Beyond the standard model; Au-dela du modele standard
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuypers, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-05-01
These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs.
12th Rencontres du Vietnam : High Sensitivity Experiments Beyond the Standard Model
2016-01-01
The goal of this workshop is to gather researchers, theoreticians, experimentalists and young scientists searching for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics using high sensitivity experiments. The standard model has been very successful in describing the particle physics world; the Higgs-Englert-Brout boson discovery is its last major discovery. Complementary to the high energy frontier explored at colliders, real opportunities for discovery exist at the precision frontier, testing fundamental symmetries and tracking small SM deviations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosteins, P
2007-09-15
The purpose of this thesis is to study, in the neutrino sector, the flavour structures at high energy. The work is divided into two main parts. The first part is dedicated to the well known mechanism to produce small neutrino masses: the seesaw mechanism, which implies the existence of massive particles whose decays violate lepton number. Therefore this mechanism can also be used to generate a net baryon number in the early universe and explain the cosmological observation of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter. However, it is often non-trivial to fulfill the constraints coming at the same time from neutrino oscillations and cosmological experiments, at least in frameworks where the couplings can be somehow constrained, like some Grand Unification models. Therefore we devoted the first part to the study of a certain class of seesaw mechanism which can be found in the context of SO(10) theories for example. We introduce a method to extract the mass matrix of the heavy right-handed neutrinos and explore the phenomenological consequences of this quantity, mainly concerning the production of a sufficient baryon asymmetry. When trying to identify the underlying symmetry governing the mixings between the different generations, we see that there is a puzzling difference between the quark and the lepton sectors. However, the quark and lepton parameters have to be compared at the scale of the flavour symmetry breaking, therefore we have to make them run to the appropriate scale. Thus, it is worthwhile investigating models where quantum corrections allow an approximate unification of quark and lepton mixings. This is why the other part of the thesis investigates the running of the effective neutrino mass operator in models with an extra compact dimension, where quantum corrections to the neutrino masses and mixings can be potentially large due to the multiplicity of states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todorov, T
1993-05-01
This thesis describes the determination of the electroweak parameters from the measurements of the total hadronic cross-section by the DELPHI experiment at LEP-I. The analysed data was taken in the years 1991 and 1992; a previous analysis of the data taken in 1990 is included in the final fits. The first part of the thesis describes the interest of the measurement of the Z{sup 0} resonance parameters in the framework of the Standard Model as well as their implications for alternative models. The Standard Model predictions are described in some detail, and their precision is estimated. Then follows a brief description of the LEP collider, of the measurement of the collision energy, and of the experimental setup. A chapter is devoted to the description of the luminosity measurement, essential for the determination of total cross-sections. The measurement of the hadronic cross-section (event selection, study of backgrounds, study of sources of systematic uncertainties) is described in detail in the next chapter. Then follows a description of the method of the extraction of the resonance parameters, and a discussion of the uncertainties in their determination. The values obtained are interpreted in the framework of the Standard Model, as well as in the framework of some more general theories. Finally, the event generator for hadron production in two-photon collisions is described in the appendix. (author). 69 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs., 1 ann.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzel, J
2006-11-15
Even if the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics meets an extraordinary experimental success, some fundamental questions remain unanswered (origin of hierarchies, observed mixing pattern in neutrino and quark sectors...). We need to go beyond the SM and to find new principles/symmetries. The aim of this thesis is to study the phenomenology of supersymmetric and/or extra-dimensional models and to look at deviations from the SM, in the flavour sector. First, we addressed the question of baryon- and lepton-number conservation through R-parity in low-energy supersymmetric models. Precisely, we studied its violation using experimental data and the rare kaon decay K {yields} {pi}{nu}{nu}-bar to derive upper limits on R-parity violating couplings involved in it. In this context we have pointed out the importance of R-parity conserving contributions and their interferences with R-parity violating ones. In the second part, we studied effects of an extra dimension (space-like and compactified) on several examples: quantum electrodynamics and gauge invariance, strong and electroweak unification, neutrino masses and mixing angles. Typically, adding an extra dimension reduces the predictive power. However, we are still able to know generic behaviours (order of magnitude predictions). In particular, we pointed out the possibility of a weak neutrino mixing pattern (CKM-like) at high energy for a relevant and reasonable parameter space. This opens up new perspectives in the study of flavour symmetries and bonds between quark and leptons. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tournefier, E
2006-09-15
The author reviews his activities concerning particle physics at Lep and LHC (Large Hadron Collider - CERN) and his latest works in the domain of gravitational waves. He has contributed first to the measurement of the parameters of the Z boson resonance and then to the extraction from experimental data of the standard model parameters like boson Higgs mass, top quark mass or the strong coupling constant. He has also worked on the development and testing of a LHC detector that will be useful to search for the Higgs boson via its decay in 2 photons. The Virgo experiment aims at detecting gravitational waves through interferometry, the author describes his contribution to the design of the detection system and gives a detailed review of the expected technical background noises. (A.C.)
CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
Toute la matière visible dans l'Univers est décrite par le « Modèle Standard ». Selon cette théorie, la matière est constituée d'atomes, qui contiennent des électrons orbitant autour de noyaux, dont les composants fondamentaux sont les quarks. Quatre forces fondamentales agissent entre ces particules élémentaires : les forces électromagnétique est gravitationnelle, et les interactions nucléaires forte et faible. La description fournie par le Modèle Standard de ces particules et de leurs interactions est en parfait accord avec les expériences. Néanmoins, des questions fondamentales restent sans réponse jusqu'à maintenant : d'où vient la masse des particules ? Pourquoi y a-t-il tant de types de particules ? Existe-t-il une théorie unifiée de toutes les interactions ? Quelle est la nature de la matière cachée prédite par les astrophysiciens ? Le LHC au CERN donnera des éléments de réponse à ces questions au-delà du Modèle Standard.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kneur, J.L
2006-06-15
This document is divided into 2 parts. The first part describes a particular re-summation technique of perturbative series that can give a non-perturbative results in some cases. We detail some applications in field theory and in condensed matter like the calculation of the effective temperature of Bose-Einstein condensates. The second part deals with the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We present an accurate calculation of the mass spectrum of supersymmetric particles, a calculation of the relic density of supersymmetric black matter, and the constraints that we can infer from models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calpas, Betty Constante [Univ. of the Mediterranean, Marseille (France)
2010-06-11
The organization of this thesis consists of three main ideas: the first presents the theoretical framework and experimental, as well as objects used in the analysis and the second relates to the various work tasks of service that I performed on the calorimeter, and the third is the search for the Higgs boson in the channel ZH → e^{+}e^{-}b$\\bar{b}$. Thus, this thesis has the following structure: Chapter 1 is an introduction to the standard model of particle physics and the Higgs mechanism; Chapter 2 is an overview of the complex and the acceleration of the Tevatron at Fermilab DØ detector; Chapter 3 is an introduction to physical objects used in this thesis; Chapter 4 presents the study made on correcting the energy measured in the calorimeter; Chapter 5 describes the study of certification of electrons in the calorimeter; Chapter 6 describes the study of certification of electrons in the intercryostat region of calorimeter; Chapter 7 Detailed analysis on the search for Higgs production in the channel ZH → e^{+}e^{-}b$\\bar{b}$; and Chapter 8 presents the final results of the calculations of upper limits to the production cross section of the Higgs boson on a range of low masses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merle, Elsa [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-vieux de physique des particules, Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)
1999-04-22
The present work is based on the selection of e{sup -}e{sup +} {yields} f f-bar events taken with the ALEPH detector from 1995 to 1998, for an integrated luminosity of 500 pb{sup -}. We first present the selection of dimuon, di-tau and di-electron events that we have been developed for this study. The hadronic selection used in ALEPH is also detailed in a devoted part. In each case, the estimation of systematic uncertainties is described. They are of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors, ranging between 0.6% (di-electron) and 3.5% (dimuon). From these selections we derive the di-fermionic cross-sections as well as the asymmetries computed for the di-lepton channels. Measurements are found to be in reasonable agreement with the Standard Model expectations. Cross-sections and asymmetries are sensitive to the presence of possible new physics. In this document we use the context of the 4-fermion contact interactions to set limits on the energy scale of new physics. Such limits are found to range between 7 and 15 GeV depending on the modelling used. We also put lower limits on the mass of leptoquarks, 590 GeV/c{sup 2} for vector leptoquarks and 71 GeV/c{sup 2} for scalar leptoquarks. Eventually we also present the limits derived in the context of R-parity violated supersymmetry, putting constraint on the s-neutrino mass. Our study excludes such particles below a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2} mass for high values of their Yukawa coupling assumptions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deschamps, Olivier [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)
1999-04-16
In the Standard Model framework of the particle physics the mass of fermions and electroweak gauge boson mass is related to a scalar sector. In the Minimal Version of the Standard Model, a neutral scalar particle is predicted: the Higgs boson. Its mass is a free parameter of the model. The search for this boson has been actively performed at the LEP collider and it has been extended by the recent increase of its energy (LEP 2). In addition, due to the increase of the signal to background ratio at LEP 2, the data analysis has been extended to new channels. This is particularly the case of the dominant, HZ {yields} hadrons, channel leading to 65% of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} HZ production process final states at LEP. The aim of the work presented in this document, is the search of the Minimal Standard Model Higgs boson in the fully hadronic final state data recorded by the ALEPH detector at LEP 2 energies. A selection tool based on an artificial neural network multi-variate method, has been developed in order to separate the signal process from known Standard Model background processes. The neural network method allows to combine non-linearly the information describing the signal, and to reach performances better than those obtained by classical method based on cuts. No evidence of signal has been seen in the data collected by ALEPH up to {radical}s = 189 GeV. Thirty-two candidates has been selected in agreement with the 26.3 events expected for the background processes. Combining all channels from Higgs boson search, the limit m{sub H} > 90.2 GeV/c{sup 2} is obtained with a 95% confidence level. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilczek, F.
1993-01-01
The standard model of particle physics is highly successful, although it is obviously not a complete or final theory. In this presentation the author argues that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Essentially, this presentation is a record of the author's own judgement of what the central clues for physics beyond the standard model are, and also it is an attempt at some pedagogy. 14 refs., 6 figs
Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-06-22
This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleitez, V.
1994-01-01
The search for physics laws beyond the standard model is discussed in a general way, and also some topics on supersymmetry theories. An approach is made on recent possibilities rise in the leptonic sector. Finally, models with SU(3) c X SU(2) L X U(1) Y symmetry are considered as alternatives for the extensions of the elementary particles standard model. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutton, Christine
1994-01-01
The initial evidence from Fermilab for the long awaited sixth ('top') quark puts another rivet in the already firm structure of today's Standard Model of physics. Analysis of the Fermilab CDF data gives a top mass of 174 GeV with an error of ten per cent either way. This falls within the mass band predicted by the sum total of world Standard Model data and underlines our understanding of physics in terms of six quarks and six leptons. In this specially commissioned overview, physics writer Christine Sutton explains the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1990-04-01
The unresolved issues of the standard model are reviewed, with emphasis on the gauge hierarchy problem. A possible mechanism for generating a hierarchy in the context of superstring theory is described. 24 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, H.; Marciano, W.; Williams, H.H.
1982-01-01
We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W +- , Z 0 mass, width; sin 2 theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W + W - , Wγ; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuypers, F.
1997-05-01
These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altarelli, G.
1987-01-01
The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1997-05-01
These lectures constitute a short course in ''Beyond the Standard Model'' for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e + e - colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E.
1997-05-01
These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.
Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC
2012-01-01
HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories: * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs) * Vector Boson production * Higgs searches * Top Quark Physics * Flavour physics
Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy
2012-04-01
List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, G.G.
1995-01-01
The attempts to develop models beyond the Standard Model are briefly reviewed paying particular regard to the mechanisms responsible for symmetry breaking and mass generation. A comparison is made of the theoretical expectations with recent precision measurements for theories with composite Higgs and for supersymmetric theories with elementary Higgs boson(s). The implications of a heavy top quark and the origin of the light quark and lepton masses and mixing angles are considered within these frameworks. ((orig.))
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1987-10-15
The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
The 'Standard Model' of modern particle physics, with the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of inter-quark forces superimposed on the unified electroweak picture, is still unchallenged, but it is not the end of physics. This was the message at the big International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies, held in Hamburg from 27-31 July
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lykken, Joseph D.
2010-01-01
'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2010-05-01
'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest
Riles, K
1998-01-01
The Large Electron Project (LEP) accelerator near Geneva, more than any other instrument, has rigorously tested the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particles. LEP measurements have probed the theory from many different directions and, so far, the Standard Model has prevailed. The rigour of these tests has allowed LEP physicists to determine unequivocally the number of fundamental 'generations' of elementary particles. These tests also allowed physicists to ascertain the mass of the top quark in advance of its discovery. Recent increases in the accelerator's energy allow new measurements to be undertaken, measurements that may uncover directly or indirectly the long-sought Higgs particle, believed to impart mass to all other particles.
Altarelli, Guido
1999-01-01
Introduction structure of gauge theories. The QEDand QCD examples. Chiral theories. The electroweak theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism Gauge boson and fermion masses. Yukawa coupling. Charges current couplings. The Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and CP violation. Neutral current couplings. The Glasow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. Gauge boson and Higgs coupling. Radiative corrections and loops. Cancellation of the chiral anomaly. Limits on the Higgs comparaison. Problems of the Standard Model. Outlook.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quigg, C.
1984-09-01
The SU(3)/sub c/ circle crossSU(2)/sub L/circle crossU(1)/sub Y/ gauge theory of ineractions among quarks and leptons is briefly described, and some recent notable successes of the theory are mentioned. Some shortcomings in our ability to apply the theory are noted, and the incompleteness of the standard model is exhibited. Experimental hints that Nature may be richer in structure than the minimal theory are discussed. 23 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peccei, R.D.
1986-01-01
Possible small extensions of the standard model are considered, which are motivated by the strong CP problem and by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Phenomenological arguments are given which suggest that imposing a PQ symmetry to solve the strong CP problem is only tenable if the scale of the PQ breakdown is much above M W . Furthermore, an attempt is made to connect the scale of the PQ breakdown to that of the breakdown of lepton number. It is argued that in these theories the same intermediate scale may be responsible for the baryon number of the Universe, provided the Kuzmin Rubakov Shaposhnikov (B+L) erasing mechanism is operative. (orig.)
Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan
2002-01-01
We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1994-03-01
In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ''new physics''. The effect of Z' bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.
1992-01-01
In this paper the authors briefly review the necessity of going beyond the Standard Model. We argue that certain types of composite models of quarks and leptons may resolve some of the difficulties of the SM. Furthermore the authors argue that, even without a full specification of a composite model, one may predict some observable effects following from the compositeness hypothesis. The effects are most easily seen in reaction channels in which there is little competition from known processes predicted by the SM, typically in neutrino induced reactions. The authors suggest that above a certain characteristic energy, neutrino cross sections rise well above those predicted within the framework of the SM and the difference between the characteristic features of lepton and hadron induced reactions is blurred. The authors claim that there is some (so far, tenuous) evidence for the phenomenon we just alluded to: in certain high energy cosmic ray interactions it appears that photons and/or neutrinos behave in a manner which is inconsistent with the SM. The authors analyze the data and conclude that the origin of the anomaly in the observational data arises from an increased neutrino interaction cross section
Gavela, M.B.; Orloff, J.; Pene, O
1994-01-01
Simply on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of baryogenesis via the charge transport mechanism. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the electroweak phase boundary created during a first order phase transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. At finite temperature, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-quarks in a hot plasma, which induces loss of spatial coherence and suppresses reflection on the boundary even at tree-level. The resulting baryon asymmetry is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires. We comment as well on related works.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viaud, B
2003-10-01
The Standard Model predicts the same time-dependant CP asymmetry in both B{sub d}{sup 0} -> J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays. This asymmetry is proportional to sin(2*{beta}). Any difference between the CP asymmetries measured in these 2 channels would indicate the presence of new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. We study the sensitivity of the LHCb experiment to this effect. To that end, we estimate the statistical error on the measurement of sin(2*{beta}) in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} channel by LHCb. We do that with the LHCb classic detector, and then with the re-optimized detector. The number of simulated background events is too small with respect to the annual statistics to obtain precise evaluations. We developed several methods to improve these evaluations. In the most optimistic case, we predict that sin(2*{beta}) would be measured in the LHCb classic configuration with a statistical error equal to 0.56. With the re-optimized detector, this error is further improved: 0.29. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viaud, B
2003-10-01
The Standard Model predicts the same time-dependant CP asymmetry in both B{sub d}{sup 0} -> J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays. This asymmetry is proportional to sin(2*{beta}). Any difference between the CP asymmetries measured in these 2 channels would indicate the presence of new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. We study the sensitivity of the LHCb experiment to this effect. To that end, we estimate the statistical error on the measurement of sin(2*{beta}) in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0} channel by LHCb. We do that with the LHCb classic detector, and then with the re-optimized detector. The number of simulated background events is too small with respect to the annual statistics to obtain precise evaluations. We developed several methods to improve these evaluations. In the most optimistic case, we predict that sin(2*{beta}) would be measured in the LHCb classic configuration with a statistical error equal to 0.56. With the re-optimized detector, this error is further improved: 0.29. (author)
Premise for Standardized Sepsis Models.
Remick, Daniel G; Ayala, Alfred; Chaudry, Irshad; Coopersmith, Craig M; Deutschman, Clifford; Hellman, Judith; Moldawer, Lyle; Osuchowski, Marcin
2018-06-05
Sepsis morbidity and mortality exacts a toll on patients and contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Preclinical models of sepsis have been used to study disease pathogenesis and test new therapies, but divergent outcomes have been observed with the same treatment even when using the same sepsis model. Other disorders such as diabetes, cancer, malaria, obesity and cardiovascular diseases have used standardized, preclinical models that allow laboratories to compare results. Standardized models accelerate the pace of research and such models have been used to test new therapies or changes in treatment guidelines. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated that investigators increase data reproducibility and the rigor of scientific experiments and has also issued research funding announcements about the development and refinement of standardized models. Our premise is that refinement and standardization of preclinical sepsis models may accelerate the development and testing of potential therapeutics for human sepsis, as has been the case with preclinical models for other disorders. As a first step towards creating standardized models, we suggest 1) standardizing the technical standards of the widely used cecal ligation and puncture model and 2) creating a list of appropriate organ injury and immune dysfunction parameters. Standardized sepsis models could enhance reproducibility and allow comparison of results between laboratories and may accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis.
Standardissimo. Les limitations théoriques du Modèle Standard. Quelles réponses y apporter?
Renard, F. M.
Nous présentons I 'état du Modèle Standard des interactions fortes, faibles et électromagnétiques. Après une description rapide de ses 3 secteurs, secteur de jauge (radiation), secteur fermionique (matière) et secteur scalaire (génération des masses), nous insistons sur le grand nombre de paramètres libres et sur les choix arbitraires qu'il a fallu faire dans l'élaboration du modèle. Nous faisons ressortir les problèmes techniques non résolus et nous dressons la liste des questions fondamentales restées sans réponses. Nous passons ensuite en revue les idées et méthodes proposées pour répondre à ces questions. Elles utilisent essentiellement 3 voies différentes. La première consiste à requérir plus de symétrie (extension du modèle, symétrie Gauche-Droite, Grandes Unifications, Supersymétrie,...). La seconde contient les diverses alternatives au Modèle Standard impliquant des modifications dans certains secteurs (par exemple le secteur scalaire avec le modèle de la Technicouleur) ou de façon plus violente l'hypothèse d'une sous-structure des leptons, des quarks et des bosons W et Z eux-mêmes. Une dernière voie cherche à justifier les particularités du Modèle Standard et relier ses paramètres libres en se basant sur des principes de cohérence interne du modèle. Les conséquences observables de ces diverses approches sont dans chaque cas mentionnées.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellantoni, L.
2009-11-01
There are many recent results from searches for fundamental new physics using the TeVatron, the SLAC b-factory and HERA. This talk quickly reviewed searches for pair-produced stop, for gauge-mediated SUSY breaking, for Higgs bosons in the MSSM and NMSSM models, for leptoquarks, and v-hadrons. There is a SUSY model which accommodates the recent astrophysical experimental results that suggest that dark matter annihilation is occurring in the center of our galaxy, and a relevant experimental result. Finally, model-independent searches at D0, CDF, and H1 are discussed.
Standard model without Higgs particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalenko, S.G.
1992-10-01
A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. (author). 12 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucotte, A. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules Elementaires; Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)
1996-05-14
This work is devoted to the precision tests of the electro-week sector of the standard model via the determination of the Z-lineshape parameters M{sub Z}, {gamma}{sub Z}, {sigma}{sub had}{sup 0} and R{sub had} extracted from the fermionic cross-sections measured on 89 to 94 data in Aleph. The first section reminds the formalism and the observables used to describe the Z-resonance physics. In a second step, the LEP collider is presented with the procedures used to determine the beam energy, this parameter being the main source of uncertainty in M{sub Z} and {gamma}{sub Z} determination. In the following part, the Aleph experimental context is described, together with the measurement of the luminosity from Bhabha counting. Then the hadronic cross section measurements are presented, emphasizing on the improvement performed on the systematic bias evaluation to the hadrons selection. This leads to a precision at the per mille level in cross-sections. Leptonic cross-sections measured in Aleph are also reported. The Z-resonance parameters are then derived. A great agreement is observed with the prediction of the standard model of the EW interactions. The interpretation of such measurements within this model leads to the determination of the number of light neutrinos species and to the constraints on the top quark mass, compatible with direct measurements from Fermilab. (author)
Phenomenology beyond the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2005-03-01
An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.
About the standard solar model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cahen, S.
1986-07-01
A discussion of the still controversial solar helium content is presented, based on a comparison of recent standard solar models. Our last model yields an helium mass fraction ∼0.276, 6.4 SNU on 37 Cl and 126 SNU on 71 Ga
The standard model and colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinchliffe, I.
1987-03-01
Some topics in the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions are discussed, as well as how these topics are relevant for the high energy colliders which will become operational in the next few years. The radiative corrections in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model are discussed, stressing how these corrections may be measured at LEP and the SLC. CP violation is discussed briefly, followed by a discussion of the Higgs boson and the searches which are relevant to hadron colliders are then discussed. Some of the problems which the standard model does not solve are discussed, and the energy ranges accessible to the new colliders are indicated
Dynamics of the standard model
Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R
2014-01-01
Describing the fundamental theory of particle physics and its applications, this book provides a detailed account of the Standard Model, focusing on techniques that can produce information about real observed phenomena. The book begins with a pedagogic account of the Standard Model, introducing essential techniques such as effective field theory and path integral methods. It then focuses on the use of the Standard Model in the calculation of physical properties of particles. Rigorous methods are emphasized, but other useful models are also described. This second edition has been updated to include recent theoretical and experimental advances, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson. A new chapter is devoted to the theoretical and experimental understanding of neutrinos, and major advances in CP violation and electroweak physics have been given a modern treatment. This book is valuable to graduate students and researchers in particle physics, nuclear physics and related fields.
Perspectives in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R.K.; Hill, C.T.; Lykken, J.D.
1992-01-01
Particle physics is an experimentally based science, with a need for the best theorists to make contact with data and to enlarge and enhance their theoretical descriptions as the subject evolves. The authors felt it imperative that the TASI (Theoretical Advanced Study Institute) program reflect this need. The goal of this conference, was to provide the students with a comprehensive look at the current understanding of the standard model, as well as the techniques which promise to advance that understanding in the future. Topics covered include: symmetry breaking in the standard model; physics beyond the standard model; chiral effective Lagrangians; semi-classical string theory; renormalization of electroweak gauge interactions; electroweak experiments at LEP; the CKM matrix and CP violation; axion searches; lattice QCD; perturbative QCD; heavy quark effective field theory; heavy flavor physics on the lattice; and neutrinos. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 papers in this conference
Langacker, Paul
2017-01-01
This new edition of The Standard Model and Beyond presents an advanced introduction to the physics and formalism of the standard model and other non-abelian gauge theories. It provides a solid background for understanding supersymmetry, string theory, extra dimensions, dynamical symmetry breaking, and cosmology. In addition to updating all of the experimental and phenomenological results from the first edition, it contains a new chapter on collider physics; expanded discussions of Higgs, neutrino, and dark matter physics; and many new problems. The book first reviews calculational techniques in field theory and the status of quantum electrodynamics. It then focuses on global and local symmetries and the construction of non-abelian gauge theories. The structure and tests of quantum chromodynamics, collider physics, the electroweak interactions and theory, and the physics of neutrino mass and mixing are thoroughly explored. The final chapter discusses the motivations for extending the standard model and examin...
Standard model of knowledge representation
Yin, Wensheng
2016-09-01
Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.
