, bone diminution at L 3 with aging was shown in both sexes. These data suggest that measurements of BMD by DPA is greatly useful for evaluating the spinal bone mineral content. (author)

  9. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Vertebral bone mineral measurement using dual photon absorptiometry and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, S.; Isberg, B.; Lindgren, U.; Huddinge Univ. Hospital

    1988-01-01

    The lumbar spine of 14 cadavers was studied both by 153 Gd dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at 96 and 125 kVp. The intact spine and the individual vertebrae were analyzed. After these measurements the ash content of the vertebral body, the posterior elements, and the transverse processes was determined. The fat content of the vertebral body as well as its volume was also measured. With DPA, the bone mineral content (BMC) determined in situ as well as on excised spine specimens correlated highly with the amount of total vertebral ash (r > 0.92, SEE 0.81, SEE 3 ). The so-called corpus density and central density determinations were less accurate. No difference in accuracy was found between measurements when using 3 mm and 4.5 mm step intervals. Variations in the distribution of mineral between the vertebral body and the posterior elements contribute to the error in predicting vertebral body mineral with DPA. QCT gave a smaller error when a cylindric portion of the vertebral body with a 20 diameter was measured compared with one with a 9 mm diameter, when the dual energy technique was used (p 3 ). Single energy QCT was insignificantly less accurate than dual energy QCT. Only small differences were found between vertebrae with high fat density of the vertebral body when single or dual QCT was used. QCT was more accurate than DPA in the prediction of the mineral density of individual vertebral bodies (p < 0.05) but no difference was found when the average values for the lumbar spine were calculated. (orig.)

  11. Bone mineral density in renal osteodystrophy: Comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Maeurer, J.; Grabbe, E.; Scheler, F.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of bone density were carried out in 25 patients on dialysis for terminal renal insufficiency, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike in subjects with normal kidneys, there was no significant correlation between these methods in this series. Ten patients showed an increase in bone density of the vertebral spongiosa on QCT measurements, which was interpreted as due to osteosclerotic bone changes in renal osteopathy. QCT showed advantages over DXA in demonstrating these changes. (orig.) [de

  12. Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry for Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in their efforts to develop effective evidence based interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms using nuclear techniques. The unique characteristics of nuclear techniques in nutrition, in particular stable isotope techniques and dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA), make these methods highly suitable for development and evaluation of interventions to address the double burden of malnutrition, i.e. 'undernutrition' and 'overnutrition', globally. This publication provides information on the theoretical background and practical application of state of the art methodology for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and body composition assessment by DXA. The IAEA has contributed to the development and transfer of technical expertise in the use of DXA in Member States through support to national and regional nutrition projects via the technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects addressing priority areas in nutrition. This book will be an important part of the IAEA's efforts to transfer technology and to contribute to capacity building in this field

  13. Bone mineral density in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Tsou, C.T.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 38 male patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density was presented as g cm -2 . The patients were distinguished according to the following three criteria: (1) blood sugar control was good or poor; (2) the duration of diabetes was long or short; (3) renal function was evaluated by effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) as good or poor. The results showed about half the cases of NIDDM had lower BMD. The patients with poor blood sugar control, longer disease duration and poor renal function had lower BMD. However, the difference between any two groups distinguished by the three criteria is not significant. We think that the causes of osteoporosis in patients with NIDDM may not be explained by only a single factor. (author)

  14. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  15. Detection of occult, undisplaced hip fractures with a dual-energy CT algorithm targeted to detection of bone marrow edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T; McLaughlin, P D; Mallinson, P I; Reagan, A C; Munk, P L; Nicolaou, S; Ouellette, H A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our initial clinical experience with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) virtual non-calcium (VNC) images for the detection of bone marrow (BM) edema in patients with suspected hip fracture following trauma. Twenty-five patients presented to the emergency department at a level 1 trauma center between January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2013 with clinical suspicion of hip fracture and normal radiographs were included. All CT scans were performed on a dual-source, dual-energy CT system. VNC images were generated using prototype software and were compared to regular bone reconstructions by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Radiological and/or clinical diagnosis of fracture at 30-day follow-up was used as the reference standard. Twenty-one patients were found to have DECT-VNC signs of bone marrow edema. Eighteen of these 21 patients were true positive and three were false positive. A concordant fracture was clearly seen on bone reconstruction images in 15 of the 18 true positive cases. In three cases, DECT-VNC was positive for bone marrow edema where bone reconstruction CT images were negative. Four patients demonstrated no DECT-VNC signs of bone marrow edema: two cases were true negative, two cases were false negative. When compared with the gold standard of hip fracture determined at retrospective follow-up, the sensitivity of DECT-VNC images of the hip was 90 %, specificity was 40 %, positive predictive value was 86 %, and negative predictive value was 50 %. Our initial experience would suggest that DECT-VNC is highly sensitive but poorly specific in the diagnosis of hip fractures in patients with normal radiographs. The value of DECT-VNC primarily lies in its ability to help detect fractures which may be subtle or undetectable on bone reconstruction CT images.

  16. Radiographic measurement of bone mineral: reviewing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L.H.; van Doorn, T.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic methods of bone mineral measurement have been reviewed, with particular emphasis on the methods of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Features of the three major brands of DEXA equipment available in Australasia have been summarised. Radiation hazard is considered to be small, with patient effective doses of the order of a few microSieverts. In vivo measurement precision of the order of 1% is achievable for PA scans of the lumbar spine. Lateral scans can achieve measurement precision of the order of 4%. Recent technological developments using X-ray fan beams and multi element detector arrays on C-arm devices have resulted in faster scan times, higher resolution images, and an ability to perform PA and lateral scanning without the need to reposition the patient. Accuracy of DEXA is dependent upon specific instrumentation and data reduction algorithms, but results generally correlate well with ashed bone measurements. Major sources of inaccuracy include inhomogeneous distributions of fat, and machine specific factors such as edge detection algorithms. Lack of absolute inter unit comparability may cause difficulties in clinical practice. 88 refs., 5 figs

  17. Dual-energy radiography of bone tissues using ZnSe-based scintielectronic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinyov, B.; Ryzhikov, V.; Lecoq, P.; Naydenov, S.; Opolonin, A.; Lisetskaya, E.; Galkin, S.; Shumeiko, N.

    2007-01-01

    Detectors of the scintillator-photodiode type were obtained on the basis of CsI(Tl), CdWO 4 and ZnSe(Te) crystals, and their comparative study was carried out, aiming at their use in X-ray computer tomography (CT). Because of their low afterglow level (10 ppm after 10 ms), CWO and ZnSe crystals are preferable for this application. A drawback of CWO is its lower (by 3 times) light output as compared with CsI(Tl). ZnSe has low transparence to intrinsic radiation; however, up to energies of 60-70 keV it is superior, as for the whole complex of its parameter, to materials traditionally used for CT detectors. The use of a dual-energy receiving-detecting circuit with a detector pair ZnSe/CsI or ZnSe/CdWO allows efficient distinction between muscular and bone tissues, which supports our earlier theoretical assumptions that this method could be successfully used for separate detection of materials differing in their effective atomic number Z eff and local density (e.g., calcium contents in bone densitometry)

  18. Small animals bone density and morphometry analysis with a dual energy X-rays absorptiometry bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudousq, V.; Bordy, T.; Gonon, G.; Dinten, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    LEXXOS (DMS, Montpellier, France) is the first axial and total body cone beam bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector. In previous papers, technical principles and patients' Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement performances were presented. Bone densitometers are also used on small animals for drug development. In this presentation, we show how LEXXOS can be adapted for small animals' examinations and evaluate its performances. At first, in order to take advantage of the whole area of the 20 x 20 cm 2 digital radiographic detector, it has been made profit of X-Rays magnification by adapting the geometrical configuration. Secondly, as small animals present low BMD, a specific dual energy calibration has been defined. This adapted system has then been evaluated on two sets of mice: six reference mice and six ovariectomized mice. Each month, these two populations have been examined and the averaged total body BMD has been measured. This evaluation shows that the right order of BMD magnitude is obtained and, as expected, BMD increases on two sets until a period around puberty and the ovariectomized set presents a significant decrease after. Moreover, the bone image obtained by dual energy processing on LEXXOS presents a radiographic image quality providing useful complementary information on bone morphometry and architecture. This study shows that LEXXOS cone beam bone densitometer provides simultaneously useful quantitative and qualitative information for analysis of bone evolution on small animals. In the future, same system architecture and processing methodology can be used with higher resolution detectors in order to refine information on bone architecture. (authors)

  19. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: an alternative for X-ray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppe, D H M; Taal, H R; Ernst, G D S; Van Den Akker, E L T; Lequin, M M H; Hokken-Koelega, A C S; Geelhoed, J J M; Jaddoe, V W V

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic of University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We compared bone age assessments by DXA scan with those performed by X-ray. Bone age assessment was performed by two blinded observers according to the reference method of Greulich and Pyle. Intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility were investigated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and agreement was tested using Bland and Altman plots. The intra-observer ICCs for both observers were 0.997 and 0.991 for X-ray and 0.993 and 0.987 for DXA assessments. The interobserver ICC was 0.993 and 0.991 for X-ray and DXA assessments, respectively. The mean difference between bone age assessed by X-ray and DXA was 0.11 years. The limits of agreement ranged from -0.82 to 1.05 years, which means that 95% of all differences between the methods were covered by this range. Results of bone age assessment by DXA scan are similar to those obtained by X-ray. The DXA method seems to be an alternative for assessing bone age in a paediatric hospital-based population.

  20. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  1. Agreement and precision of periprosthetic bone density measurements in micro-CT, single and dual energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussmann, Bo; Overgaard, Søren; Torfing, Trine; Traise, Peter; Gerke, Oke; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to test the precision and agreement between bone mineral density measurements performed in micro CT, single and dual energy computed tomography, to determine how the keV level influences density measurements and to assess the usefulness of quantitative dual energy computed tomography as a research tool for longitudinal studies aiming to measure bone loss adjacent to total hip replacements. Samples from 10 fresh-frozen porcine femoral heads were placed in a Perspex phantom and computed tomography was performed with two acquisition modes. Bone mineral density was calculated and compared with measurements derived from micro CT. Repeated scans and dual measurements were performed in order to measure between- and within-scan precision. Mean density difference between micro CT and single energy computed tomography was 72 mg HA/cm 3 . For dual energy CT, the mean difference at 100 keV was 128 mg HA/cm 3 while the mean difference at 110-140 keV ranged from -84 to -67 mg HA/cm 3 compared with micro CT. Rescanning the samples resulted in a non-significant overall between-scan difference of 13 mg HA/cm 3 . Bland-Altman limits of agreement were wide and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.29 to 0.72, while 95% confidence intervals covered almost the full possible range. Repeating the density measurements for within-scan precision resulted in ICCs >0.99 and narrow limits of agreement. Single and dual energy quantitative CT showed excellent within-scan precision, but poor between-scan precision. No significant density differences were found in dual energy quantitative CT at keV-levels above 110 keV. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1470-1477, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dual energy CT of peripheral arteries: Effect of automatic bone and plaque removal on image quality and grading of stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.C.; Werncke, T.; Hopfenmueller, W.; Raatschen, H.J.; Wolf, K.-J.; Albrecht, T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of automatic bone and plaque removal on image quality and grading of steno-occlusive lesions in patients undergoing dual energy CT angiography (CTA) of lower extremity. Materials and methods: Dual energy (DE) runoff CTA was performed in 50 patients using the following parameters: collimation 2 x 32 x 0.6; tube potentials, 80 kV and 140 kV; reconstructed slice thickness 1 mm. 100 mL iomeprol 400 and 50 mL saline were injected at 4 mL/s. Separate datasets were calculated for each of the two tubes and used to generate automatically bone-subtracted images (ABS) as well as bone and plaque subtracted images (ABPS). Residual bone in the ABS dataset was removed manually (=ABS-B dataset). In addition, a weighted average dataset from both dual energy acquisitions resembling a routine 120 kV CT acquisition was used for standard manual bone subtraction (MBS). Operator time for bone removal was measured. Effectiveness of bone subtraction and presence of vessel erosions was assessed by two readers in consensus. Stenosis grading in plaque subtracted and unsubtracted images was assessed and correlated. Results: Residual bone fragments (ribs: 46%, patella: 25%, spine: 4%, pelvis: 2%, tibia 2% of patients) were only observed with ABS. The time needed to manually remove these residual bones was 2.1 ± 1.1 min and was significantly lower than the duration of manual bone removal (6.8 ± 2.0 min, p < 0.0001, paired t-test). A total of 1159 arteries were analyzed. Compromising vessel erosions were observed less frequently in the ABS-B dataset (10.6%) than in the MBS dataset (15.2%, p < 0.001, wilcoxon's signed rank test). A total of 817 steno-occlusive lesions were assessed. While the agreement of grading of steno-occlusive lesions was good at the levels of the aorta and the pelvic arteries (κ = 0.70 in both, Cohen's kappa statistics), it was moderate at the level of the thigh arteries (κ = 0.57) and poor at the level of the calf (κ = 0.16). Conclusion

  3. Dual-energy bone removal computed tomography (BRCT): preliminary report of efficacy of acute intracranial hemorrhage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Norihito; Tannai, Hidenori; Nishikawa, Kazuma; Yamagishi, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Kawabe, Hideto; Kamisaki, Yuichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Kuroda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Kyo

    2018-02-01

    One of the major applications of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is automated bone removal (BR). We hypothesized that the visualization of acute intracranial hemorrhage could be improved on BRCT by removing bone as it has the highest density tissue in the head. This preliminary study evaluated the efficacy of a DE BR algorithm for the head CT of trauma patients. Sixteen patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage within 1 day after head trauma were enrolled in this study. All CT examinations were performed on a dual-source dual-energy CT scanner. BRCT images were generated using the Bone Removal Application. Simulated standard CT and BRCT images were visually reviewed in terms of detectability (presence or absence) of acute hemorrhagic lesions. DECT depicted 28 epidural/subdural hemorrhages, 17 contusional hemorrhages, and 7 subarachnoid hemorrhages. In detecting epidural/subdural hemorrhage, BRCT [28/28 (100%)] was significantly superior to simulated standard CT [17/28 (61%)] (p = .001). In detecting contusional hemorrhage, BRCT [17/17 (100%)] was also significantly superior to simulated standard CT [11/17 (65%)] (p = .0092). BRCT was superior to simulated standard CT in detecting acute intracranial hemorrhage. BRCT could improve the detection of small intracranial hemorrhages, particularly those adjacent to bone, by removing bone that can interfere with the visualization of small acute hemorrhage. In an emergency such as head trauma, BRCT can be used as support imaging in combination with simulated standard CT and bone scale CT, although BRCT cannot replace a simulated standard CT.

  4. Accuracy of bone mineral density quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Harder, Annemarie M. den; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de; Willemink, Martin J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Engelke, Klaus [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Keizer, Bart de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, Harald J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    To investigate the accuracy of bone mineral density (BMD) quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) at various scan protocols. Two validated anthropomorphic phantoms containing inserts of 50-200 mg/cm{sup 3} calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were scanned using a 64-slice SDCT scanner at various acquisition protocols (120 and 140 kVp, and 50, 100 and 200 mAs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in each insert and mean attenuation profiles at monochromatic energy levels (90-200 keV) were constructed. These profiles were fitted to attenuation profiles of pure HA and water to calculate HA concentrations. For comparison, one phantom was scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations (R = 0.97, P < 0.001) were found between true and measured HA concentrations. Mean error for all measurements at 120 kVp was -5.6 ± 5.7 mg/cm{sup 3} (-3.6 ± 3.2%) and at 140 kVp -2.4 ± 3.7 mg/cm{sup 3} (-0.8 ± 2.8%). Mean measurement errors were smaller than 6% for all acquisition protocols. Strong linear correlations (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.970, P < 0.001) with DXA were found. SDCT allows for accurate BMD quantification and potentially opens up the possibility for osteoporosis evaluation and opportunistic screening in patients undergoing SDCT for other clinical indications. However, patient studies are needed to extend and translate our findings. (orig.)

  5. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Toriihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2- weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  6. Accuracy of lumbar spine bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Podenphant, J.; Norgaard, H.; Nilas, L.; Nielsen, V.A.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm 2 ) of the lumbar spine by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was estimated by means of two different spine scanners (a Nuclear Data 2100 and a Lunar Radiation DP3). The lumbar spines of 13 cadavers were used. BMC and BMD were measured in situ and on the excised vertebrae in a solution of water/ethanol; and covered with ox muscle/porcine muscle/lard. The actual mineral weight and areal density were determined after chemical maceration, fat extraction, drying to a constant weight, ashing for 24 hr at 600 degrees C, and correction for the transverse processes. The true are was measured by parallax free X rays and planimetry. All measurements of BMC or BMD were highly interrelated (r = 0.94-0.99). The standard error of estimate (s.e.e.) of BMC in situ versus BMC in water/ethanol was 5.2%. The agreement between the BMD values of the two scanners was very good (s.e.e. = 2.9%). BMC in situ predicted the actual vertebral mineral mass with an s.e.e. of 8.1%. BMD in situ and BMD in water/ethanol predicted the actual area density with s.e.e.s of 10.3% and 5.0%, respectively. This study discloses the correlation and accuracy error of spinal DPA measurements in situ in whole cadavers versus the actual BMC and BMD. The error, which is underestimated in in vitro studies, amounts to 10%

  7. Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mohamed Adel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnic-specific reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian population. The objectives of this study are (1 to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy Syrian women using DXA technique, (2 to compare with values from other populations, (3 to study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE. The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12, and 0.95 (0.13 g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck, respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%, respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

  8. Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry for Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition Assessment (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in their efforts to develop effective evidence based interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms using nuclear techniques. The unique characteristics of nuclear techniques in nutrition, in particular stable isotope techniques and dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA), make these methods highly suitable for development and evaluation of interventions to address the double burden of malnutrition, i.e. 'undernutrition' and 'overnutrition', globally. This publication provides information on the theoretical background and practical application of state of the art methodology for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and body composition assessment by DXA. The IAEA has contributed to the development and transfer of technical expertise in the use of DXA in Member States through support to national and regional nutrition projects via the technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects addressing priority areas in nutrition. This book will be an important part of the IAEA's efforts to transfer technology and to contribute to capacity building in this field. The publication was developed by an international group of experts and is intended for nutritionists, radiation technologists, researchers and health professionals using DXA for BMD measurements and body composition assessment.

  9. Bone mineral density in children with Down's syndrome detected by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in ten children with Down's syndrome (seven boys, three girls; aged 10-16 years) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using an M and SE Osteo Tech 300 scanner. The BMD of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae was measured and the mean density presented as g cm -2 . The BMD of Down's syndrome was compared with the BMD of normal Chinese children of the same age group. The results showed that the BMD in Down's syndrome was significantly lower compared to that found in normal children. The percentage of decreased BMD is 8.47 ± 2.69% (mean ± 1 S.E.M.) in Down's syndrome compared to normal children of the same age group. The distribution curve of BMD against ages in Down's syndrome has a delay of 2.3 ± 0.5 (mean ± 1 S.E.M.) years compared to normal children. In our conclusion, the children with Down's syndrome have lower BMD than the normal children of the same age group. (Author)

  10. Bone mineral density in patients with Parkinson's disease measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C H; Chen, C C; Wang, S J; Chia, L G; Yeh, S H [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China)

    1994-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) in 22 patients (three females, 19 males, aged 58-76 years) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M and SE OsteoTech 300 scanner. The BMDs of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae were measured and the mean density was presented as g cm[sup -2]. The BMD of the PD patients was compared with normal BMD values within the same age groups, and the patients were interpreted as normal, suffering mild osteoporosis or severe osteoporosis. The patients were divided into two groups according to (a) the Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) scale as high or low, or based on (b) the duration of the disease as long or short. The results show that the BMD of all the PD patients was lower than those of the normal controls. The PD patients with a high H-Y scale had a higher prevalence of severe osteoporosis. However, the difference between any two groups, separated by the two criteria, is not significant by Fisher's test. We find that PD patients have a higher incidence of severe osteoporosis. (author).

  11. Mesoporous silicate nanoparticles/3D nanofibrous scaffold-mediated dual-drug delivery for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qingqing; Liu, Yangxi; Selvaratnam, Balaranjan; Koodali, Ranjit T; Sun, Hongli

    2018-04-09

    Controlled delivery systems play a critical role in the success of bone morphogenetic proteins (i.e., BMP2 and BMP7) for challenged bone repair. Instead of single-drug release that is currently and commonly prevalent, dual-drug delivery strategies are highly desired to achieve effective bone regeneration because natural bone repair process is driven by multiple factors. Particularly, angiogenesis is essential for osteogenesis and requires more than just one factor (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, VEGF). Therefore, we developed a novel mesoporous silicate nanoparticles (MSNs) incorporated-3D nanofibrous gelatin (GF) scaffold for dual-delivery of BMP2 and deferoxamine (DFO). DFO is a hypoxia-mimetic drug that can activate hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and trigger subsequent angiogenesis. Sustained BMP2 release system was achieved through encapsulation into large-pored MSNs, while the relative short-term release of DFO was engineered through covalent conjugation with chitosan to reduce its cytotoxicity and elongate its half-life. Both MSNs and DFO were incorporated onto a porous 3D GF scaffold to serve as a biomimetic osteogenic microenvironment. Our data indicated that DFO and BMP2 were released from a scaffold at different release rates (10 vs 28 days) yet maintained their angiogenic and osteogenic ability, respectively. Importantly, our data indicated that the released DFO significantly improved BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation where the dose/duration was important for its effects in both mouse and human stem cell models. Thus, we developed a novel and tunable MSNs/GF 3D scaffold-mediated dual-drug delivery system and studied the potential application of the both FDA-approved DFO and BMP2 for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone mineral density in renal osteodystrophy: Comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography. Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit der quantitativen Computertomographie und der Dual-Energy-X-Ray-Absorptiometrie zur Knochendichte bei renaler Osteopathie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, M.; Maeurer, J.; Grabbe, E. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)); Scheler, F. (Abt. Nephrologie und Rheumatologie, Klinikum, Goettingen Univ. (Germany))

    1992-08-01

    Measurements of bone density were carried out in 25 patients on dialysis for terminal renal insufficiency, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike in subjects with normal kidneys, there was no significant correlation between these methods in this series. Ten patients showed an increase in bone density of the vertebral spongiosa on QCT measurements, which was interpreted as due to osteosclerotic bone changes in renal osteopathy. QCT showed advantages over DXA in demonstrating these changes. (orig.).

  13. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kim, Keung Sik

    2000-01-01

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine

  14. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keung Sik [Yonsei University Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine.

  15. Detection of Bone Marrow Edema in Nondisplaced Hip Fractures: Utility of a Virtual Noncalcium Dual-Energy CT Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellock, Trenton T; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kim, Sandra S Y; Al-Busaidi, Sultan; Louis, Luck J; O'Connell, Tim W; Ouellette, Hugue A; McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To quantify the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium images in the detection of nondisplaced hip fractures and to assess whether obtaining these images as a complement to bone reconstructions alters sensitivity, specificity, or diagnostic confidence. Materials and Methods The clinical research ethics board approved chart review, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively identified 118 patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center emergency department and who underwent dual-energy CT for suspicion of a nondisplaced traumatic hip fracture. Clinical follow-up was the standard of reference. Three radiologists interpreted virtual noncalcium images for traumatic bone marrow edema. Bone reconstructions for the same cases were interpreted alone and then with virtual noncalcium images. Diagnostic confidence was rated on a scale of 1 to 10. McNemar, Fleiss κ, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Twenty-two patients had nondisplaced hip fractures and 96 did not have hip fractures. Sensitivity with virtual noncalcium images was 77% and 91% (17 and 20 of 22 patients), and specificity was 92%-99% (89-95 of 96 patients). Sensitivity increased by 4%-5% over that with bone reconstruction images alone for two of the three readers when both bone reconstruction and virtual noncalcium images were used. Specificity remained unchanged (99% and 100%). Diagnostic confidence in the exclusion of fracture was improved with combined bone reconstruction and virtual noncalcium images (median score: 10, 9, and 10 for readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively) compared with bone reconstruction images alone (median score: 9, 8, and 9). Conclusion When used as a supplement to standard bone reconstructions, dual-energy CT virtual noncalcium images increased sensitivity for the detection of nondisplaced traumatic hip fractures and improved diagnostic confidence in

  16. Fotonäitus koduta loomade heaks / Indrek Galetin, Kerttu Rakke, Angela Aak ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galetin, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    Rotermani kvartalis 22.05.2009 avatud Indrek Galetini fotonäitus "Amour - Lemmikloomade eri". Kodutute loomade abistamiseks 20.07.2009 oksjonil müüdavate piltide valmimist kommenteerivad fotograaf ja modellid Kerttu Rakke, Angela Aak ja Max Kaur

  17. Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, the trabecular bone score and quantitative computed tomography in the evaluation of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    In subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who suffer a minimal trauma fracture, the problem is to differentiate between osteoporosis and the various forms of renal bone disease associated with CKD-mineral and bone disorder. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that renal osteodystrophy may coexist with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization's bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteopenia ( -2.5 < T-score < -1.0) and osteoporosis (a T-score ≤ -2.5) may be used in patients with CKD stages 1-3. In CKD stages 4-5, BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is less predictive and may underestimate fracture risk. The development of absolute fracture risk (AFR) algorithms, such as FRAX® and the Garvan absolute fracture risk calculator, to predict risk of fracture over a given time (usually 10 years) aims to incorporate non-BMD risk factors into the clinical assessment. FRAX® has been shown to be useful to assess fracture risk in CKD but may underestimate fracture risk in advanced CKD. The trabecular bone score is a measure of grey scale homogeneity obtained from spine DXA, which correlates to trabecular microarchitecture and is an independent risk factor for fracture. Recent data demonstrate the potential utility of the trabecular bone score adjustment of AFR through the FRAX® algorithm in subjects with CKD. Parameters of bone microarchitecture using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or high-resolution pQCT are also able to discriminate fracture status in subjects with CKD. However, there are at present no convincing data that the addition of pQCT or high-resolution pQCT parameters to DXA BMD improves fracture discrimination. More advanced estimates of bone strength derived from measurements of micro-architecture, by QCT-derived finite element analysis may be incorporated into AFR algorithms in the future. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density and body composition using a flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinten, J.M.; Robert-Coutant, C.; Gonon, G.; Bordy, T.

    2003-01-01

    Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems are used for the determination of bone mineral density (BMD) but also for body composition estimates (lean mass and fat mass). The calculation is based on the difference in attenuation of body tissues for a low-energy of about 50 KeV and a high-energy of about 80-100 KeV. The measurement of dual-energy projections allows first to compute to the body composition in the non-bone area, and then to extrapolate the fat / lean ratio of soft tissue into the bone area in order to compute the BMD. Since detectors have limited area, a whole body examination requires a scan of the patient and a reconstruction process in order to build up a large field image from smaller radiographs. This reconstruction process must keep the quantitative value of the radiographs, and avoid any distortion which could be a consequence of the conic acquisition geometry. The cone angle is low (6 at maximum) and the large overlap between radiographs helps to reconstruct an image equivalent with a parallel-beam geometry. Scatter is corrected from the radiographs before reconstruction, as described in a previous paper ('Dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry using a 2D digital radiography detector. Application to bone densitometry', SPIE Medical Imaging 2001, Medical Physics). We have developed an original reconstruction method dedicated to whole-body examinations which will be described. Thanks to the quasi-radiologic quality of the detector, reconstructed images are of very good quality and this makes the measurement of BMD and fat / lean masses easier. (author)

  19. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  20. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  1. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  2. Assessment of bone mineral density with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in pre-and post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamat, M. R.; Rostampour, N.; Shanehsazzadeh, S.; Tavakoli, M. B.; Siavash, M.; Almasi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that contributes substantially to decrease physical activity and decline in the quality of life. Osteoporosis can be diagnosed easily with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of bone loss on proximal femur and lumbar spine in pre-and post-menopausal women from Isfahan Osteoporosis Diagnosis Center since 2005. Materials and Methods: Bone mineral density measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry have been performed at Isfahan Osteoporosis Diagnosis Center. 185 pre-menopausal and 174 early post-menopausal women were selected randomly. A Norland XR46 system was used for the investigations. The student t-lest was done to find the difference between the T-scores of the femoral neck and lumbar spine in pre-and post-menopausal women. Results: Mean Bone mineral density for the femoral neck and lumbar spine in pre-menopausal women were 0.859 ± 0.136 and 1.012 ± 0.161 and in post-menopausal women were 0.816 ± 0.119 and 0.919 ± 0.140, respectively. Long-term Bone mineral density CVs of 1.0% and 1.2% for the lumbar spine and femoral neck were found, respectively. The differences between the femoral neck and lumbar spine for pre-and post-menopausal women were t = -9.02, P < 0.05 and t = -3.50, P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of, the reported lower Bone mineral density T-scores for the lumbar spine compared With the femoral neck for women, we found that the femoral neck had significantly lower T-score than lumbar spine for both pre-and post-menopausal women.

  3. TU-G-204-02: Automatic Sclerotic Bone Metastases Detection in the Pelvic Region From Dual Energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, D; Schmidtlein, C; Hwang, S; Deasy, J; Veeraraghavan, H [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To automatically detect sclerotic bone metastases in the pelvic region using dual energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: We developed a two stage algorithm to automatically detect sclerotic bone metastases in the pelvis from DECT for patients with multiple bone metastatic lesions and with hip implants. The first stage consists of extracting the bone and marrow regions by using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We employed a novel representation of the DECT images using multi-material decomposition, which represents each voxel as a mixture of different physical materials (e.g. bone+water+fat). Following the extraction of bone and marrow, in the second stage, a bi -histogram equalization method was employed to enhance the contrast to reveal the bone metastases. Next, meanshift segmentation was performed to separate the voxels by their intensity levels. Finally, shape-based filtering was performed to extract the possible locations of the metastatic lesions using multiple shape criteria. We used the following shape parameters: area, eccentricity, major and minor axis, perimeter and skeleton. Results: A radiologist with several years of experience with DECT manually labeled 64 regions consisting of metastatic lesions from 10 different patients. However, the patients had many more metastasic lesions throughout the pelvis. Our method correctly identified 46 of the marked 64 regions (72%). In addition, our method also identified several other lesions, which can then be validated by the radiologist. The missed lesions were typically very large elongated regions consisting of several islands of very small (<4mm) lesions. Conclusion: We developed an algorithm to automatically detect sclerotic lesions in the pelvic region from DECT. Preliminary assessment shows that our algorithm generated lesions agreeing with the radiologist generated candidate regions. Furthermore, our method reveals additional lesions that can be inspected by the radiologist, thereby

  4. Dual-photon absorptiometry: A new method of determining bone mineral content. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Hennig, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular (L 2-4) bone mass has been determined repeatedly with DPA using 153 Gd (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 females and 112 males with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal' (age- and sex-related average) values for bone mineral content (BMC) differed significantly (p [de

  5. Comparison of instruments for dual-energy X-ray bone mineral densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainio, P.; Koski, E.; Ahonen, E.; Leinonen, K.; Sievaenen, H.

    1992-01-01

    While bone mineral densitometry has become a common laboratory test, it is important to pay attention to the compatability of the results from different instruments. In this study results from three commercially available bone densitometers are compared using both patient and phantom studies. Overall correlation between instruments was good but there were systematic discrepancies in the results. The three instruments provided bone mineral density (BMD) values that differed by as much as 13.5% due to differences as large as 6% in bone mineral content and as large as 7% in bone area. Thus, the BMD values obtained from different manufacturers' instruments are not directly comparable. (author)

  6. Age-related proximal femur bone mineral loss in South Indian women: a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anburajan, M; Rethinasabapathi, C; Korath, M P; Ponnappa, B G; Kumar, K S; Panicker, T M; Govindan, A; Jagadeesan, G N

    2001-04-01

    i) To collect normative data for proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD) in South Indian women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ii) to study the rate and significance of hip bone mineral loss with advancing age in this population. Forty five women, whose age ranged from 16 to 84 years were studied. This sample was drawn randomly from general medical practice at KJ Hospital, Chennai, South India during November, 1997 to April, 1998. Of these 45 cases, 21 were pre-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 30.9+/-8.8 years) and 24 post-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 62.1+/-11.0 years). Subjects with secondary bone diseases were excluded. Also excluded were those taking any drugs known to affect calcium metabolism e.g., thiazide diuretics, oestrogen and calcium. Subjects were divided into seven decadal age groups from 15-24 years to 75-84 years. BMD of the right proximal femur was evaluated using a QDR-1000 DXA bone densitometer (Hologic Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Data analysis was done with SPSS/PC statistical software package. Linear regression analysis showed significant (p India women have been evaluated and it may prove useful for diagnosing osteoporosis in the women of South India.

  7. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L.

    2008-01-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p≤0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  8. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  9. Effect of endodontic cement on bone mineral density using serial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Tanideh, Nader; Janghorban, Kamal; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-05-01

    Materials with new compositions were tested in order to develop dental materials with better properties. Calcium silicate-based cements, including white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), may improve osteopromotion because of their composition. Nano-modified cements may help researchers produce ideal root-end filling materials. Serial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurement was used to evaluate the effects of particle size and the addition of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) to a type of mineral trioxide aggregate-based cement on bone mineral density and the surrounding tissues in the mandible of rabbits. Forty mature male rabbits (N = 40) were anesthetized, and a bone defect measuring 7 × 1 × 1 mm was created on the semimandible. The rabbits were divided into 2 groups, which were subdivided into 5 subgroups with 4 animals each based on the defect filled by the following: Nano-WMTA (patent application #13/211.880), WMTA (as standard), WMTA without C3A, Nano-WMTA + 2% Nano-C3A (Fujindonjnan Industrial Co, Ltd, Fujindonjnan Xiamen, China), and a control group. Twenty and forty days postoperatively, the animals were sacrificed, and the semimandibles were removed for DXA measurement. The Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between the groups at a significance level of P density at both intervals and P20 day = .004 and P40 day = .005 for bone mineral content. This study showed that bone regeneration was enhanced by reducing the particle size (nano-modified) and C3A mixture. This may relate to the existence of an external supply of minerals and a larger surface area of nano-modified material, which may lead to faster release rate of Ca(2+), inducing bone formation. Adding Nano-C3A to Nano-WMTA may improve bone regeneration properties. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  10. Local differences in mineral content in vertebral trabecular bone measured by dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, J.; Mosekilde, L.; Aarhus Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve lumbar vertebral bodies from cadavers were examined with dual-energy CT, to measure the calcium content in a big central region of interest (ROI). In each of five vertebrae the calcium content was also measured in six small ROI. After completed scanning, six small cylinders were drilled out from each vertebra, and the ash-density of each cylinder was measured. The dual-energy CT measurements correlated well with the ash-density. Both ash-density and dual-energy CT showed a significantly higher mineral content in the posterior part of the vertebrae than in the anterior part, and this difference might be responsible for problems encountered with the reproducibility of dual-energy CT. (orig.)

  11. Dual-energy CT head bone and hard plaque removal for quantification of calcified carotid stenosis: utility and comparison with digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Higashi, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Tetsuro; Kono, Atsushi K.; Hori, Yoshiro; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Kanzaki, Suzu; Yamada, Naoaki; Naito, Hiroaki; Itoh, Toshihide; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated quantification of calcified carotid stenosis by dual-energy (DE) CTA and dual-energy head bone and hard plaque removal (DE hard plaque removal) and compared the results to those of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Eighteen vessels (13 patients) with densely calcified carotid stenosis were examined by dual-source CT in the dual-energy mode (tube voltages 140 kV and 80 kV). Head bone and hard plaques were removed from the dual-energy images by using commercial software. Carotid stenosis was quantified according to NASCET criteria on MIP images and DSA images at the same plane. Correlation between DE CTA and DSA was determined by cross tabulation. Accuracies for stenosis detection and grading were calculated. Stenosis could be evaluated in all vessels by DE CTA after applying DE hard plaque removal. In contrast, conventional CTA failed to show stenosis in 13 out of 18 vessels due to overlapping hard plaque. Good correlation between DE plaque removal images and DSA images was observed (r 2 =0.9504) for stenosis grading. Sensitivity and specificity to detect hemodynamically relevant (>70%) stenosis was 100% and 92%, respectively. Dual-energy head bone and hard plaque removal is a promising tool for the evaluation of densely calcified carotid stenosis. (orig.)

  12. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral density in Shanghai residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Li Deyi; Ma Jixiao; Huang Qiren

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of bone mineral density determination technique provides a powerful research tool to diagnose osteoporosis and prevent fracture. Since the beginning of 1995, the research group incooperation with Shanghai 6th people's hospital is carrying on bone density measurements as a part of Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) organized by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this study is to determine the age of peak bone mass in each study group of Shanghai residents and to quantify differences in bone density as functions of the age and sex of persons in the study groups. At the same time the authors should get the normal human BMD (Bone Mineral Density) reference database specially for Shanghai residents, China. The roles of various life styles, exercise, diet and so on are also investigated

  13. Osteopoikilosis: A Cause of Elevated Bone Mineral Density on Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement in a Young Woman: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asylbek Kaparov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis (OPK is an asymptomatic, rare bone dysplasia. It causes an increase in bone density. The etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. OPK is generally diagnosed incidentally on plain radiographies which were performed for other locomotor system symptoms. Diagnostic lesions of OPK are typically diffuse, round, symmetrically shaped sclerotic bone areas. Laboratory findings and bone scintigraphy are usually normal. OPK should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteoblastic bone disorders. OPK is a benign disease and invasive diagnostic procedures as well as aggressive treatment modalities should be avoided. In young individuals who have elevated scores on dual-energy X-Ray absoptiometry measurement, OPK as well as other sclerosing bone disorders would be considered. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:25-8

  14. Dual photon absorptiometry in patients with Paget disease (bone mineral contents of lumbar spine and femoral neck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Piketty, C.; Kiffel, T.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1988-01-01

    The bone mineral contents (BMC) of the lumbar spine (84 cases) and of one femoral neck (53 cases) were measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in patients suffering from Paget's disease of bone. The BMC of the patients and of 53 controls were compared, taking into account the occurrence of a scintigraphic hyperfixation, in each patient. A hyperfixation of the technetium labelled diphosphonate in the lumbar spine, more frequent in males, was associated with an elevated mean BMC value. The difference versus controls was significant in men but not in women. A hyperfixation of the femoral neck was associated with an elevated mean BMC value in both sexes. BMC values greater than the mean BMC of controls + 2 SD were observed in 83 per cent of these male patients and 50 per cent of the females. In contrast, BMC values lower than in controls were observed in non-pagetic areas. DPA allows the quantification of these abnormalities which cannot be evidenced by bone scintigraphy even if alkaline phosphatases levels are assayed [fr

  15. Small lung cancers: improved detection by use of bone suppression imaging--comparison with dual-energy subtraction chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Engelmann, Roger; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Doi, Kunio; Metz, Charles E; Macmahon, Heber

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether use of bone suppression (BS) imaging, used together with a standard radiograph, could improve radiologists' performance for detection of small lung cancers compared with use of standard chest radiographs alone and whether BS imaging would provide accuracy equivalent to that of dual-energy subtraction (DES) radiography. Institutional review board approval was obtained. The requirement for informed consent was waived. The study was HIPAA compliant. Standard and DES chest radiographs of 50 patients with 55 confirmed primary nodular cancers (mean diameter, 20 mm) as well as 30 patients without cancers were included in the observer study. A new BS imaging processing system that can suppress the conspicuity of bones was applied to the standard radiographs to create corresponding BS images. Ten observers, including six experienced radiologists and four radiology residents, indicated their confidence levels regarding the presence or absence of a lung cancer for each lung, first by using a standard image, then a BS image, and finally DES soft-tissue and bone images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate observer performance. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for all observers was significantly improved from 0.807 to 0.867 with BS imaging and to 0.916 with DES (both P chest radiographs. Further improvements can be achieved by use of DES radiography but with the requirement for special equipment and a potential small increase in radiation dose. © RSNA, 2011.

  16. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry underestimates in vivo lumbar spine bone mineral density in overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Rim; Vico, Laurence; Laroche, Norbert; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nebil; Lavet, Cedric

    2018-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used technique for measuring areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, several studies have shown inaccuracy, with either overestimation or underestimation of DXA BMD measurements in the case of overweight or obese individuals. We have designed an overweight rat model based on junk food to compare the effect of obesity on in vivo and ex vivo BMD and bone mineral content measurements. Thirty-eight 6-month old male rats were given a chow diet (n = 13) or a high fat and sucrose diet (n = 25), with the calorie amount being kept the same in the two groups, for 19 weeks. L1 BMD, L1 bone mineral content, amount of abdominal fat, and amount of abdominal lean were obtained from in vivo DXA scan. Ex vivo L1 BMD was also measured. A difference between in vivo and ex vivo DXA BMD measurements (P body weight, perirenal fat, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that body weight, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean were independently related to ex vivo BMD. DXA underestimated lumbar in vivo BMD in overweight rats, and this measurement error is related to body weight and abdominal fat. Therefore, caution must be used when one is interpreting BMD among overweight and obese individuals.

  17. The value of calcaneal bone mass measurement using a dual X-ray laser calscan device in risk screening for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Kayalar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured by a dual energy X-ray laser (DXL correlates with bone mineral density in the spine and hip in Turkish women over 40 years of age and to determine whether calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser variables are associated with clinical risk factors to the same extent as axial bone mineral density measurements obtained using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DXA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,884 Turkish women, aged 40-90 years, living in Ankara were randomly selected. Calcaneal bone mineral density was evaluated using a dual energy X-ray laser Calscan device. Subjects exhibiting a calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T- score <-2.5 received a referral for DXA of the spine and hip. Besides dual energy X-ray laser measurements, all subjects were questioned about their medical history and the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Using a T-score threshold of -2.5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, dual energy X-ray laser calcaneal measurements showed that 13% of the subjects had osteoporosis, while another 56% had osteopenia. The mean calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score of postmenopausal subjects who were smokers with a positive history of fracture, hormone replacement therapy (HRT, covered dressing style, lower educational level, no regular exercise habits, and low tea consumption was significantly lower than that obtained for the other group (p<0.05. A significant correlation was observed between the calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score and age (r=-0.465, p=0.001, body mass index (BMI (r=0.223, p=0.001, number of live births (r=-0.229, p=0.001, breast feeding time (r=-0.064, p=0.001, and age at menarche (r=-0.050, p=0.008. The correlations between calcaneal DXL and DXA T-scores (r=0.340, p=0.001 and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.360, p=0.001 at the spine, and calcaneal DXL and DXA T- scores (r=0.28, p=0.001 and calcaneal

  18. Evaluation of the 3D spatial distribution of the Calcium/Phosphorus ratio in bone using computed-tomography dual-energy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipanteli, A; Kourkoumelis, N; Fromme, P; Huang, J; Speller, R D

    2016-01-01

    The Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio was shown to vary between healthy bones and bones with osteoporotic symptoms. The relation of the Ca/P ratio to bone quality remains under investigation. To study this relation and determine if the ratio can be used to predict bone fractures, a non-invasive 3D imaging technique is required. The first aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a computed-tomography dual-energy analysis (CT-DEA) technique developed to assess the Ca/P ratio in bone apatite (collagen-free bone) in identifying differences between healthy and inflammation-mediated osteoporotic (IMO) bones. The second aim was to extend the above technique for its application to a more complex structure, intact bone, that could potentially lead to clinical use. For the first aim, healthy and IMO rabbit cortical bone apatite samples were assessed. For the second aim, some changes were made to the technique, which was applied to healthy and IMO intact bone samples. Statistically significant differences between healthy and IMO bone apatite were found for the bulk Ca/P ratio, low Ca/P ratio proportion and interconnected low Ca/P ratio proportion. For the intact bone samples, the bulk Ca/P ratio was found to be significantly different between healthy and IMO. Results show that the CT-DEA technique can be used to identify differences in the Ca/P ratio between healthy and osteoporotic, in both bone apatite and intact bone. With quantitative imaging becoming an increasingly important advancement in medical imaging, CT-DEA for bone decomposition could potentially have several applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Measurements of bone mineral density of the proximal femur by two commercially available dual energy X-ray absorptiometric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, O.L.; Marslew, U.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Two dual energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) instruments have recently become commercially available for local bone densitometry: the QDR-1000 (Hologic Inc.) and the DPX (Lunar Radiation Corp.). We report the precision, influence of femoral, rotation, correlation and agreement of bone mineral measurements of the proximal fermur by these two instruments. In vitro (femur phantom) short-term precision was 1.1%-3.5%, and the long-term precision was 1.2%-3.8%. In vivo (groups of 10 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal women) short-term precision of duplicate measurements was 1.6%-4.7%, and long-term precision was 1.9%-5.5%. Overall, the precision for Ward's triangle was over 3% and that for the femoral neck and trochanter, 2%-3%. Rotation of the femur phantom produced a statistically significant change in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck. Within a clinically relevant range of femoral rotation (20deg inward rotation ±5deg) the coefficient of variation (CV%) increased by a mean factor of 1.1-1.4. Although the correlation (r<0.9) between BMD measurements of the proximal femur by the DPX and QDR-1000 in 30 postmenopausal women was high, there was lack of agreement between the two instruments. We found no statistically significant differences between the right and left femur in 30 postmenopausal women. A bilateral femur scan took a mean total time of about 22 min. We conclude that with the introduction of DXA instruments, the precision of bone mineral measurments of the proximal femur has improved. However, for comparability between commercially available DXA instruments, it might be advantageous if units were standardized. (orig.)

  20. Reference data for bone density and body composition measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry in white children and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To obtain normative data on bone mineral density and body composition measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) from early childhood to young adulthood. METHODS: Cross sectional results from 444 healthy white volunteers (4-20 years) in the Netherlands

  1. Direct X-ray radiogrammetry versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: assessment of bone density in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and growth hormone deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Boot, Annemieke; Wittenberg, Rianne; van der Sluis, Inge M.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Lequin, Maarten H.; de MuinckKeizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F.; van Kuijk, Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years interest in bone densitometry in children has increased. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical application of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and compare the results with those of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 children with

  2. 3D printed bioceramics for dual antibiotic delivery to treat implant-associated bone infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzana, J A; Trombetta, R P; Schwarz, E M; Kates, S L; Awad, H A

    2015-11-04

    Surgical implant-associated bone infections (osteomyelitis) have severe clinical and socioeconomic consequences. Treatment of chronic bone infections often involves antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Given the high antibiotic concentrations required to affect bacteria in biofilm, local delivery is important to achieve high doses at the infection site. PMMA is not suitable to locally-deliver some biofilm-specific antibiotics, including rifampin, due to interference with PMMA polymerisation. To examine the efficacy of localised, combinational antibiotic delivery compared to PMMA standards, we fabricated rifampin- and vancomycin-laden calcium phosphate scaffolds (CPS) by three-dimensional (3D) printing to treat an implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection in a murine model. All vancomycin- and rifampin-laden CPS treatments significantly reduced the bacterial burden compared with vancomycin-laden PMMA. The bones were bacteria culture negative in 50 % of the mice that received sustained release vancomycin- and rifampin-laden CPS. In contrast, 100 % of the bones treated with vancomycin monotherapy using PMMA or CPS were culture positive. Yet, the monotherapy CPS significantly reduced the bacterial metabolic load following revision compared to PMMA. Biofilm persisted on the fixation hardware, but the infection-induced bone destruction was significantly reduced by local rifampin delivery. These data demonstrate that, despite the challenging implant-retaining infection model, co-delivery of rifampin and vancomycin from 3D printed CPS, which is not possible with PMMA, significantly improved the outcomes of implant-associated osteomyelitis. However, biofilm persistence on the fixation hardware reaffirms the importance of implant exchange or other biofilm eradication strategies to complement local antibiotics.

  3. 3D printed bioceramics for dual antibiotic delivery to treat implant-associated bone infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Inzana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surgical implant-associated bone infections (osteomyelitis have severe clinical and socioeconomic consequences. Treatment of chronic bone infections often involves antibiotics given systemically and locally to the affected site in poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cement. Given the high antibiotic concentrations required to affect bacteria in biofilm, local delivery is important to achieve high doses at the infection site. PMMA is not suitable to locally-deliver some biofilm-specific antibiotics, including rifampin, due to interference with PMMA polymerisation. To examine the efficacy of localised, combinational antibiotic delivery compared to PMMA standards, we fabricated rifampin- and vancomycin-laden calcium phosphate scaffolds (CPS by three-dimensional (3D printing to treat an implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection in a murine model. All vancomycin- and rifampin-laden CPS treatments significantly reduced the bacterial burden compared with vancomycin-laden PMMA. The bones were bacteria culture negative in 50 % of the mice that received sustained release vancomycin- and rifampin-laden CPS. In contrast, 100 % of the bones treated with vancomycin monotherapy using PMMA or CPS were culture positive. Yet, the monotherapy CPS significantly reduced the bacterial metabolic load following revision compared to PMMA. Biofilm persisted on the fixation hardware, but the infection-induced bone destruction was significantly reduced by local rifampin delivery. These data demonstrate that, despite the challenging implant-retaining infection model, co-delivery of rifampin and vancomycin from 3D printed CPS, which is not possible with PMMA, significantly improved the outcomes of implant-associated osteomyelitis. However, biofilm persistence on the fixation hardware reaffirms the importance of implant exchange or other biofilm eradication strategies to complement local antibiotics.

  4. Scaphoid fracture: Bone marrow edema detected with dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium images and confirmed with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dareez, Nazeer M.; Engesland, Eirin; Lindland, Elisabeth S. [Department of Radiology, SSHF Arendal, Arendal (Norway); Dahlslett, Kristine H. [Haukelands Universitetssjukehus, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-12-15

    We aimed to determine whether bone marrow edema (BME) in acute traumatic scaphoid fracture could be demonstrated with dual-energy CT (DECT) using MRI as the gold standard. In recent years, virtual non-calcium (VNCa) images have been used to demonstrate BME in trauma cases, for example, in vertebral compression fractures, hip trauma to detect occult fractures and knee fractures. We present three cases of acute scaphoid trauma. Two patients had subtle or invisible fractures on x-ray and conventional CT images, while DECT VNCa images clearly visualized the BME, which was confirmed by MRI. One patient had negative findings on both VNCa and MRI images. The DECT VNCa algorithm is a promising technique to demonstrate BME in scaphoid fractures, with potential for increasing the diagnostic value of CT in this type of injury. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  6. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura; Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  7. Quantitative analysis of bone mineral measurements in different types of dual-energy absorptiometry systems: Comparison of CT vs DEXA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Seong [Dept. of Radiology, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Generally assessing bone mineral density (BMD) were performed on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) the same as dual energy CT (DECT) with a rapid-kVp switching. The purpose of this study is to compare the different of BMD value between DEXA and DECT method, and evaluate usefulness of DECT method. Using scanner for BMD measurements were GE, Healthcare Discovery 750 HD for DECT and Hologic QDR 4500W for DEXA. For compare BMD value in each method, scanned lumbar spine phantom and subjects visiting Korean National Cancer Center from April 2015 to December 2015, records of 50 patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The mean BMD value measures for spine phantom and for subjects in each scanners presented strong correlation (r=0.948 with p<0.05 for phantom; r=0.635 with p<0.05 and Kendall's tau (τ)=0.46 with p<0.05 for subjects) and linear relationship between DECT and conventional DEXA. DECT technique for BMD measurement will provide a very useful methodology without additional radiation dose.

  8. Difference in bone mineral density score on dual Xray absorptiometry scan among ethnic groups of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.A.; Iqbal, J.; Faisal, L.; Islam, Z.U.; Ajmal, R.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the bone mineral density (BMD) scores on Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan in individuals of different ethnic groups among local population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in Departments of Anatomy and Radiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College Karachi, from June 2016 to March 2017. The data were collected from the patients belonging to different ethnic groups, who were referred for DEXA scan and entered on structured proforma. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of 232 patients, 206 were females and 26 were males with mean age of 59.6+-10.06 years. Majority of patients were resident of Karachi and belonging to Urdu speaking ethnic group. Mean BMI of patients was 29.3 6.69 and most of patients with osteoporosis were preobese and obese with BMI >25. The relationship of BMD with different ethnic groups showed statistically significant difference where Baloch had high incidence of osteoporosis of forearm and lumbar spine while Sindhi and Pathan had osteoporosis of hip. Conclusion: There is significant difference in BMD score on DEXA scan among different ethnic groups of Karachi. This information can help clinicians advise patients for timely DEXA scan and earlier use of bone preservation treatment. (author)

  9. Meta-analysis of dual-energy computed tomography virtual non-calcium imaging to detect bone marrow edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mou; Qu, Yali; Song, Bin

    2017-10-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) virtual non-calcium (VNC) imaging for the detection of bone marrow edema (BME). A systematic literature search up to March 2017 was performed to find relevant original studies. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed literature quality, and extracted data. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and other measures of DECT accuracy for detecting BME were calculated using random effects models. Risk of heterogeneity was assessed for the appropriateness of meta-analysis. Fourteen studies involving 2205 regions of vertebrae, hips, knees, and ankles were included. To evaluate the accuracy of BME detection using DECT, calculations were performed to obtain a pooled sensitivity of 0.812 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.780-0.841) and specificity of 0.951 (95% CI, 0.940-0.960). The AUROC value was 0.9635. The major potential cause of heterogeneity was bone position. No significant publication bias was present. DECT VNC imaging gives very good diagnostic performance for BME detection and will likely be an important and common modality for acute assessment in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Deposition of CdTe films under microgravity: Foton M3 mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, K.W.; Croell, A. [Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum FMF, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Zappettini, A.; Calestani, D. [CNR Parma, Instituto Materiali Speciali per Elettronica e Magnetismo IMEM, Fontani Parma (Italy); Dieguez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica de Materiales; Carotenuto, L.; Bassano, E. [Telespazio Napoli, Via Gianturco 31, 80146 Napoli (Italy); Fiederle, M.

    2009-10-15

    Experiments of deposition of CdTe films have been carried out under microgravity in the Russian Foton M3 mission. The influence of gravity has been studied with these experiments and compared to the results of simulations. The measured deposition rate could be confirmed by the theoretical results for lower temperatures. For higher temperatures the measured thickness of the deposited films was larger compared to the theoretical data. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  12. Body composition and bone mineral mass in normal and obese female population using dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, T.; Gonzalez, P.; Coll, C.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Solis, I.; Oviedo, S.

    2002-01-01

    It has been observed that a greater percentage of body fat is associated with augmented bone mineral mass. Objective: The goal of this work was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD in g/cm 2 ) and content (BMC in g) and soft tissue components, fat and lean mass (in g) in whole body of adult female population in Chile. Method: We studied 185 volunteers, asymptomatic, excluding those using estrogens, regular medication, tobacco (>10 cigarettes/day), excessive alcohol intake or with prior oophorectomy. They were separated in 111 pre and 74 post menopausal and according to body mass index (BMI) they were 37 women > 30 kg/m 2 and 148 2 . A Lunar Dual X-Ray absorptiometer was used to determine whole BMD and BMC. Results: Post menopausal women were older and smaller [p:0.0001], with higher body mass index [p:0.0007] and with lower BMD and BMC and higher fat mass than the pre menopausal group; In the whole group, women with BMI ≥ 30 (obese) were compared with normal weight observing no difference in BMD. The fat mass incremented significantly with age. Obese women > 50 years presented greater BMC than the non-obese. The percentage of fat corresponded to 48% in the obese group and to 39% in the non-obese [p<0.0001]. Conclusion: Fat mass somehow protect bone mineral loss in older normal population, probably associated to multifactorial causes including extra ovaric estrogen production. Postmenopausal women presented lower mineral content than premenopausal, as it was expected

  13. TH-C-18A-02: Machine Learning and STAPLE Based Simultaneous Longitudinal Segmentation of Bone and Marrow Structures From Dual Energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, D; Schmidtlein, C; Hwang, S; Deasy, J; Veeraraghavan, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fully-automatic longitudinal bone and marrow segmentation method in the pelvic region from dual energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: We developed a two-step automatic bone and marrow segmentation method for simultaneous longitudinal evaluation of patients with metastatic bone disease using dual energy CT (DECT). Our approach transforms the DECT images into a multi-material decomposition (MMD) model that represents the voxels as a mixture of multiple materials. A support vector machine (SVM) was trained using a single scan. In the first step of the longitudinal segmentation the trained SVM model detects bone and marrow structures on all available longitudinal scans. Segmentation is further refined through active contour segmentation. In the second step, the segmentations from the individual scans are merged by employing the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. The scans are registered using affine and deformable registration. We found that our approach improves the segmentation in all the scans under reliable registration performance between the same scans. Improving registration was not under the scope of this work. Results: We applied our approach to segment bone and marrow in DECT scans in the pelvic regions for multiple patients. Each patient had three to five follow up scans. All the patients in the analysis had artificial metal prostheses which introduced challenges for the registration. Our algorithm achieved reasonable accurate segmentation despite the presence of metal artifacts and high-density oral contrast in neighboring structures. Our approach obtained an overall segmentation accuracy of 80% using DICE metric. Conclusion: We developed a two-step automatic longitudinal segmentation technique for bone and marrow region structures in the pelvic areas from dual energy CT. Our approach achieves robust segmentation despite the presence of confounding structures with similar intensities as the

  14. Relationship between bone strength and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Hald; McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    BMD (1.4 g/cm2, respectively). The results showed a difference in the maximum load, in the stress at maximum load, and stiffness among each BMD group (P ... and extrinsic measures of bone strength and BMD was thus demonstrated. The projected change in each of the variables reported, for a 0.1 /cm2 alteration in BMD (within the BMD range evaluated in this study), is as follows: maximum load, 708 N; stress at maximum load, 50 N/mm2; stiffness, 391.6 N/mm; and elastic...... modulus, 108 N/mm2 (P relationship between BMD and bone strength and indicate that BMD screening can be used in fracture risk assessments in production pigs....