Extensions of the Standard Model
Zwirner, Fabio
1996-01-01
Rapporteur talk at the International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, Brussels (Belgium), July 27-August 2, 1995. This talk begins with a brief general introduction to the extensions of the Standard Model, reviewing the ideology of effective field theories and its practical implications. The central part deals with candidate extensions near the Fermi scale, focusing on some phenomenological aspects of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The final part discusses some possible low-energy implications of further extensions near the Planck scale, namely superstring theories.
Custom v. Standardized Risk Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss when and why custom multi-factor risk models are warranted and give source code for computing some risk factors. Pension/mutual funds do not require customization but standardization. However, using standardized risk models in quant trading with much shorter holding horizons is suboptimal: (1 longer horizon risk factors (value, growth, etc. increase noise trades and trading costs; (2 arbitrary risk factors can neutralize alpha; (3 “standardized” industries are artificial and insufficiently granular; (4 normalization of style risk factors is lost for the trading universe; (5 diversifying risk models lowers P&L correlations, reduces turnover and market impact, and increases capacity. We discuss various aspects of custom risk model building.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1989-05-01
In these lectures, my aim is to present a status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows. I survey the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also commented on. In addition, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple example which employs that technique. I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, extra Z' bosons, and compositeness are discussed. An overview of the physics of tau decays is also included. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin 2 θW from experiment. The results presented there are based on a global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, implications for grand unified theories (GUTS), extra Z' gauge bosons, and atomic parity violation. The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. Finally, I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses, mixings, and electromagnetic moments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs
Beyond the Standard Model course
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future, at LHC and elsewhere. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and a glimpse of string theory will be presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)
1966-05-01
In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la recherche de la
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1989-05-01
The field of elementary particle, or high energy, physics seeks to identify the most elementary constituents of nature and to study the forces that govern their interactions. Increasing the energy of a probe in a laboratory experiment increases its power as an effective microscope for discerning increasingly smaller structures of matter. Thus we have learned that matter is composed of molecules that are in turn composed of atoms, that the atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons, and that the atomic nucleus is a collection of protons and neutrons. The more powerful probes provided by high energy particle accelerators have taught us that a nucleon is itself made of objects called quarks. The forces among quarks and electrons are understood within a general theoretical framework called the ''standard model,'' that accounts for all interactions observed in high energy laboratory experiments to date. These are commonly categorized as the ''strong,'' ''weak'' and ''electromagnetic'' interactions. In this lecture I will describe the standard model, and point out some of its limitations. Probing for deeper structures in quarks and electrons defines the present frontier of particle physics. I will discuss some speculative ideas about extensions of the standard model and/or yet more fundamental forces that may underlie our present picture. 11 figs., 1 tab
Extensions of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1983-01-01
In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references
Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model
Russo, Dane M.
2010-01-01
Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.
Institutional model for supporting standardization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanford, M.O.; Jackson, K.J.
1993-01-01
Restoring the nuclear option for utilities requires standardized designs. This premise is widely accepted by all parties involved in ALWR development activities. Achieving and maintaining standardization, however, demands new perspectives on the roles and responsibilities for the various commercial organizations involved in nuclear power. Some efforts are needed to define a workable model for a long-term support structure that will allow the benefits of standardization to be realized. The Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC) has developed a strategic plan that lays out the steps necessary to enable the nuclear industry to be in a position to order a new nuclear power plant by the mid 1990's. One of the key elements of the plan is the, ''industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants.'' This commitment is a result of the recognition by utilities of the substantial advantages to standardization. Among these are economic benefits, licensing benefits from being treated as one of a family, sharing risks across a broader ownership group, sharing operating experiences, enhancing public safety, and a more coherent market force. Utilities controlled the construction of the past generation of nuclear units in a largely autonomous fashion procuring equipment and designs from a vendor, engineering services from an architect/engineer, and construction from a construction management firm. This, in addition to forcing the utility to assume virtually all of the risks associated with the project, typically resulted in highly customized designs based on preferences of the individual utility. However, the benefits of standardization can be realized only through cooperative choices and decision making by the utilities and through working as partners with reactor vendors, architect/engineers, and construction firms
Evaluating Bank Profitability in Ghana: A five step Du-Pont Model Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baah Aye Kusi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate bank profitability in Ghana using periods before, during and after the globe financial crises with the five step du-pont model for the first time.We adapt the variable of the five step du-pont model to explain bank profitability with a panel data of twenty-five banks in Ghana from 2006 to 2012. To ensure meaningful generalization robust errors fixed and random effects models are used.Our empirical results suggests that bank operating activities (operating profit margin, bank efficiency (asset turnover, bank leverage (asset to equity and financing cost (interest burden were positive and significant determinants of bank profitability (ROE during the period of study implying that bank in Ghana can boost return to equity holders through the above mentioned variables. We further report that the five step du-pont model better explains the total variation (94% in bank profitability in Ghana as compared to earlier findings suggesting that bank specific variables are keen in explaining ROE in banks in Ghana.We cited no empirical study that has employed five step du-pont model making our study unique and different from earlier studies as we assert that bank specific variables are core to explaining bank profitability.
Des proprietes de l'etat normal du modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel
Lemay, Francois
Depuis leur decouverte, les etudes experimentales ont demontre que les supra-conducteurs a haute temperature ont une phase normale tres etrange. Les proprietes de ces materiaux ne sont pas bien decrites par la theorie du liquide de Fermi. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel, bien qu'il ne soit pas encore resolu, est toujours considere comme un candidat pour expliquer la physique de ces composes. Dans cet ouvrage, nous mettons en evidence plusieurs proprietes electroniques du modele qui sont incompatibles avec l'existence de quasi-particules. Nous montrons notamment que la susceptibilite des electrons libres sur reseau contient des singularites logarithmiques qui influencent de facon determinante les proprietes de la self-energie a basse frequence. Ces singularites sont responsables de la destruction des quasi-particules. En l'absence de fluctuations antiferromagnetiques, elles sont aussi responsables de l'existence d'un petit pseudogap dans le poids spectral au niveau de Fermi. Les proprietes du modele sont egalement etudiees pour une surface de Fermi similaire a celle des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Un parallele est etabli entre certaines caracteristiques du modele et celles de ces materiaux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treille, D.
1992-01-01
The goal of this review is not to make one more celebration of the accuracy of LEP results, but rather to put them in a broader perspective. This set of measurements are compared with what they could and should be in the future if the various options available at LEP are exploited properly, and show that much is left to be done. Then various classes of non-LEP results are discussed which are already remarkable and still prone to improvements, which bring complementary information on the Standard Model, by probing it in widely different domains of applicability. (author) 46 refs.; 29 figs.; 12 tabs
Standard for Models and Simulations
Steele, Martin J.
2016-01-01
This NASA Technical Standard establishes uniform practices in modeling and simulation to ensure essential requirements are applied to the design, development, and use of models and simulations (MS), while ensuring acceptance criteria are defined by the program project and approved by the responsible Technical Authority. It also provides an approved set of requirements, recommendations, and criteria with which MS may be developed, accepted, and used in support of NASA activities. As the MS disciplines employed and application areas involved are broad, the common aspects of MS across all NASA activities are addressed. The discipline-specific details of a given MS should be obtained from relevant recommended practices. The primary purpose is to reduce the risks associated with MS-influenced decisions by ensuring the complete communication of the credibility of MS results.
Establishing the isolated Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue
2017-02-01
The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.
Vergados, J D
2017-01-01
This book contains a systematic and pedagogical exposition of recent developments in particle physics and cosmology. It starts with two introductory chapters on group theory and the Dirac theory. Then it proceeds with the formulation of the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics, particle content and symmetries, fully exploiting the first chapters. It discusses the concept of gauge symmetries and emphasizes their role in particle physics. It then analyses the Higgs mechanism and the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). It explains how the particles (gauge bosons and fermions) after SSB acquire a mass and get admixed. The various forms of charged currents are discussed in detail as well as how the parameters of the SM, which cannot be determined by the theory, are fixed by experiment, including the recent LHC data and the Higgs discovery. Quantum chromodynamics is discussed and various low energy approximations to it are presented. The Feynman diagrams are introduced and applied, in a way undertandable by fir...
Physique des particules introduction aux concepts et au formalisme du modèle standard
Clément, Benoit
2017-01-01
Cet ouvrage propose une introduction à la physique des particules pour tout étudiant de niveau M1, qu'il se destine à la physique théorique ou non. Il présente la physique des particules de manière abordable sans occulter les concepts formels sur lesquels elle repose. Les rappels de mécanique relativiste et du formalisme de Lagrange permettent de comprendre la nature et le comportement des particules à très haute énergie. Enfin, les règles de Feynman offrent une description simple de leurs interactions. Chaque chapitre est complété par des exercices corrigés. Dans cette seconde édition, actualisée, le chapitre sur les champs classiques et quantiques libres a été entièrement refondu pour aborder les problématiques liées à la mécanique relativiste, et de nouveaux exercices ont été ajoutés.
Test du Modèle Standard à basse énergie
Bey, Anissa
Precise measurements of Fermi superallowed $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+} \\beta$-decays provide a powerful tool to study the weak interaction properties in the framework of the Standard Model (SM). Collectively, the comparative half-lives (ƒt) of these transitions allow a sensitive probe of the CVC hypothesis and contribute to the most demanding test of the unitarity of the quarks-mixing CKM matrix top-row, by providing, so far, the most accurate determination of its dominant element (Vud). Until recently, an apparent departure from unity enhanced a doubt on the validity of the minimal SM and thus stimulated a considerable effort in order to extend the study to other Fermi emitters available. The$^{62}$Ga and $^{38}$Ca are among key nuclei to achieve these precision tests and verify the reliability of the corrections applied to the experimental ƒt-values. The $^ {62}$Ga $\\beta$-decay was investigated at the IGISOL separator in Jyväskylä, with an experimental setup composed of 3 EUROBALL Clovers for $\\gamma$-ray...
Non-commutative standard model: model building
Chaichian, Masud; Presnajder, P
2003-01-01
A non-commutative version of the usual electro-weak theory is constructed. We discuss how to overcome the two major problems: (1) although we can have non-commutative U(n) (which we denote by U sub * (n)) gauge theory we cannot have non-commutative SU(n) and (2) the charges in non-commutative QED are quantized to just 0,+-1. We show how the latter problem with charge quantization, as well as with the gauge group, can be resolved by taking the U sub * (3) x U sub * (2) x U sub * (1) gauge group and reducing the extra U(1) factors in an appropriate way. Then we proceed with building the non-commutative version of the standard model by specifying the proper representations for the entire particle content of the theory, the gauge bosons, the fermions and Higgs. We also present the full action for the non-commutative standard model (NCSM). In addition, among several peculiar features of our model, we address the inherentCP violation and new neutrino interactions. (orig.)
Establishing the isolated Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zhao, Yue [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics
2017-02-15
The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.
Experiments beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perl, M.L.
1984-09-01
This paper is based upon lectures in which I have described and explored the ways in which experimenters can try to find answers, or at least clues toward answers, to some of the fundamental questions of elementary particle physics. All of these experimental techniques and directions have been discussed fully in other papers, for example: searches for heavy charged leptons, tests of quantum chromodynamics, searches for Higgs particles, searches for particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, searches for particles predicted by technicolor theories, searches for proton decay, searches for neutrino oscillations, monopole searches, studies of low transfer momentum hadron physics at very high energies, and elementary particle studies using cosmic rays. Each of these subjects requires several lectures by itself to do justice to the large amount of experimental work and theoretical thought which has been devoted to these subjects. My approach in these tutorial lectures is to describe general ways to experiment beyond the standard model. I will use some of the topics listed to illustrate these general ways. Also, in these lectures I present some dreams and challenges about new techniques in experimental particle physics and accelerator technology, I call these Experimental Needs. 92 references
A Model for Semantic IS Standards
Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; van Hillegersberg, Jos
2011-01-01
We argue that, in order to suggest improvements of any kind to semantic information system (IS) standards, better understanding of the conceptual structure of semantic IS standard is required. This study develops a model for semantic IS standard, based on literature and expert knowledge. The model
Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.
1993-01-01
Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature
An alternative to the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Seungwon; Ko, Pyungwon; Park, Wan-Il
2014-01-01
We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark U(1) X symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken U(1) X case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if U(1) X is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mani, G S; Melkanoff, M A; Iori, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-07-01
The neutron penetrabilities and reaction cross-sections are presented in these tables for the case of an optical model potential for the nucleus, for nuclei up to mass 230. (authors) [French] Les penetrabilites et les sections efficaces de reaction pour les neutrons sont donnees dans ces tables en utilisant le modele du potentiel optique, pour les noyaux cibles jusqu'a la masse 230. (auteurs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mani, G.S.; Melkanoff, M.A.; Iori, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-07-01
The neutron penetrabilities and reaction cross-sections are presented in these tables for the case of an optical model potential for the nucleus, for nuclei up to mass 230. (authors) [French] Les penetrabilites et les sections efficaces de reaction pour les neutrons sont donnees dans ces tables en utilisant le modele du potentiel optique, pour les noyaux cibles jusqu'a la masse 230. (auteurs)
Field theory and the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dudas, E [Orsay, LPT (France)
2014-07-01
This brief introduction to Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model contains the basic building blocks of perturbation theory in quantum field theory, an elementary introduction to gauge theories and the basic classical and quantum features of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Some details are given for the theoretical bias concerning the Higgs mass limits, as well as on obscure features of the Standard Model which motivate new physics constructions.
Le chomage endemique: un effet dysfonctionnel du modele ivoirien ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... de l'action des différents gouvernements qui se sont succédés et contrarient leur projet d'assurer le plein-emploi. Mots-clés: Crise de l'emploi ; Chômage ; Côte d'Ivoire ; miracle ivoirien ; Economie-politique de la Côte d'Ivoire. English Title: Endemic unemployment: a dysfunctional effect of the Ivoirian Development Model.
Quality model for semantic IS standards
Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert
2011-01-01
Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should
A revisited standard solar model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casse, M.; Cahen, S.; Doom, C.
1987-01-01
Recent models of the Sun, including our own, based on canonical physics and featuring modern reaction rates and radiative opacities are presented. They lead to a presolar helium abundance, in better agreement with the value found in the Orion nebula. Most models predict a neutrino counting rate greater than 6 SNU in the chlorine-argon detector, which is at least 3 times higher than the observed rate. The primordial helium abundance derived from the solar one, on the basis of recent models of helium production from the birth of the Galaxy to the birth of the sun, is significantly higher than the value inferred from observations of extragalactic metal-poor nebulae. This indicates that the stellar production of helium is probably underestimated by the models considered
Modeling in the Common Core State Standards
Tam, Kai Chung
2011-01-01
The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duperrin, A
2007-04-15
This document presents a summary of my research work during the past 7 years for the preparation of the D0 experiment at Fermilab and the analysis of the data collected at the Tevatron hadron collider. It mainly focuses on 2 topics: trigger and direct search for new phenomena, particularly on supersymmetry and standard model Higgs boson searches. This document is divided into 5 chapters: 1) the phenomenology of the standard model and beyond, 2) the phenomenology of pp-bar events, 3) the Tevatron and D0 detector, 4) the trigger system and data acquisition, and 5) data analysis: search for supersymmetry and Higgs boson.
Beyond the supersymmetric standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, L.J.
1988-02-01
The possibility of baryon number violation at the weak scale and an alternative primordial nucleosynthesis scheme arising from the decay of gravitations are discussed. The minimal low energy supergravity model is defined and a few of its features are described. Renormalization group scaling and flavor physics are mentioned.
A revisited standard solar model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casse, M.; Cahen, S.; Doom, C.
1985-09-01
Recent models of the Sun, including our own, based on canonical physics and featuring modern reaction rates and radiative opacities are presented. They lead to a presolar helium abundance of approximately 0.28 by mass, at variance with the value of 0.25 proposed by Bahcall et al. (1982, 1985), but in better agreement with the value found in the Orion nebula. Most models predict a neutrino counting rate greater than 6 SNU in the chlorine-argon detector, which is at least 3 times higher than the observed rate. The primordial helium abundance derived from the solar one, on the basis of recent models of helium production from the birth of the Galaxy to the birth of the sun, Ysub(P) approximately 0.26, is significantly higher than the value inferred from observations of extragalactic metal-poor nebulae (Y approximately 0.23). This indicates that the stellar production of helium is probably underestimated by the models considered
Beyond the supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, L.J.
1988-02-01
The possibility of baryon number violation at the weak scale and an alternative primordial nucleosynthesis scheme arising from the decay of gravitations are discussed. The minimal low energy supergravity model is defined and a few of its features are described. Renormalization group scaling and flavor physics are mentioned
Physics beyond the Standard Model
Lach, Theodore
2011-04-01
Recent discoveries of the excited states of the Bs** meson along with the discovery of the omega-b-minus have brought into popular acceptance the concept of the orbiting quarks predicted by the Checker Board Model (CBM) 14 years ago. Back then the concept of orbiting quarks was not fashionable. Recent estimates of velocities of these quarks inside the proton and neutron are in excess of 90% the speed of light also in agreement with the CBM model. Still a 2D structure of the nucleus has not been accepted nor has it been proven wrong. The CBM predicts masses of the up and dn quarks are 237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively and suggests that a lighter generation of quarks u and d make up a different generation of quarks that make up light mesons. The CBM also predicts that the T' and B' quarks do exist and are not as massive as might be expected. (this would make it a 5G world in conflict with the SM) The details of the CB model and prediction of quark masses can be found at: http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net/ (1). T.M. Lach, Checkerboard Structure of the Nucleus, Infinite Energy, Vol. 5, issue 30, (2000). (2). T.M. Lach, Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/0008026, @http://xxx.lanl.gov/.
Beyond the Standard Model of Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, D. V.
2004-01-01
Recent cosmological observations of unprecented accuracy, by WMAP in particular, have established a 'Standard Model' of cosmology, just as LEP established the Standard Model of particle physics. Both Standard Models raise open questions whose answers are likely to be linked. The most fundamental problems in both particle physics and cosmology will be resolved only within a framework for Quantum Gravity, for which the only game in town is string theory. We discuss novel ways to model cosmological inflation and late acceleration in a non-critical string approach, and discuss possible astrophysical tests
The minimal non-minimal standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bij, J.J. van der
2006-01-01
In this Letter I discuss a class of extensions of the standard model that have a minimal number of possible parameters, but can in principle explain dark matter and inflation. It is pointed out that the so-called new minimal standard model contains a large number of parameters that can be put to zero, without affecting the renormalizability of the model. With the extra restrictions one might call it the minimal (new) non-minimal standard model (MNMSM). A few hidden discrete variables are present. It is argued that the inflaton should be higher-dimensional. Experimental consequences for the LHC and the ILC are discussed
Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.
1993-01-01
Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a open-quotes standard modelclose quotes. The open-quotes standard modelclose quotes consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes to determine if the requirements of open-quotes non-standardclose quotes architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural features
Arsad, Roslah; Shaari, Siti Nabilah Mohd; Isa, Zaidi
2017-11-01
Determining stock performance using financial ratio is challenging for many investors and researchers. Financial ratio can indicate the strengths and weaknesses of a company's stock performance. There are five categories of financial ratios namely liquidity, efficiency, leverage, profitability and market ratios. It is important to interpret the ratio correctly for proper financial decision making. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DuPont analysis Models. The study is conducted in 2015 involving 116 consumer products companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. The estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis computes the efficiency scores and ranks the companies accordingly. The Alirezaee and Afsharian's method of analysis based Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) where Constant Return to Scale (CRS) is employed. The DuPont analysis is a traditional tool for measuring the operating performance of companies. In this study, DuPont analysis is used to evaluate three different aspects such as profitability, efficiency of assets utilization and financial leverage. Return on Equity (ROE) is also calculated in DuPont analysis. This study finds that both analysis models provide different rankings of the selected samples. Hypothesis testing based on Pearson's correlation, indicates that there is no correlation between rankings produced by DEA and DuPont analysis. The DEA ranking model proposed by Alirezaee and Asharian is unstable. The method cannot provide complete ranking because the values of Balance Index is equal and zero.
Electroweak baryogenesis and the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huet, P.
1994-01-01
Electroweak baryogenesis is addressed within the context of the standard model of particle physics. Although the minimal standard model has the means of fulfilling the three Sakharov's conditions, it falls short to explaining the making of the baryon asymmetry of the universe. In particular, it is demonstrated that the phase of the CKM mixing matrix is an, insufficient source of CP violation. The shortcomings of the standard model could be bypassed by enlarging the symmetry breaking sector and adding a new source of CP violation
Discrete symmetry breaking beyond the standard model
Dekens, Wouter Gerard
2015-01-01
The current knowledge of elementary particles and their interactions is summarized in the Standard Model of particle physics. Practically all the predictions of this model, that have been tested, were confirmed experimentally. Nonetheless, there are phenomena which the model cannot explain. For
Beyond the Standard Model (2/5)
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.
Beyond the Standard Model (5/5)
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.
Beyond the Standard Model (3/5)
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.
Beyond the Standard Model (4/5)
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.
The standard model in a nutshell
Goldberg, Dave
2017-01-01
For a theory as genuinely elegant as the Standard Model--the current framework describing elementary particles and their forces--it can sometimes appear to students to be little more than a complicated collection of particles and ranked list of interactions. The Standard Model in a Nutshell provides a comprehensive and uncommonly accessible introduction to one of the most important subjects in modern physics, revealing why, despite initial appearances, the entire framework really is as elegant as physicists say. Dave Goldberg uses a "just-in-time" approach to instruction that enables students to gradually develop a deep understanding of the Standard Model even if this is their first exposure to it. He covers everything from relativity, group theory, and relativistic quantum mechanics to the Higgs boson, unification schemes, and physics beyond the Standard Model. The book also looks at new avenues of research that could answer still-unresolved questions and features numerous worked examples, helpful illustrat...
Is the Standard Model about to crater?
Lane, Kenneth
2015-01-01
The Standard Model is coming under more and more pressure from experiments. New results from the analysis of LHC's Run 1 data show effects that, if confirmed, would be the signature of new interactions at the TeV scale.
Beyond the Standard Model (1/5)
CERN. Geneva
2000-01-01
After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.
From the standard model to dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilczek, F.
1995-01-01
The standard model of particle physics is marvelously successful. However, it is obviously not a complete or final theory. I shall argue here that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Taking these hints seriously, one is led to predict the existence of new types of very weakly interacting matter, stable on cosmological time scales and produced with cosmologically interesting densities--that is, ''dark matter''. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Standard Model measurements with the ATLAS detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassani Samira
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Various Standard Model measurements have been performed in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 and 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A review of a selection of the latest results of electroweak measurements, W/Z production in association with jets, jet physics and soft QCD is given. Measurements are in general found to be well described by the Standard Model predictions.
Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gogberashvili M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.
Exploring the Standard Model of Particles
Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.
2013-01-01
With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…
Noncommutative geometry and the standard model vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, John W.; Dawe Martins, Rachel A.
2006-01-01
The space of Dirac operators for the Connes-Chamseddine spectral action for the standard model of particle physics coupled to gravity is studied. The model is extended by including right-handed neutrino states, and the S 0 -reality axiom is not assumed. The possibility of allowing more general fluctuations than the inner fluctuations of the vacuum is proposed. The maximal case of all possible fluctuations is studied by considering the equations of motion for the vacuum. While there are interesting nontrivial vacua with Majorana-type mass terms for the leptons, the conclusion is that the equations are too restrictive to allow solutions with the standard model mass matrix
Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biswas, Tirthabir, E-mail: tbiswas@loyno.edu [Department of Physics, Loyola University, 6363 St. Charles Avenue, Box 92, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Okada, Nobuchika, E-mail: okadan@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States)
2015-09-15
We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5–3 TeV.
Big Bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.
1989-01-01
Current observational data on the abundances of deuterium, helium-3, helium-4 and lithium-7 are reviewed and these data are used to infer (or to bound) the primordial abundances of these elements. The physics of primordial nucleosynthesis in the context of the ''standard'' (isotropic, homogeneous,...) hot big bang model is outlined and the primordial abundances predicted within the context of this model are presented. The theoretical predictions are then confronted with the observational data. This confrontation reveals the remarkable consistency of the standard model, constrains the nucleon abundance to lie within a narrow range and, permits the existence of no more than one additional flavor of light neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vivie, J.B. de
2000-04-06
A search for an invisibly decaying Higgs boson is presented. The event selection is based on neural networks dedicated to the rejection of the main background processes. In the data collected in 1998 and 1999 at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 202 GeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 411 pb{sup -1}, no excess with respect to the standard model predictions is observed. This yields a 95% confidence level lower limit of 106.4 GeV/c{sup 2} for the mass of an invisibly decaying Higgs boson produced with a cross section equal to that of the standard model Higgs boson. The interpretation of new particle searches in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) is difficult due to the large number of free parameters. Usually, benchmark values are chosen for the relevant parameters. The Higgs sector has been explored with some hypotheses relaxed. It has been shown that the limits on masses and coupling obtained in a very constrained framework remain robust. However, some specific analyses had to be developed to handle some unusual configurations, absent in the benchmark cases. These strong constraints can also be translated into a lower mass limit for the lightest neutralino, a supersymmetric partner of the electroweak gauge bosons and Higgs bosons, which is a very good dark matter candidate. In a semi-constrained model, the limit obtained is m{sub x} > 38 GeV/c{sup 2}, thus increasing by about three GeV/c{sup 2} the limit obtained using only supersymmetric particle searches. (author)
Looking for physics beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
2002-01-01
Motivations for new physics beyond the Standard Model are presented. The most successful and best motivated option, supersymmetry, is described in some detail, and the associated searches performed at LEP are reviewed. These include searches for additional Higgs bosons and for supersymmetric partners of the standard particles. These searches constrain the mass of the lightest supersymmetric particle which could be responsible for the dark matter of the universe. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens Thoemmes
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la provenance des normes temporelles du travail. Il indiquera d’une part que ces normes résultent des orientations globales d’une société, de la formation d’une conscience des temporalités, mais aussi de la mobilisation du mouvement syndical et ouvrier sans lesquels la réduction du temps de travail n’aurait pas vu le jour. D’autre part, l’origine des normes temporelles est liée aux dynamiques locales, notamment à celles des entreprises, aux relations sociales, mais aussi au type de production qui a contribué à définir les règles effectives des temps sociaux. Nous retracerons d’abord l’émergence d’un droit au temps libre pour les travailleurs qui reste tributaire des évolutions sociétales. Ensuite, nous montrerons les temps du sujet en situation indiquant la persistance de multiples tensions. Enfin, nous avancerons que le passage du temps décrété au temps négocié ouvre un espace de discussion qui, à certaines conditions, pourrait donner lieu à une nouvelle politique des temps davantage en lien avec les besoins du monde du travail.The article focuses on the origin of time standards for work. On one hand, it demonstrates that these reflect a society’s general orientations and evolving awareness of temporalities, as well as its mobilisation of union and worker movements without which it is impossible to reduce working hours. On the other hand, time standards also originate in local dynamics, notably where this involves companies, social relations but also production types that help to define the rules by which social time are actually governed. The paper starts by retracing the emergence of workers’ right to free time, which continues to depend on social developments. We then address how employees spend their time in work situations and discover a number of ongoing tensions. Lastly, we argue that the shift from decreed to negotiated time opens up a space for discussion that, under
The Standard Model and Higgs physics
Torassa, Ezio
2018-05-01
The Standard Model is a consistent and computable theory that successfully describes the elementary particle interactions. The strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions have been included in the theory exploiting the relation between group symmetries and group generators, in order to smartly introduce the force carriers. The group properties lead to constraints between boson masses and couplings. All the measurements performed at the LEP, Tevatron, LHC and other accelerators proved the consistency of the Standard Model. A key element of the theory is the Higgs field, which together with the spontaneous symmetry breaking, gives mass to the vector bosons and to the fermions. Unlike the case of vector bosons, the theory does not provide prediction for the Higgs boson mass. The LEP experiments, while providing very precise measurements of the Standard Model theory, searched for the evidence of the Higgs boson until the year 2000. The discovery of the top quark in 1994 by the Tevatron experiments and of the Higgs boson in 2012 by the LHC experiments were considered as the completion of the fundamental particles list of the Standard Model theory. Nevertheless the neutrino oscillations, the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe evidence that we need a new extended model. In the Standard Model there are also some unattractive theoretical aspects like the divergent loop corrections to the Higgs boson mass and the very small Yukawa couplings needed to describe the neutrino masses. For all these reasons, the hunt of discrepancies between Standard Model and data is still going on with the aim to finally describe the new extended theory.
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
While the cosmological standard model has many notable successes, it assumes 95% of the mass-energy density of the universe is dark and of unknown nature, and there was an early stage of inflationary expansion driven by physics far beyond the range of the particle physics standard model. In the colloquium I will discuss potential particle-physics implications of the standard cosmological model.
General formulation of standard model the standard model is in need of new concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodjaev, L.Sh.
2001-01-01
The phenomenological basis for formulation of the Standard Model has been reviewed. The Standard Model based on the fundamental postulates has been formulated. The concept of the fundamental symmetries has been introduced: To look for not fundamental particles but fundamental symmetries. By searching of more general theory it is natural to search first of all global symmetries and than to learn consequence connected with the localisation of this global symmetries like wise of the standard Model
LHC Higgs physics beyond the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spannowsky, M.
2007-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be able to perform proton collisions at a much higher center-of-mass energy and luminosity than any other collider. Its main purpose is to detect the Higgs boson, the last unobserved particle of the Standard Model, explaining the riddle of the origin of mass. Studies have shown, that for the whole allowed region of the Higgs mass processes exist to detect the Higgs at the LHC. However, the Standard Model cannot be a theory of everything and is not able to provide a complete understanding of physics. It is at most an effective theory up to a presently unknown energy scale. Hence, extensions of the Standard Model are necessary which can affect the Higgs-boson signals. We discuss these effects in two popular extensions of the Standard Model: the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and the Standard Model with four generations (SM4G). Constraints on these models come predominantly from flavor physics and electroweak precision measurements. We show, that the SM4G is still viable and that a fourth generation has strong impact on decay and production processes of the Higgs boson. Furthermore, we study the charged Higgs boson in the MSSM, yielding a clear signal for physics beyond the Standard Model. For small tan β in minimal flavor violation (MFV) no processes for the detection of a charged Higgs boson do exist at the LHC. However, MFV is just motivated by the experimental agreement of results from flavor physics with Standard Model predictions, but not by any basic theoretical consideration. In this thesis, we calculate charged Higgs boson production cross sections beyond the assumption of MFV, where a large number of free parameters is present in the MSSM. We find that the soft-breaking parameters which enhance the charged-Higgs boson production most are just bound to large values, e.g. by rare B-meson decays. Although the charged-Higgs boson cross sections beyond MFV turn out to be sizeable, only a detailed
LHC Higgs physics beyond the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spannowsky, M.
2007-09-22
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be able to perform proton collisions at a much higher center-of-mass energy and luminosity than any other collider. Its main purpose is to detect the Higgs boson, the last unobserved particle of the Standard Model, explaining the riddle of the origin of mass. Studies have shown, that for the whole allowed region of the Higgs mass processes exist to detect the Higgs at the LHC. However, the Standard Model cannot be a theory of everything and is not able to provide a complete understanding of physics. It is at most an effective theory up to a presently unknown energy scale. Hence, extensions of the Standard Model are necessary which can affect the Higgs-boson signals. We discuss these effects in two popular extensions of the Standard Model: the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and the Standard Model with four generations (SM4G). Constraints on these models come predominantly from flavor physics and electroweak precision measurements. We show, that the SM4G is still viable and that a fourth generation has strong impact on decay and production processes of the Higgs boson. Furthermore, we study the charged Higgs boson in the MSSM, yielding a clear signal for physics beyond the Standard Model. For small tan {beta} in minimal flavor violation (MFV) no processes for the detection of a charged Higgs boson do exist at the LHC. However, MFV is just motivated by the experimental agreement of results from flavor physics with Standard Model predictions, but not by any basic theoretical consideration. In this thesis, we calculate charged Higgs boson production cross sections beyond the assumption of MFV, where a large number of free parameters is present in the MSSM. We find that the soft-breaking parameters which enhance the charged-Higgs boson production most are just bound to large values, e.g. by rare B-meson decays. Although the charged-Higgs boson cross sections beyond MFV turn out to be sizeable, only a detailed
A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouse, C A [General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. (USA)
1975-11-01
The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grondin, O
2004-12-15
This thesis has described an investigation into the modelling of compression ignition engine for control and diagnosis purpose. The Diesel engine is the most efficient and clean internal combustion engine due to modem electromechanical actuators. However, pollutant emission regulations are much more stricter, thus, these complex systems need sophisticated and efficient control algorithms to reach very low emission levels. For this task, engine models are required at each step of the control system development: control laws synthesis, simulation and validation. The system under study is a six cylinder direct injection Diesel engine fitted with a turbocharger. The model of this system is based on physical laws for some parts of the engine such as cylinders, manifolds, turbocharger and crank-slider system. In order to reduce computing time we choose to model heat transfer and heat release during combustion using simple empirical correlations. Resulting model has been implemented in the Matlab-Simulink environment and it can predict variables of interest for control purpose with one degree crank angle resolution. The model has been tested numerically and compared with an industrial engine simulation code with good results. Moreover, model output variables are in good agreement with experimental data recorded on a heavy-duty research engine. The engine model has been embedded on a board providing enough computing performances to perform real-time simulations, this will be helpful for 'hardware-in-the-loop' simulations. Another part of this study is dedicated to the combustion process modelling using a non linear phenomenological model: the NARMAX model. The goal is to predict the in-cylinder pressure evolution using other measurements available on the engine. The NARMAX model parameters have been identified using input-output data carried out from the experimental engine. Such model is well suited for real-time applications compare to numerically cost effective physical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grondin, O.
2004-12-15
This thesis has described an investigation into the modelling of compression ignition engine for control and diagnosis purpose. The Diesel engine is the most efficient and clean internal combustion engine due to modem electromechanical actuators. However, pollutant emission regulations are much more stricter, thus, these complex systems need sophisticated and efficient control algorithms to reach very low emission levels. For this task, engine models are required at each step of the control system development: control laws synthesis, simulation and validation. The system under study is a six cylinder direct injection Diesel engine fitted with a turbocharger. The model of this system is based on physical laws for some parts of the engine such as cylinders, manifolds, turbocharger and crank-slider system. In order to reduce computing time we choose to model heat transfer and heat release during combustion using simple empirical correlations. Resulting model has been implemented in the Matlab-Simulink environment and it can predict variables of interest for control purpose with one degree crank angle resolution. The model has been tested numerically and compared with an industrial engine simulation code with good results. Moreover, model output variables are in good agreement with experimental data recorded on a heavy-duty research engine. The engine model has been embedded on a board providing enough computing performances to perform real-time simulations, this will be helpful for 'hardware-in-the-loop' simulations. Another part of this study is dedicated to the combustion process modelling using a non linear phenomenological model: the NARMAX model. The goal is to predict the in-cylinder pressure evolution using other measurements available on the engine. The NARMAX model parameters have been identified using input-output data carried out from the experimental engine. Such model is well suited for real-time applications compare to numerically cost
Standard model Higgs physics at colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosca, A.
2007-01-01
In this report we briefly review the experimental status and prospects to verify the Higgs mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The focus is on the most relevant aspects of the phenomenology of the Standard Model Higgs boson at current (Tevatron) and future (Large Hadron Collider, LHC and International Linear Collider, ILC) particle colliders. We review the Standard Model searches: searches at the Tevatron, the program planned at the LHC and prospects at the ILC. Emphasis is put on what follows after a candidate discovery at the LHC: the various measurements which are necessary to precisely determine what the properties of this Higgs candidate are. (author)
Standard Model mass spectrum in inflationary universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xingang [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Yi [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi [Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Harvard University,20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-04-11
We work out the Standard Model (SM) mass spectrum during inflation with quantum corrections, and explore its observable consequences in the squeezed limit of non-Gaussianity. Both non-Higgs and Higgs inflation models are studied in detail. We also illustrate how some inflationary loop diagrams can be computed neatly by Wick-rotating the inflation background to Euclidean signature and by dimensional regularization.
Standard Model Effective Potential from Trace Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Jora
2018-01-01
Full Text Available By analogy with the low energy QCD effective linear sigma model, we construct a standard model effective potential based entirely on the requirement that the tree level and quantum level trace anomalies must be satisfied. We discuss a particular realization of this potential in connection with the Higgs boson mass and Higgs boson effective couplings to two photons and two gluons. We find that this kind of potential may describe well the known phenomenology of the Higgs boson.
Scale gauge symmetry and the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sola, J.
1990-01-01
This paper speculates on a version of the standard model of the electroweak and strong interactions coupled to gravity and equipped with a spontaneously broken, anomalous, conformal gauge symmetry. The scalar sector is virtually absent in the minimal model but in the general case it shows up in the form of a nonlinear harmonic map Lagrangian. A Euclidean approach to the phenological constant problem is also addressed in this framework
Theorists reject challenge to standard model
Adam, D
2001-01-01
Particle physicists are questioning results that appear to violate the Standard Model. There are concerns that there is not sufficient statistical significance and also charges that the comparison is being made with the 'most convenient' theoretical value for the muon's magnetic moment (1 page).
Precision tests of the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ol'shevskij, A.G.
1996-01-01
The present status of the precision measurements of electroweak observables is discussed with the special emphasis on the results obtained recently. All together these measurements provide the basis for the stringent test of the Standard Model and determination of the SM parameters. 22 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs
Standard Model at the LHC 2017
2017-01-01
The SM@LHC 2017 conference will be held May 2-5, 2017 at Nikhef, Amsterdam. The meeting aims to bring together experimentalists and theorists to discuss the phenomenology, observational results and theoretical tools for Standard Model physics at the LHC.
Introduction to physics beyond the Standard Model
Giudice, Gian Francesco
1998-01-01
These lectures will give an introductory review of the main ideas behind the attempts to extend the standard-model description of elementary particle interactions. After analysing the conceptual motivations that lead us to blieve in the existence of an underlying fundamental theory, wi will discuss the present status of various theoretical constructs : grand unification, supersymmetry and technicolour.
Is the standard model really tested?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takasugi, E.
1989-01-01
It is discussed how the standard model is really tested. Among various tests, I concentrate on the CP violation phenomena in K and B meson system. Especially, the resent hope to overcome the theoretical uncertainty in the evaluation on the CP violation of K meson system is discussed. (author)
Accidentally safe extensions of the Standard Model
Di Luzio, Luca; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Nardecchia, Marco
2015-01-01
We discuss a class of weak-scale extensions of the Standard Model which is completely invisible to low-energy indirect probes. The typical signature of this scenario is the existence of new charged and/or colored states which are stable on the scale of high-energy particle detectors.
Asymptotically Safe Standard Model via Vectorlike Fermions
Mann, R. B.; Meffe, J. R.; Sannino, F.; Steele, T. G.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhang, C.
2017-12-01
We construct asymptotically safe extensions of the standard model by adding gauged vectorlike fermions. Using large number-of-flavor techniques we argue that all gauge couplings, including the hypercharge and, under certain conditions, the Higgs coupling, can achieve an interacting ultraviolet fixed point.
Inflation in the standard cosmological model
Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2015-12-01
The inflationary paradigm is now part of the standard cosmological model as a description of its primordial phase. While its original motivation was to solve the standard problems of the hot big bang model, it was soon understood that it offers a natural theory for the origin of the large-scale structure of the universe. Most models rely on a slow-rolling scalar field and enjoy very generic predictions. Besides, all the matter of the universe is produced by the decay of the inflaton field at the end of inflation during a phase of reheating. These predictions can be (and are) tested from their imprint of the large-scale structure and in particular the cosmic microwave background. Inflation stands as a window in physics where both general relativity and quantum field theory are at work and which can be observationally studied. It connects cosmology with high-energy physics. Today most models are constructed within extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry or string theory. Inflation also disrupts our vision of the universe, in particular with the ideas of chaotic inflation and eternal inflation that tend to promote the image of a very inhomogeneous universe with fractal structure on a large scale. This idea is also at the heart of further speculations, such as the multiverse. This introduction summarizes the connections between inflation and the hot big bang model and details the basics of its dynamics and predictions. xml:lang="fr"
Primordial nucleosynthesis: Beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malaney, R.A.
1991-01-01
Non-standard primordial nucleosynthesis merits continued study for several reasons. First and foremost are the important implications determined from primordial nucleosynthesis regarding the composition of the matter in the universe. Second, the production and the subsequent observation of the primordial isotopes is the most direct experimental link with the early (t approx-lt 1 sec) universe. Third, studies of primordial nucleosynthesis allow for important, and otherwise unattainable, constraints on many aspects of particle physics. Finally, there is tentative evidence which suggests that the Standard Big Bang (SBB) model is incorrect in that it cannot reproduce the inferred primordial abundances for a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio. Reviewed here are some aspects of non-standard primordial nucleosynthesis which mostly overlap with the authors own personal interest. He begins with a short discussion of the SBB nucleosynthesis theory, high-lighting some recent related developments. Next he discusses how recent observations of helium and lithium abundances may indicate looming problems for the SBB model. He then discusses how the QCD phase transition, neutrinos, and cosmic strings can influence primordial nucleosynthesis. He concludes with a short discussion of the multitude of other non-standard nucleosynthesis models found in the literature, and make some comments on possible progress in the future. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Standard Model Higgs Searches at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knoepfel, Kyle J.
2012-06-01
We present results from the search for a standard model Higgs boson using data corresponding up to 10 fb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data produced by the Fermilab Tevatron at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data were recorded by the CDF and D0 detectors between March 2001 and September of 2011. A broad excess is observed between 105 < m{sub H} < 145 GeV/c{sup 2} with a global significance of 2.2 standard deviations relative to the background-only hypothesis.
Beyond the standard model at Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pagliarone, C.
2000-01-01
Tevatron experiments performed extensive searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. No positive results have been found so far showing that the data are consistent with the SM expectations. CDF and D0 continue the analysis of Run I data placing limits on new physics, including Supersymmetry, large space time dimensions and leptoquark models. With the Run II upgrades, providing an higher acceptance and higher luminosity, it will be possible to make important progresses in the search for new phenomena as well as in setting limits on a larger variety of theoretical models
Study on Standard Fatigue Vehicle Load Model
Huang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. P.; Li, Y. H.
2018-02-01
Based on the measured data of truck from three artery expressways in Guangdong Province, the statistical analysis of truck weight was conducted according to axle number. The standard fatigue vehicle model applied to industrial areas in the middle and late was obtained, which adopted equivalence damage principle, Miner linear accumulation law, water discharge method and damage ratio theory. Compared with the fatigue vehicle model Specified by the current bridge design code, the proposed model has better applicability. It is of certain reference value for the fatigue design of bridge in China.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurenche, P.
1987-01-01
The phenomenology of the standard model in the hadronic reactions in the 10 TeV range is described. The predictions of the model concerning the hadronic cross sections being based on the parton model, we first discuss the behaviour of the structure functions at the low values of X (x > 10 -4 ) which are attained at these energies and we show that the development of the leading logarithms equations allow us to calculate them. The production of W, Z, and gauge bosons and gauge boson pairs are reviewed. The Higgs boson production is discussed in detail according to his mass value [fr
Anomalous Abelian symmetry in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1995-01-01
The observed hierarchy of quark and lepton masses can be parametrized by nonrenormalizable operators with dimensions determined by an anomalous Abelian family symmetry, a gauge extension to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such an Abelian symmetry is generic to compactified superstring theories, with its anomalies compensated by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. If we assume these two symmetries to be the same, we find the electroweak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ ω = 3/8 at the string scale, just by setting the ratio of the product of down quark to charged lepton masses equal to one at the string scale. This assumes no GUT structure. The generality of the result suggests a superstring origin for the standard model. We generalize our analysis to massive neutrinos, and mixings in the lepton sector
Higgs triplets in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunion, J.F.; Vega, R.; Wudka, J.
1990-01-01
Even though the standard model of the strong and electroweak interactions has proven enormously successful, it need not be the case that a single Higgs-doublet field is responsible for giving masses to the weakly interacting vector bosons and the fermions. In this paper we explore the phenomenology of a Higgs sector for the standard model which contains both doublet and triplet fields [under SU(2) L ]. The resulting Higgs bosons have many exotic features and surprising experimental signatures. Since a critical task of future accelerators will be to either discover or establish the nonexistence of Higgs bosons with mass below the TeV scale, it will be important to keep in mind the alternative possibilities characteristic of this and other nonminimal Higgs sectors
Superconnections: an interpretation of the standard model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gert Roepstorff
2000-07-01
Full Text Available The mathematical framework of superbundles as pioneered by D. Quillen suggests that one consider the Higgs field as a natural constituent of a superconnection. I propose to take as superbundle the exterior algebra obtained from a Hermitian vector bundle of rank n where n=2 for the electroweak theory and n=5 for the full Standard Model. The present setup is similar to but avoids the use of non-commutative geometry.
Neutrons and the new Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsey-Musolf, M.J., E-mail: mjrm@physics.wisc.ed [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2009-12-11
Fundamental symmetry tests with neutrons can provide unique information about whatever will be the new Standard Model of fundamental interactions. I review two aspects of this possibility: searches for the permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron and its relation to the origin of baryonic matter, and precision studies of neutron decay that can probe new symmetries. I discuss the complementarity of these experiments with other low-energy precision tests and high energy collider searches for new physics.
Beyond the standard model in many directions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chris Quigg
2004-04-28
These four lectures constitute a gentle introduction to what may lie beyond the standard model of quarks and leptons interacting through SU(3){sub c} {direct_product} SU(2){sub L} {direct_product} U(1){sub Y} gauge bosons, prepared for an audience of graduate students in experimental particle physics. In the first lecture, I introduce a novel graphical representation of the particles and interactions, the double simplex, to elicit questions that motivate our interest in physics beyond the standard model, without recourse to equations and formalism. Lecture 2 is devoted to a short review of the current status of the standard model, especially the electroweak theory, which serves as the point of departure for our explorations. The third lecture is concerned with unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. In the fourth lecture, I survey some attempts to extend and complete the electroweak theory, emphasizing some of the promise and challenges of supersymmetry. A short concluding section looks forward.
Beyond standard model calculations with Sherpa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kuttimalai, Silvan [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Siegert, Frank [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany)
2015-03-01
We present a fully automated framework as part of the Sherpa event generator for the computation of tree-level cross sections in Beyond Standard Model scenarios, making use of model information given in the Universal FeynRules Output format. Elementary vertices are implemented into C++ code automatically and provided to the matrix-element generator Comix at runtime. Widths and branching ratios for unstable particles are computed from the same building blocks. The corresponding decays are simulated with spin correlations. Parton showers, QED radiation and hadronization are added by Sherpa, providing a full simulation of arbitrary BSM processes at the hadron level. (orig.)
STAMINA - Model description. Standard Model Instrumentation for Noise Assessments
Schreurs EM; Jabben J; Verheijen ENG; CMM; mev
2010-01-01
Deze rapportage beschrijft het STAMINA-model, dat staat voor Standard Model Instrumentation for Noise Assessments en door het RIVM is ontwikkeld. Het instituut gebruikt dit standaardmodel om omgevingsgeluid in Nederland in kaart te brengen. Het model is gebaseerd op de Standaard Karteringsmethode
Fitting Simpson's neutrino into the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valle, J.W.F.
1985-01-01
I show how to accomodate the 17 keV state recently by Simpson as one of the neutrinos of the standard model. Experimental constraints can only be satisfied if the μ and tau neutrino combine to a very good approximation to form a Dirac neutrino of 17 keV leaving a light νsub(e). Neutrino oscillations will provide the most stringent test of the model. The cosmological bounds are also satisfied in a natural way in models with Goldstone bosons. Explicit examples are given in the framework of majoron-type models. Constraints on the lepton symmetry breaking scale which follow from astrophysics, cosmology and laboratory experiments are discussed. (orig.)
Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))
1990-11-01
The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.
Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1990-11-01
The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, Ω b , remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that Ω b ∼ 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming Ω total = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since Ω visible b . Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M x approx-gt 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z 0 coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for ν-masses may imply that the ν τ is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs
de Bruyn, Marna; Wright, Jon
2017-01-01
The Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) presents a framework for understanding client motivation and action in occupational therapy, emphasising the relationship between motivation and action. Similarly, motivation to work is regarded as the primary and in some instances, the only eligibility criterion for inclusion in supported employment services. This commentary explores the potential theoretical link between the VdTMoCA and supported employment, primarily applied to the South...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arques, Ph. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France)
1998-07-01
A thermo-compressor is a compressor that transforms directly the heat release by a source in an energy of pressure without intermediate mechanical work. It is a conversion of the Stirling engine in driven machine in order that the piston that provides the work has been suppressed. In this article, we present the analytical and numerical analyses of heat and mass transfers modeling in the different volumes of the thermo-compressor. This engine comprises a free piston displacer that separates cold and hot gas. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vacca, G; Bazin, J P; Karhausen, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
A new method is proposed for the computation of the dose delivered to any level of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of radioactive substances. The same method is used as that proposed by ICRP. The concentration of the radionuclide during the progression of the meal is the central concept of this model. A graph relates the MPC with the radioactive half life of the radionuclide and with any level of the gastrointestinal tract of adults.Soluble and insoluble radionuclides are considered. The case of daughter products is discussed in the Appendix. (author) [French] Une methode nouvelle permet le calcul de la dose delivree a un niveau quelconque du tractus gastrointestinal apres ingestion de substances radioactives. Elle utilise d une part la technique de calcul proposee par l'ICRP et de l'autre la notion de concentration du radionuclide au cours de la progression du repas. Un graphique simple met en relation la valeur de la concentration maximale admissible avec la periode radioactive du radionuclide et le niveau considere du tractus gastrointestinal de l'adulte. Le cas d'un radionuclide soluble et celui d'un radionuclide insoluble sont envisages. Un appendice traite le cas des filiations. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vacca, G.; Bazin, J.P.; Karhausen, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
A new method is proposed for the computation of the dose delivered to any level of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of radioactive substances. The same method is used as that proposed by ICRP. The concentration of the radionuclide during the progression of the meal is the central concept of this model. A graph relates the MPC with the radioactive half life of the radionuclide and with any level of the gastrointestinal tract of adults.Soluble and insoluble radionuclides are considered. The case of daughter products is discussed in the Appendix. (author) [French] Une methode nouvelle permet le calcul de la dose delivree a un niveau quelconque du tractus gastrointestinal apres ingestion de substances radioactives. Elle utilise d une part la technique de calcul proposee par l'ICRP et de l'autre la notion de concentration du radionuclide au cours de la progression du repas. Un graphique simple met en relation la valeur de la concentration maximale admissible avec la periode radioactive du radionuclide et le niveau considere du tractus gastrointestinal de l'adulte. Le cas d'un radionuclide soluble et celui d'un radionuclide insoluble sont envisages. Un appendice traite le cas des filiations. (auteur)
Skewness of the standard model possible implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1989-09-01
In this paper we consider combinations of gauge algebra and set of rules for quantization of gauge charges. We show that the combination of the algebra of the standard model and the rule satisfied by the electric charges of the quarks and leptons has an exceptional high degree of a kind of asymmetry which we call skewness. Assuming that skewness has physical significance and adding two other rather plausible assumptions, we may conclude that space time must have a non simply connected topology on very small distances. Such topology would allow a kind of symmetry breakdown leading to a more skew combination of gauge algebra and set of quantization rules. (orig.)