  15. Global variations in peak bone mass as studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.; Dey, A.; Bostock, J.; Parr, R.M.; Aras, N.; Balogh, A.; Borelli, A.; Krishnan, S.; Lobo, G.; Qin, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated a 5-year Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to determine geographical and racial differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women aged 15-49 years. Distinct global differences in BMD were demonstrated at the hip and spine in both men and women approximating to one population standard deviation between populations with the highest and lowest BMD. These differences persist following adjustments for age, sex and body size. Such information is valuable in understanding the reasons for global differences in fracture rate and predicting future trends in fracture incidence. (author)

  16. Follow-up of bone mineral contents by single and dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, Istvan; Lakatos, Peter; Horvath, Csaba; Hollo, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Quality control, performance and long-range reproducibility of SPA and DPA techniques were tested in model experiments. The relative minimum detectable change in bone mineral content, determined with appropriately checked and calibrated instrument amounts to 2.5-3.0 percent by SPA and 4.0-6.0 percent by DPA. To achieve this potential at least two parallel measurements are needed but in case of long-range measurements following-up measurements have to be repeated at least quarterly. DPA requires the same person to evaluate. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  17. Dual photon absorptiometry measurement of the lumbar bone mineral content. Methodology - Reproductibility - Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Duboeuf, F.; Delmas, P.D.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made with a DPA apparatus (Novo Lab 22a) on different phantoms and on volunteers in an attempt to evaluate the system precision. The reproductibility was found in the range of 0.98 to 4.10 % in the case of in vitro measurements, depending on the geometry of the phantoms used, and in the range of 1.6 to 2.94 % for volunteers after repositioning. Secondly, the BMD in the lumbar spine of normal women and normal men was estimated. In control females, the BMD is well fitted to the age by a cubic regression. The maximum value of the BMD is found in this case at the age of 31.5 and the maximum rate of bone loss takes place at 57. Total bone loss between 31.5 and the elderly is about 32 %. In control males, results are more scattered and are represented by a simple linear regression. The average mineral loss between 30 and 80 years is 11.5 % in this area of measurement [fr

  18. Correlation between bone mineral density of jaws and skeletal sites in an Iranian population using dual X-ray energy absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanizadeh, Nasrin; Davaie, Sotoudeh; Rokn, A R; Daneshparvar, Hamid Reza; Bayat, Noushin; Khondi, Nasrin; Ajvadi, Sara; Ghandi, Mostafa

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones. A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA) was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001). There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005). There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla. The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.

  19. Use of dual-energy computed tomography to measure skeletal-wide marrow composition and cancellous bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentsen, Luke; Hansen, Karen E; Yagi, Masashi; Takahashi, Yutaka; Shanley, Ryan; McArthur, Angela; Bolan, Patrick; Magome, Taiki; Yee, Douglas; Froelich, Jerry; Hui, Susanta K

    2017-07-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) can be indicative of several pathologies and confound current methods of assessing immediate changes in bone mineral remodeling. We present a novel dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) method to monitor MAT and marrow-corrected volumetric BMD (mcvBMD) throughout the body. Twenty-three cancellous skeletal sites in 20 adult female cadavers aged 40-80 years old were measured using DECT (80 and 140 kVp). vBMD was simultaneous recorded using QCT. MAT was further sampled using MRI. Thirteen lumbar vertebrae were then excised from the MRI-imaged donors and examined by microCT. After MAT correction throughout the skeleton, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between QCT-derived vBMD and DECT-derived mcvBMD results. McvBMD was highly heterogeneous with a maximum at the posterior skull and minimum in the proximal humerus (574 and 0.7 mg/cc, respectively). BV/TV and BMC have a nearly significant correlation with mcvBMD (r = 0.545, p = 0.057 and r = 0.539, p = 0.061, respectively). MAT assessed by DECT showed a significant correlation with MRI MAT results (r = 0.881, p < 0.0001). Both DECT- and MRI-derived MAT had a significant influence on uncorrected vBMD (r = -0.86 and r = -0.818, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Conversely, mcvBMD had no correlation with DECT- or MRI-derived MAT (r = 0.261 and r = 0.067). DECT can be used to assess MAT while simultaneously collecting mcvBMD values at each skeletal site. MAT is heterogeneous throughout the skeleton, highly variable, and should be accounted for in longitudinal mcvBMD studies. McvBMD accurately reflects the calcified tissue in cancellous bone.

  20. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    The experiment MARSTOX II on FOTON M-3 mission (September 14 - 26, 2007) was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN (Fig. 1) on FOTON M-2. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a well-characterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, was investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated.In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'DUST MARS' and 'DUST SPACE'), and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a mars-like spectral irradiance compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'MIXED MARS' and 'MIXED SPACE') (Fig. 2 and 3). After exposure to space during the FOTON M-3 mission the sample analysis was performed at CEA in Grenoble, F, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNAphotoproducts were analysed.From the results of MARSTOX II the following conclusions can be drawn: (i) Spores mixed with martian soil analogue are protected only to a low degree against UV radiation. The protective effect of several defined layers of spores mixed with Martian soil analogue were quantified. (ii) The two investigated martian soil analogues, MRS07 (47

  1. Comparison of bone volume measurements using conventional single and dual energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yung Kyoon; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yon Min

    2017-01-01

    The study examines changes in calcium volume on born by comparing two figures; one is measured by dual energy computed tomography(DECT) followed by applying variation in monochromatic energy selection( keV), material decomposition(MD), and material suppressed iodine(MSI) analysis, and the other is measured by conventional single source computed tomography(CSCT). For this study, based on CSCT images taken by using human mimicked phantom, 70, 100, 140 keV and MSI, MD material calcium weighting( MCW) and MD material iodine weighting(MIW) of DECT were applied respectively. Then calculated calcium volume was converted to Agatston score for comparison. Volume of human mimicked phantom was in inverse proportion to keV. The volume decreased while keV increased(p<0.05). The most similar DECT volumes were reconstructed at 70 keV, the difference was showed 35.8±12.2 for rib, femur (16.1±24.1), pelvis(13.7±18.8), and spine(179.0±61.8). However, the volume of MSI was down for each organ; the volume of rib was 5.55%, femur(76.34%), pelvis(55.16%) and spine(87.58%). The volume of MSI decreased 55.9% for rib, femur(80.7%), pelvis(69.6%) and spine(54.2%) while MD MIW reduced for rib(83.51%), femur(87.68%), pelvis(86.64%), and spine(82.62%). With the results, the study found that outcomes were affected by the method which examiners employed. When using DECT, calcium volume of born dropped with keV increased. It also found that the most similar DECT images were reconstructed at 70 keV. The results of experiments implied that the users of MSI and MD should be cautious of errors as there are big differences in scores between those two methods

  2. Comparison of bone volume measurements using conventional single and dual energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yung Kyoon; Park, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The study examines changes in calcium volume on born by comparing two figures; one is measured by dual energy computed tomography(DECT) followed by applying variation in monochromatic energy selection( keV), material decomposition(MD), and material suppressed iodine(MSI) analysis, and the other is measured by conventional single source computed tomography(CSCT). For this study, based on CSCT images taken by using human mimicked phantom, 70, 100, 140 keV and MSI, MD material calcium weighting( MCW) and MD material iodine weighting(MIW) of DECT were applied respectively. Then calculated calcium volume was converted to Agatston score for comparison. Volume of human mimicked phantom was in inverse proportion to keV. The volume decreased while keV increased(p<0.05). The most similar DECT volumes were reconstructed at 70 keV, the difference was showed 35.8±12.2 for rib, femur (16.1±24.1), pelvis(13.7±18.8), and spine(179.0±61.8). However, the volume of MSI was down for each organ; the volume of rib was 5.55%, femur(76.34%), pelvis(55.16%) and spine(87.58%). The volume of MSI decreased 55.9% for rib, femur(80.7%), pelvis(69.6%) and spine(54.2%) while MD MIW reduced for rib(83.51%), femur(87.68%), pelvis(86.64%), and spine(82.62%). With the results, the study found that outcomes were affected by the method which examiners employed. When using DECT, calcium volume of born dropped with keV increased. It also found that the most similar DECT images were reconstructed at 70 keV. The results of experiments implied that the users of MSI and MD should be cautious of errors as there are big differences in scores between those two methods.

  3. Measurement of vertebral bone density. Quantitative CT or dual-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergot, C.; Laval-Jeantet, A.M.; Laval-Jeantet, M.H.; Kuntz, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have compared vertebral bone density measurements (QCT and DXA) in women in the postmenopausal period who underwent both examinations. Our aim was to study the results and to define the respective indications of QCT and DXA in various clinical pictures of osteoporosis. The subjects of the study were distributed into various groups according to the presence or absence of vertebral collapse and/or peripheral fractures. The results of the measurements were expressed as Z-scores (deviation from age-normal average) to suppress the age effect and to make comparison between both methods possible. The values of both measurements are significantly lower in case of vertebral involvement. QCT is more sensitive than DXA to discriminate vertebral collapse. A vertebral fragility threshold was defined at a Z-score of-1 with DXA and-1.25 with QCT, corresponding to the best sensitivity for an acceptable specificity. The results of densitometry suggest that there is a peripheral osteoporosis, different from vertebral osteoporosis, as early as the postmenopausal period. Since DXA is easy to implement, it can be used to screen osteoporosis. When the vertebral measurement with DXA is normal although osteoporosis is obvious (previous collapse or fracture), QCT must be used as it is more sensitive

  4. Bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in preterm newborns compared with full-term peers in the first six months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia S. Quintal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally assess bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, and whole-body lean mass obtained through bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in preterm newborns (PTNs and compare them with full-term newborns (FTNs from birth to 6 months of corrected postnatal age. METHODS: A total of 28 adequate for gestational age (AGA newborns were studied: 14 preterm and 14 full-term newborns. DXA was used to determine BMC, BMD, and lean mass in three moments: 40 weeks corrected post-conceptual age, as well as 3 and 6 months of corrected postnatal age. PTNs had gestational age ≤ 32 weeks at birth and were fed their mother's own milk or milk from the human milk bank. RESULTS: All infants had an increase in BMC, BMD, and lean body mass values during the study. PTNs had lower BMC, BMD, and lean mass at 40 weeks of corrected post-conceptual age in relation to FTNs (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.047, respectively. However, there was an acceleration in the mineralization process of PTNs, which was sufficient to achieve the normal values of FTNs at 6 months of corrected age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a good method for the assessment of body composition parameters at baseline, and at the follow-up of these PTNs.

  5. Evaluation of femur of orchiectomized Guinea pigs by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanislau, Cristiane de Abreu; Rahal, Sheila Canavese; Araujo, Fabio Andre Pinheiro de, E-mail: crisestanislau@hotmail.co, E-mail: sheilacr@fmvz.unesp.b, E-mail: fabioandre@fmvz.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinaria; Sergio Swain Muller, E-mail: diretoria@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino, E-mail: louzada@fmva.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Estanislau, Caroline de Abreu, E-mail: caestanis@hotmail.co

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of castration on bones in the male guinea pigs and to observe whether mechanical testing correlates with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twelve male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 21-27 days, and with average initial weight of 279 grams were used. The animals were equally allocated to two groups: GI - orchiectomized animals and GII - intact control animals. They underwent euthanasia at seven months following surgery. DXA measurement was performed at the mid third of the right femoral diaphysis in the cortical region and at the left femoral neck in order to verify its correlation with results of mechanical testing. Three-point bending test of right femur and axial compression test of left femur were performed. Bone mineral density of GI was significantly lower only at femoral neck. No differences were observed in the maximum load values between GI and GII for both bending and axial compression tests. The bending test revealed lower bone stiffness in GI compared to GII, but in the axial compression test no differences between groups were observed. Only left femur showed positive correlation coefficient between maximum load and bone mineral density according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggest that hormonal deprivation in guinea pigs induces reduction of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck area and reduction of bone stiffness in the mid-femoral diaphysis. (author)

  6. Evaluation of femur of orchiectomized Guinea pigs by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estanislau, Cristiane de Abreu; Rahal, Sheila Canavese; Araujo, Fabio Andre Pinheiro de; Sergio Swain Muller; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino; Estanislau, Caroline de Abreu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of castration on bones in the male guinea pigs and to observe whether mechanical testing correlates with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twelve male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 21-27 days, and with average initial weight of 279 grams were used. The animals were equally allocated to two groups: GI - orchiectomized animals and GII - intact control animals. They underwent euthanasia at seven months following surgery. DXA measurement was performed at the mid third of the right femoral diaphysis in the cortical region and at the left femoral neck in order to verify its correlation with results of mechanical testing. Three-point bending test of right femur and axial compression test of left femur were performed. Bone mineral density of GI was significantly lower only at femoral neck. No differences were observed in the maximum load values between GI and GII for both bending and axial compression tests. The bending test revealed lower bone stiffness in GI compared to GII, but in the axial compression test no differences between groups were observed. Only left femur showed positive correlation coefficient between maximum load and bone mineral density according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggest that hormonal deprivation in guinea pigs induces reduction of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck area and reduction of bone stiffness in the mid-femoral diaphysis. (author)

  7. The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medicine Physics, The Graduate School of Biomedical Science Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.

  8. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic; Archer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  9. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  10. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Archer, Jane; Buckley, Jonathan D; Tsiros, Margarita D; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5%; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2%). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2%; LOA ≤11.9%). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2%; LOA ≤23.6%) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6%; LOA ≤27.5%). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals.

  11. Recurrent surgical site infection of the spine diagnosed by dual 18F-NaF-bone PET/CT with early-phase scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Jeong Won; Jeon, Min Hyok; Lee, Sang Mi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 31-year-old man who showed recurrently elevated level of the serum inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) after spinal operation. He underwent 18 F-flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and dual 18 F-sodium-fluoride ( 18 F-NaF) PET/CT with an additional early-phase scan to find a hidden inflammation focus. Only mildly increased 18 F-FDG was found at the surgical site of T11 spine on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, dual 18 F-NaF bone PET/CT with early-phase scan demonstrated focal active inflammation at the surgical site of T11 spine. After a revision operation of the T11 spine, serum CRP level decreased to the normal range without any symptom or sign of inflammation. Inflammatory focus in the surgical site of the spine can be detected with using dual 18 F-NaF bone PET/CT scan with early-phase scan. (orig.)

  12. Use of dual-energy CT and virtual non-calcium techniques to evaluate post-traumatic bone bruises in knees in the subacute setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Songtao; Qu, Mingliang; Glazebrook, Katrina N.; Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Rhee, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and virtual non-calcium (VNCa) imaging to detect magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-demonstrated bone bruises several weeks after unilateral knee injury. Patients with unilateral knee injury and MRI-confirmed bone bruises who had undergone a DECT scan of both knees were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists evaluated VNCa images for bruises in four regions per knee without knowing the MRI results. The mean CT numbers were calculated for the lesion-positive and lesion-negative regions of the injured knee, and the contralateral knee. Fourteen patients with a total of 36 regions positive for bone bruises on MRI were identified. The median delay between injury and DECT was 37 days (range, 11-99 days). The mean CT numbers in VNCa images for lesion-positive and lesion-negative regions were -7.6 ± 24.9 HU and -58.2 ± 19.5 HU, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean CT number between the lesion-negative regions in the injured knee and the contralateral knee. No resolution of bruising was seen before week 5, and bone bruising was still identifiable in one out of the two patients scanned at 10 weeks following injury. DECT and VNCa images can identify bone bruising for at least 10 weeks after injury. (orig.)

  13. Correlation between bone mineral density of jaws and skeletal sites in an Iranian population using dual X-ray energy absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Esfahanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001. There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005. There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01 between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla. Conclusion: The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.

  14. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ra...

  15. Usefulness of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound stiffness for the evaluation of bone health in HIV-1-infected subjects: comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Ceci, Fabrizio; Cacciatore, Francesco; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mezzaroma, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the "gold standard" technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate bone mineral status in a group of 158 HIV-1-infected subjects. The primary endpoint was the feasibility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) as a screening tool for BMD. All subjects were receiving stable cART and were virologically suppressed (HIV-RNA HIV-1-specific characteristics, also including cART strategies. In the univariate analyses BMD, QUS indexes, and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool scores conversely showed significant associations with one or more demographic or HIV-1-related variables. Moreover, a significant relationship between calcaneal quantitative ultrasound index/stiffness and femoral/lumbar BMD values from DXA was described. The multivariate analysis showed an independent association between calcaneal quantitative ultrasound index/stiffness and body mass index, higher CD4+ T-cell numbers and low 25-OH D2/D3 vitamin D levels HIV-1-infected patients for assessing bone health impairment. In fact, the results obtained confirm that calcaneal QUS may be useful for monitoring bone status, being a noninvasive and inexpensive technique, especially in those subjects with the classical traditional risk factors for bone damage that were observed earlier in HIV-1 population.

  16. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  17. A Dual-Action Armed Replicating Adenovirus for the Treatment of Osteoblastic Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    that bone metastases of prostate cancer have an extensive bone resorptive component mediated by osteoclasts: resorption of the bone matrix provides...enhances protection by parenteral Mycobac- 795 terium bovis BCG immunization against pulmonary tuberculosis. 796 Infection and Immunity, 74, 4634–4643. 797...oncolysis; replicating adeno- virus; TIMP-2; tumor growth ABBReviATionS MMP matrix metalloproteinase TIMP-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2

  18. TRABECULAR BONE SCORE – A NON-INVASIVE ANALYTICAL METHOD TO EVALUATE BONE QUALITY BASED ON ROUTINE DUAL-ENERGY ABSORPTIOMETRY. PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Tsoriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, osteodensitometry is currently considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, despite good operational characteristics, this type of investigation cannot help to assess bone microarchitecture and the degree of its derangement in osteoporosis. Therefore, trabecular bone score (TBS has been developed as a  non-invasive method of indirect description of bone microarchitecture based on data derived from a  standard DXA of the lumbar spine. Not being a direct mapping of the physical measurements of trabecular microarchitecture, TBS nevertheless shows a positive correlation with quantitative values obtained from micro-computed tomography and high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, i.e. with the bone volume fraction, junction density, trabecular numbers and their disintegration. There is also an association between the ability of the bone tissue to resist stress in experimental studies ex vivo and TBS measurement. Due to TBS, there is a possibility to detect bone microarchitecture impairment even in individuals with normal bone mineral density (BMD, i.e. higher TBS values correlate with improved bone microstructure, whereas a  reduced TBS shows its deterioration. Limitation of TBS use are primarily related to the DXA image quality: image faults caused either by technical reasons or by too low or too high body mass index can lead to an overestimation/underestimation of the index. Assessment of the lumbar TBS has been repeatedly performed in cross-sectional and prospective studies in representative patient samples (mainly postmenopausal women and significant numbers of healthy subjects, and proved to be a predictor (independent of BMD of fracture risk. An evaluation of the possibility to use TBS for early diagnosis of secondary osteoporosis (related to various endocrine disorders  would be of great interest, as BMD, as known from clinical

  19. Bright points and ejections observed on the sun by the KORONAS-FOTON instrument TESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2010-10-01

    Five-second observations of the solar corona carried out in the FeIX 171 Å line by the KORONAS-FOTON instrument TESIS are used to study the dynamics of small-scale coronal structures emitting in and around coronal bright points. The small-scale structures of the lower corona display complex dynamics similar to those of magnetic loops located at higher levels of the solar corona. Numerous detected oscillating structures with sizes below 10 000 km display oscillation periods from 50 to 350 s. The period distributions of these structures are different for P 150 s, which implies that different oscillation modes are excited at different periods. The small-scale structures generate numerous flare-like events with energies 1024-1026 erg (nanoflares) and with a spatial density of one event per arcsecond or more observed over an area of 4 × 1011 km2. Nanoflares are not associated with coronal bright points, and almost uniformly cover the solar disk in the observation region. The ejections of solar material from the coronal bright points demonstrate velocities of 80-110 km/s.

  20. Analysis of Cell Proliferation in Newt (Pleurodeles waltl) Tissue Regeneration during Spaceflight in Foton M-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E. A. C.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Yusuf, R.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Grigoryan, N.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight expe rience musculoskeletal degeneration. It is still not understood if lo nger-term exposures to microgravity induce degeneration in other tiss ues, and if these effects are also observed in neutrally buoyant aqu atic organisms that may be pre-adapted to mechanical unloading. The " Regeneration" experiment conducted collaboratively between Russian an d US scientists for 16 days in the Russian Foton M-2 spaceflight soug ht to test the hypothesis that microgravity alters the proliferation of cells in regenerating tail tissue of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. Our initial results indicate that we successfUlly delivered the proli feration marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) during spaceflight, and that it was incorporated in the nuclei of cells in regenerating tis sues. Cells in spaceflight tail regenerates proliferated at a slight ly slower rate and were more undifferentiated than those in ground sy nchronous controls. In addition, the size of regenerating tails from spaceflight was smaller than synchronous controls. However, onboard temperature recordings show that the temperature in spaceflight was a bout 2 C lower than ground synchronous controls, possibly explaining the observed differences. Additional post-facto ground controls at ma tched temperatures will correctly determine the effects of spaceflig ht on regenerative cell proliferation in the newt.

  1. Are adult patients with Laron syndrome osteopenic? A comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and volumetric bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Carlos A; Eshed, Varda; Kamjin, Moshe; Laron, Zvi

    2003-10-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in IGF-I is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been noted in LS patients examined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), this technique does not take volume into account and may therefore underestimate the true bone density in patients with small bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the BMD yielded by DEXA in our LS patients using estimated volumetric values. Volumetric density was calculated with the following formulas: bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) = bone mineral content (BMC)/(area)(3/2) for the lumbar spine and BMAD = BMC/area(2) for the femoral neck. The study sample included 12 patients (mean age, 43.9 yr; mean height, 123.7 cm). Findings were compared with 10 osteopenic subjects without developmental abnormalities (mean age, 56 yr; mean height, 164.8 cm) and 10 healthy control subjects matched for sex and age to the LS patients (mean height, 165.5 cm). BMAD in the LS group was 0.201 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3) at the lumbar spine and 0.201 +/- 0.04 g/cm(3) at the femoral neck; corresponding values for the osteopenic group were 0.130 +/- 0.01 and 0.140 +/- 0.01 g/cm(3), and for the controls, 0.178 +/- 0.03 and 0.192 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3). Although areal BMD was significantly lower in the LS and osteopenic subjects compared with controls (P < 0.02) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck, BMAD was low (P < 0.01) in the osteopenic group only. In conclusion, DEXA does not seem to be a reliable measure of osteoporosis in patients with LS.

  2. Accuracy of lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the determination of bone mineral content in the thoracic and lumbar spine: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondston, S.J. (Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Singer, K.P. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia) Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Price, R.I. (Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia)); Breidahl, P.D. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia))

    1993-04-01

    Lateral scanning with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was undertaken on 153 thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from nine individuals (mean age 67; range 34-92 years) to establish their bone mineral content (BMC). All specimens were subsequently de-fatted and ashed to compare ash weight with BMC of the T1 to L5 segments. Linear regression analysis indicated a higher correlation between BMC and measured ash weights for each vertebral column (range: r = 0.97-0.99), with error analysis for all vertebrae tested showing a standard error of 0.40 g, or 10.8%. For the L2-4 segments the accuracy error was 0.50 g or 7.9%. In both cases there was a mean trend towards underestimation of ash weight. Mean BMC values of the T1 to T5 segments were similar before a progressive increase caudally. These data affirm the utility of DXA for determining bone mineral content in the vertebral column across wide ranges of age, and segmental and bone density. (Author).

  3. Accuracy of lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the determination of bone mineral content in the thoracic and lumbar spine: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmondston, S.J.; Breidahl, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Lateral scanning with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was undertaken on 153 thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from nine individuals (mean age 67; range 34-92 years) to establish their bone mineral content (BMC). All specimens were subsequently de-fatted and ashed to compare ash weight with BMC of the T1 to L5 segments. Linear regression analysis indicated a higher correlation between BMC and measured ash weights for each vertebral column (range: r = 0.97-0.99), with error analysis for all vertebrae tested showing a standard error of 0.40 g, or 10.8%. For the L2-4 segments the accuracy error was 0.50 g or 7.9%. In both cases there was a mean trend towards underestimation of ash weight. Mean BMC values of the T1 to T5 segments were similar before a progressive increase caudally. These data affirm the utility of DXA for determining bone mineral content in the vertebral column across wide ranges of age, and segmental and bone density. (Author)

  4. Direct X-ray radiogrammetry versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: assessment of bone density in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Wittenberg, Rianne [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke; Sluis, Inge M. van der; MuinckKeizer-Schrama, Sabine M.P.F. de [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten H. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, Cornelis Van [University Medical Centre ' Radboud' , Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    In recent years interest in bone densitometry in children has increased. To evaluate the clinical application of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and compare the results with those of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 41 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 26 children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were included in this longitudinal study. Radiographs of the left hand were obtained and used for DXR. DXA of the total body and of the lumbar spine was performed. In both study populations significant correlations between DXR and DXA were found, and, with the exception of the correlation between DXR bone mineral density (DXR-BMD) and bone mineral apparent density in the GHD population, all correlations had a P-value of <0.001. During treatment a change in DXR-BMD was found in children with GHD. Our study showed that DXR in a paediatric population shows a strong correlation with DXA of the lumbar spine and total body and that it is able to detect a change in BMD during treatment. (orig.)

  5. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R.

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm 2 removesthe necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p < 0.05). Total effective dose was 63 %/39 % lower for the third generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. (orig.)

  6. Direct X-ray radiogrammetry versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: assessment of bone density in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Wittenberg, Rianne; Boot, Annemieke; Sluis, Inge M. van der; MuinckKeizer-Schrama, Sabine M.P.F. de; Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den; Lequin, Maarten H.; Kuijk, Cornelis Van

    2006-01-01

    In recent years interest in bone densitometry in children has increased. To evaluate the clinical application of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and compare the results with those of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 41 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 26 children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were included in this longitudinal study. Radiographs of the left hand were obtained and used for DXR. DXA of the total body and of the lumbar spine was performed. In both study populations significant correlations between DXR and DXA were found, and, with the exception of the correlation between DXR bone mineral density (DXR-BMD) and bone mineral apparent density in the GHD population, all correlations had a P-value of <0.001. During treatment a change in DXR-BMD was found in children with GHD. Our study showed that DXR in a paediatric population shows a strong correlation with DXA of the lumbar spine and total body and that it is able to detect a change in BMD during treatment. (orig.)

  7. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  8. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lietzmann, Florian; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm(2) removes the necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. • Omitting the z-axis-filter allows a reduction in radiation dose of 50% • A smaller focal spot of 0.2 mm (2) significantly improves spatial resolution • Ultra-high-resolution temporal-bone-CT helps to gain diagnostic information of the middle/inner ear.

  9. Precision of high-resolution dual energy x-ray absorptiometry of bone mineral status and body composition in small animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochmüller E. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the in situ precision (reproducibility of bone mineral and body composition measurements in mice of different body weights and rats, using a high-resolution DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We examined 48 NMRI mice weighing approximately 10 to 60 g, and 10 rats weighing approximately 140 g. Four repeated measurements were obtained on different days. In mice, the standard deviations of repeated measurements ranged from 2.5 to 242 mg for bone mineral content (BMC, from 0.16 to 3.74 g for fat, and from 0.40 to 4.21 g for lean mass. The coefficient of variation in percent (CV% for BMC/BMD (bone mineral density was highest in the 10 g mice (12.8% / 4.9% and lowest in the 40 g mice (3.5% /1.7%. In rats, it was 2.5 /1.2% in the lower extremity, 7.1/3.0 % in the spine, 5.7/2.0 % in the femur, and 3.6%/2.1% in the tibia. The CV% for fat and lean mass in mice was higher than for BMC. The study demonstrates good precision of bone mineral and moderate precision of body composition measure-ments in small animals, using a high-resolution DXA system. The technique can be used for testing the efficacy of drugs in small animal models, for muta-genesis screens, and for the phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice.

  10. Cross-calibration of domestic devices and GE lunar prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray densitometer devices for bone mineral measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Chungbuk Health and Science University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung A [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Reliable follow-up of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is essential in clinical practice. When there is a difference in the BMD values from DXA systems in the same patient, cross calibration equation is required for the reliable follow-up. Unfortunately, no equation is existed in BMD measure between GE Lunar Prodigy Advance (US, GE Healthcare; LPA) and Osteosys Dexxum T (Korea, Osteosys; ODT) DXA systems. In this study, we evaluate the agreement of BMD values between LPA and ODT and suggest the cross calibration equation using European spine phantom (ESP) with two systems. We performed BMD measurements using ten scans with ESP in each DXA systems. We compared BMD values and calculated cross calibration equation by linear regression analysis. The comparison between the LPA and ODT bone densitometers used the ESP. Compared to the ESP BMD values, ODT underestimated 14.36% and LPA overestimated 12.96%. The average of total BMD measurement values acquired with ODT were 21.44% lower than those from LPA. Cross-calibration equation for LPA and ODT was derived from ESP. We calculated simple cross calibration equation for LPA and ODT DXA systems. Cross-calibration equation is necessary for the reliable follow-up of BMD values in two different systems.

  11. A dual-application poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-chitosan composite scaffold for potential use in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Yamina; Qutachi, Omar; Scurr, David J; Morris, Andrew P; Doughty, Stephen W; Billa, Nashiru

    2017-11-01

    The development of patient-friendly alternatives to bone-graft procedures is the driving force for new frontiers in bone tissue engineering. Poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan are well-studied and easy-to-process polymers from which scaffolds can be fabricated. In this study, a novel dual-application scaffold system was formulated from porous PLGA and protein-loaded PLGA/chitosan microspheres. Physicochemical and in vitro protein release attributes were established. The therapeutic relevance, cytocompatibility with primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteogenic properties were tested. There was a significant reduction in burst release from the composite PLGA/chitosan microspheres compared with PLGA alone. Scaffolds sintered from porous microspheres at 37 °C were significantly stronger than the PLGA control, with compressive strengths of 0.846 ± 0.272 MPa and 0.406 ± 0.265 MPa, respectively (p < 0.05). The formulation also sintered at 37 °C following injection through a needle, demonstrating its injectable potential. The scaffolds demonstrated cytocompatibility, with increased cell numbers observed over an 8-day study period. Von Kossa and immunostaining of the hMSC-scaffolds confirmed their osteogenic potential with the ability to sinter at 37 °C in situ.