The renormalization of the electroweak standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehm, M.; Spiesberger, H.; Hollik, W.
1984-03-01
A renormalization scheme for the electroweak standard model is presented in which the electric charge and the masses of the gauge bosons, Higgs particle and fermions are used as physical parameters. The photon is treated such that quantum electrodynamics is contained in the usual form. Field renormalization respecting the gauge symmetry gives finite Green functions. The Ward identities between the Green functions of the unphysical sector allow a renormalization that maintains the simple pole structure of the propagators. Explicit results for the renormalization self energies and vertex functions are given. They can be directly used as building blocks for the evaluation of l-loop radiative corrections. (orig.)
Baryogenesis and standard model CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huet, P.
1994-08-01
The standard model possesses a natural source of CP violation contained in the phase of the CKM matrix. Whether the latter participated to the making of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the observable universe is a fundamental question which has been addressed only recently. The generation of a CP observable occurs through interference of quantum paths along which a sequence of flavor mixings and chirality flips take place. The coherence of this phenomenon in the primeval plasma is limited by the fast quark-gluon interactions. At the electroweak era, this phenomenon of decoherence forbids a successful baryogenesis based on the sole CP violation of the CKM matrix
Non standard analysis, polymer models, quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.
1984-01-01
We give an elementary introduction to non standard analysis and its applications to the theory of stochastic processes. This is based on a joint book with J.E. Fenstad, R. Hoeegh-Krohn and T. Lindstroeem. In particular we give a discussion of an hyperfinite theory of Dirichlet forms with applications to the study of the Hamiltonian for a quantum mechanical particle in the potential created by a polymer. We also discuss new results on the existence of attractive polymer measures in dimension d 1 2 phi 2 2 )sub(d)-model of interacting quantum fields. (orig.)
The minimally tuned minimal supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essig, Rouven; Fortin, Jean-Francois
2008-01-01
The regions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with the minimal amount of fine-tuning of electroweak symmetry breaking are presented for general messenger scale. No a priori relations among the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters are assumed and fine-tuning is minimized with respect to all the important parameters which affect electroweak symmetry breaking. The superpartner spectra in the minimally tuned region of parameter space are quite distinctive with large stop mixing at the low scale and negative squark soft masses at the high scale. The minimal amount of tuning increases enormously for a Higgs mass beyond roughly 120 GeV
Search for the standard model Higgs boson
Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miguel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Dennis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Manneli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Techini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1993-08-01
Using a data sample corresponding to about 1 233 000 hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the reaction e+e- → HZ∗ has been used to search for the standard model Higgs boson, in association with missing energy when Z∗ → v v¯, or with a pair of energetic leptons when Z∗ → e+e-or μ +μ -. No signal was found and, at the 95% confidence level, mH exceeds 58.4 GeV/ c2.
Can the superstring inspire the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.
1988-02-01
We discuss general features of models in which the E/sub 8/xE'/sub 8/ heterotic superstring is compactified on a specific Calabi-Yau manifold. The gauge group of rank-6 in four dimensions is supposed to be broken down at an intermediate scale m/sub I/ to the standard model group SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1)/sub Y/, as a result of two neutral scalar fields acquiring large vacuum expectations (vev's) in one of many flat directions of the effective potential. We find that it is difficult to generate such an intermediate scale by radiative symmetry breaking, whilst such models have prima facie problems with baryon decay mediated by massive particles and with non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings, unless m/sub I/ > or approx. 10/sup 16/ GeV. Rapid baryon decay mediated by light particles, large neutrino masses, other ..delta..L not = 0 processes and flavour-changing neutral currents are generic features of these models. We illustrate these observations with explicit calculations in a number of different models given by vev's in different flat directions.
Can the superstring inspire the standard model?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.
1988-01-01
We discuss general features of models in which the E 8 xE' 8 heterotic superstring is compactified on a specific Calabi-Yau manifold. The gauge group of rank-6 in four dimensions is supposed to be broken down at an intermediate scale m I to the standard model group SU(3) C x SU(2) L x U(1) Y , as a result of two neutral scalar fields acquiring large vacuum expectations (vev's) in one of many flat directions of the effective potential. We find that it is difficult to generate such an intermediate scale by radiative symmetry breaking, whilst such models have prima facie problems with baryon decay mediated by massive particles and with non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings, unless m I > or approx. 10 16 GeV. Rapid baryon decay mediated by light particles, large neutrino masses, other ΔL ≠ 0 processes and flavour-changing neutral currents are generic features of these models. We illustrate these observations with explicit calculations in a number of different models given by vev's in different flat directions. (orig.)
B physics beyond the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewett, J.A.L.
1997-12-01
The ability of present and future experiments to test the Standard Model in the B meson sector is described. The authors examine the loop effects of new interactions in flavor changing neutral current B decays and in Z → b anti b, concentrating on supersymmetry and the left-right symmetric model as specific examples of new physics scenarios. The procedure for performing a global fit to the Wilson coefficients which describe b → s transitions is outlined, and the results of such a fit from Monte Carlo generated data is compared to the predictions of the two sample new physics scenarios. A fit to the Zb anti b couplings from present data is also given
Complex singlet extension of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barger, Vernon; McCaskey, Mathew; Langacker, Paul; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Shaughnessy, Gabe
2009-01-01
We analyze a simple extension of the standard model (SM) obtained by adding a complex singlet to the scalar sector (cxSM). We show that the cxSM can contain one or two viable cold dark matter candidates and analyze the conditions on the parameters of the scalar potential that yield the observed relic density. When the cxSM potential contains a global U(1) symmetry that is both softly and spontaneously broken, it contains both a viable dark matter candidate and the ingredients necessary for a strong first order electroweak phase transition as needed for electroweak baryogenesis. We also study the implications of the model for discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legent, N. [Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR), 92 - Paris-la-Defense (France)
2000-10-01
This paper deals with the recent advances in the domain of standardization and regulation of refrigeration and cold production systems used in the industry and in the commercial sector: 1 - international standardization; 2 - European standardization; 3 - international standardization in the domain of cold production (ISO/TC 86 'coldness and air conditioning', CEI 61C 'domestic refrigerating appliances', CEI 61D 'air-conditioning appliances for domestic and similar use', ISO/TC 104 'goods transportation containers'); 4 - European standardization in the domain of cold production (CEN/TC 182 'refrigerating systems - safety and environment requirements', CEN/TC 44 'household refrigerating appliances and refrigerating furniture for stores', CEN/TC 113 'heat pumps and air-conditioners', CEN/TC 141 'manometers and thermometers, measuring and recording means', CENELEC 61 'safety of domestic electrical appliances'); 5 - French standardization (international file, European file, French file, French standardization system); 6 - national standardization in other countries; 7 - regulations in the domain of cold production. (J.S.)
Bounds on the Higgs mass in the standard model and the minimal supersymmetric standard model
Quiros, M.
1995-01-01
Depending on the Higgs-boson and top-quark masses, M_H and M_t, the effective potential of the {\\bf Standard Model} can develop a non-standard minimum for values of the field much larger than the weak scale. In those cases the standard minimum becomes metastable and the possibility of decay to the non-standard one arises. Comparison of the decay rate to the non-standard minimum at finite (and zero) temperature with the corresponding expansion rate of the Universe allows to identify the region, in the (M_H, M_t) plane, where the Higgs field is sitting at the standard electroweak minimum. In the {\\bf Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model}, approximate analytical expressions for the Higgs mass spectrum and couplings are worked out, providing an excellent approximation to the numerical results which include all next-to-leading-log corrections. An appropriate treatment of squark decoupling allows to consider large values of the stop and/or sbottom mixing parameters and thus fix a reliable upper bound on the mass o...
Photon defects in noncommutative standard model candidates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V.
2006-06-01
Restrictions imposed by gauge invariance in noncommutative spaces together with the effects of ultraviolet/infrared mixing lead to strong constraints on possible candidates for a noncommutative extension of the Standard Model. We study a general class of noncommutative models consistent with these restrictions. Specifically we consider models based upon a gauge theory with the gauge group U(N 1 ) x U(N 2 ) x.. x U(N m ) coupled to matter fields transforming in the (anti)-fundamental, bi-fundamental and adjoint representations. We pay particular attention to overall trace-U(1) factors of the gauge group which are affected by the ultraviolet/infrared mixing. Typically, these trace-U(1) gauge fields do not decouple sufficiently fast in the infrared, and lead to sizable Lorentz symmetry violating effects in the low-energy effective theory. In a 4-dimensional theory on a continuous space-time making these effects unobservable would require making the effects of noncommutativity tiny, M NC >> M P . This severely limits the phenomenological prospects of such models. However, adding additional universal extra dimensions the trace-U(1) factors decouple with a power law and the constraint on the noncommutativity scale is weakened considerably. Finally, we briefly mention some interesting properties of the photon that could arise if the noncommutative theory is modified at a high energy scale. (Orig.)
Consistency test of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawlowski, M.; Raczka, R.
1997-01-01
If the 'Higgs mass' is not the physical mass of a real particle but rather an effective ultraviolet cutoff then a process energy dependence of this cutoff must be admitted. Precision data from at least two energy scale experimental points are necessary to test this hypothesis. The first set of precision data is provided by the Z-boson peak experiments. We argue that the second set can be given by 10-20 GeV e + e - colliders. We pay attention to the special role of tau polarization experiments that can be sensitive to the 'Higgs mass' for a sample of ∼ 10 8 produced tau pairs. We argue that such a study may be regarded as a negative selfconsistency test of the Standard Model and of most of its extensions
Standard model fermions and N=8 supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolai, Hermann [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2016-07-01
In a scheme originally proposed by Gell-Mann, and subsequently shown to be realized at the SU(3) x U(1) stationary point of maximal gauged SO(8) supergravity, the 48 spin-1/2 fermions of the theory remaining after the removal of eight Goldstinos can be identified with the 48 quarks and leptons (including right-chiral neutrinos) of the Standard model, provided one identifies the residual SU(3) with the diagonal subgroup of the color group SU(3){sub c} and a family symmetry SU(3){sub f}. However, there remained a systematic mismatch in the electric charges by a spurion charge of ± 1/6. We here identify the ''missing'' U(1) that rectifies this mismatch, and that takes a surprisingly simple, though unexpected form, and show how it is related to the conjectured R symmetry K(E10) of M Theory.
Quantum field theory and the standard model
Schwartz, Matthew D
2014-01-01
Providing a comprehensive introduction to quantum field theory, this textbook covers the development of particle physics from its foundations to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Its combination of clear physical explanations, with direct connections to experimental data, and mathematical rigor make the subject accessible to students with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. Assuming only an undergraduate-level understanding of quantum mechanics, the book steadily develops the Standard Model and state-of-the-art calculation techniques. It includes multiple derivations of many important results, with modern methods such as effective field theory and the renormalization group playing a prominent role. Numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems enable students to reproduce classic results and to master quantum field theory as it is used today. Based on a course taught by the author over many years, this book is ideal for an introductory to advanced quantum field theory sequence or for independe...
CMS standard model Higgs boson results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garcia-Abia Pablo
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In July 2012 CMS announced the discovery of a new boson with properties resembling those of the long-sought Higgs boson. The analysis of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV and 19.6 fb−1 at √s = 8 TeV, confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson, with a signal strength associated with vector bosons and fermions consistent with the expectations for a standard model (SM Higgs boson, and spin-parity clearly favouring the scalar nature of the new boson. In this note I review the updated results of the CMS experiment.
Standard model group: Survival of the fittest
Nielsen, H. B.; Brene, N.
1983-09-01
The essential content of this paper is related to random dynamics. We speculate that the world seen through a sub-Planck-scale microscope has a lattice structure and that the dynamics on this lattice is almost completely random, except for the requirement that the random (plaquette) action is invariant under some "world (gauge) group". We see that the randomness may lead to spontaneous symmetry breakdown in the vacuum (spontaneous collapse) without explicit appeal to any scalar field associated with the usual Higgs mechanism. We further argue that the subgroup which survives as the end product of a possible chain of collapses is likely to have certain properties; the most important is that it has a topologically connected center. The standard group, i.e. the group of the gauge theory which combines the Salam-Weinberg model with QCD, has this property.
Standard model group: survival of the fittest
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, H.B. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Brene, N. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark))
1983-09-19
The essential content of this paper is related to random dynamics. We speculate that the world seen through a sub-Planck-scale microscope has a lattice structure and that the dynamics on this lattice is almost completely random, except for the requirement that the random (plaquette) action is invariant under some ''world (gauge) group''. We see that the randomness may lead to spontaneous symmetry breakdown in the vacuum (spontaneous collapse) without explicit appeal to any scalar field associated with the usual Higgs mechanism. We further argue that the subgroup which survives as the end product of a possible chain of collapse is likely to have certain properties; the most important is that it has a topologically connected center. The standard group, i.e. the group of the gauge theory which combines the Salam-Weinberg model with QCD, has this property.
Standard model group: survival of the fittest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1983-01-01
Th essential content of this paper is related to random dynamics. We speculate that the world seen through a sub-Planck-scale microscope has a lattice structure and that the dynamics on this lattice is almost completely random, except for the requirement that the random (plaquette) action is invariant under some ''world (gauge) group''. We see that the randomness may lead to spontaneous symmetry breakdown in the vacuum (spontaneous collapse) without explicit appeal to any scalar field associated with the usual Higgs mechanism. We further argue that the subgroup which survives as the end product of a possible chain of collapse is likely to have certain properties; the most important is that it has a topologically connected center. The standard group, i.e. the group of the gauge theory which combines the Salam-Weinberg model with QCD, has this property. (orig.)
Standard model group survival of the fittest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1983-02-01
The essential content of this note is related to random dynamics. The authors speculate that the world seen through a sub Planck scale microscope has a lattice structure and that the dynamics on this lattice is almost completely random, except for the requirement that the random (plaquette) action is invariant under some ''world (gauge) group''. It is seen that the randomness may lead to spontaneous symmetry breakdown in the vacuum (spontaneous collapse) without explicit appeal to any scalar field associated with the usual Higgs mechanism. It is further argued that the subgroup which survives as the end product of a possible chain of collapses is likely to have certain properties; the most important is that it has a topologically connected center. The standard group, i.e. the group of the gauge theory which combines the Salam-Weinberg model with QCD, has this property. (Auth.)
Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1988-01-01
The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g 2 = (√2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ ≅ 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10 3 )GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs
The standard model 30 years of glory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefrancois, J.
2001-03-01
In these 3 lectures the author reviews the achievements of the past 30 years, which saw the birth and the detailed confirmation of the standard model. The first lecture is dedicated to quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deep inelastic scattering, neutrino scattering results, R(e + ,e - ), scaling violation, Drell-Yan reactions and the observation of jets. The second lecture deals with weak interactions and quark and lepton families, the discovery of W and Z bosons, of charm, of the tau lepton and B quarks are detailed. The third lecture focuses on the stunning progress that have been made in accuracy concerning detectors, the typical level of accuracy of previous e + e - experiments was about 5-10%, while the accuracy obtained at LEP/SLC is of order 0.1% to 0.5%. (A.C.)
The standard model 30 years of glory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lefrancois, J
2001-03-01
In these 3 lectures the author reviews the achievements of the past 30 years, which saw the birth and the detailed confirmation of the standard model. The first lecture is dedicated to quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deep inelastic scattering, neutrino scattering results, R(e{sup +},e{sup -}), scaling violation, Drell-Yan reactions and the observation of jets. The second lecture deals with weak interactions and quark and lepton families, the discovery of W and Z bosons, of charm, of the tau lepton and B quarks are detailed. The third lecture focuses on the stunning progress that have been made in accuracy concerning detectors, the typical level of accuracy of previous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments was about 5-10%, while the accuracy obtained at LEP/SLC is of order 0.1% to 0.5%. (A.C.)
The Standard Model with one universal extra dimension
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An exhaustive list of the explicit expressions for all physical couplings induced by the ... the standard Green's functions, which implies that the Standard Model observables do ...... renormalizability of standard Green's functions is implicit in this.
Primordial lithium and the standard model(s)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deliyannis, C.P.; Demarque, P.; Kawaler, S.D.; Krauss, L.M.; Romanelli, P.
1989-01-01
We present the results of new theoretical work on surface 7 Li and 6 Li evolution in the oldest halo stars along with a new and refined analysis of the predicted primordial lithium abundance resulting from big-bang nucleosynthesis. This allows us to determine the constraints which can be imposed upon cosmology by a consideration of primordial lithium using both standard big-bang and standard stellar-evolution models. Such considerations lead to a constraint on the baryon density today of 0.0044 2 <0.025 (where the Hubble constant is 100h Km sec/sup -1/ Mpc /sup -1/), and impose limitations on alternative nucleosynthesis scenarios
Searches for Beyond Standard Model Physics with ATLAS and CMS
Rompotis, Nikolaos; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The exploration of the high energy frontier with ATLAS and CMS experiments provides one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I review the motivation, the strategy and some recent results related to beyond Standard Model physics from these experiments. The review will cover beyond Standard Model Higgs boson searches, supersymmetry and searches for exotic particles.
Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)
2017-03-17
Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.
Experimental tests of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nodulman, L.
1998-01-01
The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of α EM in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G F , most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered
Standard Model theory calculations and experimental tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacciari, M.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.
2015-01-01
To present knowledge, all the physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be described in the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed the newly discovered Higgs boson with a mass close to 125 GeV seems to confirm the predictions of the SM. Thus, besides looking for direct manifestations of the physics beyond the SM, one of the primary missions of the LHC is to perform ever more stringent tests of the SM. This requires not only improved theoretical developments to produce testable predictions and provide experiments with reliable event generators, but also sophisticated analyses techniques to overcome the formidable experimental environment of the LHC and perform precision measurements. In the first section, we describe the state of the art of the theoretical tools and event generators that are used to provide predictions for the production cross sections of the processes of interest. In section 2, inclusive cross section measurements with jets, leptons and vector bosons are presented. Examples of differential cross sections, charge asymmetries and the study of lepton pairs are proposed in section 3. Finally, in section 4, we report studies on the multiple production of gauge bosons and constraints on anomalous gauge couplings
Lepton radiative decays in supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.
1988-01-01
Radiative decays of charged leptons l i →l j γ(γ * ) have been discussed in the framework of the supersymmetric generalization of the standard model. The most general form of the formfactors for the one-loop vertex function is written. Decay widths of the mentioned radiative decays are calculated. Scalar lepton masses are estimated at the maximal mixing angle in the scalar sector proceeding from the present upper limit for the branching of the decay μ→eγ. In case of the maximal mixing angle and the least mass degeneration of scalar leptons of various generations the following lower limit for the scalar electron mass m e-tilde >1.5 TeV has been obtained. The mass of the scalar neutrino is 0(1) TeV, in case the charged calibrino is lighter than the scalar neutrino. The result obtained sensitive to the choice of the lepton mixing angle in the scalar sector, namely, in decreasing the value sin 2 θ by an order of magnitude, the limitation on the scalar electron mass may decrease more than 3 times. In the latter case the direct observation of electrons at the e + e - -collider (1x1 TeV) becomes available
Geometrical basis for the Standard Model
Potter, Franklin
1994-02-01
The robust character of the Standard Model is confirmed. Examination of its geometrical basis in three equivalent internal symmetry spaces-the unitary plane C 2, the quaternion space Q, and the real space R 4—as well as the real space R 3 uncovers mathematical properties that predict the physical properties of leptons and quarks. The finite rotational subgroups of the gauge group SU(2) L × U(1) Y generate exactly three lepton families and four quark families and reveal how quarks and leptons are related. Among the physical properties explained are the mass ratios of the six leptons and eight quarks, the origin of the left-handed preference by the weak interaction, the geometrical source of color symmetry, and the zero neutrino masses. The ( u, d) and ( c, s) quark families team together to satisfy the triangle anomaly cancellation with the electron family, while the other families pair one-to-one for cancellation. The spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete and needs no Higgs mechanism. Predictions include all massless neutrinos, the top quark at 160 GeV/ c 2, the b' quark at 80 GeV/ c 2, and the t' quark at 2600 GeV/ c 2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lechowski, M
2005-04-15
LHC is a proton-proton collider with an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass, which will start operating in 2007 at CERN. Two of its experiments, ATLAS, and CMS, will search and study in particular the Higgs boson, Supersymmetry and other new physics. This thesis was about two aspects of the ATLAS experiment. On one hand the simulation of the liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter, with the emulation of the electronic chain in charge of the digitization of the signal and also the evaluation of the electronic noise and the pile-up noise (coming from minimum bias events of inelastic collisions at LHC). These two points have been validated by the analysis of the data taken during beam tests in 2002 and 2004. On the other hand, a physics study concerning the Little Higgs model. This recent model solves the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, in introducing new heavy particles to cancel quadratic divergences arising in the calculation of the Higgs boson mass. These new particles, with a mass about the TeV/c{sup 2}, are a heavy quark top, heavy gauge bosons Z{sub H}, W{sub H} and A{sub H}, and a heavy Higgs boson triplet. The physics study dealt with the characteristic decays of the model, Z{sub H} in Z + H and W{sub H} in W + H, with a Higgs mass either at 120 GeV/c{sup 2} decaying in two photons or at 200 GeV/c{sup 2} decaying in ZZ or WW. Results show that in both cases, for 300 fb{sup -1} (3 years at high luminosity), an observation of the signal at 5 {sigma} for Z{sub H} et W{sub H} masses less than 2 TeV/c{sup 2} is possible, covering a large part of the parameter space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taghizadeh, M.; Khoei, S.; Nikoofar, A. R.; Ghamsari, L.; Goliaei, B.
2009-01-01
Rad 51 is a protein with critical role in double strand break repair. Down-regulation of this protein has a significant effect in radiosensitivity of some cell lines like prostate carcinoma. Compared to monolayer cell culture model, the spheroids are more resistant to radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the Rad 51 protein level in Du 145 spheroids, and monolayer cells before and after exposure to gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, western blot was used to determine the level of Rad 51 protein in Du 145 cell line grown as monolayer and spheroid. Results: Western blot analysis showed that in the spheroid cells, Rad 51 had an elevated level before and after radiation in comparison with monolayer cells. Higher doses of radiation induced elevated expression of Rad 51 protein in both culture models.The level of at protein after exposure to gamma rays had been time-dependent. Conclusion: Rad 51 might act as a mediator of radiation resistance in tumor cells. Repression of Rad 51 activity could be a prominent strategy to overcome radiation resistance of tumors.
Higgs bosons in the standard model, the MSSM and beyond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. I summarize the basic theory and selected phenomenology for the Higgs boson(s) of the standard model, the minimal supersymmetric model and some extensions thereof, including the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model.
Neutrinos: in and out of the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parke, Stephen; /Fermilab
2006-07-01
The particle physics Standard Model has been tremendously successful in predicting the outcome of a large number of experiments. In this model Neutrinos are massless. Yet recent evidence points to the fact that neutrinos are massive particles with tiny masses compared to the other particles in the Standard Model. These tiny masses allow the neutrinos to change flavor and oscillate. In this series of Lectures, I will review the properties of Neutrinos In the Standard Model and then discuss the physics of Neutrinos Beyond the Standard Model. Topics to be covered include Neutrino Flavor Transformations and Oscillations, Majorana versus Dirac Neutrino Masses, the Seesaw Mechanism and Leptogenesis.
Gauge coupling unification in superstring derived standard-like models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1992-11-01
I discuss gauge coupling unification in a class of superstring standard-like models, which are derived in the free fermionic formulation. Recent calculations indicate that the superstring unification scale is at O(10 18 GeV) while the minimal supersymmetric standard model is consistent with LEP data if the unification scale is at O(10 16 )GeV. A generic feature of the superstring standard-like models is the appearance of extra color triplets (D,D), and electroweak doublets (l,l), in vector-like representations, beyond the supersymmetric standard model. I show that the gauge coupling unification at O(10 18 GeV) in the superstring standard-like models can be consistent with LEP data. I present an explicit standard-like model that can realize superstring gauge coupling unification. (author)
Beyond the standard model with B and K physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossman, Y
2003-01-01
In the first part of the talk the flavor physics input to models beyond the standard model is described. One specific example of such new physics model is given: A model with bulk fermions in a non factorizable one extra dimension. In the second part of the talk we discuss several observables that are sensitive to new physics. We explain what type of new physics can produce deviations from the standard model predictions in each of these observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dufresne, J.L.; Bony, S.; Fairhead, L.; Grandpeix, J.Y.; Hourdin, F.; Idelkadi, A.; Musat, I. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD-IPSL), CNRS, 75 - Paris (France); Salas y Melia, D.; Tyteca, S.; Chauvin, F.; Deque, M.; Douville, H.; Gueremy, J.F.; Marquet, P.; Planton, S.; Royer, J.F.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo France Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Denvil, S.; Cadule, P.; Foujols, M.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS, 75 - Paris (France); Arzel, O.; Fichefet, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Inst. d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre; Braconnot, P.; Brockmann, P.; Caubel, A.; Friedlingstein, P.; Marti, O.; Swingedouw, D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Domaine du CNRS, 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France); Krinner, G. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE), CNRS, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Levy, C.; Madec, G. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. d' Oceanographie et Climat (Locean-IPLS), CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)
2006-11-15
In support of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that should appear in early 2007, modelling groups world-wide have performed a huge coordinated exercise of climate change runs for the 20. and 21. centuries. In this paper we present the results of the two French climate models, CNRM and IPSL. In particular we emphasize the progress made since the previous IPCC report and we identify which results are comparable among models and which strongly differ. (authors)
Standardized training in nurse model travel clinics.
Sofarelli, Theresa A; Ricks, Jane H; Anand, Rahul; Hale, Devon C
2011-01-01
International travel plays a significant role in the emergence and redistribution of major human diseases. The importance of travel medicine clinics for preventing morbidity and mortality has been increasingly appreciated, although few studies have thus far examined the management and staff training strategies that result in successful travel-clinic operations. Here, we describe an example of travel-clinic operation and management coordinated through the University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases. This program, which involves eight separate clinics distributed statewide, functions both to provide patient consult and care services, as well as medical provider training and continuing medical education (CME). Initial training, the use of standardized forms and protocols, routine chart reviews and monthly continuing education meetings are the distinguishing attributes of this program. An Infectious Disease team consisting of one medical doctor (MD) and a physician assistant (PA) act as consultants to travel nurses who comprise the majority of clinic staff. Eight clinics distributed throughout the state of Utah serve approximately 6,000 travelers a year. Pre-travel medical services are provided by 11 nurses, including 10 registered nurses (RNs) and 1 licensed practical nurse (LPN). This trained nursing staff receives continuing travel medical education and participate in the training of new providers. All nurses have completed a full training program and 7 of the 11 (64%) of clinic nursing staff serve more than 10 patients a week. Quality assurance measures show that approximately 0.5% of charts reviewed contain a vaccine or prescription error which require patient notification for correction. Using an initial training program, standardized patient intake forms, vaccine and prescription protocols, preprinted prescriptions, and regular CME, highly trained nurses at travel clinics are able to provide standardized pre-travel care to
Standard Model Constraints from the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boonekamp, M.
2007-01-01
With our current knowledge limited by the absence of physics data, I review our expectations from standard processes measurements at the LHC. Focusing on charged and neutral current processes, I illustrate how their measurement will constrain our uncertainties on discovery physics, and give some arguments about our precision goal for the W mass measurement. Detailed analysis reveals that there is no reason to believe we can not measure this fundamental parameter to about 5 MeV. This sets a natural goal of about 500 MeV for the top mass; to decide whether this is realistic requires further investigation. (author)
The thermal evolution of universe: standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nascimento, L.C.S. do.
1975-08-01
A description of the dynamical evolution of the Universe following a model based on the theory of General Relativity is made. The model admits the Cosmological principle,the principle of Equivalence and the Robertson-Walker metric (of which an original derivation is presented). In this model, the universe is considered as a perfect fluid, ideal and symmetric relatively to the number of particles and antiparticles. The thermodynamic relations deriving from these hypothesis are derived, and from them the several eras of the thermal evolution of the universe are established. Finally, the problems arising from certain specific predictions of the model are studied, and the predictions of the abundances of the elements according to nucleosynthesis and the actual behavior of the universe are analysed in detail. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.
2001-01-01
This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects
Tourism potential valorisation of the old town centre in Sombor based on the Hilary Du Cros model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Stamenković
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cultural heritage and tourism are interconnected. As the development of tourism contributes to economic development, it is first necessary to perform an adequate valorisation of cultural heritage, in order to create a suitable tourism product. Old town centres as such, are the objects of different activities aimed at its development and adaptation to new trends. In this paper, focus is on the old town centre in Sombor, with an aim to determine its status in the competitive market of cultural tourism, whether it could be an independent motive that could attract potential tourists, as well as to determine the necessary actions needed to improve quality and competitiveness in order bring them to a higher level. With this in mind, this paper deals with the tourism valorisation of the old town centre based on the model of H. Du Cros.
A 'theory of everything'? [Extending the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, G.G.
1993-01-01
The Standard Model provides us with an amazingly successful theory of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. Despite this, many physicists believe it represents only a step towards understanding the ultimate ''theory of everything''. In this article we describe why the Standard Model is thought to be incomplete and some of the suggestions for its extension. (Author)
Standard Model Higgs boson searches with the ATLAS detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The experimental results on the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson with 1 to 2 fb-1 of proton–proton collision data at s = 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector are presented and discussed. No significant excess of events is found with respect to the expectations from Standard Model processes, and the production ...
Can An Amended Standard Model Account For Cold Dark Matter?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldhaber, Maurice
2004-01-01
It is generally believed that one has to invoke theories beyond the Standard Model to account for cold dark matter particles. However, there may be undiscovered universal interactions that, if added to the Standard Model, would lead to new members of the three generations of elementary fermions that might be candidates for cold dark matter particles
Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, Gautam
2012-01-01
In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zargar, G
2005-10-15
In this thesis, we present a new approach, which consists in directly up-scaling the geostatistical permeability distribution rather than the individual realizations. Practically, filtering techniques based on. the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), allows us to generate geostatistical images, which sample the up-scaled distributions. In the log normal case, an equivalence hydraulic criterion is proposed, allowing to re-estimate the geometric mean of the permeabilities. In the anisotropic case, the effective geometric mean becomes a tensor which depends on the level of filtering used and it can be calculated by a method of renormalisation. Then, the method was generalized for the categorial model. Numerical tests of the method were set up for isotropic, anisotropic and categorial models, which shows good agreement with theory. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zargar, G.
2005-10-15
In this thesis, we present a new approach, which consists in directly up-scaling the geostatistical permeability distribution rather than the individual realizations. Practically, filtering techniques based on. the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), allows us to generate geostatistical images, which sample the up-scaled distributions. In the log normal case, an equivalence hydraulic criterion is proposed, allowing to re-estimate the geometric mean of the permeabilities. In the anisotropic case, the effective geometric mean becomes a tensor which depends on the level of filtering used and it can be calculated by a method of renormalisation. Then, the method was generalized for the categorial model. Numerical tests of the method were set up for isotropic, anisotropic and categorial models, which shows good agreement with theory. (author)
Modeling and Simulation Network Data Standards
2011-09-30
approaches . 2.3. JNAT. JNAT is a Web application that provides connectivity and network analysis capability. JNAT uses propagation models and low-fidelity...COMBATXXI Movement Logger Data Output Dictionary. Field # Geocentric Coordinates (GCC) Heading Geodetic Coordinates (GDC) Heading Universal...B-8 Field # Geocentric Coordinates (GCC) Heading Geodetic Coordinates (GDC) Heading Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Heading
Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
words, now that the gauge symmetry is established with a significant ..... picture, the Higgs is some kind of a composite bound state emerging from a strongly .... (i) Little Higgs vs. composite: Little Higgs models were introduced to solve the little ...
Big bang nucleosynthesis - The standard model and alternatives
Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation of the big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and alternate models are discussed. The standard model is shown to agree with the light element abundances for He-4, H-2, He-3, and Li-7 that are available. Improved observational data from recent LEP collider and SLC results are discussed. The data agree with the standard model in terms of the number of neutrinos, and provide improved information regarding neutron lifetimes. Alternate models are reviewed which describe different scenarios for decaying matter or quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities. The baryonic density relative to the critical density in the alternate models is similar to that of the standard model when they are made to fit the abundances. This reinforces the conclusion that the baryonic density relative to critical density is about 0.06, and also reinforces the need for both nonbaryonic dark matter and dark baryonic matter.
Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka
2015-01-01
The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…
Sporulation in Bacteria: Beyond the Standard Model.
Hutchison, Elizabeth A; Miller, David A; Angert, Esther R
2014-10-01
Endospore formation follows a complex, highly regulated developmental pathway that occurs in a broad range of Firmicutes. Although Bacillus subtilis has served as a powerful model system to study the morphological, biochemical, and genetic determinants of sporulation, fundamental aspects of the program remain mysterious for other genera. For example, it is entirely unknown how most lineages within the Firmicutes regulate entry into sporulation. Additionally, little is known about how the sporulation pathway has evolved novel spore forms and reproductive schemes. Here, we describe endospore and internal offspring development in diverse Firmicutes and outline progress in characterizing these programs. Moreover, comparative genomics studies are identifying highly conserved sporulation genes, and predictions of sporulation potential in new isolates and uncultured bacteria can be made from these data. One surprising outcome of these comparative studies is that core regulatory and some structural aspects of the program appear to be universally conserved. This suggests that a robust and sophisticated developmental framework was already in place in the last common ancestor of all extant Firmicutes that produce internal offspring or endospores. The study of sporulation in model systems beyond B. subtilis will continue to provide key information on the flexibility of the program and provide insights into how changes in this developmental course may confer advantages to cells in diverse environments.
Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nojiri, M.M.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Tsukuba, Graduate U. Adv. Studies /Tokyo U.; Plehn, T.; /Edinburgh U.; Polesello, G.; /INFN, Pavia; Alexander, John M.; /Edinburgh U.; Allanach, B.C.; /Cambridge U.; Barr, Alan J.; /Oxford U.; Benakli, K.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Boudjema, F.; /Annecy, LAPTH; Freitas, A.; /Zurich U.; Gwenlan, C.; /University Coll. London; Jager, S.; /CERN /LPSC, Grenoble
2008-02-01
This collection of studies on new physics at the LHC constitutes the report of the supersymmetry working group at the Workshop 'Physics at TeV Colliders', Les Houches, France, 2007. They cover the wide spectrum of phenomenology in the LHC era, from alternative models and signatures to the extraction of relevant observables, the study of the MSSM parameter space and finally to the interplay of LHC observations with additional data expected on a similar time scale. The special feature of this collection is that while not each of the studies is explicitly performed together by theoretical and experimental LHC physicists, all of them were inspired by and discussed in this particular environment.
Theory of Time beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poliakov, Eugene S.
2008-01-01
A frame of non-uniform time is discussed. A concept of 'flow of time' is presented. The principle of time relativity in analogy with Galilean principle of relativity is set. Equivalence principle is set to state that the outcome of non-uniform time in an inertial frame of reference is equivalent to the outcome of a fictitious gravity force external to the frame of reference. Thus it is flow of time that causes gravity rather than mass. The latter is compared to experimental data achieving precision of up to 0.0003%. It is shown that the law of energy conservation is inapplicable to the frames of non-uniform time. A theoretical model of a physical entity (point mass, photon) travelling in the field of non-uniform time is considered. A generalized law that allows the flow of time to replace classical energy conservation is introduced on the basis of the experiment of Pound and Rebka. It is shown that linear dependence of flow of time on spatial coordinate conforms the inverse square law of universal gravitation and Keplerian mechanics. Momentum is shown to still be conserved
Simulation and Modeling Capability for Standard Modular Hydropower Technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mobley, Miles H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mooneyham, Christian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Whisenant, Matthew J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Rabon, Daniel [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
2017-08-01
Grounded in the stakeholder-validated framework established in Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s SMH Exemplary Design Envelope Specification, this report on Simulation and Modeling Capability for Standard Modular Hydropower (SMH) Technology provides insight into the concepts, use cases, needs, gaps, and challenges associated with modeling and simulating SMH technologies. The SMH concept envisions a network of generation, passage, and foundation modules that achieve environmentally compatible, cost-optimized hydropower using standardization and modularity. The development of standardized modeling approaches and simulation techniques for SMH (as described in this report) will pave the way for reliable, cost-effective methods for technology evaluation, optimization, and verification.
The Standard Model is Natural as Magnetic Gauge Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
matter. The absence of scalars in the electric theory indicates that the associated magnetic theory is free from quadratic divergences. Our novel solution to the Standard Model hierarchy problem leads also to a new insight on the mystery of the observed number of fundamental fermion generations......We suggest that the Standard Model can be viewed as the magnetic dual of a gauge theory featuring only fermionic matter content. We show this by first introducing a Pati-Salam like extension of the Standard Model and then relating it to a possible dual electric theory featuring only fermionic...
Consistent Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model arXiv
Loebbert, Florian; Plefka, Jan
The question of whether classically conformal modifications of the standard model are consistent with experimental obervations has recently been subject to renewed interest. The method of Gildener and Weinberg provides a natural framework for the study of the effective potential of the resulting multi-scalar standard model extensions. This approach relies on the assumption of the ordinary loop hierarchy $\\lambda_\\text{s} \\sim g^2_\\text{g}$ of scalar and gauge couplings. On the other hand, Andreassen, Frost and Schwartz recently argued that in the (single-scalar) standard model, gauge invariant results require the consistent scaling $\\lambda_\\text{s} \\sim g^4_\\text{g}$. In the present paper we contrast these two hierarchy assumptions and illustrate the differences in the phenomenological predictions of minimal conformal extensions of the standard model.
Status of the Standard Model at the LHC start
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altarelli, G.
2008-01-01
I present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First, I will discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.
Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.
2014-04-16
This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.
Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Severijns, N.; Beck, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Caen Univ., CNRS-ENSI, 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire
2006-05-15
We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C{sub A},/C{sub V} = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed. (author)
Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model
Kane, Gordon
2017-01-01
This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.
Overview of the Higgs and Standard Model physics at ATLAS
Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
This talk presents selected aspects of recent physics results from the ATLAS collaboration in the Standard Model and Higgs sectors, with a focus on the recent evidence for the associated production of the Higgs boson and a top quark pair.
The Beyond the Standard Model Working Group: Summary Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2002-08-08
Various theoretical aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model at hadron colliders are discussed. Our focus will be on those issues that most immediately impact the projects pursued as part of the BSM group at this meeting.
Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severijns, N.; Beck, M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.
2006-05-01
We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C A ,/C V = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed. (author)
Army Model and Simulation Standards Report FY98
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
1997-01-01
...) standards efforts as work progresses towards the objective Army M&S environment. This report specifically documents projects approved for funding through the Army Model and Improvement Program (AMIP...
Standard model status (in search of ''new physics'')
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1993-03-01
A perspective on successes and shortcomings of the standard model is given. The complementarity between direct high energy probes of new physics and lower energy searches via precision measurements and rare reactions is described. Several illustrative examples are discussed
CP violation and electroweak baryogenesis in the Standard Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brauner Tomáš
2014-04-01
Full Text Available One of the major unresolved problems in current physics is understanding the origin of the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe. It has become a common lore to claim that the Standard Model of particle physics cannot produce sufficient asymmetry to explain the observation. Our results suggest that this conclusion can be alleviated in the so-called cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario. On the Standard Model side, we continue the program initiated by Smit eight years ago; one derives the effective CP-violating action for the Standard Model bosons and uses the resulting effective theory in numerical simulations. We address a disagreement between two previous computations performed effectively at zero temperature, and demonstrate that it is very important to include temperature effects properly. Our conclusion is that the cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario within the Standard Model is tightly constrained, yet producing enough baryon asymmetry using just known physics still seems possible.
Almost-commutative geometries beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephan, Christoph A
2006-01-01
In Iochum et al (2004 J. Math. Phys. 45 5003), Jureit and Stephan (2005 J. Math. Phys. 46 043512), Schuecker T (2005 Preprint hep-th/0501181) and Jureit et al (2005 J. Math. Phys. 46 072303), a conjecture is presented that almost-commutative geometries, with respect to sensible physical constraints, allow only the standard model of particle physics and electro-strong models as Yang-Mills-Higgs theories. In this paper, a counter-example will be given. The corresponding almost-commutative geometry leads to a Yang-Mills-Higgs model which consists of the standard model of particle physics and two new fermions of opposite electro-magnetic charge. This is the second Yang-Mills-Higgs model within noncommutative geometry, after the standard model, which could be compatible with experiments. Combined to a hydrogen-like composite particle, these new particles provide a novel dark matter candidate
Zidane, Shems
This study is based on data acquired with an airborne multi-altitude sensor on July 2004 during a nonstandard atmospheric event in the region of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. By non-standard atmospheric event we mean an aerosol atmosphere that does not obey the typical monotonic, scale height variation employed in virtually all atmospheric correction codes. The surfaces imaged during this field campaign included a diverse variety of targets : agricultural land, water bodies, urban areas and forests. The multi-altitude approach employed in this campaign allowed us to better understand the altitude dependent influence of the atmosphere over the array of ground targets and thus to better characterize the perturbation induced by a non-standard (smoke) plume. The transformation of the apparent radiance at 3 different altitudes into apparent reflectance and the insertion of the plume optics into an atmospheric correction model permitted an atmospheric correction of the apparent reflectance at the two higher altitudes. The results showed consistency with the apparent validation reflectances derived from the lowest altitude radiances. This approach effectively confirmed the accuracy of our non-standard atmospheric correction approach. This test was particularly relevant at the highest altitude of 3.17 km : the apparent reflectances at this altitude were above most of the plume and therefore represented a good test of our ability to adequately correct for the influence of the perturbation. Standard atmospheric disturbances are obviously taken into account in most atmospheric correction models, but these are based on monotonically decreasing aerosol variations with increasing altitude. When the atmospheric radiation is affected by a plume or a local, non-standard pollution event, one must adapt the existing models to the radiative transfer constraints of the local perturbation and to the reality of the measurable parameters available for ingestion into the model. The
NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview
Blattnig, Steve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.
Implementation of IEC standard models for power system stability studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Wind Energy; Bech, John; Andresen, Bjoern [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)
2012-07-01
This paper presents the implementation of the generic wind turbine generator (WTG) electrical simulation models proposed in the IEC 61400-27 standard which is currently in preparation. A general overview of the different WTG types is given while the main focus is on Type 4B WTG standard model, namely a model for a variable speed wind turbine with full scale power converter WTG including a 2-mass mechanical model. The generic models for fixed and variable speed WTGs models are suitable for fundamental frequency positive sequence response simulations during short events in the power system such as voltage dips. The general configuration of the models is presented and discussed; model implementation in the simulation software platform DIgSILENT PowerFactory is presented in order to illustrate the range of applicability of the generic models under discussion. A typical voltage dip is simulated and results from the basic electrical variables of the WTG are presented and discussed. (orig.)
A standard library for modeling satellite orbits on a microcomputer
Beutel, Kenneth L.
1988-03-01
Introductory students of astrodynamics and the space environment are required to have a fundamental understanding of the kinematic behavior of satellite orbits. This thesis develops a standard library that contains the basic formulas for modeling earth orbiting satellites. This library is used as a basis for implementing a satellite motion simulator that can be used to demonstrate orbital phenomena in the classroom. Surveyed are the equations of orbital elements, coordinate systems and analytic formulas, which are made into a standard method for modeling earth orbiting satellites. The standard library is written in the C programming language and is designed to be highly portable between a variety of computer environments. The simulation draws heavily on the standards established by the library to produce a graphics-based orbit simulation program written for the Apple Macintosh computer. The simulation demonstrates the utility of the standard library functions but, because of its extensive use of the Macintosh user interface, is not portable to other operating systems.
Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model with Veltman Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco
2014-01-01
Using the renormalisation group framework we classify different extensions of the standard model according to their degree of naturality. A new relevant class of perturbative models involving elementary scalars is the one in which the theory simultaneously satisfies the Veltman conditions...... and is conformal at the classical level. We term these extensions perturbative natural conformal (PNC) theories. We show that PNC models are very constrained and thus highly predictive. Among the several PNC examples that we exhibit, we discover a remarkably simple PNC extension of the standard model in which...
Searches for non-Standard Model Higgs bosons
Dumitriu, Ana Elena; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
This presentation focuses on the Searches for non-Standard Model Higgs bosons using 36.1 fb of data collected by the ATLAS experiment. There are several theoretical models with an extended Higgs sector considered: 2 Higgs Doublet Models (2HDM), Supersymmetry (SUSY), which brings along super-partners of the SM particles (+ The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), whose Higgs sector is equivalent to the one of a constrained 2HDM of type II and the next-to MSSM (NMSSM)), General searches and Invisible decaying Higgs boson.
Simple standard problem for the Preisach moving model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morentin, F.J.; Alejos, O.; Francisco, C. de; Munoz, J.M.; Hernandez-Gomez, P.; Torres, C.
2004-01-01
The present work proposes a simple magnetic system as a candidate for a Standard Problem for Preisach-based models. The system consists in a regular square array of magnetic particles totally oriented along the direction of application of an external magnetic field. The behavior of such system was numerically simulated for different values of the interaction between particles and of the standard deviation of the critical fields of the particles. The characteristic parameters of the Preisach moving model were worked out during simulations, i.e., the mean value and the standard deviation of the interaction field. For this system, results reveal that the mean interaction field depends linearly on the system magnetization, as the Preisach moving model predicts. Nevertheless, the standard deviation cannot be considered as independent of the magnetization. In fact, the standard deviation shows a maximum at demagnetization and two minima at magnetization saturation. Furthermore, not all the demagnetization states are equivalent. The plot standard deviation vs. magnetization is a multi-valuated curve when the system undergoes an AC demagnetization procedure. In this way, the standard deviation increases as the system goes from coercivity to the AC demagnetized state
Conformal standard model with an extended scalar sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latosiński, Adam [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lewandowski, Adrian; Meissner, Krzysztof A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Nicolai, Hermann [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-10-26
We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos. The scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3){sub N} that complements the standard U(1){sub B−L} symmetry, and is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction, of order O(10{sup −6}), coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of this enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3){sub N} symmetry are natural Dark Matter candidates with calculable small masses and couplings; and (4) the Majorana Yukawa coupling matrix acquires a form naturally adapted to leptogenesis. The model is made perturbatively consistent up to the Planck scale by imposing the vanishing of quadratic divergences at the Planck scale (‘softly broken conformal symmetry’). Observable consequences of the model occur mainly via the mixing of the new scalars and the standard model Higgs boson.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raynal, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1964-06-15
entraine des relations entre les parametres adoptes. Les limitations de ces parametres sont etudiees specialement dans le cas d'un faisceau de particules de spin 1 ayant un plan de symetrie. Les reactions nucleaires a deux corps sont decrites dans le formalisme de l'helicite. A l'aide des coefficients de polarisation adoptes, on etudie la polarisation dans l'etat final avec etat initial polarise. Un potentiel optique pour deutons pout comprendre une partie scalaire, un couplage L.S et des potentiels tensoriels formes avec la distance du deuton au noyau, son moment angulaire ou son impulsion relative. Des calculs ont ete faits avec les deux premieres sortes de potentiels tensoriels. Plusieurs auteurs ont calcule un potentiel pour deutons a partir du modele optique nucleon oyau. Ces calculs sont repris en considerant l'onde S et l'onde D du deuton. Les differentes parties du potentiel ont ete calculees avec plusieurs fonctions d'onde intrinseque. L'utilisation de potentiels non uniquement scalaires permet d'obtenir de bons accords pour la section efficace avec des rayons nucleaires plus eleves que ceux necessaires avec un potentiel purement central. Les mesures experimentales de polarisation faites a Saclay pour la diffusion elastique de deutons sur le calcium sont en desaccord avec l'existence d'un potentiel tensoriel important ; elles peuvent etre reproduites en utilisant un couplage L.S. independant du potentiel central, mais avec des rayons tres faibles. (auteur)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milica Pantović
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Natural resources are the main basis for tourism development in one region. Given that natural resources are not only aesthetic but also economic value of a certain region, they should be valorized in order to provide good basis for creating valuable tourism product. Rivers as such, are the best representatives that provide possibilities for developing different types of tourism, which could give huge benefits for the region. In this paper, the focus is on the river Danube which is the second largest river in Europe and part of Corridor VII. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and bring this river closer to the population of Serbia. Also, the intention is to show the importance of the Danube, since it flows through Novi Sad and has a great potential for developing nautical and cruising tourism. Investments in this resource would significantly contribute to the development of an integrated tourist product of Novi Sad and Serbia. Bearing all this in mind, this paper will present the results of evaluation of the Danube, based on model of Hilary Du Cros.
Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-09-01
A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt
Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-12-01
A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt
Making Validated Educational Models Central in Preschool Standards.
Schweinhart, Lawrence J.
This paper presents some ideas to preschool educators and policy makers about how to make validated educational models central in standards for preschool education and care programs that are available to all 3- and 4-year-olds. Defining an educational model as a coherent body of program practices, curriculum content, program and child, and teacher…
Introduction to gauge theories and the Standard Model
de Wit, Bernard
1995-01-01
The conceptual basis of gauge theories is introduced to enable the construction of generic models.Spontaneous symmetry breaking is dicussed and its relevance for the renormalization of theories with massive vector field is explained. Subsequently a d standard model. When time permits we will address more practical questions that arise in the evaluation of quantum corrections.
Higher Education Quality Assessment Model: Towards Achieving Educational Quality Standard
Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…
Precision tests of the standard model at LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mele, Barbara; Universita La Sapienza, Rome
1994-01-01
Recent LEP results on electroweak precision measurements are reviewed. Line-shape and asymmetries analysis on the Z 0 peak is described. Then, the consistency of the Standard Model predictions with experimental data and consequent limits on the top mass are discussed. Finally, the possibility of extracting information and constrains on new theoretical models from present data is examined. (author). 20 refs., 5 tabs
Exponential models applied to automated processing of radioimmunoassay standard curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morin, J.F.; Savina, A.; Caroff, J.; Miossec, J.; Legendre, J.M.; Jacolot, G.; Morin, P.P.
1979-01-01
An improved computer processing is described for fitting of radio-immunological standard curves by means of an exponential model on a desk-top calculator. This method has been applied to a variety of radioassays and the results are in accordance with those obtained by more sophisticated models [fr
Dark matter, constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, and lattice QCD.
Giedt, Joel; Thomas, Anthony W; Young, Ross D
2009-11-13
Recent lattice measurements have given accurate estimates of the quark condensates in the proton. We use these results to significantly improve the dark matter predictions in benchmark models within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. The predicted spin-independent cross sections are at least an order of magnitude smaller than previously suggested and our results have significant consequences for dark matter searches.
Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben
1991-01-01
As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ...
When standards become business models: Reinterpreting "failure" in the standardization paradigm
Hawkins, R.; Ballon, P.
2007-01-01
Purpose - This paper aims to explore the question: 'What is the relationship between standards and business models?' and illustrate the conceptual linkage with reference to developments in the mobile communications industry. Design/methodology/approach - A succinct overview of literature on
Standard Model Vacuum Stability and Weyl Consistency Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Krog, Jens
2013-01-01
At high energy the standard model possesses conformal symmetry at the classical level. This is reflected at the quantum level by relations between the different beta functions of the model. These relations are known as the Weyl consistency conditions. We show that it is possible to satisfy them...... order by order in perturbation theory, provided that a suitable coupling constant counting scheme is used. As a direct phenomenological application, we study the stability of the standard model vacuum at high energies and compare with previous computations violating the Weyl consistency conditions....
ATLAS Z Excess in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro
2015-06-01
Recently the ATLAS collaboration reported a 3 sigma excess in the search for the events containing a dilepton pair from a Z boson and large missing transverse energy. Although the excess is not sufficiently significant yet, it is quite tempting to explain this excess by a well-motivated model beyond the standard model. In this paper we study a possibility of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for this excess. Especially, we focus on the MSSM spectrum where the sfermions are heavier than the gauginos and Higgsinos. We show that the excess can be explained by the reasonable MSSM mass spectrum.
Standard model Higgs boson-inflaton and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T. E.; Liu Boyang; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter
2009-01-01
The standard model Higgs boson can serve as the inflaton field of slow roll inflationary models provided it exhibits a large nonminimal coupling with the gravitational scalar curvature. The Higgs boson self interactions and its couplings with a standard model singlet scalar serving as the source of dark matter are then subject to cosmological constraints. These bounds, which can be more stringent than those arising from vacuum stability and perturbative triviality alone, still allow values for the Higgs boson mass which should be accessible at the LHC. As the Higgs boson coupling to the dark matter strengthens, lower values of the Higgs boson mass consistent with the cosmological data are allowed.
Search for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mankel Rainer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available While the existence of a Higgs boson with a mass near 125 GeV has been clearly established, the detailed structure of the entire Higgs sector is yet unclear. Beyond the standard model interpretation, various scenarios for extended Higgs sectors are being considered. Such options include the minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetric extensions (MSSM and NMSSM of the standard model, more generic Two-Higgs Doublet models (2HDM, as well as truly exotic Higgs bosons decaying e.g. into totally invisible final states. This article presents recent results from the CMS experiment.
Precision calculations in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavich, P.
2013-01-01
This dissertation is organized as follows: in the next chapter I will summarize the structure of the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model (SM), namely the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) and the NMSSM (Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model), I will provide a brief overview of different patterns of SUSY (supersymmetry) breaking and discuss some issues on the renormalization of the input parameters that are common to all calculations of higher-order corrections in SUSY models. In chapter 3 I will review and describe computations on the production of MSSM Higgs bosons in gluon fusion. In chapter 4 I will review results on the radiative corrections to the Higgs boson masses in the NMSSM. In chapter 5 I will review the calculation of BR(B → X s γ in the MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV). Finally, in chapter 6 I will briefly summarize the outlook of my future research. (author)
The effective Standard Model after LHC Run I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong
2015-01-01
We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard S,T formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run 1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.
Minimal extension of the standard model scalar sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Connell, Donal; Wise, Mark B.; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
2007-01-01
The minimal extension of the scalar sector of the standard model contains an additional real scalar field with no gauge quantum numbers. Such a field does not couple to the quarks and leptons directly but rather through its mixing with the standard model Higgs field. We examine the phenomenology of this model focusing on the region of parameter space where the new scalar particle is significantly lighter than the usual Higgs scalar and has small mixing with it. In this region of parameter space most of the properties of the additional scalar particle are independent of the details of the scalar potential. Furthermore the properties of the scalar that is mostly the standard model Higgs can be drastically modified since its dominant branching ratio may be to a pair of the new lighter scalars
The Effective Standard Model after LHC Run I
Ellis, John; You, Tevong
2015-01-01
We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard $S,T$ formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run~1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.
The standard model on non-commutative space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calmet, X.; Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Wess, J.
2002-01-01
We consider the standard model on a non-commutative space and expand the action in the non-commutativity parameter θ μν . No new particles are introduced; the structure group is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). We derive the leading order action. At zeroth order the action coincides with the ordinary standard model. At leading order in θ μν we find new vertices which are absent in the standard model on commutative space-time. The most striking features are couplings between quarks, gluons and electroweak bosons and many new vertices in the charged and neutral currents. We find that parity is violated in non-commutative QCD. The Higgs mechanism can be applied. QED is not deformed in the minimal version of the NCSM to the order considered. (orig.)
The standard model on non-commutative space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, X.; Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Wohlgenannt, M. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Wess, J. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2002-03-01
We consider the standard model on a non-commutative space and expand the action in the non-commutativity parameter {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}. No new particles are introduced; the structure group is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). We derive the leading order action. At zeroth order the action coincides with the ordinary standard model. At leading order in {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} we find new vertices which are absent in the standard model on commutative space-time. The most striking features are couplings between quarks, gluons and electroweak bosons and many new vertices in the charged and neutral currents. We find that parity is violated in non-commutative QCD. The Higgs mechanism can be applied. QED is not deformed in the minimal version of the NCSM to the order considered. (orig.)
Solar Luminosity on the Main Sequence, Standard Model and Variations
Ayukov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Gorshkov, A. B.; Oreshina, A. V.
2017-05-01
Our Sun became Main Sequence star 4.6 Gyr ago according Standard Solar Model. At that time solar luminosity was 30% lower than current value. This conclusion is based on assumption that Sun is fueled by thermonuclear reactions. If Earth's albedo and emissivity in infrared are unchanged during Earth history, 2.3 Gyr ago oceans had to be frozen. This contradicts to geological data: there was liquid water 3.6-3.8 Gyr ago on Earth. This problem is known as Faint Young Sun Paradox. We analyze luminosity change in standard solar evolution theory. Increase of mean molecular weight in the central part of the Sun due to conversion of hydrogen to helium leads to gradual increase of luminosity with time on the Main Sequence. We also consider several exotic models: fully mixed Sun; drastic change of pp reaction rate; Sun consisting of hydrogen and helium only. Solar neutrino observations however exclude most non-standard solar models.
Lattice Gauge Theories Within and Beyond the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gelzer, Zechariah John [Iowa U.
2017-01-01
The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing fundamental interactions up to the highest energies currently probed in particle accelerator experiments. However, the Standard Model is incomplete and currently exhibits tension with experimental data for interactions involving $B$~mesons. Consequently, $B$-meson physics is of great interest to both experimentalists and theorists. Experimentalists worldwide are studying the decay and mixing processes of $B$~mesons in particle accelerators. Theorists are working to understand the data by employing lattice gauge theories within and beyond the Standard Model. This work addresses the theoretical effort and is divided into two main parts. In the first part, I present a lattice-QCD calculation of form factors for exclusive semileptonic decays of $B$~mesons that are mediated by both charged currents ($B \\to \\pi \\ell \
Beyond the Standard Model Higgs searches at the LHC
Meridiani, P
2015-01-01
The Run I at the LHC marks the birth of the "Higgs physics", a path which will be followed at its full extent in the future runs of the LHC. Indeed there are two complementary paths to be followed to new physics in the Higgs sector: precision measurements of the Higgs properties (couplings, mass, spin and parity), where new physics can manifest as deviation from the Standard Model, or direct search for processes not foreseen in the Standard Model (Higgs decays not foreseen in the Standard Model, additional scalars which would indicate an extended Higgs sector). The current status of these studies at the LHC is presented, focussing in particular on the direct searches for rare or invisible Higgs decays or for an extended Higgs sector. The results are based on the analysis of the proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy at the LHC by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.
Constraints on Nc in extensions of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shrock, Robert
2007-01-01
We consider a class of theories involving an extension of the standard model gauge group to an a priori arbitrary number of colors, N c , and derive constraints on N c . One motivation for this is the string theory landscape. For two natural classes of embeddings of this N c -extended standard model in a supersymmetric grand unified theory, we show that requiring unbroken electromagnetic gauge invariance, asymptotic freedom of color, and three generations of quarks and leptons forces one to choose N c =3. Similarly, we show that for a theory combining the N c -extended standard model with a one-family SU(2) TC technicolor theory, only the value N c =3 is allowed
Genetic Programming and Standardization in Water Temperature Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maritza Arganis
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An application of Genetic Programming (an evolutionary computational tool without and with standardization data is presented with the aim of modeling the behavior of the water temperature in a river in terms of meteorological variables that are easily measured, to explore their explanatory power and to emphasize the utility of the standardization of variables in order to reduce the effect of those with large variance. Recorded data corresponding to the water temperature behavior at the Ebro River, Spain, are used as analysis case, showing a performance improvement on the developed model when data are standardized. This improvement is reflected in a reduction of the mean square error. Finally, the models obtained in this document were applied to estimate the water temperature in 2004, in order to provide evidence about their applicability to forecasting purposes.
CP violation in the standard model and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buras, A.J.
1984-01-01
The present status of CP violation in the standard six quark model is reviewed and a combined analysis with B-meson decays is presented. The theoretical uncertainties in the analysis are discussed and the resulting KM weak mixing angles, the phase delta and the ratio epsilon'/epsilon are given as functions of Tsub(B), GAMMA(b -> u)/GAMMA(b -> c), msub(t) and the B parameter. For certain ranges of the values of these parameters the standard model is not capable in reproducing the experimental values for epsilon' and epsilon parameters. Anticipating possible difficulties we discuss various alternatives to the standard explanation of CP violation such as horizontal interactions, left-right symmetric models and supersymmetry. CP violation outside the kaon system is also briefly discussed. (orig.)
Constraining new physics with collider measurements of Standard Model signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butterworth, Jonathan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,Gower St., London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Grellscheid, David [IPPP, Department of Physics, Durham University,Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Krämer, Michael; Sarrazin, Björn [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen University,Sommerfeldstr. 16, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Yallup, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,Gower St., London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2017-03-14
A new method providing general consistency constraints for Beyond-the-Standard-Model (BSM) theories, using measurements at particle colliders, is presented. The method, ‘Constraints On New Theories Using Rivet’, CONTUR, exploits the fact that particle-level differential measurements made in fiducial regions of phase-space have a high degree of model-independence. These measurements can therefore be compared to BSM physics implemented in Monte Carlo generators in a very generic way, allowing a wider array of final states to be considered than is typically the case. The CONTUR approach should be seen as complementary to the discovery potential of direct searches, being designed to eliminate inconsistent BSM proposals in a context where many (but perhaps not all) measurements are consistent with the Standard Model. We demonstrate, using a competitive simplified dark matter model, the power of this approach. The CONTUR method is highly scaleable to other models and future measurements.
ATLAS discovery potential of the Standard Model Higgs boson
Weiser, C; The ATLAS collaboration
2009-01-01
The Standard Model of elementary particles is remarkably succesful in describing experimental data. The Higgs mechanism as the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and mass generation, however, has not yet been confirmed experimentally. The search for the Higgs boson is thus one of the most important tasks of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This talk will present an overview of the potential of the ATLAS detector for the discovery of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Different production processes and decay channels -to cover a wide mass range- will be discussed.
ATLAS Discovery Potential of the Standard Model Higgs Boson
Weiser, C; The ATLAS collaboration
2010-01-01
The Standard Model of elementary particles is remarkably succesful in describing experimental data. The Higgs mechanism as the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and mass generation, however, has not yet been confirmed experimentally. The search for the Higgs boson is thus one of the most important tasks of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This talk will present an overview of the potential of the ATLAS detector for the discovery of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Different production processes and decay channels -to cover a wide mass range- will be discussed.
Loop Corrections to Standard Model fields in inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xingang [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas,800 W Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Wang, Yi [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi [Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Harvard University,20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2016-08-08
We calculate 1-loop corrections to the Schwinger-Keldysh propagators of Standard-Model-like fields of spin-0, 1/2, and 1, with all renormalizable interactions during inflation. We pay special attention to the late-time divergences of loop corrections, and show that the divergences can be resummed into finite results in the late-time limit using dynamical renormalization group method. This is our first step toward studying both the Standard Model and new physics in the primordial universe.
Majorana neutrinos in a warped 5D standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, S.J.; Shafi, Q.
2002-05-01
We consider neutrino oscillations and neutrinoless double beta decay in a five dimensional standard model with warped geometry. Although the see-saw mechanism in its simplest form cannot be implemented because of the warped geometry, the bulk standard model neutrinos can acquire the desired (Majorana) masses from dimension five interactions. We discuss how large mixings can arise, why the large mixing angle MSW solution for solar neutrinos is favored, and provide estimates for the mixing angle U e3 . Implications for neutrinoless double beta decay are also discussed. (orig.)
Primordial alchemy: a test of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.
1987-01-01
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis provides the only probe of the early evolution of the Universe constrained by observational data. The standard, hot, big bang model predicts the synthesis of the light elements (D, 3 He, 4 He, 7 Li) in astrophysically interesting abundances during the first few minutes in the evolution of the Universe. A quantitative comparison of the predicted abundances with those observed astronomically confirms the consistency of the standard model and yields valuable constraints on the parameters of cosmology and elementary particle physics. The current status of the comparison between theory and observation will be reviewed and the opportunities for future advances outlined
A CDO option market model on standardized CDS index tranches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorn, Jochen
We provide a market model which implies a dynamic for standardized CDS index tranche spreads. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling emerging options on struc- tured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market...... in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the e ects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options...
Supersymmetric standard model from the heterotic string (II)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.; Hamaguchi, K.; Tokyo Univ.; Lebedev, O.; Ratz, M.
2006-06-01
We describe in detail a Z 6 orbifold compactification of the heterotic E 8 x E 8 string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), two of which are localized at fixed points with local SO(10) symmetry. The model has supersymmetric vacua without exotics at low energies and is consistent with gauge coupling unification. Supersymmetry can be broken via gaugino condensation in the hidden sector. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. Certain vacua with approximate B-L symmetry have attractive phenomenological features. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings. The other Yukawa couplings are suppressed by powers of standard model singlet fields, similarly to the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. (Orig.)
Search for the standard model Higgs boson in $l\
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Dikai [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)
2013-01-01
Humans have always attempted to understand the mystery of Nature, and more recently physicists have established theories to describe the observed phenomena. The most recent theory is a gauge quantum field theory framework, called Standard Model (SM), which proposes a model comprised of elementary matter particles and interaction particles which are fundamental force carriers in the most unified way. The Standard Model contains the internal symmetries of the unitary product group SU(3)_{c} ⓍSU(2)_{L} Ⓧ U(1)_{Y} , describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions; the model also describes how quarks interact with each other through all of these three interactions, how leptons interact with each other through electromagnetic and weak forces, and how force carriers mediate the fundamental interactions.
Higgs detectability in the extended supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamoshita, Jun-ichi
1995-01-01
Higgs detectability at a future linear collider are discussed in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and a supersymmetric standard model with a gauge singlet Higgs field (NMSSM). First, in the MSSM at least one of the neutral scalar Higgs is shown to be detectable irrespective of parameters of the model in a future e + e - linear collider at √s = 300-500 GeV. Next the Higgs sector of the NMSSM is considered, since the lightest Higgs boson can be singlet dominated and therefore decouple from Z 0 boson it is important to consider the production of heavier Higgses. It is shown that also in this case at least one of the neutral scalar Higgs will be detectable in a future linear collider. We extend the analysis and show that the same is true even if three singlets are included. Thus the detectability of these Higgs bosons of these models is guaranteed. (author)
Astrophysical neutrinos flavored with beyond the Standard Model physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, Rasmus W.; Ackermann, Markus; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Lechner, Lukas [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Dept. of Physics; Kowalski, Marek [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2017-07-15
We systematically study the allowed parameter space for the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos measured at Earth, including beyond the Standard Model theories at production, during propagation, and at detection. One motivation is to illustrate the discrimination power of the next-generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2. We identify several examples that lead to potential deviations from the standard neutrino mixing expectation such as significant sterile neutrino production at the source, effective operators modifying the neutrino propagation at high energies, dark matter interactions in neutrino propagation, or non-standard interactions in Earth matter. IceCube-Gen2 can exclude about 90% of the allowed parameter space in these cases, and hence will allow to efficiently test and discriminate models. More detailed information can be obtained from additional observables such as the energy-dependence of the effect, fraction of electron antineutrinos at the Glashow resonance, or number of tau neutrino events.
Non-perturbative effective interactions in the standard model
Arbuzov, Boris A
2014-01-01
This monograph is devoted to the nonperturbative dynamics in the Standard Model (SM), the basic theory of all, but gravity, fundamental interactions in nature. The Standard Model is devided into two parts: the Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electro-weak theory (EWT) are well-defined renormalizable theories in which the perturbation theory is valid. However, for the adequate description of the real physics nonperturbative effects are inevitable. This book describes how these nonperturbative effects may be obtained in the framework of spontaneous generation of effective interactions. The well-known example of such effective interaction is provided by the famous Nambu--Jona-Lasinio effective interaction. Also a spontaneous generation of this interaction in the framework of QCD is described and applied to the method for other effective interactions in QCD and EWT. The method is based on N.N. Bogoliubov conception of compensation equations. As a result we then describe the principle feathures of the Standard...
Astrophysical neutrinos flavored with beyond the Standard Model physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmussen, Rasmus W.; Ackermann, Markus; Winter, Walter; Lechner, Lukas; Kowalski, Marek; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin
2017-07-01
We systematically study the allowed parameter space for the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos measured at Earth, including beyond the Standard Model theories at production, during propagation, and at detection. One motivation is to illustrate the discrimination power of the next-generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2. We identify several examples that lead to potential deviations from the standard neutrino mixing expectation such as significant sterile neutrino production at the source, effective operators modifying the neutrino propagation at high energies, dark matter interactions in neutrino propagation, or non-standard interactions in Earth matter. IceCube-Gen2 can exclude about 90% of the allowed parameter space in these cases, and hence will allow to efficiently test and discriminate models. More detailed information can be obtained from additional observables such as the energy-dependence of the effect, fraction of electron antineutrinos at the Glashow resonance, or number of tau neutrino events.
ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure
Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”
Challenging the Standard Model with the muon g − 2
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The discrepancy between experiment and the Standard Model prediction of ... The measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon aµ = (g−2)/2 ( ... to evaluate the leading-order hadronic term (see [3,4] for recent reviews). .... update of their previous analysis and a new preliminary one based on data collected.
Radiation therapy: model standards for determination of need
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagasse, L.G.; Devins, T.B.
1982-03-01
Contents: Health planning process; Health care requirements (model for projecting need for megavoltage radiation therapy); Operational objectives (manpower, megavoltage therapy and treatment planning equipment, support services, management and evaluation of patient care, organization and administration); Compliance with other standards imposed by law; Financial feasibility and capability; Reasonableness of expenditures and costs; Relative merit; Environmental impact
Searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at the Tevatron
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Publications ... Beyond Standard Model Physics Volume 79 Issue 4 October 2012 pp 703-717 ... a centre-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV that the CDF and DO Collaborations have scrutinized looking for new physics in a wide range of final states.
Precision tests of quantum chromodynamics and the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.
1995-06-01
The authors discuss three topics relevant to testing the Standard Model to high precision: commensurate scale relations, which relate observables to each other in perturbation theory without renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity, the relationship of compositeness to anomalous moments, and new methods for measuring the anomalous magnetic and quadrupole moments of the W and Z
Mathematical Modeling, Sense Making, and the Common Core State Standards
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
2013-01-01
On October 14, 2013 the Mathematics Education Department at Teachers College hosted a full-day conference focused on the Common Core Standards Mathematical Modeling requirements to be implemented in September 2014 and in honor of Professor Henry Pollak's 25 years of service to the school. This article is adapted from my talk at this conference…
Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on about 1 fb-1 of data is presented.
Charged and neutral minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics pp. 759–763. Charged and neutral minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs boson decays and measurement of tan β at the compact linear collider. E CONIAVITIS and A FERRARI∗. Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden. ∗E-mail: ferrari@tsl.uu.se. Abstract.
Search for Higgs boson in beyond standard model scenarios
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The principal physics motivation of the LHC experiments is to search for the Higgs boson and to probe the physics of TeV energy scale. Potential of discovery for Higgs bosons in various scenarios beyond standard model have been estimated for both CMS and ATLAS experiments through detailed detector simulations.
Land administration domain model is an ISO standard now
Lemmen, Christiaan; van Oosterom, Peter; Uitermark, Harry; de Zeeuw, Kees
2013-01-01
A group of land administration professionals initiated the development of a data model that facilitates the quick and efficient set-up of land registrations. Just like social issues benefit from proper land administration, land administration systems themselves benefit from proper data standards. In
The Dawn of physics beyond the standard model
Kane, Gordon
2003-01-01
"The Standard Model of particle physics is at a pivotal moment in its history: it is both at the height of its success and on the verge of being surpassed [...] A new era in particle physics could soon be heralded by the detection of supersymmetric particles at the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill." (8 pages)
Renormalization of seesaw neutrino masses in the standard model ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the neutrino-mass-operator in the standard model with two-Higgs doublets, and also the QCD–QED ... data of atmospheric muon deficits, thereby suggesting a large mixing angle with ЖС¾. Ь ~ ... One method consists of running the gauge.
Systematics of quark mass matrices in the standard electroweak model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frampton, P.H.; Jarlskog, C.; Stockholm Univ.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the quark mass matrices in the standard electroweak model satisfy the empirical relation M = M' + O(lambda 2 ), where M(M') refers to the mass matrix of the charge 2/3 (-1/3) quarks normalized to the largest eigenvalue, msub(t) (msub(b)), and lambda = Vsub(us) approx.= 0.22. (orig.)
Particle dark matter from physics beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matchev, Konstantin
2004-01-01
In this talk I contrast three different particle dark matter candidates, all motivated by new physics beyond the Standard Model: supersymmetric dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and scalar dark matter. I then discuss the prospects for their discovery and identification in both direct detection as well as collider experiments
Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.
Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R
2015-10-01
Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Innovation Process Planning Model in the Bpmn Standard
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jurczyk-Bunkowska Magdalena
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the relations in the innovation process planning model. The relations argued here guarantee the stable and reliable way to achieve the result in the form of an increased competitiveness by a professionally directed development of the company. The manager needs to specify the effect while initiating the realisation of the process, has to be achieved this by the system of indirect goals. The original model proposed here shows the standard of dependence between the plans of the fragments of the innovation process which make up for achieving its final goal. The relation in the present article was shown by using the standard Business Process Model and Notation. This enabled the specification of interrelations between the decision levels at which subsequent fragments of the innovation process are planned. This gives the possibility of a better coordination of the process, reducing the time needed for the achievement of its effect. The model has been compiled on the basis of the practises followed in Polish companies. It is not, however, the reflection of these practises, but rather an idealised standard of proceedings which aims at improving the effectiveness of the management of innovations on the operational level. The model shown could be the basis of the creation of systems supporting the decision making, supporting the knowledge management or those supporting the communication in the innovation processes.
Neutron electric dipole moment and extension of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshimo, Noriyuki
2001-01-01
A nonvanishing value for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is a prominent signature for CP violation. The EDM induced by the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism of the standard model (SM) has a small magnitude and its detection will be very difficult. However, since baryon asymmetry of the universe cannot be accounted for by the SM, there should exist some other source of CP violation, which may generate a large magnitude for the EDM. One of the most hopeful candidates for physics beyond the SM is the supersymmetric standard model, which contains such sources of CP violation. This model suggests that the EDM has a magnitude not much smaller than the present experimental bounds. Progress in measuring the EDM provides very interesting information about extension of the SM. (author)
Distinguishing standard model extensions using monotop chirality at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Flórez, Andrés [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia); Gao, Yu [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kamon, Teruki [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kolev, Nikolay [Department of Physics, University of Regina,SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Mueller, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Segura, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia)
2016-12-13
We present two minimal extensions of the standard model, each giving rise to baryogenesis. They include heavy color-triplet scalars interacting with a light Majorana fermion that can be the dark matter (DM) candidate. The electroweak charges of the new scalars govern their couplings to quarks of different chirality, which leads to different collider signals. These models predict monotop events at the LHC and the energy spectrum of decay products of highly polarized top quarks can be used to establish the chiral nature of the interactions involving the heavy scalars and the DM. Detailed simulation of signal and standard model background events is performed, showing that top quark chirality can be distinguished in hadronic and leptonic decays of the top quarks.
Overview of the Standard Model Measurements with the ATLAS Detector
Liu, Yanwen; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The ATLAS Collaboration is engaged in precision measurement of fundamental Standard Model parameters, such as the W boson mass, the weak-mixing angle or the strong coupling constant. In addition, the production cross-sections of a large variety of final states involving high energetic jets, photons as well as single and multi vector bosons are measured multi differentially at several center of mass energies. This allows to test perturbative QCD calculations to highest precision. In addition, these measurements allow also to test models beyond the SM, e.g. those leading to anomalous gauge couplings. In this talk, we give a broad overview of the Standard Model measurement campaign of the ATLAS collaboration, where selected topics will be discussed in more detail.
Yukawa couplings in Superstring derived Standard-like models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1991-01-01
I discuss Yukawa couplings in Standard-like models which are derived from Superstring in the free fermionic formulation. I introduce new notation for the construction of these models. I show how choice of boundary conditions selects a trilevel Yukawa coupling either for +2/3 charged quark or for -1/3 charged quark. I prove this selection rule. I make the conjecture that in this class of standard-like models a possible connection may exist between the requirements of F and D flatness at the string level and the heaviness of the top quark relative to lighter quarks and leptons. I discuss how the choice of boundary conditions determines the non vanishing mass terms for quartic order terms. I discuss the implication on the mass of the top quark. (author)
Our sun. I. The standard model: Successes and failures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sackmann, I.J.; Boothroyd, A.I.; Fowler, W.A.
1990-01-01
The results of computing a number of standard solar models are reported. A presolar helium content of Y = 0.278 is obtained, and a Cl-37 capture rate of 7.7 SNUs, consistently several times the observed rate of 2.1 SNUs, is determined. Thus, the solar neutrino problem remains. The solar Z value is determined primarily by the observed Z/X ratio and is affected very little by differences in solar models. Even large changes in the low-temperature molecular opacities have no effect on Y, nor even on conditions at the base of the convective envelope. Large molecular opacities do cause a large increase in the mixing-length parameter alpha but do not cause the convective envelope to reach deeper. The temperature remains too low for lithium burning, and there is no surface lithium depletion; thus, the lithium problem of the standard solar model remains. 103 refs
Stable Asymptotically Free Extensions (SAFEs) of the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Chen
2015-01-01
We consider possible extensions of the standard model that are not only completely asymptotically free, but are such that the UV fixed point is completely UV attractive. All couplings flow towards a set of fixed ratios in the UV. Motivated by low scale unification, semi-simple gauge groups with elementary scalars in various representations are explored. The simplest model is a version of the Pati-Salam model. The Higgs boson is truly elementary but dynamical symmetry breaking from strong interactions may be needed at the unification scale. A hierarchy problem, much reduced from grand unified theories, is still in need of a solution.
Quantum gravity and Standard-Model-like fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Lippoldt, Stefan
2017-01-01
We discover that chiral symmetry does not act as an infrared attractor of the renormalization group flow under the impact of quantum gravity fluctuations. Thus, observationally viable quantum gravity models must respect chiral symmetry. In our truncation, asymptotically safe gravity does, as a chiral fixed point exists. A second non-chiral fixed point with massive fermions provides a template for models with dark matter. This fixed point disappears for more than 10 fermions, suggesting that an asymptotically safe ultraviolet completion for the standard model plus gravity enforces chiral symmetry.
From the standard model to composite quarks and leptons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harari, H.
1981-01-01
An updated version of lectures delivered at the SLAC Summer Institute, 1980 is presented. Part I describes the present status of the standard model and gives a short survey of topics such as extensions of the electroweak group, grand unification, the generation puzzle and the connection between quark masses and generalized Cabibbo angles. Part II is devoted to the possibility that quarks and leptons are composite. The general theoretical difficulties are described and several published models are reviewed, including the dynamical rishon model. (H.K.)
On light dilaton extensions of the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megías, Eugenio; Pujolàs, Oriol; Quirós, Mariano
2016-01-01
We discuss the presence of a light dilaton in Conformal Field Theories deformed by a single scalar operator, in the holographic realization consisting of confining Renormalization Group flows. Then, we apply this formalism to study the extension of the Standard Model with a light dilaton in a 5D warped model. We study the spectrum of scalar and vector perturbations, compare the model predictions with Electroweak Precision Tests and find the corresponding bounds for the lightest modes. Finally, we analyze the possibility that the Higgs resonance found at the LHC be a dilaton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chihi, H.
1997-05-12
This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.
Searches for Physics Beyond Standard Model at LHC with ATLAS
Soni, N; The ATLAS collaboration
2013-01-01
This contribution summarises some of the recent results on the searches for physics beyond the Standard Model using the pp-collision data collected at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with ATLAS detector at centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s} = 8 TeV. The search for supersymmetry (SUSY) is carried out in a large variety of production modes such as strong production of squarks and gluinos, weak production of sleptons and gauginos os production of massive long-lived particles through R-parity violation. No excess above the Standard Model background expectation is observed and exclusion limits are derived on the production of new physics. The results are interpreted as lower limits on sparticle masses in SUSY breaking scenarios. Searches for new exotic phenomena such as dark matter, large extra dimensions and black holes are also performed at ATLAS. As in the case of SUSY searches, no new exotic phenomena is observed and results are presented as upper limits on event yields from non-Standard-Model processes in a model i...
Simple standard model extension by heavy charged scalar
Boos, E.; Volobuev, I.
2018-05-01
We consider a Standard Model (SM) extension by a heavy charged scalar gauged only under the UY(1 ) weak hypercharge gauge group. Such an extension, being gauge invariant with respect to the SM gauge group, is a simple special case of the well-known Zee model. Since the interactions of the charged scalar with the Standard Model fermions turn out to be significantly suppressed compared to the Standard Model interactions, the charged scalar provides an example of a long-lived charged particle being interesting to search for at the LHC. We present the pair and single production cross sections of the charged scalar at different colliders and the possible decay widths for various boson masses. It is shown that the current ATLAS and CMS searches at 8 and 13 TeV collision energy lead to the bounds on the scalar boson mass of about 300-320 GeV. The limits are expected to be much larger for higher collision energies and, assuming 15 a b-1 integrated luminosity, reach about 2.7 TeV at future 27 TeV LHC thus covering the most interesting mass region.
SLHAplus: A library for implementing extensions of the standard model
Bélanger, G.; Christensen, Neil D.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.
2011-03-01
We provide a library to facilitate the implementation of new models in codes such as matrix element and event generators or codes for computing dark matter observables. The library contains an SLHA reader routine as well as diagonalisation routines. This library is available in CalcHEP and micrOMEGAs. The implementation of models based on this library is supported by LanHEP and FeynRules. Program summaryProgram title: SLHAplus_1.3 Catalogue identifier: AEHX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6283 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 119 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: IBM PC, MAC Operating system: UNIX (Linux, Darwin, Cygwin) RAM: 2000 MB Classification: 11.1 Nature of problem: Implementation of extensions of the standard model in matrix element and event generators and codes for dark matter observables. Solution method: For generic extensions of the standard model we provide routines for reading files that adopt the standard format of the SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA) file. The procedure has been generalized to take into account an arbitrary number of blocks so that the reader can be used in generic models including non-supersymmetric ones. The library also contains routines to diagonalize real and complex mass matrices with either unitary or bi-unitary transformations as well as routines for evaluating the running strong coupling constant, running quark masses and effective quark masses. Running time: 0.001 sec
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ren
Full Text Available Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that
Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models
Mai, Paul Martin
2016-04-06
In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.
Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model
,
2010-01-01
This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and DØ at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-$Q^2$ interactions, and used to predict results in low-$Q^2$ experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Møller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2009 are new combinations of results on the width of the W boson and the mass of the top quark.
Lorentz-violating theories in the standard model extension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira Junior, Manoel Messias [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: Lorentz-violating theories have been an issue of permanent interest in the latest years. Many of these investigations are developed under the theoretical framework of the Standard Model Extension (SME), a broad extension of the minimal Standard Model embracing Lorentz-violating (LV) terms, generated as vacuum expectation values of tensor quantities, in all sectors of interaction. In this talk, we comment on some general properties of the SME, concerning mainly the gauge and fermion sectors, focusing in new phenomena induced by Lorentz violation. The LV terms are usually separated in accordance with the behavior under discrete symmetries, being classified as CPT-odd or CPT-even, parity-even or parity-odd. We follow this classification scheme discussing some features and new properties of the CPT-even and CPT-odd parts of the gauge and fermion sectors. We finalize presenting some upper bounds imposed on the corresponding LV coefficients. (author)
Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson at LEP
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Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; ONeale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.
2003-01-01
The four LEP collaborations, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, have collected a total of 2461 pb-1 of e+e- collision data at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The data are used to search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. The search results of the four collaborations are combined and examined in a likelihood test for their consistency with two hypotheses: the background hypothesis and the signal plus background hypothesis. The corresponding confidences have been computed as functions of the hypothetical Higgs boson mass. A lower bound of 114.4 GeV/c2 is established, at the 95% confidence level, on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. The LEP data are also used to set upper bounds on the HZZ coupling for various assumptions concerning the decay of the Higgs boson.
Noncommutative geometry and its application to the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinetti, Pierre [Georg-August Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)
2009-07-01
We give an overview of the description of the standard model of particle physics minimally coupled to gravity within the framework of noncommutative geometry. Especially we study in detail the metric structure of spacetime that emerges from the spectral triple recently proposed by Chamseddine, Connes and Marcolli. Within this framework points of spacetime acquire an internal structure inherited from the gauge group of the standard model. A distance is defined on this generalized spacetime which is fully encoded by the Yang-Mills gauge fields together with the Higgs field. We focus on some explicit examples, underlying the link between this distance and other distances well known by physicists and mathematicians, such has the Carnot-Caratheodory horizontal distance or the Monge-Kantorovitch transport distance.
Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models
Mai, Paul Martin; Shearer, Peter; Ampuero, Jean‐Paul; Lay, Thorne
2016-01-01
In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.
Standard model fermions and K(E10
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Axel Kleinschmidt
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In recent work [1] it was shown how to rectify Gell-Mann's proposal for identifying the 48 quarks and leptons of the Standard Model with the 48 spin-12 fermions of maximal SO(8 gauged supergravity remaining after the removal of eight Goldstinos, by deforming the residual U(1 symmetry at the SU(3 × U(1 stationary point of N=8 supergravity, so as to also achieve agreement of the electric charge assignments. In this Letter we show that the required deformation, while not in SU(8, does belong to K(E10, the ‘maximal compact’ subgroup of E10 which is a possible candidate symmetry underlying M theory. The incorporation of infinite-dimensional Kac–Moody symmetries of hyperbolic type, apparently unavoidable for the present scheme to work, opens up completely new perspectives on embedding Standard Model physics into a Planck scale theory of quantum gravity.
Challenges to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.
1993-01-01
Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides a unique probe of the early evolution of the Universe and a crucial test of the consistency of the standard hot Big Bang cosmological model. Although the primordial abundances of 2 H, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li inferred from current observational data are in agreement with those predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recent analysis has severely restricted the consistent range for the nucleon-to-photon ratio: 3.7 ≤ η 10 ≤ 4.0. Increased accuracy in the estimate of primordial 4 he and observations of Be and B in Pop II stars are offering new challenges to the standard model and suggest that no new light particles may be allowed (N ν BBN ≤ 3.0, where N ν is the number of equivalent light neutrinos). 23 refs
Asymptotically Safe Standard Model Extensions arXiv
Pelaggi, Giulio Maria; Salvio, Alberto; Sannino, Francesco; Smirnov, Juri; Strumia, Alessandro
We consider theories with a large number NF of charged fermions and compute the renormalisation group equations for the gauge, Yukawa and quartic couplings resummed at leading order in NF. We construct extensions of the Standard Model where SU(2) and/or SU(3) are asymptotically safe. When the same procedure is applied to the Abelian U(1) factor, we find that the Higgs quartic can not be made asymptotically safe and stay perturbative at the same time.
Quantum Gravity and Maximum Attainable Velocities in the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, Jorge
2007-01-01
A main difficulty in the quantization of the gravitational field is the lack of experiments that discriminate among the theories proposed to quantize gravity. Recently we showed that the Standard Model(SM) itself contains tiny Lorentz invariance violation(LIV) terms coming from QG. All terms depend on one arbitrary parameter α that set the scale of QG effects. In this talk we review the LIV for mesons nucleons and leptons and apply it to study several effects, including the GZK anomaly
Framework for an asymptotically safe standard model via dynamical breaking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abel, Steven; Sannino, Francesco
2017-01-01
We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters...... with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings....
Standard model parameters and the search for new physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1988-04-01
In these lectures, my aim is to present an up-to-date status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows: I discuss the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also briefly commented on. In addition, because these lectures are intended for students and thus somewhat pedagogical, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple computational example that employs that technique. Next, I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, supersymmetry, extra Z/prime/ bosons, and compositeness are also discussed. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/ from experiment. The results presented there are based on a recently completed global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, and implications for grand unified theories (GUTS). The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses and mixings. I have chosen to concentrate on oscillations, the Mikheyev-Smirnov- Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and electromagnetic properties of neutrinos. On the latter topic, I will describe some recent work on resonant spin-flavor precession. Finally, I conclude with a prospectus on hopes for the future. 76 refs
Naturalness of CP Violation in the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen; Pope, C. N.; Turok, Neil
2009-01-01
We construct a natural measure on the space of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices in the standard model, assuming the fermion mass matrices are randomly selected from a distribution which incorporates the observed quark mass hierarchy. This measure allows us to assess the likelihood of Jarlskog's CP violation parameter J taking its observed value J≅3x10 -5 . We find that the observed value, while well below the mathematically allowed maximum, is in fact typical once the observed quark masses are assumed
DPF'96: the triumph of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, S.
1996-01-01
I summarize some of the highlights of the 1996 DPF meeting, paying particular attention to new measurements of the W, Z, and top quark masses. Precision electroweak measurements from LEP are discussed with emphasis on recent measurements of R b and values of the coupling constants α(M Z 2 ) and α s (M Z 2 ) are presented. Taken as a whole, the data are in spectacular agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model
Standard model physics with the ATLAS early data
Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel
2006-01-01
The Standard Model, despite its open questions, has proved its consistency and predictive power to very high accuracy within the currently available energy reach. LHC, with its high CM energy and luminosity, will give us insight into new processes, possibly showing evidence of “new physics”. Excellent understanding of the SM processes will also be a key to discriminate against any new phenomena. Prospects of selected SM measurements with the ATLAS detector using early LHC luminosity are presented.
Gravity, CPT, and the standard-model extension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tasson, Jay D., E-mail: tasson1@stolaf.edu [St. Olaf College (United States)
2015-08-15
Exotic atoms provide unique opportunities to search for new physics. The search for CPT and Lorentz violation in the context of the general field-theory based framework of the gravitational Standard-Model Extension (SME) is one such opportunity. This work summarizes the implications of Lorentz and CPT violation for gravitational experiments with antiatoms and atoms containing higher-generation matter as well as recent nongravitational proposals to test CPT and Lorentz symmetry with muons and muonic systems.
LEP asymmetries and fits of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietrzyk, B.
1994-01-01
The lepton and quark asymmetries measured at LEP are presented. The results of the Standard Model fits to the electroweak data presented at this conference are given. The top mass obtained from the fit to the LEP data is 172 -14-20 +13+18 GeV; it is 177 -11-19 +11+18 when also the collider, ν and A LR data are included. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
Observations in particle physics: from two neutrinos to standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lederman, L.M.
1990-01-01
Experiments, which have made their contribution to creation of the standard model, are discussed. Results of observations on the following concepts: long-lived neutral V-particles, violation of preservation of parity and charge invariance in meson decays, reaction with high-energy neutrino and existence of neutrino of two types, partons and dynamic quarks, dimuon resonance at 9.5 GeV in 400 GeV-proton-nucleus collisions, are considered
The Standard Model and the neutron beta-decay
Abele, H
2000-01-01
This article reviews the relationship between the observables in neutron beta-decay and the accepted modern theory of particle physics known as the Standard Model. Recent neutron-decay measurements of various mixed American-British-French-German-Russian collaborations try to shed light on the following topics: the coupling strength of charged weak currents, the universality of the electroweak interaction and the origin of parity violation.
Standard model fermion hierarchies with multiple Higgs doublets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solaguren-Beascoa Negre, Ana
2016-01-01
The hierarchies between the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixing angles and the origin of neutrino masses are two of the biggest mysteries in particle physics. We extend the SM with new Higgs doublets to solve these issues. The lightest fermion masses and the mixing angles are generated through radiative effects, correctly reproducing the hierarchy pattern. Neutrino masses are generated in the see-saw mechanism.
arXiv Asymptotically Safe Standard Model Extensions?
Pelaggi, Giulio Maria; Salvio, Alberto; Sannino, Francesco; Smirnov, Juri; Strumia, Alessandro
2018-05-15
We consider theories with a large number NF of charged fermions and compute the renormalization group equations for the gauge, Yukawa and quartic couplings resummed at leading order in 1/NF. We construct extensions of the standard model where SU(2) and/or SU(3) are asymptotically safe. When the same procedure is applied to the Abelian U(1) factor, we find that the Higgs quartic can not be made asymptotically safe and stay perturbative at the same time.
Exploring and testing the Standard Model and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, G.; Cooper, F.; Ginsparg, P.; Habib, S.; Gupta, R.; Mottola, E.; Nieto, M.; Mattis, M.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to extend and develop the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics in several different directions. This includes various aspects of the strong nuclear interactions in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), electroweak interactions and the origin of baryon asymmetry in the universe, as well as gravitational physics
Non-perturbative effective interactions in the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arbuzov, Boris A. [Moscow Lomonosov State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics
2014-07-01
This monograph is devoted to the nonperturbative dynamics in the Standard Model (SM), the basic theory of allfundamental interactions in natureexcept gravity. The Standard Model is divided into two parts: the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the electro-weak theory (EWT) are well-defined renormalizable theories in which the perturbation theory is valid. However, for the adequate description of the real physics nonperturbative effects are inevitable. This book describes how these nonperturbative effects may be obtained in the framework of spontaneous generation of effective interactions. The well-known example of such effective interaction is provided by the famous Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective interaction. Also a spontaneous generation of this interaction in the framework of QCD is described and applied to the method for other effective interactions in QCD and EWT. The method is based on N.N. Bogolyubov's conception of compensation equations. As a result we then describe the principal features of the Standard Model, e.g. Higgs sector, and significant nonperturbative effects including recent results obtained at LHC and TEVATRON.
Review of Current Standard Model Results in ATLAS
Brandt, Gerhard; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
This talk highlights results selected from the Standard Model research programme of the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider. Results using data from $p-p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7,8$~TeV in LHC Run-1 as well as results using data at $\\sqrt{s}=13$~TeV in LHC Run-2 are covered. The status of cross section measurements from soft QCD processes and jet production as well as photon production are presented. The presentation extends to vector boson production with associated jets. Precision measurements of the production of $W$ and $Z$ bosons, including a first measurement of the mass of the $W$ bosons, $m_W$, are discussed. The programme to measure electroweak processes with di-boson and tri-boson final states is outlined. All presented measurements are compatible with Standard Model descriptions and allow to further constrain it. In addition they allow to probe new physics which would manifest through extra gauge couplings, or Standard Model gauge couplings deviating from their predicted value.
Domain walls in the extensions of the Standard Model
Krajewski, Tomasz; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek; Olszewski, Paweł
2018-05-01
Our main interest is the evolution of domain walls of the Higgs field in the early Universe. The aim of this paper is to understand how dynamics of Higgs domain walls could be influenced by yet unknown interactions from beyond the Standard Model. We assume that the Standard Model is valid up to certain, high, energy scale Λ and use the framework of the effective field theory to describe physics below that scale. Performing numerical simulations with different values of the scale Λ we are able to extend our previous analysis [1]. Our recent numerical simulations show that evolution of Higgs domain walls is rather insensitive to interactions beyond the Standard Model as long as masses of new particles are grater than 1012 GeV. For lower values of Λ the RG improved effective potential is strongly modified at field strengths crucial to the evolution of domain walls. However, we find that even for low values of Λ, Higgs domain walls decayed shortly after their formation for generic initial conditions. On the other hand, in simulations with specifically chosen initial conditions Higgs domain walls can live longer and enter the scaling regime. We also determine the energy spectrum of gravitational waves produced by decaying domain walls of the Higgs field. For generic initial field configurations the amplitude of the signal is too small to be observed in planned detectors.
Impersonating the Standard Model Higgs boson: alignment without decoupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carena, Marcela; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.
2014-01-01
In models with an extended Higgs sector there exists an alignment limit, in which the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mimics the Standard Model Higgs. The alignment limit is commonly associated with the decoupling limit, where all non-standard scalars are significantly heavier than the Z boson. However, alignment can occur irrespective of the mass scale of the rest of the Higgs sector. In this work we discuss the general conditions that lead to “alignment without decoupling”, therefore allowing for the existence of additional non-standard Higgs bosons at the weak scale. The values of tan β for which this happens are derived in terms of the effective Higgs quartic couplings in general two-Higgs-doublet models as well as in supersymmetric theories, including the MSSM and the NMSSM. Moreover, we study the information encoded in the variations of the SM Higgs-fermion couplings to explore regions in the m A −tan β parameter space
Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocek, Martin
2007-01-01
When I was asked to review Michael Dine's new book, 'Supersymmetry and String Theory', I was pleased to have a chance to read a book by such an established authority on how string theory might become testable. The book is most useful as a list of current topics of interest in modern theoretical physics. It gives a succinct summary of a huge variety of subjects, including the standard model, symmetry, Yang-Mills theory, quantization of gauge theories, the phenomenology of the standard model, the renormalization group, lattice gauge theory, effective field theories, anomalies, instantons, solitons, monopoles, dualities, technicolor, supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric standard model, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, extended supersymmetry, Seiberg-Witten theory, general relativity, cosmology, inflation, bosonic string theory, the superstring, the heterotic string, string compactifications, the quintic, string dualities, large extra dimensions, and, in the appendices, Goldstone's theorem, path integrals, and exact beta-functions in supersymmetric gauge theories. Its breadth is both its strength and its weakness: it is not (and could not possibly be) either a definitive reference for experts, where the details of thorny technical issues are carefully explored, or a textbook for graduate students, with detailed pedagogical expositions. As such, it complements rather than replaces the much narrower and more focussed String Theory I and II volumes by Polchinski, with their deep insights, as well the two older volumes by Green, Schwarz, and Witten, which develop string theory pedagogically. (book review)
Stress-testing the Standard Model at the LHC
2016-01-01
With the high-energy run of the LHC now underway, and clear manifestations of beyond-Standard-Model physics not yet seen in data from the previous run, the search for new physics at the LHC may be a quest for small deviations with big consequences. If clear signals are present, precise predictions and measurements will again be crucial for extracting the maximum information from the data, as in the case of the Higgs boson. Precision will therefore remain a key theme for particle physics research in the coming years. The conference will provide a forum for experimentalists and theorists to identify the challenges and refine the tools for high-precision tests of the Standard Model and searches for signals of new physics at Run II of the LHC. Topics to be discussed include: pinning down Standard Model corrections to key LHC processes; combining fixed-order QCD calculations with all-order resummations and parton showers; new developments in jet physics concerning jet substructure, associated jets and boosted je...