  12. Precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the knee and heel: methodology and implications for research to reduce bone mineral loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, W T; Kim, W J; Ethans, K; Cowley, K C

    2017-05-01

    Methodological validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based measures of leg bone mineral density (BMD) based on the guidelines of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the precision of BMD estimates at the knee and heel using the manufacturer provided DXA acquisition algorithm. The secondary objective was to determine the smallest change in DXA-based measurement of BMD that should be surpassed (least significant change (LSC)) before suggesting that a biological change has occurred in the distal femur, proximal tibia and calcaneus. Academic Research Centre, Canada. Ten people with motor-complete SCI of at least 2 years duration and 10 people from the general population volunteered to have four DXA-based measurements taken of their femur, tibia and calcaneus. BMDs for seven regions of interest (RIs) were calculated, as were short-term precision (root-mean-square (RMS) standard deviation (g cm -2 ), RMS-coefficient of variation (RMS-CV, %)) and LSC. Overall, RMS-CV values were similar between SCI (3.63-10.20%, mean=5.3%) and able-bodied (1.85-5.73%, mean=4%) cohorts, despite lower absolute BMD values at each RIs in those with SCI (35%, heel to 54%, knee; P10% are needed to detect differences between treated and untreated groups in studies aimed at reducing bone mineral loss after SCI.

  13. Application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the changes of bone mineral density in 131 healthy women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Shibiao; Wang Dongliang; Wu Yiwei

    2002-01-01

    131 healthy women aged 31-72 years participated in the study, include 64 sexual maturity women aged 31-52 were enrolled in four groups based on age, and 67 postmenopausal women, the years of menopause from 1 month to 23 years, were also enrolled in four groups based on duration of menopause. The bone mineral density of the lumbar-spine and femur were measured using dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry. At the same time, the serum E 2 , FSH, BGP were detected by radioimmunoassay; the serum AKP, calcium, phosphate were detected using automatic biochemistry instrument. The results were: the BMD of lumbar-spine and right femur were decreased, and associated with increasing age and the duration of menopause, especially after menopause. Significant positive correlation was noted between BMD and E 2 . Serum AKP and BGP levels were higher in postmenopausal women than those of sexual maturity women. The serum calcium level was increased significantly soon after menopause, then decreased to normal level, and maintained in this level. The serum phosphate level had no difference in these groups. Therefore BMD, serum E 2 , BGP and AKP determination have some value for the early diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and prediction of bone fracture also

  14. A dual-task design of corrosion-controlling and osteo-compatible hexamethylenediaminetetrakis- (methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMPA) coating on magnesium for biodegradable bone implants application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng; Chen, Yingqi; Liu, Bo; Chen, Meiyun; Mao, Jinlong; He, Hairuo; Zhao, Yuancong; Huang, Nan; Wan, Guojiang

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium as well as its alloys appears increasingly as a revolutionary bio-metal for biodegradable implants application but the biggest challenges exist in its too fast bio-corrosion/degradation. Both corrosion-controllable and bio-compatible Mg-based bio-metal is highly desirable in clinic. In present work, hexamethylenediaminetetrakis (methylenephosphonic acid) [HDTMPA, (H2 O3 P-CH2 )2 -N-(CH2 )6 -N-(CH2 -PO3 H2 )2 ], as a natural and bioactive organic substance, was covalently immobilized and chelating-deposited onto Mg surface by means of chemical conversion process and dip-coating method, to fullfill dual-task performance of corrosion-protective and osteo-compatible functionalities. The chemical grafting of HDTMPA molecules, by participation of functional groups on pretreated Mg surface, ensured a firmly anchored base layer, and then sub-sequential chelating reactions of HDTMPA molecules guaranteed a homogenous and dense HDTMPA coating deposition on Mg substrate. Electrochemical corrosion and immersion degradation results reveal that the HDTMPA coated Mg provides a significantly better controlled bio-corrosion/degradation behavior in phosphate buffer saline solution as compared with untreated Mg from perspective of clinic requirement. Moreover, the HDTMPA coated Mg exhibits osteo-compatible in that it induces not only bioactivity of bone-like apatite precipitation but also promotes osteoblast cells adhesion and proliferation. Our well-controlled biodegradable and biocompatible HDTMPA modified Mg might bode well for next generation bone implant application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to the assessment of tibial subchondral bone mineral density in osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, S.; Duddy, J.; Nickols, G.; Kirwan, J.R.; Wakeley, C.; Watt, I.; Ellingham, K.; Sharif, M.; Elson, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Plain X-ray is an imprecise tool for monitoring the subchondral bony changes associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective was to develop and validate a technique for assessing tibial subchondral bone density (BMD) in knee OA using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Patients with OA of at least one knee underwent DXA scanning of both knees. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the lateral and medial compartments of tibial subchondral bone. Weight-bearing plain X-rays and Te 99m scintiscans of both knees were obtained and scored. One hundred and twelve patients (223 knees) underwent DXA and radiography. Intra-observer CV% was 2.4% and 1.0% for the medial and lateral ROI respectively. Definite OA (Kellgren and Lawrence Grade 2, 3 or 4) was correlated with age-related preservation of subchondral BMD compared to radiographically normal knees. Raised BMD was also associated with subchondral sclerosis, and positive scintigraphy. DXA may provide a safe, rapid and reliable means of assessing knee OA. Cross-sectional age-related subchondral tibial BMD loss is attenuated by knee OA. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Shen, Jincheng; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wilderman, Scott; Chun, Se Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (∼17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2–1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3–1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6–1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3–2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results

  17. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Messina, Carmelo; Petrini, Marcello [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo [IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 x CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100 % LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8 % CoV and 2.1 % LSC for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.3 % for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 % for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.2 %, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 %, for BMD; 2.0 % and 5.4 % for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95 %) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98 %) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. (orig.)

  18. Peculiarities of lens and tail regeneration detected in newts after spaceflight aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Almeida, Eduardo; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Domaratskaya, Elena; Aleinikova, Karina; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.

    In September 2007 the joint, 12 day long experiment was carried out aboard Russian satellite Foton M3. The goal of the experiment was to study eye lens, tail and forelimb toe regeneration in adult 16 newts (Pl. waltl.) operated 10 days before taking-off. In spaceflight and synchronous ground control we used video recording, temperature and irradiation control, as well as constant availability of thymidine analog BrdU for its absorption via animals' skin. New techniques allowed us to analyze animals' behavior in hyperand microgravity periods of time, to take proper account of spaceflight factors, and measure accumulated pools of DNA-synthesizing cells in regenerating tissues. All tissue specimens obtained from animals were isolated in the day of landing and then prepared for morphological, immunochemical and molecular investigations. Synchronous control was shifted for two days and reproduced flight conditions except changes of gravity influence. As a result in flown animals as compared with synchronous ground control we found lens regeneration of 0.5-1 stage speeded up and an increased BrdU+ (S-phase) cell number in eye cornea, growth zone, limbus and newly forming lens. These features of regeneration were accompanied by an increase of FGF2 expression in eye growth zone and heat shock protein (HSP90) induction purely in retinal macroglial cells of regenerating eyes. Toe regeneration rate was equal and achieved the stage of accomplished healing of amputation area in both groups - "flown" and control animals. We found no essential differences in tail regeneration rate and tail regenerate sizes in the newts exposed to space and on ground. In both groups tail regeneration reached the stage IV-V when tail length and square were around 4.4 mm and 15.5 mm2, correspondingly. However we did observe remarkable changes of tail regenerate form and some of pigmentation. Computer morphometrical analysis showed that only in ground control animals the evident dorso

  19. Dual-energy imaging of bone marrow edema on a dedicated multi-source cone-beam CT system for the extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbijewski, W.; Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Thawait, G.; Packard, N.; Yorkston, J.; Demehri, S.; Fritz, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Arthritis and bone trauma are often accompanied by bone marrow edema (BME). BME is challenging to detect in CT due to the overlaying trabecular structure but can be visualized using dual-energy (DE) techniques to discriminate water and fat. We investigate the feasibility of DE imaging of BME on a dedicated flat-panel detector (FPD) extremities cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a unique x-ray tube with three longitudinally mounted sources. Methods: Simulations involved a digital BME knee phantom imaged with a 60 kVp low-energy beam (LE) and 105 kVp high-energy beam (HE) (+0.25 mm Ag filter). Experiments were also performed on a test-bench with a Varian 4030CB FPD using the same beam energies as the simulation study. A three-source configuration was implemented with x-ray sources distributed along the longitudinal axis and DE CBCT acquisition in which the superior and inferior sources operate at HE (and collect half of the projection angles each) and the central source operates at LE. Three-source DE CBCT was compared to a double-scan, single-source orbit. Experiments were performed with a wrist phantom containing a 50 mg/ml densitometry insert submerged in alcohol (simulating fat) with drilled trabeculae down to ~1 mm to emulate the trabecular matrix. Reconstruction-based three-material decomposition of fat, soft tissue, and bone was performed. Results: For a low-dose scan (36 mAs in the HE and LE data), DE CBCT achieved combined accuracy of ~0.80 for a pattern of BME spherical lesions ranging 2.5 - 10 mm diameter in the knee phantom. The accuracy increased to ~0.90 for a 360 mAs scan. Excellent DE discrimination of the base materials was achieved in the experiments. Approximately 80% of the alcohol (fat) voxels in the trabecular phantom was properly identified both for single and 3-source acquisitions, indicating the ability to detect edemous tissue (water-equivalent plastic in the body of the densitometry insert) from the fat inside the trabecular matrix

  20. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  1. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...... polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  2. A dual model HU conversion from MRI intensity values within and outside of bone segment for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Juha, E-mail: juha.p.korhonen@hus.fi [Clinical Research Institute Helsinki University Central Hospital Ltd., POB-700, 00029 HUS, Finland and Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Kapanen, Mika [Clinical Research Institute Helsinki University Central Hospital Ltd., POB-700, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital, POB-2000, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Keyriläinen, Jani; Seppälä, Tiina; Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The lack of electron density information in magnetic resonance images (MRI) poses a major challenge for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). In this study the authors convert MRI intensity values into Hounsfield units (HUs) in the male pelvis and thus enable accurate MRI-based RTP for prostate cancer patients with varying tissue anatomy and body fat contents. Methods: T{sub 1}/T{sub 2}*-weighted MRI intensity values and standard computed tomography (CT) image HUs in the male pelvis were analyzed using image data of 10 prostate cancer patients. The collected data were utilized to generate a dual model HU conversion technique from MRI intensity values of the single image set separately within and outside of contoured pelvic bones. Within the bone segment local MRI intensity values were converted to HUs by applying a second-order polynomial model. This model was tuned for each patient by two patient-specific adjustments: MR signal normalization to correct shifts in absolute intensity level and application of a cutoff value to accurately represent low density bony tissue HUs. For soft tissues, such as fat and muscle, located outside of the bone contours, a threshold-based segmentation method without requirements for any patient-specific adjustments was introduced to convert MRI intensity values into HUs. The dual model HU conversion technique was implemented by constructing pseudo-CT images for 10 other prostate cancer patients. The feasibility of these images for RTP was evaluated by comparing HUs in the generated pseudo-CT images with those in standard CT images, and by determining deviations in MRI-based dose distributions compared to those in CT images with 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the anisotropic analytical algorithm and 360° volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm. Results: The average HU differences between the constructed pseudo-CT images and standard CT images of each

  3. Bone mineral density of the spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Masuko; Kohno, Tsuneaki; Morikawa, Akira; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa.

    1996-01-01

    Bone mineral density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, of the spine of 3,414 survivors was measured using Hologic QDR2000 DEXA apparatus. Decrease of the density was shown correlated with age and was statistically significant in forties and fifties as compared with other ages. No significance was seen between the density and the distance of irradiation. Menopause, fracture, experience for osteoporosis examination and that for its treatment were significantly correlated with the density decrease. No significance was observed in meals, exercise and sunlight exposure. High significance (p<0.01) was detected in coffee and alcohol intakes. In groups having twice examinations, no significance was seen between changes in the density and in the meals, exercise and go-out period. (H.O.)

  4. Bone mineral density of the spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko; Kohno, Tsuneaki; Morikawa, Akira [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan); Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa

    1996-03-01

    Bone mineral density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, of the spine of 3,414 survivors was measured using Hologic QDR2000 DEXA apparatus. Decrease of the density was shown correlated with age and was statistically significant in forties and fifties as compared with other ages. No significance was seen between the density and the distance of irradiation. Menopause, fracture, experience for osteoporosis examination and that for its treatment were significantly correlated with the density decrease. No significance was observed in meals, exercise and sunlight exposure. High significance (p<0.01) was detected in coffee and alcohol intakes. In groups having twice examinations, no significance was seen between changes in the density and in the meals, exercise and go-out period. (H.O.)

  5. Evaluation of mandibular bone mineral density using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique in edentulous subjects living in an endemic fluorosis region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkaplan, U S; Guldag, M U

    2012-07-01

    Fluoride is one of the biological trace elements with a strong affinity for osseous, cartilaginous and dental tissue. The dental and skeletal effects of high fluoride intake have already been studied in the literature, but little is known about the effects of high fluoride intake on edentulous mandibles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fluoride intake on mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique in edentulous individuals with systemic fluorosis. 32 people who were living in an endemic fluorosis area since birth and 31 people who were living in a non-endemic fluorosis area since birth (control group) participated in this study. Systemic fluorosis was diagnosed in the patients using the sialic acid (NANA)/glycosaminoglycan (GAG) ratio. The BMDs of the mandibles were determined by the DXA technique. The serum NANA/GAG ratios in the fluorosis group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p structures of the stomatognathic system.

  6. Measurements of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using lunar prodigy and the new pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dongil; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Han, Chung Soo; Kim, Seonwoo; Bok, Hae Sook; Huh, Wooseong; Ko, Jae-Wook; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the correlation of the absolute bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine and standard sites of the proximal femur obtained from a Lunar Prodigy and the newly developed pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexxum). Between June 2008 and December 2008, 79 Korean volunteers were enrolled. Measurements were obtained on the same day using both densitometers. The absolute BMD values (g/cm 2 ) from the two densitometers were evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis with Bonferroni's correction for the three clinically important sites. In order to evaluate precision, we performed duplicate Dexxum measurements, and calculated the within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of BMD values for the total proximal femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by the two densitometers were 0.926, 0.948, and 0.955 respectively, and the null hypotheses of r = 0.8 were all rejected (p < 0.001 by one-sided Z-test with Fisher's z-transformation for each site). The T-scores (r ≥ 0.842) and Z-scores (r ≥ 0.709) also showed strong positive correlations. The duplicate BMD values of Dexxum showed a high level of precision (WSCV ≤ 4.27%). Dexxum measurements of BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores showed a strong linear correlation with those measured on Lunar Prodigy. (orig.)

  7. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93) and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87) for men with BMI osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  9. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  10. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Correlation with clinical or pathological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongling; Shen, Chentian; Zhu, Ruisen; Luo, Quanyong; Wu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual phase 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31%) patients with 181 foci had a positive 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the 99m Tc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69%) patients had a negative 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive 9m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61%) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.96 cm and 163

  11. Small animals bone density and morphometry analysis with a dual energy X-rays absorptiometry bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector; Analyse de la densite osseuse et de la morphometrie de petits animaux avec un osteodensitometre bi-energie utilisant un capteur 2D de radiographie numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudousq, V. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 (France); Bordy, T.; Gonon, G.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble (DTBS/STD), Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 38 (France)

    2004-07-01

    LEXXOS (DMS, Montpellier, France) is the first axial and total body cone beam bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector. In previous papers, technical principles and patients' Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement performances were presented. Bone densitometers are also used on small animals for drug development. In this presentation, we show how LEXXOS can be adapted for small animals' examinations and evaluate its performances. At first, in order to take advantage of the whole area of the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} digital radiographic detector, it has been made profit of X-Rays magnification by adapting the geometrical configuration. Secondly, as small animals present low BMD, a specific dual energy calibration has been defined. This adapted system has then been evaluated on two sets of mice: six reference mice and six ovariectomized mice. Each month, these two populations have been examined and the averaged total body BMD has been measured. This evaluation shows that the right order of BMD magnitude is obtained and, as expected, BMD increases on two sets until a period around puberty and the ovariectomized set presents a significant decrease after. Moreover, the bone image obtained by dual energy processing on LEXXOS presents a radiographic image quality providing useful complementary information on bone morphometry and architecture. This study shows that LEXXOS cone beam bone densitometer provides simultaneously useful quantitative and qualitative information for analysis of bone evolution on small animals. In the future, same system architecture and processing methodology can be used with higher resolution detectors in order to refine information on bone architecture. (authors)

  12. Facile green synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposite in the dual acting fluorine-containing ionic liquid medium for bone substitute applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegatheeswaran, S. [Advanced Green Chemistry Lab, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-3, Tamil Nadu (India); Selvam, S. [Laser and Sensor Application Laboratory, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Sri Ramkumar, V. [Deptartment of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental, Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu (India); Sundrarajan, M., E-mail: sundrarajan@yahoo.com [Advanced Green Chemistry Lab, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-3, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Fluorine based ionic liquid was highly influenced the morphological structure of nanocomposites. • These composites has been motivated controlled release of silver nanoparticles for uniform antibacterial activity. • These material has given excellent antibacterial biofilm activity and favourable cytotoxical behavior on the human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells. • These material has been highly suitable for bone substitute appliactions. - Abstract: A novel green route has approached for the synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite by the assistance of fluorine-based ionic liquid. The selected [BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid for this work plays a dual role as fluoride source and templating agent. It helps to improve the crystalline structures and the shape of the composites. The crystallinity, surface morphology, topographical studies of the synthesized composite were validated. The XRD results of the composite show typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2° and 63.4°. The ionic liquid assisted composite displayed the hexagonal shaped HA particles, which are surrounded by spherical nano-Ag particles and these particles are uniformly dispersed in the β-cyclodextrin matrix in both horizontal and cross sections from surface morphology observations. The Ionic liquid assisted silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite exhibited very good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia liquefaciens pathogens. The antibacterial proficiencies were established using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic developed biofilms images and bacterial growth curve analysis. The cytotoxicity results of the ionic liquid assisted composite analyzed by cell proliferation in vitro studies using human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) and this study has shown excellent biocompatibility.

  13. Quantitative dual-energy CT for phantomless evaluation of cancellous bone mineral density of the vertebral pedicle: correlation with pedicle screw pull-out strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L.; Booz, Christian; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J.M.; Fischer, Sebastian; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Khan, M.F. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wesarg, Stefan [Fraunhofer IGD, Cognitive Computing and Medical Imaging, Darmstadt (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Spine Center, Asklepios Klinik Lindenlohe, Schwandorf (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate quantitative dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for phantomless analysis of cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebral pedicles and to assess the correlation with pedicle screw pull-out strength. Twenty-nine thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from cadaver specimens were examined with DECT. Using dedicated post-processing software, a pedicle screw vector was mapped (R1, intrapedicular segment of the pedicle vector; R2, intermediate segment; R3, intracorporal segment; global, all segments) and BMD was calculated. To invasively evaluate pedicle stability, pedicle screws were drilled through both pedicles and left pedicle screw pull-out strength was measured. Resulting values were correlated using the paired t test and Pearson's linear correlation. Average pedicle screw vector BMD (R1, 0.232 g/cm{sup 3}; R2, 0.166 g/cm{sup 3}; R3, 0.173 g/cm{sup 3}; global, 0.236 g/cm{sup 3}) showed significant differences between R1-R2 (P < 0.002) and R1-R3 (P < 0.034) segments while comparison of R2-R3 did not reach significance (P > 0.668). Average screw pull-out strength (639.2 N) showed a far stronger correlation with R1 (r = 0.80; P < 0.0001) than global BMD (r = 0.42; P = 0.025), R2 (r = 0.37; P = 0.048) and R3 (r = -0.33; P = 0.078) segments. Quantitative DECT allows for phantomless BMD assessment of the vertebral pedicle. BMD of the intrapedicular segment shows a significantly stronger correlation with pedicle screw pull-out strength than other segments. (orig.)

  14. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yumiko; Koike, George; Numata, Makoto; Taneda, Kiyoshi; Jingu, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  15. Facile green synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposite in the dual acting fluorine-containing ionic liquid medium for bone substitute applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegatheeswaran, S.; Selvam, S.; Sri Ramkumar, V.; Sundrarajan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluorine based ionic liquid was highly influenced the morphological structure of nanocomposites. • These composites has been motivated controlled release of silver nanoparticles for uniform antibacterial activity. • These material has given excellent antibacterial biofilm activity and favourable cytotoxical behavior on the human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells. • These material has been highly suitable for bone substitute appliactions. - Abstract: A novel green route has approached for the synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite by the assistance of fluorine-based ionic liquid. The selected [BMIM]BF_4 ionic liquid for this work plays a dual role as fluoride source and templating agent. It helps to improve the crystalline structures and the shape of the composites. The crystallinity, surface morphology, topographical studies of the synthesized composite were validated. The XRD results of the composite show typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2° and 63.4°. The ionic liquid assisted composite displayed the hexagonal shaped HA particles, which are surrounded by spherical nano-Ag particles and these particles are uniformly dispersed in the β-cyclodextrin matrix in both horizontal and cross sections from surface morphology observations. The Ionic liquid assisted silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite exhibited very good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia liquefaciens pathogens. The antibacterial proficiencies were established using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic developed biofilms images and bacterial growth curve analysis. The cytotoxicity results of the ionic liquid assisted composite analyzed by cell proliferation in vitro studies using human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) and this study has shown excellent biocompatibility.

  16. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  17. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women...... with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61...... and only 6 % of women in the low-risk group would be false negatives....

  18. Measurement of bone mineral density in the tunnel regions for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan, and the immersion technique based on Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xin; Chen, Liaobin

    2012-10-01

    To determine, for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, whether the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral tunnel was higher than that of the tibial tunnel, to provide objective evidence for choosing the appropriate diameter of interference screws. Two groups were enrolled. One group comprised 30 normal volunteers, and the other comprised 9 patients with ACL rupture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions of the volunteers' right knees by choosing a circular area covering the screw fixation region. The knees were also scanned by spiral computed tomography (CT), and the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique was used to determine the circular sections passing through the longitudinal axis of the femoral and tibial tunnels. Grayscale CT values of the cross-sectional area were measured. Cylindrical cancellous bone blocks were removed from the femoral and tibial tunnels during the ACL reconstruction for the patients. The volumetric BMD of the bone blocks was measured using a standardized immersion technique according to Archimedes' principle. As measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions was 1.162 ± 0.034 g/cm(2) and 0.814 ± 0.038 g/cm(2), respectively (P difference in both femoral and tibial tunnel regions. For ACL reconstruction, the BMD of the femoral tunnel is higher than that of the tibial tunnel. This implies that a proportionally larger-diameter interference screw should be used for fixation in the proximal tibia than that used for fixation in the distal femur. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Periprosthetic bone density changes after MiniHipTM cementless femoral short stem: one-year results of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the reaction of the femur to the implantation of the MiniHipTM in terms of: (1 bone density change during one year; (2 correlations between stem length, CCD (caput-collum-diaphyseal, femoral offset, T-value, and bone density; (3 other co-variables that influence the change of bone density. Patients and methods: MiniHipTM implant was performed for 62 patients. The age range of the patients who underwent treatment was 25–78 years. Periprothestic bone density was determined within two weeks postoperatively, after three, six, and twelve months utilizing the DEXA scan. Results: The highest change was observed in the first three months post-implantation, while significant decrease in density was recorded at proximal Gruen zones 1, 2, and 7, and at distal Gruen zone 4. The decrease in density reached a plateau between the third and sixth months after operation. Afterwards, bone density recovered up to the 12th postoperative month. The correlation analysis showed significant difference between Gruen zone 1 and stem size and CCD. The same significant trend was not reached for Gruen zone 7. Femoral offset showed no correlation. Covariance analysis was unable to establish connection of the results with diagnosis, pairings, or gender. Discussion: MiniHipTM densitometric results are promising and comparable to good results of the other representatives of the femoral neck partially-sustaining short stem prostheses with a lower proximal bone density reduction. Periprosthetic bone resorption is a multifactorial process where stem size, CCD angle, and patient-specific variables such as T-value have an impact on the periprosthetic bone remodeling. In particular, this applies to Gruen zone 1.

  20. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  1. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  2. Preparation of the Femoral Bone Cavity for Cementless Stems: Broaching vs Compaction. A Five-Year Randomized Radiostereometric Analysis and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mette H; Kold, Søren; Søballe, Kjeld; Langdahl, Bente L; Nielsen, Poul T; Christensen, Poul H; Stilling, Maiken

    2017-06-01

    Short-term experimental and animal studies have confirmed superior fixation of cementless implants inserted with compaction compared to broaching of the cancellous bone. Forty-four hips in 42 patients (19 men) were randomly operated using cementless hydroxyapatite-coated Bi-Metric stems. Patients were followed with radiostereometric analysis at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks, 1, 2, and 5 years, and measurements of periprosthetic bone mineral density at baseline, 1, 2, and 5 years. Complications during the study period and clinical outcome measures of Harris Hip Score were recorded at mean 7 years (5-8.8) after surgery. Absolute migrations of medio/lateral translations between the broaching group and the compaction group of mean 0.14 mm (standard deviation [SD] 0.10) vs mean 0.30 mm (SD 0.27) (P = .01) at 1 year, and of mean 0.13 mm (SD 0.10) vs 0.34 mm (0.31) (P = .01) at 5 years were different. Absolute valgus/varus rotations of mean 0.12° (SD 0.13°) in the broaching group were less than mean 0.35° (0.45°) in the compaction group (P .13). The compaction group had significantly less bone loss than the broaching group in Gruen zone 3 (distal-lateral to the stem) at 1 and 5 years. No further differences in bone mineral density changes were found between groups up to 5 years after surgery. Complications throughout the period and clinical outcome measures of Harris Hip Score were similar at 7 years (5-8.8) after surgery. We found increased migration when preparing the bone with compaction compared with broaching in cementless femoral stems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of bone mineral content (BMC) by dual photon absorptiometry: Age-, sex-, and menopause-related changes in Bavaria and effect of estrogen replacement in early postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Henning, J.; Utz, G.; Scheffel, H.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular bone mass (L2-4) have been determined repeatedly with DPA using GD 153 (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 female and 112 male pts with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal', (age- and sex-related average) BMC values differed significantly from those of US people determined by same equipment, i.e., were in average about 30% lower, but matched well with corresponding results from Belgium. BMC-area was found the most suitable parameter both for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, since BMC-area is independent from height and weight. But there is still need to reduce the overlap and improve accuracy and reproducibility for making decisions after shorter intervals. Assessment of the individual mineral loss and fracture risk by comparing to average values, however, remains problematic due to the wide range of 'normal' BMC and in women additionally due to the variable onset of menopause. For estimations of the individual fracture risk of elderly pts BMC should not be normalized on age, because at the age of 65 half of the women had 'pathologic' values, i.e. were below the so called 'osteoporosis threshold'. Comparison of the individually measured postmenopausal BMC to average values of premenopausal women and to BMC values normalized to their menopausal age may be helpful approaches for overcoming these difficulties. Because of the lack of earlier individual data in most cases repeated BMC measurements are still required for assessment of demineralization speed. Preliminary results of estrogen replacement therapy with low doses of natural conjugated estrogen show good prevention of bone loss in healthy but not in ovarectomized women. (orig./MG)

  4. Cross calibration of QDR-2000 and QDR-1000 dual-energy X-ray densitometers for bone mineral and soft-tissue measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Gram, J; Hansen, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    ) and fan beam (FB) modes (n = 40-62) as a quality control measure. A total of 83 subjects (79 females and four males) with a wide range of bone mineral densities (BMD) were studied. There was a linear relationship between results with the QDR-1000W and QDR-2000 in SB mode, and between SB and FB mode...... device. Soft-tissue composition with FB (enhanced analysis protocol) on the QDR-2000 differed greatly from that obtained using SB (standard protocol). Lean tissue mass was 4 kg lower and fat mass 4 kg higher in FB mode.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  5. Dual Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Spady, Richard; Stouli, Sami

    2012-01-01

    We propose dual regression as an alternative to the quantile regression process for the global estimation of conditional distribution functions under minimal assumptions. Dual regression provides all the interpretational power of the quantile regression process while avoiding the need for repairing the intersecting conditional quantile surfaces that quantile regression often produces in practice. Our approach introduces a mathematical programming characterization of conditional distribution f...

  6. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  7. A prospective dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study of bone remodeling after implantation of the Nanos short-stemmed prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Alexander; Pankow, Franziska; Röllinhoff, Marc; Delank, Stefan; Wohlrab, David

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the bone remodeling around the Nanos stem (Smith & Nephew, Marl, Germany) after primary total hip arthroplasty for coxarthrosis. In 25 patients (15 male, 10 female, mean age 59.9 years) with the diagnosis of coxarthrosis, a DEXA scan was performed immediately after surgery, 97 days (SD 6.1 days) and 368 days (SD 6.2 days) after implantation of a Nanos prosthesis. Plain radiographs were analyzed digitally for radiolucent lines, varus-valgus femoral stem alignment, measurement of stem migration and changes in varus-valgus femoral stem alignment. The position of the center of rotation (COR) and the offset were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Harris Hip Score was used to evaluate the clinical outcome. The DEXA scan showed a significant and relevant increase in BMD (Bone Mineral Density) in Gruen-Zone 6 (12%) and a decrease in Zone 1 (15%), 2 (5%) and 7 (12%), which was interpreted as reflecting a distal load transfer in the metaphysis of the femur. There was no clinically relevant migration or tilting of the Nanos stem. Radiolucent lines were noted in 12 cases, mainly at the polished tip area of the prosthesis; this was not regarded as a sign of impaired osseointegration. There was no significant difference between the position of the COR and the pre- and postoperative offset. The absence of stem migration, angulation, or relevant radiolucent lines is seen as evidence for an unimpaired osseointegration of the Nanos stem approximately 12 months after implantation. It is concluded that the Nanos prosthesis can reduce loss of BMD of the proximal femur composed with conventional stems or other short-stemmed implants.

  8. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer: A Prospective Comparative Study of Dual-Time-Point FDG-PET/CT, Contrast-Enhanced CT, and Bone Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina; Falch, Kirsten; Hansen, Jeanette Ansholm; Farahani, Ziba Ahangarani; Petersen, Henrik; Larsen, Lisbet Brønsro; Duvnjak, Sandra; Buskevica, Inguna; Bektas, Selma; Søe, Katrine; Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Ewertz, Marianne; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2016-06-01

    To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence. One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four-point assessment scale, and readers were blinded to other test results. The reference standard was biopsy along with treatment decisions and clinical follow-up (median, 17 months). FDG-PET/CT resulted in no false negatives and fewer false positives than the other imaging techniques. Accuracy of results were similar for 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT. For distant recurrence, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1) for FDG-PET/CT, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.94) for ceCT, and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.94) for the combined ceCT+BS. Of 100 patients, 22 (22%) were verified with distant recurrence, and 18 of these had bone involvement. Nineteen patients (19%) had local recurrence only. In exploratory analyses, diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT was better than ceCT alone or ceCT combined with BS in diagnosing distant, bone, and local recurrence, shown by a greater area under the receiver operating curve and higher sensitivity, specificity, and superior likelihood ratios. FDG-PET/CT was accurate in diagnosing recurrence in breast cancer patients. It allowed for distant recurrence to be correctly ruled out and resulted in only a small number of false-positive cases. Exploratory findings suggest that FDG-PET/CT has greater accuracy than conventional imaging technologies in this patient group. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  10. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, A.; Webber, C.E.; Morrison, J.; Beaumont, L.F.; Barr, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  11. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aina; Kremer, Stephane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation (''CT edema'') on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84 %, specificity of 97 %, and accuracy of 95 %, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p < 0.0001). Cut-off values provided sensitivity of 85 % (77 %) and specificity of 82 % (74 %) for ''CT edema'' on thoracic (lumbar) vertebrae. VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aina; Kremer, Stephane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation (''CT edema'') on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84 %, specificity of 97 %, and accuracy of 95 %, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p < 0.0001). Cut-off values provided sensitivity of 85 % (77 %) and specificity of 82 % (74 %) for ''CT edema'' on thoracic (lumbar) vertebrae. VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aïna; Kremer, Stéphane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation ("CT edema") on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 97%, and accuracy of 95%, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation.

  14. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  15. Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence: Head-to-head comparison with CT and bone scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Christina; Falch Braas, Kirsten; Gerke, Oke

    of six hours and had a blood glucose level less than 8 mmol/l prior to injection of 4 MBq/kg of FDG. Imaging was performed 1 and 3 hours (±5 mins) after injection. At both time-points a low-dose CT from the skull to the proximal femur was obtained followed by a 3D PET-scan of the same area. The duration...... administered with a flow of 3.0 ml/s and a delay of 60 seconds. Bone scintigraphy. The patients were injected with 700 MBq 99mTc-DPD 3 to 4 hours prior to whole body imaging. In the waiting period the patients were asked to drink approx. 1 litre of clear liquids. Positive findings with any of the three...... had sensitivities of 67% and 81% and specificities of 100% and 48%, respectively. Conclusion: These interim results suggest that FDG PET/CT may have a role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer. The 3-hour FDG-PET scan may be diagnostically superior to the other...

  16. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, Alexander; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ionov, Victor; Iliyin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite). After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  17. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Slobodkin

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite. After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  18. Heating of the quiet solar corona from measurements of the FET/TESIS instrument on-board the KORONAS-FOTON satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybák, J.; Gömöry, P.; Benz, A.; Bogachev, P.; Brajša, R.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the first results of the observations of time evolution of the quiet solar corona brightenings obtained due to very rapid photography of the corona with full-disk EUV telescopes of the FET/TESIS instrument onboard the KORONA FOTON satellite. The measurements were performed simultaneously in the emission of the Fe IX / X 17.1 and Fe VIII 13.1 spectral lines with 10 second temporal cadence and spatial scale of 1.7 arc seconds within one hour. This test observation, carried out on 15 July 2009, was analyzed in order to determine whether this type of observation can be used to identify individual microevents in the solar corona heating that are above the tresholds of spatial and temporal resolutions of the observations of non-active regions in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, a simple method was used involving cross-correlation of the plasma emission time evolution at different temperatures, each time from observations of identical elements. The results obtained are confronted with the expected observable manifestations of the corona heating via nanoflares. TESIS is a set of instruments for the Sun photography developed in the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that was launched into orbit in January 2009.

  19. Pelvic reconstructions following peri-acetabular bone tumour resections using a cementless ice-cream cone prosthesis with dual mobility cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Samir-Pierre; Biau, David; Babinet, Antoine; Dumaine, Valérie; Le Hanneur, Malo; Anract, Philippe

    2018-01-27

    Despite numerous reconstructive techniques and prosthetic devices, pelvic reconstructions following peri-acetabular malignant tumours resections are highly challenging. In the present study, we describe our experience with the Integra® (Lépine, Genay, France) ice-cream cone prosthesis in such indications. The objective was to assess the mid-term outcomes of this device. Twenty-four patients' chart with peri-acetabular malignant tumours, who underwent types II or II + III peri-acetabular resections according to Enneking and Dunham with subsequent reconstruction using the Integra® prosthesis between February 2009 and February 2015, were reviewed. Seventeen cases were primary surgeries and seven cases were revisions (i.e., failures of previous reconstructions for pelvic tumours). All living patients with the prosthesis implanted were functionally assessed, using the musculoskeletal tumour society (MSTS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) scores. After a mean follow-up of 49 ± 26 months (range, 8 to 94 months), 21 patients were alive (88%), including 15 patients continuously disease-free (63%). MSTS and PMA scores averaged 72 ± 13% (range, 43 to 87%) and 14.6 ± 2.6 (range, 9 to 18), respectively. Fourteen patients (58%) presented at least one complication during follow-up, including four cases of deep infection (17%), four cases of dislocation (17%), and two mechanical failures (8%). At 5 years, the implant survival rate was 75%. In comparison to previous reconstructive techniques that we used in similar indications, functional and oncologic outcomes were improved with the Integra® implant. However, as commonly observed in pelvic bone tumour surgery, complication rates remain significant. Therapeutic, Level IV-Retrospective Cases Series.

  20. Effect of degenerative change of lumbar spine on lateral bone mineral density measurement using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: usefulness of measurement in the supine lateral projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ja Young; Jo, Jin Man; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin; Cho, Su Hyeon

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of supine lateral bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using DXA by comparing AP and lateral spine BMD in patients with degenerative change Six hundred and seventy-two women underwnet AP and lateral BMD measurement of L-spine, using DXA. Spur changes and end-plate sclerosis were considered as degenerative change, and osteoporosis was defined according to WHO criteria. The ratio of mid-lateral BMD to AP BMD was calculated and the differences in ratio were analyzed in the degenerative group and controls, according to aging and osteoporosis, using the t test and ANOVA. The correlation coefficiency between aging and AP BMD and lateral BMD, respectively, was calculated. The mLat/AP ratio in the control and degenerative group was 0.710±0.005/0.622±0.028(p=3D0.003) in the 40-49-year-old group, 0.663±0.006/0.612±0.016 (p=3D0.002) in the 50-59-year-old group. 0.626±0.015/0.552±0.023 (p+0.007) in the 60-69-year-old group, and 0.717±0.028/0.600±0.045 (p=3D0.076) in those aged over 70. The ratio was 0.656±0.015/0.598±0.038(p=3D0.099) in osteoporosis, 0.684±0.008/0.596±0.016 (p=3D0.000) in osteopenia, and 0.688±0.005/0.583±0.019 (p=3D0.000) in normal subjects, showing that lateral BMD is more sensitive than AP BMD, espectially in the degenerative group. There was negative correlation between aging and AP BMD(r=3D-0.545), lateral BMD(r=3D0.571), and mid-lateral BMD(r=3D-0.583). In a selective group of patients with degenerative change, supine lateral BMD measurement of L-spine is useful

  1. The Explicit Determinations Of Dual Plane Curves And Dual Helices In Terms Of Its Dual Curvature And Dual Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae Won; Choi Jin Ho; Jin Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give the explicit determinations of dual plane curves, general dual helices and dual slant helices in terms of its dual curvature and dual torsion as a fundamental theory of dual curves in a dual 3-space

  2. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 21 hemodialysis (HD) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Sato, Motoaki; Oh, Songchol; Sato, Atsushi; Saito, Hisao; Funyu, Tomihisa.

    1996-01-01

    BMC of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) was measured by QCT and DXA in 21 HD patients. The effect of sex, aging, HD duration, postmenopausal years and various blood parameters of bone metabolism on BMC was assessed statistically. BMC showed a good positive correlation not only with DXA and QCT (trabecular and cortical bone), but with QCT (trabecular bone) and QCT (cortical bone). A significant age-related decrease in BMC, particularly by QCT (trabecular bone), was found in both sexes. BMC measured by QCT (trabecular bone) increased with the duration of HD in male patients. A negative relationship between postmenopausal years and BMC measured by QCT (trabecular and cortical bone) was prominent. BMC was not found to be correlated with various blood parameters of bone metabolism. Thus, measurement of BMC (L2-L4) by QCT has the advantage of allowing more precise examination of changes in cortical and trabecular bone. (author)

  3. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  4. Bone remodeling around cementless tantalum cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillo, J. -C.; Flecher, X.; Bouvenot, J.; Argenson, J. -N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the study.-Most studies have reported a significant decrease in periacetabular bone stock one year after implantation of a cementless cup. The purpose of this work was to study the bone-implant interface of the tantalum cup using plain X-rays and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

  5. Dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium technique for detection of bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral fractures: A prospective feasibility study on a single- source volume CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekhoff, T., E-mail: torsten.diekhoff@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hermann, K.G. [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Pumberger, M. [Department of Spine Surgery, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Department of Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Putzier, M.; Fuchs, M. [Department of Spine Surgery, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objectives: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1.5 T MRI. Virtual non-calcium (VNC) images were reconstructed from the DECT volume datasets. Three blinded readers independently scored images for the presence of BME. Only vertebrae with loss of height in radiography (target vertebrae) were included in the analysis. A vertebra was counted as positive if two readers agreed on the presence of BME. Cohen’s kappa was calculated for interrater comparison. Intervertebral ratios of target and the reference vertebra were compared for CT attenuation and MR signal intensity in a reference vertebra using Spearman correlation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Results: Fourteen target vertebrae with a radiographic height loss were identified; eight of them showed BME on MRI, while DECT identified BME in 7 instances. There were no false positive virtual non-calcium images, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.88 (0.75–1.0 among all readers) and specificity of 1.0 (0.81–1.0). Interrater agreement was inferior for DECT (κ = 0.63–0.89) compared to MRI (κ = 0.9–1.0). Intervertebral ratio in VNC images strongly correlated with short-tau inversion recovery (r = 0.87) and inversely with T1 (-0.89). SNR (0.2 +/− 0.2 in VNC and 16.7 +/− 7.3 in STIR) and CNR (0.2 +/− 0.3 and 7.1 +/− 6.3) values were inferior in VNC. Conclusions: Detecting BME with single-source DECT is feasible and allows detection of vertebral compression fractures with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity

  6. Dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium technique for detection of bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral fractures: A prospective feasibility study on a single- source volume CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekhoff, T.; Hermann, K.G.; Pumberger, M.; Hamm, B.; Putzier, M.; Fuchs, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1.5 T MRI. Virtual non-calcium (VNC) images were reconstructed from the DECT volume datasets. Three blinded readers independently scored images for the presence of BME. Only vertebrae with loss of height in radiography (target vertebrae) were included in the analysis. A vertebra was counted as positive if two readers agreed on the presence of BME. Cohen’s kappa was calculated for interrater comparison. Intervertebral ratios of target and the reference vertebra were compared for CT attenuation and MR signal intensity in a reference vertebra using Spearman correlation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Results: Fourteen target vertebrae with a radiographic height loss were identified; eight of them showed BME on MRI, while DECT identified BME in 7 instances. There were no false positive virtual non-calcium images, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.88 (0.75–1.0 among all readers) and specificity of 1.0 (0.81–1.0). Interrater agreement was inferior for DECT (κ = 0.63–0.89) compared to MRI (κ = 0.9–1.0). Intervertebral ratio in VNC images strongly correlated with short-tau inversion recovery (r = 0.87) and inversely with T1 (-0.89). SNR (0.2 +/− 0.2 in VNC and 16.7 +/− 7.3 in STIR) and CNR (0.2 +/− 0.3 and 7.1 +/− 6.3) values were inferior in VNC. Conclusions: Detecting BME with single-source DECT is feasible and allows detection of vertebral compression fractures with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity

  7. Dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium technique for detection of bone marrow edema in patients with vertebral fractures: A prospective feasibility study on a single- source volume CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhoff, T; Hermann, K G; Pumberger, M; Hamm, B; Putzier, M; Fuchs, M

    2017-02-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent development for detecting bone marrow edema (BME) in patients with vertebral compression fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the reliability of single-source DECT in detecting vertebral BME using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Nine patients with radiographic thoracic or lumbar vertebral compression fractures underwent both, DECT on a 320-row single-source scanner and 1.5T MRI. Virtual non-calcium (VNC) images were reconstructed from the DECT volume datasets. Three blinded readers independently scored images for the presence of BME. Only vertebrae with loss of height in radiography (target vertebrae) were included in the analysis. A vertebra was counted as positive if two readers agreed on the presence of BME. Cohen's kappa was calculated for interrater comparison. Intervertebral ratios of target and the reference vertebra were compared for CT attenuation and MR signal intensity in a reference vertebra using Spearman correlation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Fourteen target vertebrae with a radiographic height loss were identified; eight of them showed BME on MRI, while DECT identified BME in 7 instances. There were no false positive virtual non-calcium images, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.88 (0.75-1.0 among all readers) and specificity of 1.0 (0.81-1.0). Interrater agreement was inferior for DECT (κ=0.63-0.89) compared to MRI (κ=0.9-1.0). Intervertebral ratio in VNC images strongly correlated with short-tau inversion recovery (r=0.87) and inversely with T1 (-0.89). SNR (0.2+/- 0.2 in VNC and 16.7+/- 7.3 in STIR) and CNR (0.2+/- 0.3 and 7.1+/- 6.3) values were inferior in VNC. Detecting BME with single-source DECT is feasible and allows detection of vertebral compression fractures with reasonably high sensitivity and specificity. However, image quality of VNC reconstructions has to be improved to achieve better

  8. Dual Entwining Structures and Dual Entwined Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhlail, Jawad Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we introduce and investigate the concepts of dual entwining structures and dual entwined modules. This generalizes the concepts of dual Doi-Koppinen structures and dual Doi-Koppinen modules introduced (in the infinite case over rings) by the author is his dissertation.

  9. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  10. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Rikushi (Shiga Univ. of Medical Sciences, Otsu (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.).

  11. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  12. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  14. Scintigraphic findings of bone and bone-marrow and determination of bone mineral density using photon absorptiometry in osteopetrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    On a 15-year-old girl with osteopetrosis, bone and bonemarrow scintigraphy were performed. Also, bone mineral density (BMD) with quantitative CT (QCT), single photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) were measured. On bone scintigraphy the diffusely increased skeletal uptake and relatively diminished renal uptake were noted. On the other hand, on bone marrow scintigraphy poor accumulation in central marrow and peripheral expansion were shown. BMD value by QCT and DPA (mainly trabecular bone) was markedly high, while BMD by SPA (mainly cortical bone) was within normal range. Thus, it was shown that bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy combined with BMD measurement by photon absorptiometry were useful and essential in evaluating the pathophysiology of osteosclerosis. (author)

  15. Dual photon absorptiometry in hemodialyzed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viron, B.; Dosquet, P.; Haddoum, F.; Mignon, F.; Talbot, J.N.; Kiffel, T.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1988-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was performed in 25 uremic patients (mean age: 8) undergoing dialysis for 1 month to 10 years. Mean bone mineral content (BMC), expressed as a percentage of normal value, was significantly lower in hemodialyzed patients (-10 ± 17%) than in control subjects (p [fr

  16. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  17. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  18. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  19. Some properties of dual and approximate dual of fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar; Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of approximate dual to fusion frames and present some approaches to obtain dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames. Also, we study the stability of dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames.

  20. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  1. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  2. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  3. Dual photon absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, B.O.; Hansson, T.H.; Skoeldborn, H.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with determination of the bone mineral content in the third lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry, the fat in the adipose capsules of the kidneys is assumed to cause erroneous positioning of the baseline, leading to overestimation of the bone mineral content. The bone mineral content in L3 was measured in situ (BMC 1 ) and vitro (BMC 2 ) in 14 cadavers. The difference between BMC 1 and BMC 2 was significantly greater than zero, the median value being 0.32 g/cm at the confidence level of 94.4 per cent. It is concluded that at correlation between bone mineral content and compressive strength in vitro, the in vivo strength is overestimated by about 250 N. (Auth.)

  4. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  5. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  6. Dual energy CT: New horizon in medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning. Dual-energy material-specific imaging methods include virtual monoenergetic or monochromatic imaging, effective atomic number map, virtual non-contrast or unenhanced imaging, virtual non-calcium imaging, iodine map, inhaled xenon map, uric acid imaging, automatic bone removal, and lung vessels analysis. In this review, we focus on dual-energy CT imaging including related issues of radiation exposure to patients, scanning and post-processing options, and potential clinical benefits mainly to improve the understanding of clinical radiologists and thus, expand the clinical use of dual-energy CT; in addition, we briefly describe the current technical limitations of dual-energy CT and the current developments of photon-counting detector.

  7. Dual-Energy CT: New Horizon in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Goo, Jin Mo

    2017-01-01

    Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning. Dual-energy material-specific imaging methods include virtual monoenergetic or monochromatic imaging, effective atomic number map, virtual non-contrast or unenhanced imaging, virtual non-calcium imaging, iodine map, inhaled xenon map, uric acid imaging, automatic bone removal, and lung vessels analysis. In this review, we focus on dual-energy CT imaging including related issues of radiation exposure to patients, scanning and post-processing options, and potential clinical benefits mainly to improve the understanding of clinical radiologists and thus, expand the clinical use of dual-energy CT; in addition, we briefly describe the current technical limitations of dual-energy CT and the current developments of photon-counting detector.

  8. A novel dual energy method for enhanced quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, A.; Ghadiri, H.; Rahmim, A.; Ay, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) is critically important in clinical practice, and conveniently enabled via quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Meanwhile, dual-energy QCT (DEQCT) enables enhanced detection of small changes in BMD relative to single-energy QCT (SEQCT). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of QCT methods, with particular emphasis on a new dual-energy approach, in comparison to single-energy and conventional dual-energy techniques. We used a sinogram-based analytical CT simulator to model the complete chain of CT data acquisitions, and assessed performance of SEQCT and different DEQCT techniques in quantification of BMD. We demonstrate a 120% reduction in error when using a proposed dual-energy Simultaneous Equation by Constrained Least-squares method, enabling more accurate bone mineral measurements.

  9. Thalassemia paravertebral tumors and bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huglo, D.; Rose, C.; Deveaux, M.; Bauters, F.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    Two first cousins with thalassemia and with a paravertebral mass had had an indium 111 chloride bone marrow scan. Result of scan influenced therapy: medical treatment in one case where an extramedullary erythropoiesis was confirmed, surgical treatment in the other case. The use of dual-isotope SPECT (indium 111 chloride, HDP -99 Tc) constitutes a contribution to the establishment of diagnosis of extramedullary erythropoiesis, giving to bone marrow scintigraphy a merited importance, avoiding the biopsy. (authors). 15 refs., 5 figs

  10. A Dual Role of Upper Zone of Growth Plate and Cartilage Matrix-Associated Protein in Human and Mouse Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Inhibition of Aggrecanases and Promotion of Bone Turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, M.; Menges, S.; Eitzinger, N.; Gesslein, M.; Botschner, R.; Wormser, L.; Distler, A.; Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U.; Dietel, K.; Distler, J.; Beyer, C.; Gelse, K.; Engelke, K.; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Mark, K. von der; Schett, G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage and subchondral bone changes are closely connected in osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, how these processes are interlinked is, to date, incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanistic role of a cartilage-derived protein, upper zone of growth

  11. Dual photon absorptiometry of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaydier-Souquieres, G.; Sabatier, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry allows quantitative investigation of the vertebral mineral content. The authors report the bone mineralization regression curves they obtained with their prototype in male and female controle subjects. There is a fracture threshold, unconnected with age, between normal and osteoporotic subjects. DPA results correlate well with those of Quantitative Computed Tomography. DPA can be used to monitor patient's mineralization and detect subjects at increased risk for fractures [fr

  12. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  13. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions...... are considered and the relation with the dual Youla parameter given. Some applications of the dual Youla parameterisation are considered in connection with the design of controllers and model/performance validation....

  14. Dual photon absorptiometry and histomorphometry (a comparative study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duriez, J.; Guembeker, C. de; Duriez, R.

    1988-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L3-L4) and histomorphometry on iliac bone biopsy are two means of investigation of the axial skeleton. Each of them is important for the analysis of osteoporosis. The data they give are different but complementary. Dual photon absorptiometry gives only but precisely the amount of calcium in the vertebral bodies. It is a simple and no-invasive technic and easily which can be repeated. Histomorphometry only gives a poor estimation of the bone rarefaction. On the other hand it allows to settle the type of lack of background of the loss of bone mass. This information is important for the therapeutic choice. Unfortunately this investigation cannot be easily repeated. Dual photon absorptiometry of lumbar spine has many causes of mistake. Mono photon densitometry of the radius (midship and distal) is more faithful and it is a good way to screen and assure the follow-up of bone rarefaction. Nevertheless dual photon absorptiometry has some advantages, especially the determination of bone mineral content of a local part of the peripheral skeleton or of the total body calcium [fr

  15. Dual affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities for the dual -centroid bodies which are the dual forms of the results by Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. Further, we establish a Brunn-Minkowski-type inequality for the polar of dual -centroid bodies.

  16. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, S; Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G.; Calvo, E.; Rodriguez-Salvanes, F.; Diaz-Curiel, M.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934±217 mg, 878±83 mg, 149±14 mg and 29±7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298±24 mg/cm 2 , 455±32 mg/cm 2 , 617±60 mg/cm 2 and 678±163 mg/cm 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  17. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  18. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  19. DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL AND DUAL TIMELIKE SPHERICAL CURVES IN DUAL MINKOWSKI SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we give characterizations of dual timelike normal and dual timelike spherical curves in the dual Minkowski 3-space and we show that every dual timelike normal curve is also a dual timelike spherical curve. Keywords: Normal curves, Dual Minkowski 3-Space, Dual Timelike curves. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2000): 53C50, 53C40. DUAL MINKOWSKI UZAYINDA DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL VE DUAL TIMELIKE KÜRESEL EĞRİLER Özet: Bu çalışmada, dual Minkowski 3-...

  20. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Kehayias, J.; Lindsay, R.

    1989-01-01

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  2. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  3. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  4. Bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Effect of disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Halberg, P; Kollerup, G

    1998-01-01

    The bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has previously been examined, but the results are conflicting. In the present study the bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial and the appendicular skeleton was examined by means of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The bone...

  5. Dual energy CTA of the supraaortic arteries: Technical improvements with a novel dual source CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, Michael M.; Hinkmann, Fabian; Nkenke, Emeka; Schmidt, Bernhard; Seidensticker, Peter; Kalender, Willi A.; Uder, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a well-accepted imaging modality to evaluate the supraaortic vessels. Initial reports have suggested that dual energy CTA (DE-CTA) can enhance diagnosis by creating bone-free data sets, which can be visualized in 3D, but a number of limitations of this technique have also been addressed. We sought to describe the performance of DE-CTA of the supraaortic vessels with a novel dual source CT system with special emphasis on image quality and post-processing related artifacts. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent carotid CT angiography on a second generation dual source CT system. Simultaneous acquisitions of 100 and 140 kV data sets in arterial phase were performed. Two examiners evaluated overall bone suppression with a 3-point scale (1 = poor; 3 = excellent) and image quality regarding integrity of the vessel lumen of different vessel segments (n = 26) with a 5-point scale (1 = poor; 5 = excellent), CTA source data served as the reference. Results: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved in the head and neck. Only minor bone remnants occurred, mean score for bone removal was 2.9. Mean score for vessel integrity was 4.3. Eight hundred fifty-seven vessel segments could be evaluated. Six hundred thirty-five segments (74%) showed no lumen alteration, 65 segments (7.6%) lumen alterations 10% resulting in a total luminal reduction 50%, and 113 segments (13.2%) showed a gap in the vessel course (100% total lumen reduction). Artificial gaps of the vessel lumen occurred in 28 vessel segments due to artifacts caused by dental hardware and in all but one (65) ophthalmic arteries. Conclusions: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved, DE imaging with 100 and 140 kV lead to improved image quality and vessel integrity in the shoulder region than previously reported. The ophthalmic artery still cannot be adequately visualized.

  6. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  7. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  8. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Poage, T.F.; Alvarez, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR 2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  9. Bone mineral content measurement by bone mineral analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Torizuka, Kanji; Kosaka, Tadako.

    1976-01-01

    With a bone mineral analyzer (Studsvik Bone Scanner 7102), bone mineral content (BMC) was validated using various concentrations of standard CaCO 3 . Seventy-five normal subjects, nineteen patients with rheumathoid arthritis (RA) and twenty-two patients with abnormal thyroid function were investigated by this method. Some inherent problems concerning the present measurements were also discussed. Reproducibility of BMC in sixteen normal subjects during a four months interval was +-4% on the mid-shaft of the radius and +-5% on the distal head of the radius, respectively. Although correlation of the single energy method and the dual energy method with the bone scanner was high (r=0.970), the single energy method was probably underestimated due to the fat layer. BMC in normal subjects was highest in 30th and 40th decades for both males and females, and gradually decreased with aging. Males had higher BMC and BMC/bone width than did females. All of the stage 1 group of RA patients, according to roentgenographic staging, revealed normal BMC, but most of stage 2 and 3 groups had abnormally low BMC, suggesting that progression of the disease may be an important factor in BMC values. The BMC of hyperthyroid patients was low, whereas that of euthyroid patients was normal. Serial measurements of BMC in a hyperparathyroid patient and a hyperthyroid patient revealed distinct recurrence of BMC after treatment. (Evans, J.)

  10. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...

  11. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  12. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  13. Mass thickness measurement of dual-sample by dual-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mincong; Li Hongmei; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2008-01-01

    X-ray equivalent energy can be used to measure mass thicknesses of materials. Based on this, a method of mass thickness measurement of dual-sample was discussed. It was found that in the range of sample mass thickness under investigation, the equivalent mass attenuation coefficient of a component could be used to compute mass thicknesses of a dual-sample, with relative errors of less than 5%. Mass thickness measurement of a fish sample was performed, and the fish bone and flesh could be displayed separately and clearly by their own mass thicknesses. This indicates that the method is effective in mass thickness measurement of dual-sample of suitable thicknesses. (authors)

  14. Single- and dual-photon absorptiometry in osteoporosis and osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Single- and dual-photon absorptiometric methods have been used in the past to identify populations at risk for bone loss, to define the osteoporotic syndrome in terms of bone mass, and to evaluate treatment regimens to prevent bone loss. Technical improvements have made these procedures available for the nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral in the management of the individual patient suspected of having osteoporosis or other bone loss. This requires a different approach to data interpretation because decisions have to be made on the basis of a single measurement. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia cannot be distinguished by bone mineral measurements because both are characterized by a decrease in content of bone mineral. Bone mineral measurements can be used to assess the risk of fracture and, with it, the severity of bone loss. This allows treatment decisions to be made. Repeated measurements made under well-defined conditions allow estimation of long-term rate of bone loss and monitoring of treatment effect. 38 references

  15. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  16. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Als, O.S.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied 159 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with a variety of drugs. Stratification of the patients was done according to treatment, sex, menopausal state, duration of the disease, and functional impairment. Forearm bone mineral content (BMC) and total body bone mineral (TBBM) were measured by single and dual photon absorptiometry. Bone turnover was estimated by biochemical markers. All patients had significantly decreased BMC and TBBM compared to normals. Comparing glucocorticoid and penicillamine treatment in premenopausal patients, they found significantly lower BMC and TBBM values in the glucocorticoid treated group. However, no differences in BMC and TBBM values were found in the corresponding postmenopausal groups. In the premenopausal glucocorticoid group with the duration of treatment and cumulated dose correlated with BMC, whereas no such correlations were found in the postmenopausal women. In the patients who did not receive glucocorticoids they found significant relationships between BMC and functional impairment as well as duration of the disease. Indices of bone turnover rose with increasing functional, impairment, particularly those of bone resorption

  17. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  18. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  19. DXA measurements in Rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine; Andersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jytte Bieber; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2011-09-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients with RTT do have low BMD when correcting for smaller bones by examination with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared areal BMD (aBMD(spine) and aBMD(total hip) ) and volumetric bone mineral apparent density (vBMAD(spine) and vBMAD(neck) ) in 61 patients and 122 matched healthy controls. Further, spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD of patients were associated with clinical risk factors of low BMD, low-energy fractures, MECP2 mutation groups, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Patients with RTT had reduced bone size on the order of 10% and showed lower values of spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD (p bone mass and small bones are evident in RTT, indicating an apparent low-bone-formation phenotype. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Challenges of Estimating Fracture Risk with DXA: Changing Concepts About Bone Strength and Bone Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Angelo A

    2015-07-01

    Bone loss due to weightlessness is a significant concern for astronauts' mission safety and health upon return to Earth. This problem is monitored with bone densitometry (DXA), the clinical tool used to assess skeletal strength. DXA has served clinicians well in assessing fracture risk and has been particularly useful in diagnosing osteoporosis in the elderly postmenopausal population for which it was originally developed. Over the past 1-2 decades, however, paradoxical and contradictory findings have emerged when this technology was widely employed in caring for diverse populations unlike those for which it was developed. Although DXA was originally considered the surrogate marker for bone strength, it is now considered one part of a constellation of factors-described collectively as bone quality-that makes bone strong and resists fracturing, independent of bone density. These characteristics are beyond the capability of routine DXA to identify, and as a result, DXA can be a poor prognosticator of bone health in many clinical scenarios. New clinical tools are emerging to make measurement of bone strength more accurate. This article reviews the historical timeline of bone density measurement (dual X-ray absorptiometry), expands upon the clinical observations that modified the relationship of DXA and bone strength, discusses some of the new clinical tools to predict fracture risk, and highlights the challenges DXA poses in the assessment of fracture risk in astronauts.

  1. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  2. Effect of treadmill gait on bone markers and bone mineral density of quadriplegic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.L. Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quadriplegic subjects present extensive muscle mass paralysis which is responsible for the dramatic decrease in bone mass, increasing the risk of bone fractures. There has been much effort to find an efficient treatment to prevent or reverse this significant bone loss. We used 21 male subjects, mean age 31.95 ± 8.01 years, with chronic quadriplegia, between C4 and C8, to evaluate the effect of treadmill gait training using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, with 30-50% weight relief, on bone mass, comparing individual dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry responses and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Subjects were divided into gait (N = 11 and control (N = 10 groups. The gait group underwent gait training for 6 months, twice a week, for 20 min, while the control group did not perform gait. Bone mineral density (BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanteric area, and total femur, and biochemical markers (osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were measured at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. In the gait group, 81.8% of the subjects presented a significant increase in bone formation and 66.7% also presented a significant decrease of bone resorption markers, whereas 30% of the controls did not present any change in markers and 20% presented an increase in bone formation. Marker results did not always agree with BMD data. Indeed, many individuals with increased bone formation presented a decrease in BMD. Most individuals in the gait group presented an increase in bone formation markers and a decrease in bone resorption markers, suggesting that gait training, even with 30-50% body weight support, was efficient in improving the bone mass of chronic quadriplegics.

  3. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  4. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  5. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  6. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  7. Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Saeedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD. However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented.

  8. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  9. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  10. Vitamin D and estrogen receptor-alpha genotype and indices of bone mass and bone turnover in Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cusack, S.; Mølgaard, C.; Michaelsen, K. F.

    2006-01-01

    (VDR) (FokI, TaqI) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) (PvuII, XbaI), and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and markers of bone turnover in 224 Danish girls aged 11-12 years. BMD and BMC were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum osteocalcin, 25(OH......Peak bone mass is a major determinant of osteoporosis risk in later life. It is under strong genetic control; however, little is known about the identity of the genes involved. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in the genes encoding the vitamin D receptor...

  11. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  12. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  13. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  14. Assessment of Bone Health in Men and Women Comparing DXA to Calcaneal Ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, M

    2002-01-01

    ...) were assessed for bone mineral density (BMD, g/sq cm) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, db/MHz). BMD of the total body, regional and lumbar spine was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  15. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  16. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  17. Prospective assessment of bone turnover and clinical bone diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Anna D; Porcher, Raphael; Herr, Andrée-Laure; Devergie, Agnès; Brentano, Thomas Funck; Ribaud, Patricia; Pinto, Fernando O; Rocha, Vanderson; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Orcel, Philippe; Socié, Gérard; Robin, Marie

    2010-06-15

    Bone complications after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are relatively frequent. Evaluation of biomarkers of bone turnover and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are not known in this context. We prospectively evaluated bone mineral density, biomarkers of bone turnover, and the cumulative incidence of bone complications after allogeneic HSCT. One hundred forty-six patients were included. Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA 2-month and 1-year post-HSCT. The markers of bone turnover were serum C-telopeptide (C-TP), 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (bone resorption), and osteocalcin (bone formation) determined pre-HSCT and 2 months and 1 year thereafter. Potential association between osteoporosis at 2 months, osteoporotic fracture or avascular necrosis and, individual patient's characteristics and biologic markers were tested. C-TP was high before and 2 months after transplant. At 2 months, DEXA detected osteoporosis in more than half the patients tested. Male sex, median age less than or equal to 15 years, and abnormal C-TP before HSCT were risk factors significantly associated with osteoporosis. Three-year cumulative incidences of fractures and avascular necrosis were 8% and 11%, respectively. Children were at higher risk of fracture, whereas corticosteroid treatment duration was a significant risk factor for developing a clinical bone complication post-HSCT. Bone complications and osteoporosis are frequent after HSCT. Bone biologic markers and DEXA showed that subclinical bone abnormalities appeared early post-HSCT. The risk factors, age, gender, and C-TP easily available at the time of transplantation were identified. Biphosphonates should probably be given to patients with those risk factors.

  18. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  19. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  20. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  1. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  2. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  3. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  4. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  5. Effect of cisplatin on bone transport osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Nicole; Eurell, Jo Ann C; Tommasini, Matteo; Constable, Peter D; Johnson, Ann L; Feretti, Antonio

    2002-05-01

    To document effects of cisplatin on regenerate bone formation during the distraction and consolidation phases of bone transport osteogenesis. 10 skeletally mature hounds. Bone transport osteogenesis was performed to reconstruct a 3-cm defect in the radius of each dog. Five dogs were randomly selected to receive cisplatin (70 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 4 cycles), and 5 were administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Bone mineral density was measured by use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) on days 24, 55, and 90 after surgery. Dogs were euthanatized 90 days after surgery. Histomorphometry was performed on nondecalcified sections of regenerate bone. Bone mineral density and histomorphometric indices of newly formed bone were compared between groups. Densitometric differences in regenerate bone mineral density were not detected between groups at any time period. Cisplatin-treated dogs had decreased mineralized bone volume, decreased percentage of woven bone volume, decreased percentage of osteoblast-covered bone, increased porosity, and increased percentage of osteoblast-covered surfaces, compared with values for control dogs. Lamellar bone volume and osteoid volume did not differ significantly between groups. Regenerate bone will form and remodel during administration of cisplatin. Results of histomorphometric analysis suggest that bone formation and resorption may be uncoupled in cisplatin-treated regenerate bone as a result of increased osteoclast activity or delayed secondary bone formation during remodeling. These histomorphometric differences were modest in magnitude and did not result in clinically observable complications or decreased bone mineral density as measured by use of DEXA.

  6. Swine cortical and cancellous bone: histomorphometric and densitometric characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Andreis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Swine bone morphology, composition and remodelling are similar to humans’, therefore they are considered good models in bone-related research. They have been used for several studies involving bone growth, bone and cartilage fractures and femoral head osteonecrosis. Nevertheless, the literature about pig normal bone features is incomplete. This work aims to fill the literature gaps on the microarchitecture and Bone Mineral Density (BMD of swine femoral diaphysis and distal epiphysis and tibial plateau and diaphysis. Materials and methods: Five hind limbs were collected from slaughtered 80-100 kg pigs. Microscopic analysis of cortical and cancellous bone from middle/distal femur and proximal/middle tibia was performed to determine basic histomorphometric parameters at different sites. Dual-energy X-Rays Absorptiometry was also employed to evaluate BMD. ANOVA and correlation between BMD, bone area (BA and cortical thickness were performed. Results and discussion: Diaphyseal cortical bone was mostly plexiform both in the tibia and the femur; primary/secondary osteons without clear organization were also found. Mean values for bone area, bone perimeter, trabecular width, number and separation and BMD at different anatomical sites were defined. No significant difference was found for these values at different anatomical sites. BMD proved to be positively correlated with cortical thickness (r=0,80; p<0,01. Despite the small sample size, these results seem homogeneous. They could therefore represent reference values for normal bone parameters in pigs. Applied anatomy and regenerative medicine, in fact, demand very precise information about bone micromorphology, composition and density to provide reliable indication in bone substitutes building. Moreover, since the interpretation of bone abnormalities is based on mastering normal bone characteristics, the definition of reference parameters is mandatory to avoid misinterpretation and

  7. Progress in photon absorptiometric determination of bone mineral and body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Witt, R.M.; Peppler, W.W.; Hanson, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry, with low energy radionuclides, has become widely accepted for measurement of bone mineral content in vivo. Dual-photon absorptiometry is a newer approach which overcomes previous limitations and allows measurement of total body and spinal bone mineral with high accuracy and precision (2 percent error). Dual-photon absorptiometry also permits measurement of the lean-fat composition of soft-tissue and the monitoring of shifts in body composition and/or fluid balance

  8. Evolution of bone disease after kidney transplantation: A prospective histomorphometric analysis of trabecular and cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Magalhães, Juliana; Pereira, Luciano; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Castro-Ferreira, Inês; Frazão, João Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant bone disease results from multiple factors, including previous bone and mineral metabolism disturbances and effects from transplant-related medications. Bone biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool. We aimed to prospectively evaluate trabecular and cortical bone by histomorphometry after kidney transplantation. Seven patients, willing to perform follow-up bone biopsy, were included in the study. Dual-X-ray absorptiometry and trans-iliac bone biopsy were performed within the first 2 months after renal transplantation and repeated after 2-5 years of follow-up. Follow-up biopsy revealed a significant decrease in osteoblast surface/bone surface (0.91 ± 0.81 to 0.47 ± 0.12%, P = 0.036), osteoblasts number/bone surface (0.45 (0.23, 0.94) to 0.00/mm(2) , P = 0.018) and erosion surface/bone surface (3.75 ± 2.02 to 2.22 ± 1.38%, P = 0.044). A decrease in trabecular number (3.55 (1.81, 2.89) to 1.55/mm (1.24, 2.06), P = 0.018) and increase in trabecular separation (351.65 ± 135.04 to 541.79 ± 151.91 μm, P = 0.024) in follow-up biopsy suggest loss in bone quantity. We found no significant differences in cortical analysis, except a reduction in external cortical osteonal eroded surface (5.76 (2.94, 13.97) to 3.29% (0.00, 6.67), P = 0.043). Correlations between bone histomorphometric and dual-X-ray absorptiometry parameters gave inconsistent results. The results show a reduction in bone activity, suggesting increased risk of adynamic bone and loss of bone volume. Cortical bone seems less affected by post-transplant biological changes in the first years after kidney transplantation. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Dual Dynamic Programming - DDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Bermudez, Jesus M

    1998-01-01

    Objections are presented to the mathematical formulation of the denominated Dual Dynamic programming-PDD that is the theoretical base of several computational model available for the optimal formulation of interconnected hydrothermal systems

  10. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  11. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  12. Assessment of Bone Quality in Osteoporosis Treatment with Bone Anabolic Agents: Really Something New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivieri, Fabio M; Caudarella, Renata; Camisasca, Marzia; Cabrini, Daniela M; Merli, Ilaria; Messina, Carmelo; Piodi, Luca P

    2018-04-20

    Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry. Bone structure is investigated by microCT and histomorphometry, which necessitate an invasive approach with a biopsy, usually taken at the iliac crest, not the typical site of fragility fractures. New tools, trabecular bone score (TBS) and hip structural analysis (HSA), obtained during DXA, can supply informations about bone structure of spine and femur, respectively, in a not invasive way. Therapy of osteoporosis is based on two types of drugs leading to an increase of BMD: antiresorptive and anabolic treatments. The antiresorptive drugs inhibit the osteoclasts, whereas teriparatide and, in part, strontium ranelate ameliorate bone structure. The present review deals with the relation between the anabolic drugs for osteoporosis and the cited new tools which investigate bone architecture and geometry, in order to clarify if they represent a real advantage in monitoring efficacy of osteoporosis' treatment. Data from the studies show that increases of TBS and HSA values after anabolic therapy are small and very close to their least significant change at the end of the usual period of treatment. Therefore, it is questionable if TBS and HSA are really helpful in monitoring bone quality and in defining reduction of individual fragility fracture risk during osteoporosis treatment with bone anabolic agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Dual energy CTA of the supraaortic arteries: Technical improvements with a novel dual source CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, Michael M., E-mail: Michael.lell@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiology, University Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Hinkmann, Fabian [Department of Radiology, University Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Nkenke, Emeka [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Bernhard [Bayer-Schering Healthcare, Berlin (Germany); Seidensticker, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, CT-Division, Forchheim (Germany); Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, University Erlangen (Germany); Uder, Michael [Department of Radiology, University Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan [Department of Cardiology, University Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Objectives: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a well-accepted imaging modality to evaluate the supraaortic vessels. Initial reports have suggested that dual energy CTA (DE-CTA) can enhance diagnosis by creating bone-free data sets, which can be visualized in 3D, but a number of limitations of this technique have also been addressed. We sought to describe the performance of DE-CTA of the supraaortic vessels with a novel dual source CT system with special emphasis on image quality and post-processing related artifacts. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent carotid CT angiography on a second generation dual source CT system. Simultaneous acquisitions of 100 and 140 kV data sets in arterial phase were performed. Two examiners evaluated overall bone suppression with a 3-point scale (1 = poor; 3 = excellent) and image quality regarding integrity of the vessel lumen of different vessel segments (n = 26) with a 5-point scale (1 = poor; 5 = excellent), CTA source data served as the reference. Results: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved in the head and neck. Only minor bone remnants occurred, mean score for bone removal was 2.9. Mean score for vessel integrity was 4.3. Eight hundred fifty-seven vessel segments could be evaluated. Six hundred thirty-five segments (74%) showed no lumen alteration, 65 segments (7.6%) lumen alterations <10%, 27 segments (3.1%) lumen alterations >10% resulting in a total luminal reduction <50%, 17 segments (2%) lumen alterations of more than 10% resulting in a total luminal reduction >50%, and 113 segments (13.2%) showed a gap in the vessel course (100% total lumen reduction). Artificial gaps of the vessel lumen occurred in 28 vessel segments due to artifacts caused by dental hardware and in all but one (65) ophthalmic arteries. Conclusions: Excellent bone suppression could be achieved, DE imaging with 100 and 140 kV lead to improved image quality and vessel integrity in the shoulder region than previously

  14. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  15. Comparison study of noise reduction algorithms in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2018-04-01

    Dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently developed medical technique that takes advantage of both tomosynthesis and dual energy X-ray images. However, quantum noise, which occurs in dual energy X-ray images, strongly interferes with diagnosis in various clinical situations. Therefore, noise reduction is necessary in dual energy CDT. In this study, noise-compensating algorithms, including a simple smoothing of high-energy images (SSH) and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR), were evaluated in a CDT system. We used a newly developed prototype CDT system and anthropomorphic chest phantom for experimental studies. The resulting images demonstrated that dual energy CDT can selectively image anatomical structures, such as bone and soft tissue. Among the resulting images, those acquired with ACNR showed the best image quality. Both coefficient of variation and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were the highest in ACNR among the three different dual energy techniques, and the CNR of bone was significantly improved compared to the reconstructed images acquired at a single energy. This study demonstrated the clinical value of dual energy CDT and quantitatively showed that ACNR is the most suitable among the three developed dual energy techniques, including standard log subtraction, SSH, and ACNR.

  16. TIBIAL PLATEAU PROXIMAL AND DISTAL BONE BEHAVE SIMILARLY: BOTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEATURES OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing imperative to understand how changes in peri-articular bone relate to pathological progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Peri-articular bone density can be measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) is associated with MRI and...

  17. Recent progress of the bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, Toshiaki

    1996-01-01

    A Bone Densitometer is the equipment which non-invasively evaluates bone mineral such as calcium contained in the bone of human. It is widely accepted as a useful equipment for the purpose of diagnosis of the bone, especially of the osteoporosis. Human body is considered as two-component system composed of bone and soft tissue at the point of view of radiation absorption. Therefore it is necessary to eliminate soft tissue component to determine bone mineral content or density. To cancel soft tissue component, there are a few methods employed to the bone densitometers. Accordingly the bone densitometers are classified into two types. In SXA, X-ray source having effective energy of approximately 30keV is used. The measurement site of patient should be soaked in water to eliminate soft tissue component according to the theory that the linear attenuation coefficient of water is nearly equal to that of soft tissue. Therefore the difference between the intensity of X-ray transmitted through soft tissue and that of X-ray through soft tissue plus bone indicates amount of bone mineral directly under the constant water thickness condition. SXA is a very convenient method, but the necessity of water may not be desirable in the clinical use. Therefore, clinical applications of SXA are limited to peripheral site such as forearm or calcaneus. In DXA, X-ray source having dual effective energies of approximately 40keV and 80keV is used. The theory is based on the difference of intensities between X-ray transmitted through soft tissue and that of transmitted through bone. The amount of bone mineral is then estimated by the theoretical calculations. Therefore, DXA is applicable for not only spine or femur but also all sites of patients. The bone densitometers based on SXA or DXA are widely accepted as the equipments for the measurement of bone mineral. However, recently, equipments based on other theoretical method, pQCT and QUS are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  18. Self-dual Hopf quivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hualin; Li Libin; Ye Yu

    2004-07-01

    We study pointed graded self-dual Hopf algebras with a help of the dual Gabriel theorem for pointed Hopf algebras. Quivers of such Hopf algebras are said to be self-dual. An explicit classification of self-dual Hopf quivers is obtained. We also prove that finite dimensional coradically graded pointed self-dual Hopf algebras are generated by group-like and skew-primitive elements as associative algebras. This partially justifies a conjecture of Andruskiewitsch and Schneider and may help to classify finite dimensional self-dual pointed Hopf algebras

  19. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  20. An Experimental Study on the Change of Bone Mineral Metabolism After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Jang, Ja June; Lee, Jin Oh; Kang, Tae Woong

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation is widely used for the treatment of malignant diseases, and possibly cause the osteoporosis. The densitometry and bone scintigraphy are valuable when used to monitor the patients longitudinally to access the progression of osteoporosis and risk of osteoradionecrosis. To evaluate the osteoporosis after irradiation of Cobalt-60 gamma ray on the lumbar spines of New Zealand white rabbits, bone densitometry by dual photon absorptiometry and bone scintigraphy were performed weekly. The decrease of bone density began at the first week after irradiation, and were in the nadir at 4-6th week. The osteoblastic activity measured by bone scintigraphy decreased in the first week, and was in the nadir at 4-6th week. The severity of these changes were related to the radiation dose. In conclusion, the osteoporosis before the presentation of the osteoradionecrosis can be diagnosed early with the dual photon absorptiometry and bone scintigraphy.

  1. Bone structural changes after gastric bypass surgery evaluated by HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Støving, René Klinkby; Frederiksen, Katrine Hartmund

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE, DESIGN AND METHODS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has proved successful in attaining sustained weight loss but may lead to metabolic bone disease. To assess impact on bone mass and structure, we measured a real bone mineral density at the hip and spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiom......OBJECTIVE, DESIGN AND METHODS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has proved successful in attaining sustained weight loss but may lead to metabolic bone disease. To assess impact on bone mass and structure, we measured a real bone mineral density at the hip and spine by dual-energy X...... of increased risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures remain an important concern....

  2. Dual source CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, Peter R.; Hofmann, Lars K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) in 2005 was an evolutionary leap in the field of CT imaging. Two x-ray sources operated simultaneously enable heart-rate independent temporal resolution and routine spiral dual energy imaging. The precise delivery of contrast media is a critical part of the contrast-enhanced CT procedure. This book provides an introduction to DSCT technology and to the basics of contrast media administration followed by 25 in-depth clinical scan and contrast media injection protocols. All were developed in consensus by selected physicians on the Dual Source CT Expert Panel. Each protocol is complemented by individual considerations, tricks and pitfalls, and by clinical examples from several of the world's best radiologists and cardiologists. This extensive CME-accredited manual is intended to help readers to achieve consistently high image quality, optimal patient care, and a solid starting point for the development of their own unique protocols. (orig.)

  3. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  4. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  5. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  6. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  7. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  8. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  9. Bone density in patients with chondromalacia patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Khazaeli, Shabnam; Hatami, Parta; Malekpour, Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Chondromalacia of the patella is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in young women. The etiology of the disease is not well-understood but the initial lesion is a disorganization of collagenous structures. Since the disease is proposed to be due to generalized constitutional disturbance, we postulated that bony structures could also be involved. To investigate this hypothesis we measured the bone density of 286 patients with the diagnosis of chondromalacia of the patella during a 4-year period using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. We found a significant number of patients having low bone densities. This problem was more pronounced in men and in younger age groups. We suggest base-line bone density evaluation in all patients, treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis in select patients and regular follow-ups using DXA.

  10. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  11. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  12. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  13. spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)

  14. Hungry bone-syndrom ved vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chehaiber, Mohamad M; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2009-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was admitted after being bedridden for six months with muscular weakness and diarrhoea. Vitamin 25-OH-D, serum calcium, magnesium and phosphate were low, and parathyroid hormone as well as alkaline phosphatase were increased. Dual x-ray absorption scan showed reduced bone...

  15. Longitudinal follow-up of bone density and body composition in children with precocious or early puberty before, during and after cessation of GnRH agonist therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe studied bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, and body composition in 47 children with central precocious puberty (n = 36) or early puberty (n = 11) before, during, and after cessation of GnRH agonist. Bone density and body composition were measured with dual

  16. Spine Trabecular Bone Score as an Indicator of Bone Microarchitecture at the Peripheral Skeleton in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, Matthew; Hans, Didier; Cortez, Natalia; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Agarawal, Sanchita; Zhang, Chengchen; Nikkel, Lucas; Iyer, Sapna; Fusaro, Maria; Guo, Edward X; McMahon, Donald J; Shane, Elizabeth; Nickolas, Thomas L

    2017-04-03

    Studies using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography showed progressive abnormalities in cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and biomechanical competence over the first year after kidney transplantation. However, high-resolution peripheral computed tomography is a research tool lacking wide availability. In contrast, the trabecular bone score is a novel and widely available tool that uses gray-scale variograms of the spine image from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess trabecular quality. There are no studies assessing whether trabecular bone score characterizes bone quality in kidney transplant recipients. Between 2009 and 2010, we conducted a study to assess changes in peripheral skeletal microarchitecture, measured by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography, during the first year after transplantation in 47 patients managed with early corticosteroid-withdrawal immunosuppression. All adult first-time transplant candidates were eligible. Patients underwent imaging with high-resolution peripheral computed tomography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry pretransplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplantation. We now test if, during the first year after transplantation, trabecular bone score assesses the evolution of bone microarchitecture and biomechanical competence as determined by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography. At baseline and follow-up, among the 72% and 78%, respectively, of patients having normal bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, 53% and 50%, respectively, were classified by trabecular bone score as having high fracture risk. At baseline, trabecular bone score correlated with spine, hip, and ultradistal radius bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and cortical area, density, thickness, and porosity; trabecular density, thickness, separation, and heterogeneity; and stiffness and failure load by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography

  17. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  18. Lack of seasonal variation in bone mass and biochemical estimates of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, K.; Nilas, L.; Johansen, J.S.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    Three previous studies have indicated a seasonal variation in bone mineral content, with values during the summer being 1.7% to 7.5% higher than during the winter. We have examined the seasonal influence on both bone mass, biochemical estimates of bone turnover and vitamin D metabolites in 86 healthy women, aged 29-53 years. All participants were followed up for 2 years with examinations every 6 weeks or 3 months. Bone mineral content in the proximal and distal part of the forearm (single photon absorptiometry) did not reveal any significant seasonal variation, whereas bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (dual photon absorptiometry) indicated that the highest values occurred in winter. None of the biochemical parameters showed any statistically significant cyclical changes. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed a highly significant seasonal variation, whereas the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration was virtually unchanged. We conclude that seasonal variation in bone mineral content and bone turnover should not be taken into account when interpreting data from longitudinal studies of healthy pre- and postmenopausal women on a sufficient vitamin D nutriture

  19. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  20. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  1. Dual QCD: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.; Ball, J.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1991-01-01

    We review the attempts to use dual (electric) vector potentials rather than the standard magnetic vector potentials to describe QCD, particularly in the infrared regime. The use of dual potentials is motivated by the fact that in classical electrodynamics, in a medium with a dielectric constant vanishing at small momenta (as is believed to be the case in QCD), electric potentials provide a far more convenient language than do magnetic potentials. To begin with, we outline attempts to construct the QCD Lagrangian in terms of dual potentials and describe the various possibilities, their shortcomings and advantages, which so far exist. We then proceed to use the most attractive (albeit consistent as a field theory only at the tree level) of these Lagrangians in a number of applications. We show that it describes a non-Abelian dual superconductor (so that it automatically confines color), derive the static quark-antiquark potential, and various temperature dependent effects, such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  2. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  3. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  4. Deletion of Adseverin in Osteoclasts Affects Cell Structure But Not Bone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yixuan; Wang, Yongqiang; Sprangers, Sara; Picavet, Daisy I; Glogauer, Michael; McCulloch, Christopher A; Everts, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Adseverin is an actin-severing/capping protein that may contribute to osteoclast differentiation in vitro but its role in bone remodeling of healthy animals is not defined. We analyzed bone and osteoclast structure in adseverin conditional null mice at alveolar and long bone sites. In wild-type and adseverin null mice, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, there were no differences of bone mineral content or bone mineral density, indicating no change of bone metabolism. In tibiae, TRAcP + osteoclasts were formed in comparable numbers in adseverin null and wild-type mice. Ultrastructural analysis showed normal and similar abundance of ruffled borders, sealing zones, and mitochondria, and with no difference of osteoclast nuclear numbers. In contrast, analyses of long bone showed that in the absence of adseverin osteoclasts were smaller (120 ± 13 vs. 274 ± 19 µm 2 ; p structure but not to bone metabolism in vivo.

  5. An experimental study on the change of bone mineral metabolism after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Hae Yun; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is widely used for the treatment of malignant diseases, and possibly cause the osteoporosis. The bone densitometry and bone scintigraphy and valuable when used to monitor the patients longitudinally to access the progression of osteoporosis and risk of osteoradionecrosis. To evaluate the osteoporosis after irradiation of cobalt-60 gamma ray on the lumbar spines of New Zealand white rabbits, bone densitometry by dual photon absorptiometry and bone scintigraphy were performed weekly. The decrease of bone density began at the first week after irradiation, and were in the nadir at 4-6th week. The osteoblastic activity measured by bone scintigraphy decreased in the first week, and was in the nadir at 4-6th week. The severity of these changes were related to the radiation dose. In conclusion, the osteoporosis before presentation of the osteoradionecrosis can be developed at low dose irradiation and confirmed by bone densitometry, bone scanning, and histopathology.

  6. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  7. Non-invasive clinical measurements of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are now available for measurement of both compact and trabecular bone on both the appendicular and axial skeleton. Radiogrammetry and photodensitometry both are subject to large errors in areas of heavy tissue cover but precise measurements can be made on the hand bones. Single-photon absorptiometry with 125 I provides a more accurate and precise measure of appendicular compact bone, which is particularly useful for screening of metabolic bone disease and for monitoring renal osteodystrophy. Dual-photon absorptiometry with 153 Gd provides a measurement of the femoral neck and of the lumbar spine and hence is the most diagnostically sensitive measurement method. It is also the most sensitive for monitoring bone changes

  8. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  9. The effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent male athletes. The PRO-BONE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study...... by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone stiffness was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Bone outcomes at 12 months were adjusted for baseline bone status, age, height, lean mass and moderate to vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Footballers had higher improvement in adjusted BMC at the total...... body, total hip, shaft, Ward's triangle, legs and bone stiffness compared to cyclists (6.3-8.0%). Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at total body, shaft and legs compared to swimmers (5.4-5.6%). There was no significant difference between swimmers and cyclists for any bone outcomes...

  10. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  11. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  12. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  13. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  14. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  15. Vladimir Byurchiev, Ankle Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia

  16. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  17. IAEA's dual function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    'A factor of paramount importance is the dual nature of atomic energy, which is reflected in the dual function of the Agency; not only to promote, but also to safeguard the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. In taking the above statement as a theme in his address to the 1474th Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (22nd November), the Director General, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, went on to speak of a few of the many areas in which society was feeling the impact of atomic energy. During the discussion which followed his report on the Agency's work nearly all speakers referred to the importance of the safeguards system as well as to positive achievements in developing nuclear potential for peaceful purposes

  18. Dual double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  19. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  20. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  1. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...... as measured by legislative outputs and oversight differs, however, in line with differing committee system characteristics: the Finnish committee has more impact on legislative outputs while the Danish committee has more impact on overseeing government....

  2. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  3. Dual energy computed tomography for the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Norihito; Itoh, Toshihide; Noguchi, Kyo

    2018-02-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) is a promising technology that provides better diagnostic accuracy in several brain diseases. DECT can generate various types of CT images from a single acquisition data set at high kV and low kV based on material decomposition algorithms. The two-material decomposition algorithm can separate bone/calcification from iodine accurately. The three-material decomposition algorithm can generate a virtual non-contrast image, which helps to identify conditions such as brain hemorrhage. A virtual monochromatic image has the potential to eliminate metal artifacts by reducing beam-hardening effects. DECT also enables exploration of advanced imaging to make diagnosis easier. One such novel application of DECT is the X-Map, which helps to visualize ischemic stroke in the brain without using iodine contrast medium.

  4. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  5. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Othman, Saleh M.; Fouda, Mona A.

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  6. Clinical study on bone mineral density and bone metabolism biochemical marker in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ying; Xu Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and relationship between hyperthyroidism and osteoporosis, bone mineral density was observed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 149 cases of hyperthyroidism, while serum FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), BGP, and D-pyd levels were measured in 81 cases of hyperthyroidism. The osteopenia rate is 30.2% and the osteoporosis rate is 24.1% in hyperthyroidism patients. Compare with control group, bone metabolic biochemical markers in all cases of hyperthyroidism showed a significant increase, which displays high turnover osteoporosis. In order to find out the case of osteoporosis as soon as possible, bone mineral density of all patients with hyperthyroidism should be measured in the period of treatment. (authors)

  7. Bone mineral measurements and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteopenia) is a major factor in the development of osteoporotic fractures in women after the menopause. The pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been pursued by dual lines of investigation: (1) development of a model to describe involutional bone loss, (2) identification of those factors which result in some healthy women having a greater risk for osteoporosis than others. Bone mineral measurements have been made using in vivo neutron activation analysis and whole body counting for the measurement of total body calcium (TBCa), single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content of the distal radius and dual photon absorptiometry for measurement of the bone density of the spine. TBCa is higher in men than women and is lost at a slow linear rate in men. Blacks have a skeletal mass about 8-9% higher than Caucasians. Women have a similar loss of TBCa to men prior to menopause, but then have an accelerated rate of loss after menopause. The change in bone density of the radius and spine with increasing age is also best described by a 2 phase regression in women, with appreciable loss after age 50

  8. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, M.; Al-Jurayyan, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2 (Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. 2521-IJBCS-Article-Oscar Foton

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Environmental Stress Study, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin. 2 Hydrobiology ... and can have unwanted environmental impacts. In a context of optimization of management ..... Water hyacinth problems in Mexico and practiced ...

  10. Dual-Extrusion 3D Printing of Anatomical Models for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L.; Jones, James F. X.

    2018-01-01

    Two material 3D printing is becoming increasingly popular, inexpensive and accessible. In this paper, freely available printable files and dual extrusion fused deposition modelling were combined to create a number of functional anatomical models. To represent muscle and bone FilaFlex[superscript 3D] flexible filament and polylactic acid (PLA)…

  11. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  12. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  13. Spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-02-01

    We study spinning self-dual particles in two dimensions. They are obtained from the chiral bosonic particle through the square root technique. We show that the resulting field theory can be either fermionic or bosonic and that the associated self-dual field reveals its Lorentz tensor structure which remains hidden in the usual formulations. We also calculate the spinning self-dual particle propagators using the BFV formalism. (author) [pt

  14. Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosje, Karen S; Khoury, Philip R; Claytor, Randal P; Copeland, Kristen A; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Daniels, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relation between baseline fat mass and gain in bone area and bone mass in preschoolers studied prospectively for 4 years, with a focus on the role of physical activity and TV viewing. Children were part of a longitudinal study in which measures of fat, lean and bone mass, height, weight, activity, and diet were taken every 4 months from ages 3 to 7 years. Activity was measured by accelerometer and TV viewing by parent checklist. We included 214 children with total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic 4500A) scans at ages 3.5 and 7 years. Higher baseline fat mass was associated with smaller increases in bone area and bone mass over the next 3.5 years (P accounting for race, sex, and height. Activity by accelerometer was not associated with bone gains. Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in preschoolers.

  15. Roentgenological semiotics of bone and bone joints pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented

  16. Dual mobility cups provide biomechanical advantages in situations at risk for dislocation: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Latypova, Adeliya; Guillemin, Maika; Parvex, Valérie; Guyen, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Constrained devices, standard implants with large heads, and dual mobility systems have become popular options to manage instability after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical results with these options have shown variable success rates and significant higher rates of aseptic loosening and mechanical failures with constrained implants. Literature suggests potential advantages of dual mobility, however little is known about its biomechanics. We present a comparative biomechanical study of a standard implant, a constrained implant, and a dual mobility system. A finite element analysis was developed to assess and compare these acetabular options with regard to the range of motion (ROM) to impingement, the angle of dislocation, the resistive torque, the volume of polyethylene (PE) with a stress above 80% of the elastic limit, and the interfacial cup/bone stress. Dual mobility implants provided the greatest ROM to impingement and allowed delaying subluxation and dislocation when compared to standard and constrained implants. Dual mobility also demonstrated the lowest resistive torque at subluxation while the constrained implant provided the greatest one. The lowest critical PE volume was observed with the dual mobility implant, and the highest stress at the interfaces was observed with the constrained implant. This study highlights the biomechanical advantages of dual mobility systems over constrained and standard implants, and is supported by the clinical results reported. Therefore, the use of dual mobility systems in situations at risk for instability should be advocated and constrained implants should be restricted to salvage situations.

  17. Dual symmetry in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshkarov, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative interpretation is the quasi-Maxwell linear theory with magnetic charge. Analogous approach is possible in the Yang-Mills theory. In this case the dual-invariant non-Abelian theory motion equations possess the same instanton solutions as the conventional Yang-Mills equations have. An Abelian two-parameter dual group is found to exist in gravitation. Irreducible representations have been obtained: the curvature tensor was expanded into the sum of twice anti-self-dual and self-dual parts. Gravitational instantons are defined as (real )solutions to the usual duality equations. Central symmetry solutions to these equations are obtained. The twice anti-self-dual part of the curvature tensor may be used for introduction of new gravitational equations generalizing Einstein''s equations. However, the theory obtained reduces to the conformal-flat Nordstroem theory

  18. Comparison of bone densitometry methods in healthy and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Dinkel, E.; Genant, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    To compare methods of noninvasive measurement of bone mineral content, 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied. The methods included mono- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiographic studies were performed and the spinal fracture index calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and moderate correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were moderate in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method were not predictive of measurements obtained by another method for individual patients. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture was provided by QCT and the weakest by SPA. There was good correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results. Osteoporotic women and younger healthy women can be distinguished by the measurement of spinal trabecular bone density using QCT, and this method is more sensitive than the measurement of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT. (orig.) [de

  19. Evaluation of an exposed-radiation dose on a dual-source cardiac computed tomography examination with a prospective electrocardiogram-gated fast dual spiral scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Koshida, Haruka; Sakuta, Keita; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Tadanori; Horii, Junsei; Kawai, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated exposed-radiation doses on dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CT) examinations with prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated fast dual spiral scans. After placing dosimeters at locations corresponding to each of the thoracic organs, prospective ECG-gated fast dual spirals and retrospective ECG-gated dual spiral scans were performed to measure the absorbed dose of each organ. In the prospective ECG-gated fast dual spiral scans, the average absorbed doses were 5.03 mGy for the breast, 9.96 mGy for the heart, 6.60 mGy for the lung, 6.48 mGy for the bone marrow, 9.73 mGy for the thymus, and 4.58 mGy for the skin. These values were about 5% of the absorbed doses for the retrospective ECG-gated dual spiral scan. However, the absorbed dose differed greatly at each scan, especially in the external organs such as the breast. For effective and safe use of the prospective ECG-gated fast dual spiral scan, it is necessary to understand these characteristics sufficiently. (author)

  20. Alendronate has a residual effect on bone mass in postmenopausal Danish women up to 7 years after treatment withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for 7, 5, or 3 yr, respectively. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were induced serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin. Women who received alendronate (2...... was found in women treated with alendronate 20 mg per day for 2 yr (9.7%, P=0.01 vs. placebo). The rate of bone loss after alendronate withdrawal was comparable to the bone loss observed in the placebo group. Bone markers tended to reverse back to normal levels, but were still affected even several years...

  1. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  2. Dual energy cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gastón

    2017-06-01

    Conventional single energy CT suffers from technical limitations related to the polychromatic nature of X-rays. Dual energy cardiac CT (DECT) shows promise to attenuate and even overcome some of these limitations, and might broaden the scope of patients eligible for cardiac CT towards the inclusion of higher risk patients. This might be achieved as a result of both safety (contrast reduction) and physiopathological (myocardial perfusion and characterization) issues. In this article, we will review the main clinical cardiac applications of DECT, that can be summarized in two core aspects: coronary artery evaluation, and myocardial evaluation.

  3. Protecting Bone Health in Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases: Pharmacological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Milojevic, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Bone health in children with rheumatic conditions may be compromised due to several factors related to the inflammatory disease state, delayed puberty, altered life style, including decreased physical activities, sun avoidance, suboptimal calcium and vitamin D intake, and medical treatments, mainly glucocorticoids and possibly some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Low bone density or even fragility fractures could be asymptomatic; therefore, children with diseases of high inflammatory load, such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and those requiring chronic glucocorticoids may benefit from routine screening of bone health. Most commonly used assessment tools are laboratory testing including serum 25-OH-vitamin D measurement and bone mineral density measurement by a variety of methods, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as the most widely used. Early disease control, use of steroid-sparing medications such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biologics, supplemental vitamin D and calcium, and promotion of weight-bearing physical activities can help optimize bone health. Additional treatment options for osteoporosis such as bisphosphonates are still controversial in children with chronic rheumatic diseases, especially those with decreased bone density without fragility fractures. This article reviews common risk factors leading to compromised bone health in children with chronic rheumatic diseases and discusses the general approach to prevention and treatment of bone fragility.

  4. Self-dual metrics with self-dual Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.; Ward, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Twistor methods are used to derive a class of solutions to Einstein's vacuum equations, with anti-self dual Weyl tensor. In particular, all metrics with a Killing vector whose derivative is anti-self-dual and which admit a real positive-definite section are exhibited and shown to coincide with the metrics of Hawking. (author)

  5. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...

  6. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  7. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  8. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  9. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  10. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  11. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    as double-layer thickness. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which divides the body into fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass, both for the total body and regional body compartments. An abdominal region was inserted manually. Statistics were Pearson correlations and analysis...... of variance. RESULTS: Endometrial thickness and total body bone mass were correlated, respectively, to body mass index (r = 0.14, P ... correlate with increased endometrial thickness and bone mass....

  12. Determination of peak bone mass density and composition in low income urban residents of metro Manila using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this paper is a continuation of the first phase of the study, which is the determination of the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. However, it also aims to correlate sex, body mass index, nutritional factors, physical activity and lifestyle to peak bone mass and thus attempts to explain any discrepancies in peak bone mass density to that seen in other countries

  13. Superimposed dual-isotope SPECT using 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate and 201Tl-chloride to assess cartilage invasion in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Yokoe, Koiku; Miyabe, Kazunori; Iwasaki, Takanobu; Toyama, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage invasion in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer has a significant impact on the choice of treatment modality and outcome of the disease. We examined invasion of cartilage in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer by simultaneous bone and tumor dual-isotope SPECT using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate and 201 Tl-chloride. Early and delayed simultaneous bone and tumor dual-isotope SPECT were performed on 19 patients with laryngohypopharyngeal cancer. Dual-isotope SPECT images were superimposed to project tumor location from tumor SPECT onto the osseous structures shown by bone SPECT. The presence or absence of cartilage invasion was evaluated histopathologically or by radiological studies such as CT and/or MRI. Histopathological or radiological examination of the cartilage revealed invasion in 5 patients and no invasion in 14 patients. The results of both early and delayed dual-isotope SPECT were exactly the same. Using dual-isotope SPECT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in detecting cartilage invasion by laryngohypopharyngeal cancer were: 80% (4/5), 92.9% (13/14), and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. Results of the present study suggest that superimposed early bone and tumor dual-isotope SPECT images may be sufficient for the diagnostic evaluation of cartilage invasion by laryngohypopharyngeal cancer. Superimposed dual-isotope SPECT imaging is a useful technique in the evaluation of cartilage invasion in laryngohypopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  14. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  15. Gracile bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O.; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera

    2002-01-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  16. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  17. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 ...

  19. Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Lambert, Wallace

    1981-01-01

    Describes study which tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit comparison of the effects of bilingual encoding with verbal-nonverbal dual encoding items. Results provide strong support for a version of the independent or separate stories view of bilingual memory. (Author/BK)

  20. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  1. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  2. In-vitro studies of change in edge detection with changes in bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, N.; Noakes, K.; Griffiths, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires edge detection software to identify the skeletal regions for quantitation of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). As bone mass decreases, the detection of bone edges becomes more difficult and this potentially could cause errors in DXA estimations of areal BMD or BMC. To address this issue, we have used an in-vitro model to study the effects of 'bone loss' on calculated bone area, BMD and BMC. Multiple vertebral phantoms, of equal cross-sectional area but incrementally decreased areal BMD, were constructed using calcium sulphate hemihydrate. The weight of each phantom vertebra, measured accurately using an electronic balance, was used as an index of its true 'bone mass equivalent' (BME). The phantoms were scanned and analysed in the lumbar spine mode using a Lunar DPX-L (L) and Hologic QDR-1000 (H). The changes in BME were compared to changes in measured area, BMC and areal BMD. The results demonstrate that, in an in-vitro model, as bone mass decreases, measured bone area and consequently BMC will decrease as the edge detection algorithms have greater difficulty in detecting the true edges. In conclusion, in an in-vitro model, the DXA edge detection algorithms will underestimate bone area as bone mass decreases. This has potential implications for monitoring changes in bone mass in vivo

  3. Clinical usefulness of calcaneal measurements using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Jun; Nakata, Tomoko; Ito, Masako

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the clinical usefulness of calcaneal measurement using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the ability to detect bone loss and fracture risk were evaluated in comparison with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) measured using DXA and quantitative CT (QCT) and with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Furthermore, to investigate the region in calcaneus in which to detect bone change sensitively, the ability to detect bone loss and fracture risk were also evaluated using new regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually defined. The subjects were 165 healthy women, and 188 female patients with fracture, estrogen deficiency, and steroid-induced osteoporosis. Calcaneal BMD with some manually defined ROIs showed lower precision and less sensitivity in detecting bone loss than BMD measured with automatically defined ROIs. Calcaneal DXA, spinal DXA, and QCT demonstrated significant age-related bone loss, and all measurements could discriminate fracture cases from non-fracture cases. Calcaneal DXA could discriminate the bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency as well as spinal DXA. Furthermore, calcaneal measurements showed a greater ability to detect steroid-induced bone loss than spinal DXA, probably because this group included subjects of advanced age with spondylosis. In conclusion, calcaneal DXA is useful to assess BMD in subjects who are not suitable for spinal measurement, although the ability to detect age-related bone loss in calcaneal DXA is less than in spinal measurements. (author)

  4. Effects of different loading patterns on the trabecular bone morphology of the proximal femur using adaptive bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, S Mohammad Ali; Oftadeh, Ramin; Nazarian, Ara; Goebel, Ruben; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the changes in the bone density of human femur model as a result of different loadings were investigated. The model initially consisted of a solid shell representing cortical bone encompassing a cubical network of interconnected rods representing trabecular bone. A computationally efficient program was developed that iteratively changed the structure of trabecular bone by keeping the local stress in the structure within a defined stress range. The stress was controlled by either enhancing existing beam elements or removing beams from the initial trabecular frame structure. Analyses were performed for two cases of homogenous isotropic and transversely isotropic beams.Trabecular bone structure was obtained for three load cases: walking, stair climbing and stumbling without falling. The results indicate that trabecular bone tissue material properties do not have a significant effect on the converged structure of trabecular bone. In addition, as the magnitude of the loads increase, the internal structure becomes denser in critical zones. Loading associated with the stumbling results in the highest density;whereas walking, considered as a routine daily activity, results in the least internal density in different regions. Furthermore, bone volume fraction at the critical regions of the converged structure is in good agreement with previously measured data obtained from combinations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). The results indicate that the converged bone architecture consisting of rods and plates are consistent with the natural bone morphology of the femur. The proposed model shows a promising means to understand the effects of different individual loading patterns on the bone density.

  5. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Michael J.; Morgan, Sarah L.; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Steelman, Rebecca E.; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Fineberg, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  6. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  7. Cortical bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M. Jr.; Rogers, L.F.; Hendrix, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed

  8. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  10. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  11. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tracking of bone mass from childhood to puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, M. S.; Heidemann, M.; Schou, A.

    2018-01-01

    health. Introduction: Bone mass development in childhood varies by sex and age, but also by pubertal stage. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe bone mass development in childhood as it relates to pubertal onset and to (2) determine the degree of tracking from childhood to adolescence....... Methods: A longitudinal study with 7 years of follow-up was initiated in 2008 to include 831 children (407 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Participants underwent whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning, blood collection to quantify luteinizing hormone levels, and Tanner stage self...

  13. The significance of HIV to bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Weis, Nina; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2017-01-01

    The life expectancy in well-treated HIV-infected persons approaches that of the general population, but HIV-infected persons have a greater incidence of fractures and osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mineral density is observed primarily during the first 1-2 years of antiretroviral therapy. Dual X......-ray absorptiometry scan should be considered in HIV-infected men ≥ 50 years and postmenopausal women. In case of osteoporosis, bisphosphonate treatment should follow guidelines for the general population. Future research should focus on pathogenesis and prevention of bone density loss in HIV....

  14. Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Tissue Quality Long-term After Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Herrera, Sabina; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogués, Xavier; Vera, María; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Mir, Marisa; Güerri, Roberto; Crespo, Marta; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Pascual, Julio

    2017-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is used to assess bone health in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Trabecular bone score and in vivo microindentation are novel techniques that directly measure trabecular microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone at a tissue level and independently predict fracture risk. We tested the bone status of long-term KTR using all 3 techniques. Cross-sectional study including 40 KTR with more than 10 years of follow-up and 94 healthy nontransplanted subjects as controls. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar spine and the hip. Trabecular bone score was measured by specific software on the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of lumbar spine in 39 KTR and 77 controls. Microindentation was performed at the anterior tibial face with a reference-point indenter device. Bone measurements were standardized as percentage of a reference value, expressed as bone material strength index (BMSi) units. Multivariable (age, sex, and body mass index-adjusted) linear regression models were fitted to study the association between KTR and BMD/BMSi/trabecular bone score. Bone mineral density was lower at lumbar spine (0.925 ± 0.15 vs 0.982 ± 0.14; P = 0.025), total hip (0.792 ± 0.14 vs 0.902 ± 0.13; P bone score was borderline lower (1.21 ± 0.14 vs 1.3 ± 0.15; adjusted P = 0.072) in KTR. Despite persistent decrease in BMD, trabecular microarchitecture and tissue quality remain normal in long-term KTR, suggesting important recovery of bone health.

  15. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxi, Tarvinder; Sud Seema; Vohra, Rakesh; Sud, Aditi; Singh, Satnam

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the temporal bone is rare. The nature of the underlying disorder that converted into the ABC might, however, be difficult to ascertain on imaging as well as on histopathology. The unusual CT and MRI findings in a case of ABC of the temporal bone are presented. This had transdural intracerebral spread with a large component of solid enhancing matrix but no peripheral calcific rim. The patient was an adult of 45 years with a history of headache for more than 1 year Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  16. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  17. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  18. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  19. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  20. Dual antagonists of integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah, K; Dolenc, M Sollner

    2005-01-01

    The roles of integrins in pathologies have been studied intensively and only partially explained. This has resulted in the development of several nanomolar antagonists to certain integrins. In most cases, the aim was to produce compounds which are highly selective towards specific integrins. This paradigm has recently shifted a little. Targeting two or more integrins with one compound has become a very attractive concept, especially since it has become clear that several severe disorders, such as pathological angiogenesis, cannot be treated just with highly specific integrin antagonists. This review is aimed to elucidate some aspects regarding the design of drugs with dual activity towards integrins. Integrin structure and tissue distribution will first be described, in order to provide the basis for their functions in various pathologies which will follow. Inhibitors of several pairs of integrins will be described.

  1. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  2. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  3. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  4. Baryons and dual unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.-I.

    1977-05-01

    Processes involving baryons are discussed in the scheme of dual unitarization. In particular, the topological expansion is generalized to any hadronic S-matrix elements involving baryons and/or mesons. The expansion is based on a model for the baryon propagator, which is a set of three planar Feynman diagrams joined at a junction line. The resulting expansion is a double expansion in 1/N (N = the number of quark flavours) and in the number of baryon loops. Based on this, several new observations are made in phenomenological problems, and a unifying point of view in stressed. The scheme is evidently crossing invariant, and unitarity constraints are imposed order by order in 1/N and in the baryon loop number. (author)

  5. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  6. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Turnover in Elderly with Bone Loss - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Peker

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss is common in the elderly. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, which regulates serum calcium levels,calcitonin and vitamin D metabolites have various effects on skeletal system. The aim of this study was to assess secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH and bone turnover in elderly with bone loss. Fifty-five patients (9 men,46 women older than 65 years with bone loss were included in the study. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiomety (DXA at L1-4 vertebrae and proximal femur regions. Patients with T scores <-1.5 at one of the measurement sites were included in the study. Study subjects were assessed in terms of fracture history, sunbathing and walking activity. Routine biochemical tests, serum osteocalcin (OC and C-telopeptide type 1 collagen (CTX and lateral thoracal and lumbar vertebrae radyographic evaluation was performed. Our results showed that 70.9% of the patients had HPTH. Total femur BMD values and femur neck T scores were significantly lower in HPTH group than PTH normal one (p=0.05, p=0.03. Serum OC and CTX levels were higher in both groups. There was a negative correlation with femur neck BMD and CTX (r=0,321. There was no correlation between serum PTH levels and lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur BMD values. Serum PTH and alkaline phosphatase levels showed a significant positive correlation. In conclusion secondary HPTH and increased bone turnover is common elderly with bone loss. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is important the older people. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006; 12: 70-3

  7. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  8. Bone densitometry in pediatric patients treated with pamidronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, Leslie E.; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Harcke, H.Theodore [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Department of Medical Imaging, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); Bachrach, Steven J. [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Division of General Pediatrics, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); McKay, Charles [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Division of Nephrology, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2005-05-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous pamidronate on the bone mineral density of children with osteogenesis imperfecta and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Charts of 38 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (n=20) and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (n=18) treated with pamidronate were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were selected for treatment because of prior fracture and/or abnormally low bone mineral density. All received intravenous pamidronate at two-month to eight-month intervals and were periodically examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All patients had abnormally low bone mineral density prior to treatment. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and z-scores showed serial improvement in 31 of 32 patients. Spine bone mineral density increased 78{+-}38.1% in OI and 47.4{+-}39.0% in children with cerebral palsy. The area of greatest lateral distal femur bone mineral density improvement was in the metaphysis adjacent to the growth plate, with a 96{+-}87.8% improvement in the osteogenesis imperfecta group and 65.7{+-}55.2% improvement in the cerebral palsy group. Increases in bone mineral density exceeded that expected for age-specific growth. This was demonstrated by improvement in both spine and femur z-scores for both groups. No children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy experienced fractures after the first week of treatment, whereas patients with osteogenesis imperfecta continued to have fractures but at a decreased rate. (orig.)

  9. Bone densitometry in pediatric patients treated with pamidronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, Leslie E.; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Harcke, H.Theodore; Bachrach, Steven J.; McKay, Charles

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous pamidronate on the bone mineral density of children with osteogenesis imperfecta and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Charts of 38 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (n=20) and spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (n=18) treated with pamidronate were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were selected for treatment because of prior fracture and/or abnormally low bone mineral density. All received intravenous pamidronate at two-month to eight-month intervals and were periodically examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All patients had abnormally low bone mineral density prior to treatment. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and z-scores showed serial improvement in 31 of 32 patients. Spine bone mineral density increased 78±38.1% in OI and 47.4±39.0% in children with cerebral palsy. The area of greatest lateral distal femur bone mineral density improvement was in the metaphysis adjacent to the growth plate, with a 96±87.8% improvement in the osteogenesis imperfecta group and 65.7±55.2% improvement in the cerebral palsy group. Increases in bone mineral density exceeded that expected for age-specific growth. This was demonstrated by improvement in both spine and femur z-scores for both groups. No children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy experienced fractures after the first week of treatment, whereas patients with osteogenesis imperfecta continued to have fractures but at a decreased rate. (orig.)

  10. Bone biology in the elderly: clinical importance for fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolvien Tim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related bone impairment often leads to fragility fractures in the elderly. Although excellent surgical care is widely provided, diagnosis and treatment of the underlying bone disorder are often not kept in mind. The interplay of the three major bone cells – osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes – is normally well regulated via the secretion of messengers to control bone remodeling. Possible imbalances that might occur in the elderly are partly due to age, genetic risk factors, and adverse lifestyle factors but importantly also due to imbalances in calcium homeostasis (mostly due to vitamin D deficiency or hypochlorhydria, which have to be eliminated. Therefore, the cooperation between the trauma surgeon and the osteologist is of major importance to diagnose and treat the respective patients at risk. We propose that any patient suffering from fragility fractures is rigorously screened for osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. This includes bone density measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, laboratory tests for calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, and bone turnover markers, as well as additional diagnostic modalities if needed. Thereby, most risk factors, including vitamin D deficiency, can be identified and treated while patients who meet the criteria for a specific therapy (i.e. antiresorptive and osteoanabolic receive such. If local health systems succeed to manage this process of secondary fracture prevention, morbidity and mortality of fragility fractures will decline to a minimum level.

  11. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  12. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  13. Accuracy of dual photon absorptiometry in excised femurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erman, J.; Ott, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). Measurements were compared between BMC and ashed weight using two related scanners. The BMC in different locations of the femur was determined. Twelve cadaver femurs were cleaned of all soft tissue, divided into four parts (head, neck, trochanteric region, and shaft), and measured for BMC in an ethanol/water solution. The bones were then ashed and weighed. Volumetric density was also determined. The correlation coefficient between ash weight and BMC was 0.99 with an s.e.e. of 0.51 g and relative error of 4.8%. Similar correlations were seen within each region. The correlation between the machines was 0.99. Differences in volumetric density were found, with the density of the shaft greater than other regions, and the neck greater than the head or trochanteric regions

  14. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  15. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Kotzmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Kainberger, F.M.; Bankier, A.; Seidl, G.

    1993-01-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.) [de

  16. Fragility fractures and bone remodeling in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana O. Yalochkina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fracture risk is significantly increased in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and individuals with diabetes experience worse fracture outcomes compared to normoglycemic individuals. Patients with T1DM have decreased bone mineral density (BMD, whereas patients with T2DM demonstrate increased BMD compared to healthy control. The latest studies show increased incidence of low-traumatic fractures in patients with T2DM instead of high bone mineral density (BMD. The risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with T2DM can be explained by disease complications and increased risk of falls and consequent trauma. However, the most important cause of bone fragility in T2DM is the deterioration in bone microarchitecture, the mechanism of which is not completely understood. High BMD in patients with T2DM does not allow us to use dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry as a “gold standard” test for diagnosticsof osteoporosis. Consequently,new risk factors and diagnostic algorithm as well as treatment strategy should be developed for patients with T2DM. In addition to this, some researchers considered that the group of T2DM is geterogenous and physicians might face patients with osteoporosis and mild diabetes that add very little to bone fragility; patients with osteoporosis and moderate or severe diabetes which also affects bone tissue –diabetoosteoporosis; and patients without osteoporosis but severe diabetes which cause bone tissue deterioration with the development of diabetic bone disease. New diagnostic tools and algorithm and new experimental research are needed for better understanding bone deterioration in patients with T2DM. This review summarizes our current knowledge on fracture rate, risk factors for fractures and causes of bone deterioration in subjects with T2DM.

  17. MR-based trabecular bone microstructure is not altered in subjects with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Brockow, Knut; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Jungmann, Pia M; Biedermann, Tilo; Rummeny, Ernst J; Bauer, Jan S; Müller, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Subjects with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) have an increased risk for osteoporosis. It has been demonstrated that trabecular bone microstructure analysis improves the prediction of bone strength beyond dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to obtain Magnetic Resonance (MR)-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters as advanced imaging biomarkers in subjects with ISM (n=18) and compare them with those of normal controls (n=18). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were not significantly (P>.05) different between subjects with ISM and controls. These findings revealed important pathophysiological information about ISM-associated osteoporosis and may limit the use of trabecular bone microstructure analysis in this clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  19. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment, colocystopl......OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment......, colocystoplasty, and controls. All animals received antibiotics for 1 week after surgery; half of each group remained on oral antibiotics. Bone-related biochemistry was measured in serum and urine. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were used to determine bone...... no differences in bone length and volume. Loss of bone mass was almost exclusively in rats with ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment (-37.5%, pQCT, P

  20. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined...... the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  1. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  2. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those...

  3. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Higuchi, Tohru; Nishihara, Kaori; Kayano, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured...

  4. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available dual-band dual-polarized (DBDP) antenna design for WLAN applications. The antenna is in the form of an array consisting of four double-dipole radiators. The basic radiating element consists of a rhombus shaped dipole above a planar ground plane... the ground planes and the respective feedlines. Substrate cuts and difierent heights for the horizontal feedlines were necessary to achieve the latter. The 2nd conflguration (for vertical polarization) has a slightly difierent feeding network layout...

  5. A soluble activin type IIA receptor mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength and cancellous bone mass in a mouse model of disuse osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodberg, Andreas; Eijken, Marco; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Okkels, Mette Wendelboe; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Brüel, Annemarie

    2018-05-01

    Disuse causes a rapid and substantial bone loss distinct in its pathophysiology from the bone loss associated with cancers, age, and menopause. While inhibitors of the activin-receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have been shown to prevent ovariectomy- and cancer-induced bone loss, their application in a model of disuse osteopenia remains to be tested. Here, we show that a soluble activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA-mFc) increases diaphyseal bone strength and cancellous bone mass, and mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength in the Botulinum Toxin A (BTX)-model of disuse osteopenia in female C57BL/6J mice. We show that ActRIIA-mFc treatment preferentially stimulates a dual-effect (anabolic-antiresorptive) on the periosteal envelope of diaphyseal bone, demonstrating in detail the effects of ActRIIA-mFc on cortical bone. These observations constitute a previously undescribed feature of IASPs that mediates at least part of their ability to mitigate detrimental effects of unloading on bone tissue. The study findings support the application of IASPs as a strategy to combat bone loss during disuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wölfl

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b, during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  7. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  8. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  9. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  10. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound...

  11. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Devi, Salam Gyaneshwori; Mittal, Soniya; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal) were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP) and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward's triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause. PMID:23481051

  12. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Influence of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue on Bone Loss and of Osteocalcin on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira L. Mendonça

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university hospital, involving 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT and 21 controls (CG. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and marrow adipose tissue was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biochemical evaluation included the determination of parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: A negative association was found between the bone mass at the 1/3 radius and parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.69; p<0.01. Marrow adipose tissue was not significantly increased in patients (CG = 32.8±11.2% vs PHPT = 38.6±12%. The serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in patients (CG = 8.6±3.6 ng/mL vs PHPT = 36.5±38.4 ng/mL; p<0.005, but no associations were observed between osteocalcin and insulin or between insulin and both marrow adipose tissue and bone mass. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increment of adipogenesis in the bone marrow microenvironment under conditions of high bone turnover due to primary hyperparathyroidism is limited. Despite the increased serum levels of osteocalcin due to primary hyperparathyroidism, these patients tend to have impaired insulin sensitivity.

  13. THE MEASUREMENT OF BONE QUALITY USING GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX TEXTURAL FEATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Huang, Ning; Dong, Xuanliang Neil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, statistical methods for the estimation of bone quality to predict the risk of fracture are reported. Bone mineral density and bone architecture properties are the main contributors of bone quality. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the traditional clinical measurement technique for bone mineral density, but does not include architectural information to enhance the prediction of bone fragility. Other modalities are not practical due to cost and access considerations. This study investigates statistical parameters based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) extracted from two-dimensional projection images and explores links with architectural properties and bone mechanics. Data analysis was conducted on Micro-CT images of 13 trabecular bones (with an in-plane spatial resolution of about 50μm). Ground truth data for bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone strength and modulus were available based on complex 3D analysis and mechanical tests. Correlation between the statistical parameters and biomechanical test results was studied using regression analysis. The results showed Cluster-Shade was strongly correlated with the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and related to mechanical properties. Once the principle thesis of utilizing second-order statistics is established, it can be extended to other modalities, providing cost and convenience advantages for patients and doctors.

  14. Quantitative image of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa

    1990-01-01

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm 2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)

  15. Bone changes occurring spontaneously and caused by estrogen in early postmenopausal women: a local generalized phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.; Gotfredsen, A.; Riis, B.J.; Hassager, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regional values of bone mineral content and bone mineral density were calculated from total body dual photon absorptiometry scans of 52 early postmenopausal women treated with estrogen for one year and of 52 similar women treated with placebo. The six regions were head, arms, chest, spine, pelvis, and legs. In addition, bone mineral density of the spine was calculated by dual photon absorptiometry and bone mineral content of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry, using separate special purpose scanners. All regions were unchanged after one year of treatment with estrogen, excluding the lumbar spine, for which values rose. Values for all regions except the lumbar spine fell significantly in the placebo group. The rates of loss ranged from 2 to 8%, with no significant differences between the regions. It is concluded that loss of bone in the early menopause is a generalized phenomenon, affecting all parts of the skeleton. Furthermore, estrogen prophylaxis for loss of bone is effective in all parts of the skeleton. Finally, it is suggested that the measurement of bone mineral content in the forearm be used for clinical follow up of bone changes, as this method is superior to others in the ratio of change to precision

  16. How well does dual photon absorptiometry predict osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Muller, C.; Strauss, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Sturtridge, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measurement of bone mass carried out by quantitative digital radiography (Hologic Inc.) was compared to results with neutron activation analysis (NAA) on 106 subjects. The accuracy with DEXA was further investigated by measurements on aluminium samples of known composition. DEXA measured 4 lumbar vertebrae by spine scan. The central third of the skeleton also was measured by whole body scan to obtain data on the same large part of the skeleton as measured by NAA. Results suggested that DEXA spine scans were more reliable than whole body scans. In addition, the measurement of total mineral content (BMC) was more reliable than the normalization of BMC to bone surface area (BMC/Area) or bone mineral density (BDM). Since the proportion of bone below detection would increase with development of osteoporosis, with osteoporosis the BMC would be increasingly underestimated, but to only a small extent, while the BMD would be more significantly overestimated. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  18. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  19. Dual photon absorptiometer utilizing a HpGe detector and microprocessor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Pearlstein, T.B.; Alberi, J.L.; Cohn, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of bone mineral content (BMC) using a single energy-photon beam assumes that there are only two materials present, bone mineral and a uniform soft tissue component. Uncertainty in the value of BMC increases with different adipose tissue components in the transmitted beam. These errors, however, are reduced by the dual energy technique. Also, extension to additional energies further identifies the separate constituents of the soft tissue component. A multi-energy bone scanning apparatus with data acquisition and analysis capability sufficient to perform multi-energy analysis of bone mineral content was designed and developed. The present work reports on the development of device operated in the dual energy mode. The high purity germanium (HpGe) detector is an integral component of the scanner. Errors in BMC due to multiple small angle scatters are reduced due to the excellent energy resolution of the detector (530 eV at 60 keV). Also, the need to filter the source or additional collimation on the detector is eliminated. A new dual source holder was designed using 200 mCi 125 I and 100 mCi 241 Am. The active areas of the two source capsules are aligned on a common axis. The congruence of the dual source was verified by measuring the collimator response function. This new holder design insures that the same tissue mass simultaneously attenuates both sources. The controller portion of the microprocessor allows for variation in total scan length, step size, and counting time per step. These options allow for multiple measurements without changes in the detector, source, or collimator. The system has been successfully used to determine the BMC content of different bones

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material [1]. It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral [3], [14]. These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone [13], similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that

  1. Symmetries of the dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.

    1998-01-01

    The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric

  2. Homogeneous M2 duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  3. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  4. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  5. Outcomes of dual mobility components in total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrith, B; Courtney, P M; Della Valle, C J

    2018-01-01

    revision THAs, and in those undertaken in patients with a fracture of the femoral neck. The incidence of intraprosthetic dislocation is low and limited mainly to earlier designs. High-quality, prospective, comparative studies are needed to evaluate further the use of dual mobility components in THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:11-19. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. A status report on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry quality control in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Ro, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Sung Su; Kim, Kyoung Ah

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used technical instrument for evaluating bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in patients of all ages. In 2016, DEXA devices operating is 5617 in Korea. In this study we investigated the quality of management practices survey for DEXA equipment and we analyzed it. We got a survey response rate of 12.6%. Accurate bone densitometry test is used data for estimation a patient's risk of fracture. However, improper bone densitometry will increase the possibility of causing a false positive. Therefore. it is essential to use the proper aids accurate bone densitomenty to be performed, and the quality control of the device to reduce the error factor of the tester through the training to reduce error for the device and the attitude

  7. A status report on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry quality control in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Dept. of Radiogic Technology, Chungbuk Health and Science University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Su [Dept. of Healthcare Management, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Ah [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used technical instrument for evaluating bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in patients of all ages. In 2016, DEXA devices operating is 5617 in Korea. In this study we investigated the quality of management practices survey for DEXA equipment and we analyzed it. We got a survey response rate of 12.6%. Accurate bone densitometry test is used data for estimation a patient's risk of fracture. However, improper bone densitometry will increase the possibility of causing a false positive. Therefore. it is essential to use the proper aids accurate bone densitomenty to be performed, and the quality control of the device to reduce the error factor of the tester through the training to reduce error for the device and the attitude.

  8. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  9. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  10. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD, an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015 that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  11. Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass. (author)

  12. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Gantz, M; Punyanitya, M; Heymsfield, S B; Gallagher, D; Albu, J; Engelson, E; Kotler, D; Pi-Sunyer, X; Shapses, S

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18-88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r = -0.533, -0.576, respectively; P BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premenopausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.

  13. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desouki, M. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jurayyan, N. [College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (``superscan``) in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm{sup 2}(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm {sup 2}(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  15. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  16. Bone Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Start here to find information on bone cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  17. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  18. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  19. Nuclear medical methods for determination of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Kempers, B.; Tschepke, H.D.; Spitz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Osteoporosis is becoming recognized as a major social and economical health problem. Bone mineral content (BMC) depends on many hormonal and metabolic factors. The pathophysiological mechanism of the loss of bone mass is still unclear. For preventive diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, quantitative technology is required that will measure BMC with high precision and reproducibility. Nuclear medical methods permit the BMC of the appendicular skeleton to be measured by single photon absorptiometry. Whole-body BMC, as well as spine and femur BMC, can be measured by dual photon absorptiometry. The results from both procedures are reasonably precise and correlate well with the ash weight of isolated bone. The radiation exposure level in both SPA and DPA is low. SPA and DPA may be used for cost-effective screening of high-risk patients to predict the likelihood of future fractures and control osteoporosis therapy. (orig.) [de

  20. Computed tomographic assessment of vertebral bone mineral in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericks, B.J.; De Campo, J.F.; McCredie, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to assess trabecular bone mineral concentration in the vertebrae of 132 children, 45 with suspected disorder of bone mineralisation, 54 with thalassaemia and 37 controls. The range for bone mineral concentration in controls, expressed as equivalent K 2 HPO 4 concentrations, was 90-190 mg cm -3 . Abnormally low values were seen in all untreated children with idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis, 3/9 steroid recipients, and three patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Abnormally high values were seen in 10/14 chronic renal failure patients. Comparison of the single and dual-energy methods showed that the single energy method, which has a lower radiation dose and is less prone to error from movement artifact, is satisfactory in most paediatric applications. (orig.)

  1. Focus on growth hormone deficiency and bone in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) exerts several effects on the skeleton, mediated either directly or indirectly, leading to increased bone formation and resorption rates. Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) of adult onset have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Some, but not all, studies have found that adults with childhood onset GHD also have lower BMD than healthy controls. Adults with GHD of childhood onset have smaller bone dimensions, leading to possible underestimation of areal BMD (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), thus potentially confounding the interpretation of densitometric data. Available data suggest that patients with childhood onset GHD are at increased fracture risk. Prospective studies and some clinical trials found that GH replacement for at least 18-24 months leads to increased BMD. Retrospective and prospective data suggest that GH replacement is associated with decreased fracture risk in adults. However, data from randomized clinical trials are lacking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, women generally have less bone tissue than men. So, it’s especially important for girls to build up their bone “bank account” during their teenage years by exercising regularly and getting enough calcium and vitamin D. What to do for strong bones—today and tomorrow Osteoporosis is usually a ...

  3. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine is the bone scintiscanning with labelled compounds for obtain skeletal images. The main sections in this work are: (1) bone composition and anatomy;(2)skeletal radiopharmaceutical development;(3)physical properties of radionuclides;(4)biological behaviour and chemical structures;(5)radiopharmaceuticals production for skeletal scintillation;(6)kits;(7)dosimetry and toxicity.tabs

  5. Treated unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, J.; Servaes, S.; Anupindi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course

  6. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  8. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  9. Assessment of bone mineral density in young female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyane Krahenbühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing bone mass gain during childhood and adolescence may help prevent bone diseases in advanced ages. The aim of this study was to verify the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC in female adolescent’s handball players. This is a cross-sectional study where 68 female adolescents (12–17 years were allocated into two groups: handball players (n = 29 (HG and control group (n = 39 (CG. BMC and BMD from total body (TB, total body less head (TBLH, lumbar spine (L1–L4, femoral neck (FN, Ward’s triangle (WT and respectively Z-scores were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Sexual maturity, menarche, PHV, time of sun exposure, physical activity level and Calcium and vitamin D intake were assessed. The HG showed significantly higher BMC, BMD as well Z-scores values (p≤0.05 of total body, TBLH, femoral neck, hip and lumbar spine than the CG. When the values were adjusted for lean soft tissue (LST the HG showed significantly higher BMC of femoral neck (p≤0.05, as well as BMD of TBLH and femoral neck (p≤0.05 and Z-score values all bone sites except hip, than the CG. We conclude that handball players have significantly higher bone mass values compared to group of girls of the same age.

  10. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15......Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...

  11. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  12. Bone Structural Changes and Estimated Strength After Gastric Bypass Surgery Evaluated by HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hanson, Stine; Hansen, Stinus

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is an effective treatment of morbid obesity, with positive effects on obesity-related complications. The treatment is associated with bone loss, which in turn might increase fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density...... (BMD) and bone architecture assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), 6 and 12 months after RYGB, and correlate them to changes in selected biochemical markers. A prospective cohort study included 25 morbidly obese...

  13. Impact of degenerative radiographic abnormalities and vertebral fractures on spinal bone density of women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Costa Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Measurements of bone density taken by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are the most accurate procedure for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of measuring the density of all mineral components, including osteophytes, vascular and extra vertebral calcifications. These alterations can influence bone density results and densitometry interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To correlate radiography and densitometry findings from women with osteoporosis, analyzing the influence of degenerative processes and vertebral fractures on the evaluation of bone density. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Osteoporosis outpatients' clinic at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six postmenopausal women presenting osteoporosis diagnosed by bone density. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by the technique of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using a LUNAR-DPX densitometer. Fractures, osteophytes and aortic calcifications were evaluated by simple x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine. RESULTS: The x-rays confirmed vertebral fractures in 41.6%, osteophytes in 33.3% and calcifications of the aorta in 30.2%. The prevalence of fractures and aortic calcifications increased with age. The mean bone mineral density was 0.783g/cm² and the mean T-score was --3.47 DP. Neither fractures nor aortic calcifications had significant influence on bone mineral density (P = 0.36 and P = 0.09, respectively, despite the fractured vertebrae having greater bone mineral density (P < 0.02. Patients with lumbar spine osteophytes showed greater bone mineral density (P = 0.04. Osteophytosis was associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density after adjustment for fractures and aortic calcifications by multiple regression (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Osteophytes and lumbar spine fractures can overestimate bone density interpretation. The interpretation of densitometry

  14. Measurement of bone mineral density using DEXA and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Eichstaedt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To observe bone loss and bone metabolism status in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2∼L4) and femoral neck using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and analysis of biochemical markers of bone turnover, such as ostecalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked telo-peptide of type I collagen (ICTP), PTH and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D). These markers were measured in 31 5-year survivors after OLT, 34 patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) before OLT and 38 normal subjects. Results: Age-matched Z-score of BMD (Z-score) at L2∼L4 was significantly higher in 5-year survivors than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Incidence of osteoporosis (Z-score<-2.0) in 5-year survivors was significantly lower than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Although serum concentrations of bone formation and bone resorption markers in 5-year survivors were high than those of normal subjects, as compared to patients with CLF before OLT, serum OSC was increased, serum ICTP and BAP were reduced, serum PICP was unchanged. Serum PTH and 25-OH-D level was normal. Conclusions: In 5-year survivors following liver transplantation there was a reduction in bone loss and incidence of osteoporosis and an improvement of bone metabolism

  15. [Bone metabolism, biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation processes and interleukine 6 cytokin level during coeliac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih, Monia; Sahli, Hela; Ben Mustapha, Nadia; Mestiri, Imen; Fekih, Moncef; Boubaker, Jalel; Kaabachi, Naziha; Sellami, Mohamed; Kallel, Lamia; Filali, Azza

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by a malabsorption syndrom. The bone anomalies are one of the principal complications of this disease. The osteoporosis frequency is high: 3.4% among patients having with CD versus 0.2% in the general population. To study the bone mineral density during the CD, to compare it to a control group and to determine the anomalies of biochemical markers of bone turn over and level of interleukin 6 cytokin (IL6) in these patients. All patients with CD have a measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a biological exam with dosing calcemia, vitamin D, parathormone (PTH), the osteoblastic bone formation markers (serum osteocalcin, ALP phosphates alkaline), bone osteoclastic activity (C Télopeptide: CTX) and of the IL6. 42 patients were included, with a median age of 33.6 years. 52. 8% of the patients had a low level of D vitamine associated to a high level of PTH. An osteoporosis was noted in 21.5% of patients. No case of osteoporosis was detected in the control group. The mean level of the CTX, ostéocalcine and the IL6 was higher among patients having an osteoporosis or ostéopenia compared to patients with normal bone (p = 0,017). The factors associated with an bone loss (osteopenia or osteoporosis) were: an age > 30 years, a weight 90 UI/ml, an hypo albuminemia < 40 g/l and a level of CTX higher than 1.2. Our study confirms the impact of the CD on the bone mineral statute. The relative risk to have an osteopenia or an osteoporosis was 5 in our series. The measurement of the osseous mineral density would be indicated among patients having a CD.

  16. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  17. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  18. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  19. Bone Density in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhlaspour, Laya; Baskaran, Charumathi; Campoverde, Karen Joanie; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Neumeyer, Ann M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for fracture, and peri-pubertal boys with ASD have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than controls. Data are lacking regarding BMD in older adolescents with ASD. We compared BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 9 adolescents/young adults with ASD against 9 typically…

  20. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...

  1. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  2. Body composition in hemodialysis patients measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenver, Doris Irene; Gotfredsen, Arne; Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures three of the principal components of the body: fat mass, lean soft-tissue mass (comprising muscle, inner organs, and the body water), and the bone mineral content. The purpose of this study was to test the estimation capacity of DXA when it is applied...... and reduction in fat-free mass (lean soft-tissue mass plus bone mineral content) was observed by DXA. The estimation of the fat-free mass was independent of the amount of fluid loss. No significant differences in variance between the data obtained before and after the dialysis were observed. We conclude...

  3. Aberrant Bone Density in Aging Mice Lacking the Adenosine Transporter ENT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Kwong, Hoi K.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months) compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density. PMID:24586402

  4. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  5. Genetic Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Related Bone Disease. An Observational, Transversal, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Ioana M; Pop, Liviu L; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Onet, Dan I; Guta-Almajan, Bogdan; Popa, Zoran; Horhat, Florin G

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent monogenic genetic disease with autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by important clinical polymorphism and significant lethal prospective. CF related bone disease occurs frequently in adults with CF. Childhood is the period of bone formation, and therefore, children are more susceptible to low bone density. Several factors like pancreatic insufficiency, hormone imbalance, and physical inactivity contribute to CF bone disease development. Revealing this would be important for prophylactic treatment against bone disease occurrence. The study was observational, transversal, with a cross-sectional design. The study included 68 children with cystic fibrosis, genotyped and monitored in the National CF Centre. At the annual assessment, besides clinical examination, biochemical evaluation for pancreatic insufficiency, and diabetes, they were evaluated for bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twenty-six patients, aged over 10 years were diagnosed with CF bone disease, without significant gender gap. Bone disease was frequent in patients aged over 10 years with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, carriers of severe mutations, and CF liver disease. CF carriers of a severe genotype which associates pancreatic insufficiency and CF liver disease, are more likely predisposed to low bone mineral density. Further studies should discover other significant influences in order to prevent the development of CF bone disease and an improved quality of life in cystic fibrosis children.

  6. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  7. Galloping exercise induces regional changes in bone density within the third and radial carpal bones of Thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, E.C.; Delahunt, J.; Wichtel, J.W.; Birch, H.L.; Goodship, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that a localised bone hypertrophy could occur within the subchondral cancellous architecture of the third and radial carpal bones. Using 2 levels of controlled and defined exercise, it was observed that a high intensity treadmill exercise protocol resulted in functional adaptation of the carpal bones. The increase in trabecular thickening and density was seen to be localised to those regions underlying common sites of cartilage degradation, the interface of the thickened trabeculae with the normal architecture in the third carpal hone was coincident with a common site of clinical fractures. The bone changes were determined both qualitatively on examination of slab radiographs and quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The findings from this study are relevant to mechanical factors involved in the pathophysiology of joint degeneration. The potential clinical implications of this study are in relation to changes in the type and duration of exercise regimens used in training of equine athletes. The rapid response of bone to mechanical stimulation has implications in the longer term for localised cartilage degradation. Imaging techniques could be developed to monitor these early bone changes in the specific areas identified in this study and thus allow appropriate changes in training intensity to minimise subsequent damage to the articular surface

  8. Repair of lesser tuberosity osteotomy for shoulder arthroplasty: biomechanical evaluation of the Backpack and Dual Row techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Daniel S; Hoover, Stephen A; Weinhold, Paul S; Spang, Jeffrey T; Creighton, R Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Subscapularis dysfunction following total shoulder arthroplasty can result in permanent loss of function. The lesser tuberosity osteotomy (LTO) has been proposed as a method which utilizes bone-to-bone healing to improve subscapularis function. This study evaluates the biomechanical properties of two described techniques for LTO repair. We hypothesized that a Dual Row repair would be stronger and demonstrate less cyclic displacement than a Backpack repair. Ten matched pairs of cadaveric humeri were dissected, leaving the subscapularis intact, and a lesser tuberosity osteotomy was performed. Matched shoulders were randomized to either a Backpack repair or a Dual Row repair. Repairs were subjected to cyclic loading to 180 N for 500 cycles, followed by ramp-up loading to ultimate failure. Clinical failure was defined as displacement >5 mm after 500 cycles. Displacement after 500 cycles was significantly greater for the Backpack repair (6.9 mm) than for the Dual Row repair (4.6 mm) (P = .007). Most displacement occurred on the first cycle (Backpack, 4.6 mm; Dual Row, 2.1 mm) (P Row repair (3/10). Ultimate tensile strength was significantly greater for the Dual Row repair (632.3 N) than for the Backpack repair (510.9 N) (P = .01). The Dual Row technique is significantly stronger and demonstrates less cyclic displacement than the Backpack technique. Clinical studies are needed to determine the impact of LTO repair technique on subscapularis function following shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not compromise bone matrix mineral composition or maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrahnas, Christina; Pearson, Thomas A; Brunt, Athena R; Forwood, Mark R; Bambery, Keith R; Tobin, Mark J; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is used to stimulate bone formation in patients with osteoporosis. A reduction in the degree of matrix mineralisation has been reported during treatment, which may reflect either production of undermineralised matrix or a greater proportion of new matrix within the bone samples assessed. To explore these alternatives, high resolution synchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy (sFTIRM) coupled with calcein labelling was used in a region of non-remodelling cortical bone to determine bone composition during anabolic PTH treatment compared with region-matched samples from controls. 8week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle or 50μg/kg PTH, 5 times/week for 4weeks (n=7-9/group). Histomorphometry confirmed greater trabecular and periosteal bone formation and 3-point bending tests confirmed greater femoral strength in PTH-treated mice. Dual calcein labels were used to match bone regions by time-since-mineralisation (bone age) and composition was measured by sFTIRM in six 15μm 2 regions at increasing depth perpendicular to the most immature bone on the medial periosteal edge; this allowed in situ measurement of progressive changes in bone matrix during its maturation. The sFTIRM method was validated in vehicle-treated bones where the expected progressive increases in mineral:matrix ratio and collagen crosslink type ratio were detected with increasing bone maturity. We also observed a gradual increase in carbonate content that strongly correlated with an increase in longitudinal stretch of the collagen triple helix (amide I:amide II ratio). PTH treatment did not alter the progressive changes in any of these parameters from the periosteal edge through to the more mature bone. These data provide new information about how the bone matrix matures in situ and confirm that bone deposited during PTH treatment undergoes normal collagen maturation and normal mineral accrual. Copyright © 2016

  10. Dual energy computer tomography. Objectve dosimetry, image quality and dose efficiency; Dual Energy Computertomographie. Objektive Dosimetrie, Bildqualitaet und Dosiseffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenzle, Jan Christian

    2012-05-24

    The aim of the present studies was an objective reflection of newly developed methods of modern imaging techniques concerning radiation exposure to the human body. Dual Source computed tomography has opened up a broad variety of new diagnostic possibilities. Using two X-ray sources with an angular offset of about 90 in a single gantry, images with a high spatiotemporal resolution can be achieved, for example in patients suffering acute chest pain. The Dual Energy Mode is based on the acquisition of two data sets with two different X-ray spectra which make it possible to identify certain substances with different spectral properties like bone, iodine or other organic material. [6-17] There is no doubt that this technical innovation will make an essential contribution to clinical diagnostics, but it remained to be proven that there is no additional dose. An anthropomorphic Phantom and thermoluminiscent detectors were used to objectively quantify the radiation dose resulting from the different examination protocols. For Dual Energy CT examinations, it was possible to verify dose neutrality in combination with comparable image quality and even improved contrast to noise ratio. Nowadays, this protocol is used in clinical routine examinations, e.g. for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism. A milestone in dose reduction was reached with modern triple rule out protocols. Causes of acute chest pain such as heart attack, pulmonary embolism or aortic rupture can be differentiated in a single examination with a high precision and a fractional amount of dose compared to conventional methods.

  11. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  12. Developments in dual-energy, single-exposure chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Jungtsuoe.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional chest radiography (CCR), the most commonly performed technique for the diagnosis of lung cancer, does not detect a high percentage of these tumors. One reason for errors is the overlap of tumor image with bone image in a chest radiograph. Dual-energy (DE) radiography has been suggested as the most effective method to eliminate bone contrast for better lung tumor visualization. DE radiography also provides a bone image from which benign nodules can be identified by the presence of nodule calcification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a film-screen based DE, single exposure technique in lung nodule detection and to improve its performance by both hardware (HD) and software developments (SD) to increase the accuracy of lung cancer diagnosis. Previous implementation of the technique resulted in small residual tissue contrast and incomplete tissue subtraction due to screen selection and x-ray beam hardening, respectively. HD, including uses of a new screen pair (Y 2 O 2 S/CaWO 4 ) and a K-edge filter (europium), were studied to improve residual tissue contrast by increasing the energy separation. Successful SD included a three-dimensional interpolation algorithm and noise suppression methods to achieve complete tissue subtraction and noise reduction, respectively. The results show that the new screen pair performed better than LaOBr/CaWo 4 ; the use of K-edge filter produced more residual tissue contrast than that obtained without it. Even though the dual exposure technique performed better than the single exposure technique in a simulated lung nodule detection study, the difference between the two techniques was statistically insignificant and they both performed better than CCR. Based on these encouraging results, the author concludes that the film-screen based DE, single exposure technique, with the HD and SD holds promise for further clinical study

  13. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  14. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  16. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  17. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Karen L; Morse, Leslie R

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail.

  18. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen López

    2011-06-15

    Today we are witnessing a genuine revolution in diagnostic imaging techniques. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) quantifies bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). This technique has rarely been used in Forensic Anthropology, although its practical application has been demonstrated by various authors. In this article, we look into the conduct of bone mineral density in the femoral neck, the trochanter, the intertrochanter, the proximal femur and Ward's triangle, in relation to anthropometric age and sex parameters. The research was carried out on 70 persons - 38 men and 32 women - and the results obtained show significant correlations between bone mineral density measurements and anthropometric values. The research demonstrates bone mineral density to be a useful technique for sex and age data in forensic anthropology, particularly in the measurements observed in the Ward's triangle area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray vector radiography for bone micro-architecture diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA). Although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility, its visualisation implies an imaging resolution better than 100 {mu}m, which limits the field of view and increases the necessary radiation dose. Here we describe a new method, X-ray Vector Radiography (XVR), based on X-ray scattering rather than absorption as contrast source, which yields information about the local orientation and degree of anisotropy of the bone micro-structure. This information is highly relevant for osteoporosis diagnostic. We demonstrate the feasibility by showing first experimental X-ray Vector Radiographies of human vertebra bone samples, yielding information on the trabecular structure.

  20. Evidence-based screening for low bone mineral density in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Patsi; Du, Ping; Haas, Richard E; Pugh, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Low bone mineral density, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture risk, is an emerging clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Our evidence-based practice project screened a convenience sample of 225 HIV-infected men for low bone mineral density using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, and of those men, 173 were also screened by quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus. One hundred twelve men had low bone mineral density by either or both screening methods. Seventy-one of these 112 men were tested by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and 73% had low bone mineral density. The positive protective value of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool was 73% and for quantitative ultrasound was 88%. These results suggest that routine low bone mineral density screening should be included as standard practice for all HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.