No Evidence for Extensions to the Standard Cosmological Model
Heavens, Alan; Fantaye, Yabebal; Sellentin, Elena; Eggers, Hans; Hosenie, Zafiirah; Kroon, Steve; Mootoovaloo, Arrykrishna
2017-09-01
We compute the Bayesian evidence for models considered in the main analysis of Planck cosmic microwave background data. By utilizing carefully defined nearest-neighbor distances in parameter space, we reuse the Monte Carlo Markov chains already produced for parameter inference to compute Bayes factors B for many different model-data set combinations. The standard 6-parameter flat cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (Λ CDM ) is favored over all other models considered, with curvature being mildly favored only when cosmic microwave background lensing is not included. Many alternative models are strongly disfavored by the data, including primordial correlated isocurvature models (ln B =-7.8 ), nonzero scalar-to-tensor ratio (ln B =-4.3 ), running of the spectral index (ln B =-4.7 ), curvature (ln B =-3.6 ), nonstandard numbers of neutrinos (ln B =-3.1 ), nonstandard neutrino masses (ln B =-3.2 ), nonstandard lensing potential (ln B =-4.6 ), evolving dark energy (ln B =-3.2 ), sterile neutrinos (ln B =-6.9 ), and extra sterile neutrinos with a nonzero scalar-to-tensor ratio (ln B =-10.8 ). Other models are less strongly disfavored with respect to flat Λ CDM . As with all analyses based on Bayesian evidence, the final numbers depend on the widths of the parameter priors. We adopt the priors used in the Planck analysis, while performing a prior sensitivity analysis. Our quantitative conclusion is that extensions beyond the standard cosmological model are disfavored by Planck data. Only when newer Hubble constant measurements are included does Λ CDM become disfavored, and only mildly, compared with a dynamical dark energy model (ln B ˜+2 ).
Secure Certificateless Signature with Revocation in the Standard Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tung-Tso Tsai
2014-01-01
previously proposed certificateless signature schemes were insecure under a considerably strong security model in the sense that they suffered from outsiders’ key replacement attacks or the attacks from the key generation center (KGC. In this paper, we propose a certificateless signature scheme without random oracles. Moreover, our scheme is secure under the strong security model and provides a public revocation mechanism, called revocable certificateless signature (RCLS. Under the standard computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, we formally demonstrate that our scheme possesses existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen-message attacks.
R parity in standard-like superstring models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halyo, Edi.
1994-01-01
We investigate the R symmetries of standard-like superstring models. At the level of the cubic superpotential there are three global U(1) R symmetries. These are broken explicitly by N > 3 terms in the superpotential and spontaneously by scalar Vacuum Expectation values necessary to preserve supersymmetry at Mp. A Z 2 discrete symmetry remains but is equivalent to fermion number modulo 2. These models possess an effective R parity which arises from the interplay between the gauged U(1) B-L and U(1) r j+3 . (author). 14 refs
Efficient Lattice-Based Signcryption in Standard Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhua Yan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that can perform digital signature and public encryption simultaneously at a significantly reduced cost. This advantage makes it highly useful in many applications. However, most existing signcryption schemes are seriously challenged by the booming of quantum computations. As an interesting stepping stone in the post-quantum cryptographic community, two lattice-based signcryption schemes were proposed recently. But both of them were merely proved to be secure in the random oracle models. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to propose a new lattice-based signcryption scheme that can be proved to be secure in the standard model.
Elementary particles, dark matter candidate and new extended standard model
Hwang, Jaekwang
2017-01-01
Elementary particle decays and reactions are discussed in terms of the three-dimensional quantized space model beyond the standard model. Three generations of the leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges. Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced. And the bastons (new particles) are proposed as the possible candidate of the dark matters. Dark matter force, weak force and strong force are explained consistently. Possible rest masses of the new particles are, tentatively, proposed for the experimental searches. For more details, see the conference paper at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308723916.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaussens, J; Paillot, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-07-01
The authors define the notions of use values and price of plutonium. They give a 'simplified parametrized model' simulating the equilibrium of the offer and the demand in time, concerning the plutonium and the price deriving from the relative scarcity of this metal, taking into account the technical and economic operating parameters of the various reactors confronted. This model is simple enough to allow direct computations and establish clear relations between the various parameters. The use of the linear programmes method allows on the other hand a wide extension of the model. This report includes three main parts: I - General description of the study (without detailed calculations) II - Mathematical development of the simplified parametrized model and application (the basic data and the results of the calculations are given) III - Appendices (giving the detailed computations of part II). (authors) [French] Les auteurs definissent les notions de valeurs d'usage et de prix du plutonium. Ils donnent un 'modele parametre simplifie' simulant l'equilibre de l'office et de la demande dans le temps concernant le plutonium et le prix qui decoule de la rarete relative de ce metal, compte tenu des parametres techniques et economiques de fonctionnement des divers reacteurs en presence. Ce modele est suffisamment simple pour permettre des calculs manuels et etablir des liaisons claires entre les divers parametres. L'utilisation de la technique des programmes lineaires permet par ailleurs une extension considerable du modele. Cette note comprend trois parties: I - Expose general de l'etude (sans expose du detail des calculs) II - Developpement mathematique du modele parametre simplifie et application (on precise les donnees de base et le resultat des calculs) III - Annexes (donnant le detail des calculs de la partie II). (auteurs)
Fiche technique du spermogramme et du spermocytogramme ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
En Afrique la stérilité du couple constitue un drame social. Selon l'OMS, environ 8 à 12 % des couples africains sont touchés par une infertilité. La responsabilité masculine dans la stérilité est comprise entre 30 à 40%. Les causes de l'infertilité masculine peuvent être l'impuissance et/ ou l'altération du sperme. L'étude de ...
Non-generic couplings in supersymmetric standard models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeny I. Buchbinder
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We study two phases of a heterotic standard model, obtained from a Calabi–Yau compactification of the E8×E8 heterotic string, in the context of the associated four-dimensional effective theories. In the first phase we have a standard model gauge group, an MSSM spectrum, four additional U(1 symmetries and singlet fields. In the second phase, obtained from the first by continuing along the singlet directions, three of the additional U(1 symmetries are spontaneously broken and the remaining one is a B–L symmetry. In this second phase, dimension five operators inducing proton decay are consistent with all symmetries and as such, they are expected to be present. We show that, contrary to this expectation, these operators are forbidden due to the additional U(1 symmetries present in the first phase of the model. We emphasise that such “unexpected” absences of operators, due to symmetry enhancement at specific loci in the moduli space, can be phenomenologically relevant and, in the present case, protect the model from fast proton decay.
Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara
2012-11-21
There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple
Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara
2012-01-01
There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple extension of the Standard
Symmetry and the Standard Model mathematics and particle physics
Robinson, Matthew
2011-01-01
While elementary particle physics is an extraordinarily fascinating field, the huge amount of knowledge necessary to perform cutting-edge research poses a formidable challenge for students. The leap from the material contained in the standard graduate course sequence to the frontiers of M-theory, for example, is tremendous. To make substantial contributions to the field, students must first confront a long reading list of texts on quantum field theory, general relativity, gauge theory, particle interactions, conformal field theory, and string theory. Moreover, waves of new mathematics are required at each stage, spanning a broad set of topics including algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis. Symmetry and the Standard Model: Mathematics and Particle Physics, by Matthew Robinson, is the first volume of a series intended to teach math in a way that is catered to physicists. Following a brief review of classical physics at the undergraduate level and a preview of particle physics from an experimentalist's per...
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
On a radiative origin of the Standard Model from trinification
Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Morais, António P.; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas
2016-09-01
In this work, we present a trinification-based grand unified theory incorporating a global SU(3) family symmetry that after a spontaneous breaking leads to a left-right symmetric model. Already at the classical level, this model can accommodate the matter content and the quark Cabbibo mixing in the Standard Model (SM) with only one Yukawa coupling at the unification scale. Considering the minimal low-energy scenario with the least amount of light states, we show that the resulting effective theory enables dynamical breaking of its gauge group down to that of the SM by means of radiative corrections accounted for by the renormalisation group evolution at one loop. This result paves the way for a consistent explanation of the SM breaking scale and fermion mass hierarchies.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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The Beyond the standard model working group: Summary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Azuelos et al.
2004-03-18
In this working group we have investigated a number of aspects of searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) at the running or planned TeV-scale colliders. For the most part, we have considered hadron colliders, as they will define particle physics at the energy frontier for the next ten years at least. The variety of models for Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics has grown immensely. It is clear that only future experiments can provide the needed direction to clarify the correct theory. Thus, our focus has been on exploring the extent to which hadron colliders can discover and study BSM physics in various models. We have placed special emphasis on scenarios in which the new signal might be difficult to find or of a very unexpected nature. For example, in the context of supersymmetry (SUSY), we have considered: how to make fully precise predictions for the Higgs bosons as well as the superparticles of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) (parts III and IV); MSSM scenarios in which most or all SUSY particles have rather large masses (parts V and VI); the ability to sort out the many parameters of the MSSM using a variety of signals and study channels (part VII); whether the no-lose theorem for MSSM Higgs discovery can be extended to the next-to-minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) in which an additional singlet superfield is added to the minimal collection of superfields, potentially providing a natural explanation of the electroweak value of the parameter {micro} (part VIII); sorting out the effects of CP violation using Higgs plus squark associate production (part IX); the impact of lepton flavor violation of various kinds (part X); experimental possibilities for the gravitino and its sgoldstino partner (part XI); what the implications for SUSY would be if the NuTeV signal for di-muon events were interpreted as a sign of R-parity violation (part XII). Our other main focus was on the phenomenological implications of extra
Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumann, Jochen Peter
2012-03-19
In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) {eta}-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss
Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, Jochen Peter
2012-01-01
In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) η-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss the
Baryon number dissipation at finite temperature in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Raby, S.; Starkman, G.
1990-01-01
We analyze the phenomenon of baryon number violation at finite temperature in the standard model, and derive the relaxation rate for the baryon density in the high temperature electroweak plasma. The relaxation rate, γ is given in terms of real time correlation functions of the operator E·B, and is directly proportional to the sphaleron transition rate, Γ: γ preceq n f Γ/T 3 . Hence it is not instanton suppressed, as claimed by Cohen, Dugan and Manohar (CDM). We show explicitly how this result is consistent with the methods of CDM, once it is recognized that a new anomalous commutator is required in their approach. 19 refs., 2 figs
Standard Model-like corrections to Dilatonic Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Krog, Jens; Mølgaard, Esben
2013-01-01
the same non-abelian global symmetries as a technicolor-like theory with matter in a complex representation of the gauge group. We then embed the electroweak gauge group within the global flavor structure and add also ordinary quark-like states to mimic the effects of the top. We find that the standard...... model-like induced corrections modify the original phase diagram and the details of the dilatonic spectrum. In particular, we show that the corrected theory exhibits near-conformal behavior for a smaller range of flavors and colors. For this range of values, however, our results suggest that near...
B_{s,d} -> l+ l- in the Standard Model
Bobeth, Christoph; Hermann, Thomas; Misiak, Mikolaj; Stamou, Emmanuel; Steinhauser, Matthias
2014-01-01
We combine our new results for the O(alpha_em) and O(alpha_s^2) corrections to B_{s,d} -> l^+ l^-, and present updated branching ratio predictions for these decays in the standard model. Inclusion of the new corrections removes major theoretical uncertainties of perturbative origin that have just begun to dominate over the parametric ones. For the recently observed muonic decay of the B_s meson, our calculation gives BR(B_s -> mu^+ mu^-) = (3.65 +_ 0.23) * 10^(-9).
Dark Matter and Color Octets Beyond the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krnjaic, Gordan Zdenko [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
2012-07-01
Although the Standard Model (SM) of particles and interactions has survived forty years of experimental tests, it does not provide a complete description of nature. From cosmological and astrophysical observations, it is now clear that the majority of matter in the universe is not baryonic and interacts very weakly (if at all) via non-gravitational forces. The SM does not provide a dark matter candidate, so new particles must be introduced. Furthermore, recent Tevatron results suggest that SM predictions for benchmark collider observables are in tension with experimental observations. In this thesis, we will propose extensions to the SM that address each of these issues.
Modeling RHIC using the standard machine formal accelerator description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pilat, F.; Trahern, C.G.; Wei, J.
1997-01-01
The Standard Machine Format (SMF) is a structured description of accelerator lattices which supports both the hierarchy of beam lines and generic lattice objects as well as those deviations (field errors, alignment efforts, etc.) associated with each component of the as-installed machine. In this paper we discuss the use of SMF to describe the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as well as the ancillary data structures (such as field quality measurements) that are necessarily incorporated into the RHIC SMF model. Future applications of SMF are outlined, including its use in the RHIC operational environment
What is special about the group of the standard model?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1989-03-01
The standard model is based on the algebra of U 1 xSU 2 xSU 3 . The systematics of charges of the fundamental fermions seems to suggest the importance of a particular group having this algebra, viz. S(U 2 xU 3 ). This group is distinguished from all other connected compact non semisimple groups with dimensionality up to 12 by a characteristic property: it is very 'skew'. By this we mean that the group has relatively few 'generalised outer automorphisms'. One may speculate about physical reasons for this fact. (orig.)
Developments in standard model: electroweak theory/phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.
1986-01-01
The authors review new developments in four topics. Higgs detection D in the intermediate mass range (100 GeV 2M/sub W/) is discussed in detail. It is found that the backgrounds are a serious problem in hadronic colliders except for purely leptonic signals, which unfortunately have low event rates. Recent work on topological solutions to standard model, with new states in TeV range are discussed. Large rate of BB vector production at SSC may allow determination of rare modes of B decay. The fourth topic concerns the feasibility of detecting Horizontal gauge bosons at SSC. 17 references, 9 figures
The strong interactions beyond the standard model of particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergner, Georg [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2016-11-01
SuperMUC is one of the most convenient high performance machines for our project since it offers a high performance and flexibility regarding different applications. This is of particular importance for investigations of new theories, where on the one hand the parameters and systematic uncertainties have to be estimated in smaller simulations and on the other hand a large computational performance is needed for the estimations of the scale at zero temperature. Our project is just the first investigation of the new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics and we hope to proceed with our studies towards more involved Technicolour candidates, supersymmetric QCD, and extended supersymmetry.
Detecting physics beyond the Standard Model with the REDTOP experiment
González, D.; León, D.; Fabela, B.; Pedraza, M. I.
2017-10-01
REDTOP is an experiment at its proposal stage. It belongs to the High Intensity class of experiments. REDTOP will use a 1.8 GeV continuous proton beam impinging on a fixed target. It is expected to produce about 1013 η mesons per year. The main goal of REDTOP is to look for physics beyond the Standard Model by detecting rare η decays. The detector is designed with innovative technologies based on the detection of prompt Cherenkov light, such that interesting events can be observed and the background events are efficiently rejected. The experimental design, the physics program and the running plan of the experiment is presented.
Coset Space Dimensional Reduction approach to the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farakos, K.; Kapetanakis, D.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G.
1988-01-01
We present a unified theory in ten dimensions based on the gauge group E 8 , which is dimensionally reduced to the Standard Mode SU 3c xSU 2 -LxU 1 , which breaks further spontaneously to SU 3L xU 1em . The model gives similar predictions for sin 2 θ w and proton decay as the minimal SU 5 G.U.T., while a natural choice of the coset space radii predicts light Higgs masses a la Coleman-Weinberg
What is special about the group of the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1989-06-15
The standard model is based on the algebra of U/sub 1/xSU/sub 2/xSU/sub 3/. The systematics of charges of the fundamental fermions seems to suggest the importance of a particular group having this algebra, viz. S(U/sub 2/xU/sub 3/). This group is distinguished from all other connected compact non semisimple groups with dimensionality up to 12 by a characteristic property: it is very ''skew''. By this we mean that the group has relatively few ''generalised outer automorphisms''. One may speculate about physical reasons for this fact. (orig.).
What is special about the group of the standard model?
Nielsen, H. B.; Brene, N.
1989-06-01
The standard model is based on the algebra of U 1×SU 2×SU 3. The systematics of charges of the fundamental fermions seems to suggest the importance of a particular group having this algebra, viz. S(U 2×U 3). This group is distinguished from all other connected compact non semisimple groups with dimensionality up to 12 by a characteristic property: it is very “skew”. By this we mean that the group has relatively few “generalised outer automorphisms”. One may speculate about physical reasons for this fact.
High Mass Standard Model Higgs searches at the Tevatron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petridis Konstantinos A.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We present the results of searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying predominantly to W+W− pairs, at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, using up to 8.2 fb−1 of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis techniques and the various channels considered are discussed. These searches result in exclusions across the Higgs mass range of 156.5< mH <173.7 GeV for CDF and 161< mH <170 GeV for D0.
Future high precision experiments and new physics beyond Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Mingxing.
1993-01-01
High precision (< 1%) electroweak experiments that have been done or are likely to be done in this decade are examined on the basis of Standard Model (SM) predictions of fourteen weak neutral current observables and fifteen W and Z properties to the one-loop level, the implications of the corresponding experimental measurements to various types of possible new physics that enter at the tree or loop level were investigated. Certain experiments appear to have special promise as probes of the new physics considered here
Standard Model CP-violation and baryon asymmetry
Gavela, M.B.; Orloff, J.; Pene, O.
1994-01-01
Simply based on CP arguments, we argue against a Standard Model explanation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe in the presence of a first order phase transition. A CP-asymmetry is found in the reflection coefficients of quarks hitting the phase boundary created during the electroweak transition. The problem is analyzed both in an academic zero temperature case and in the realistic finite temperature one. The building blocks are similar in both cases: Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violation, CP-even phases in the reflection coefficients of quarks, and physical transitions due to fermion self-energies. In both cases an effect is present at order $\\alpha_W^2$ in rate. A standard GIM behaviour is found as intuitively expected. In the finite temperature case, a crucial role is played by the damping rate of quasi-particles in a hot plasma, which is a relevant scale together with $M_W$ and the temperature. The effect is many orders of magnitude below what observation requires, and indicates that non standard physics is ...
Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives
Schramm, David N.
1991-01-01
Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from He-4 at 24% by mass through H-2 and He-3 at parts in 10(exp 5) down to Li-7 at parts in 10(exp 10). Furthermore, the recent large electron positron (LEP) (and the stanford linear collider (SLC)) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conlusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, omega(sub b) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that omega(sub b) approximately equals 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming omega(sub total) = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since omega(sub visible) is less than omega(sub b).
Big bang nucleosynthesis: The standard model and alternatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1991-01-01
Big bang nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the big bang cosmological model. This paper reviews the standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation and shows how it fits the light element abundances ranging from 4 He at 24% by mass through 2 H and 3 He at parts in 10 5 down to 7 Li at parts in 10 10 . Furthermore, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. Alternate scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, Ω b , remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the conclusion that Ω b ≅0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming Ω total =1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since Ω visible b . (orig.)
Physics beyond the standard model in the non-perturbative unification scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.
1990-01-01
The non-perturbative unification scenario predicts reasonably well the low energy gauge couplings of the standard model. Agreement with the measured low energy couplings is obtained by assuming certain kind of physics beyond the standard model. A number of possibilities for physics beyond the standard model is examined. The best candidates so far are the standard model with eight fermionic families and a similar number of Higgs doublets, and the supersymmetric standard model with five families. (author)
The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raczka, R.
1993-01-01
We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of Λ-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e + + e - → hadrons, e + + e - → W + + W - , e + + e - → p + anti-p, e + p → e + p and p + anti-p → p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant α(M z ) and we predicted the top baryon mass M Λ t ≅ 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, Λ-particles, vector mesons like ρ, ω, φ, J/ψ ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab
New phenomena in the standard no-scale supergravity model
Kelley, S; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Zichichi, Antonino; Kelley, S; Lopez, J L; Nanopoulos, D V; Zichichi, A
1994-01-01
We revisit the no-scale mechanism in the context of the simplest no-scale supergravity extension of the Standard Model. This model has the usual five-dimensional parameter space plus an additional parameter \\xi_{3/2}\\equiv m_{3/2}/m_{1/2}. We show how predictions of the model may be extracted over the whole parameter space. A necessary condition for the potential to be stable is {\\rm Str}{\\cal M}^4>0, which is satisfied if \\bf m_{3/2}\\lsim2 m_{\\tilde q}. Order of magnitude calculations reveal a no-lose theorem guaranteeing interesting and potentially observable new phenomena in the neutral scalar sector of the theory which would constitute a ``smoking gun'' of the no-scale mechanism. This new phenomenology is model-independent and divides into three scenarios, depending on the ratio of the weak scale to the vev at the minimum of the no-scale direction. We also calculate the residual vacuum energy at the unification scale (C_0\\, m^4_{3/2}), and find that in typical models one must require C_0>10. Such constrai...
How to use the Standard Model effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henning, Brian; Lu, Xiaochuan [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)
2016-01-05
We present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on a given UV model. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. This covariant derivative expansion method dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of RG running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. Many results and tools which should prove useful to those wishing to use the SM EFT are detailed in several appendices.
Electroweak baryogenesis in extensions of the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fromme, L.
2006-07-07
We investigate the generation of the baryon asymmetry in two extensions of the Standard Model; these are the {phi}{sup 6} and the two-Higgs-doublet model. Analyzing the thermal potential in the presence of CP violation, we find a strong first order phase transition for a wide range of parameters in both models. We compute the relevant bubble wall properties which then enter the transport equations. In non-supersymmetric models electroweak baryogenesis is dominated by top transport, which we treat in the WKB approximation. We calculate the CP-violating source terms starting from the Dirac equation. We show how to resolve discrepancies between this treatment and the computation in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Furthermore, we keep inelastic scatterings of quarks and W bosons at a finite rate, which considerably affects the amount of the generated baryon asymmetry depending on the bubble wall velocity. In addition, we improve the transport equations by novel source terms which are generated by CP-conserving perturbations in the plasma. It turns out that their effect is relatively small. Both models under consideration predict a baryon to entropy ratio close to the observed value for a large part of the parameter space without being in conflict with constraints on electric dipole moments. (orig.)
Electroweak baryogenesis in extensions of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fromme, L.
2006-01-01
We investigate the generation of the baryon asymmetry in two extensions of the Standard Model; these are the Φ 6 and the two-Higgs-doublet model. Analyzing the thermal potential in the presence of CP violation, we find a strong first order phase transition for a wide range of parameters in both models. We compute the relevant bubble wall properties which then enter the transport equations. In non-supersymmetric models electroweak baryogenesis is dominated by top transport, which we treat in the WKB approximation. We calculate the CP-violating source terms starting from the Dirac equation. We show how to resolve discrepancies between this treatment and the computation in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Furthermore, we keep inelastic scatterings of quarks and W bosons at a finite rate, which considerably affects the amount of the generated baryon asymmetry depending on the bubble wall velocity. In addition, we improve the transport equations by novel source terms which are generated by CP-conserving perturbations in the plasma. It turns out that their effect is relatively small. Both models under consideration predict a baryon to entropy ratio close to the observed value for a large part of the parameter space without being in conflict with constraints on electric dipole moments. (orig.)
Neutron electric dipole moment in the minimal supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inui, T.; Mimura, Y.; Sakai, N.; Sasaki, T.
1995-01-01
The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) due to the single quark EDM and to the transition EDM is calculated in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Assuming that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix at the grand unification scale is the only source of CP violation, complex phases are induced in the parameters of soft supersymmetry breaking at low energies. The chargino one-loop diagram is found to give the dominant contribution of the order of 10 -27 similar 10 -29 e.cm for the quark EDM, assuming the light chargino mass and the universal scalar mass to be 50 GeV and 100 GeV, respectively. Therefore the neutron EDM in this class of model is difficult to measure experimentally. The gluino one-loop diagram also contributes due to the flavor changing gluino coupling. The transition EDM is found to give dominant contributions for certain parameter regions. (orig.)
Can the "standard" unitarized Regge models describe the TOTEM data?
Alkin, A; Martynov, E
2013-01-01
The standard Regge poles are considered as inputs for two unitarization methods: eikonal and U-matrix. It is shown that only models with three input pomerons and two input odderons can describe the high energy data on $pp$ and $\\bar pp$ elastic scattering including the new data from Tevatron and LHC. However, it seems that the both considered models require a further modification (e.g. nonlinear reggeon trajectories and/or nonexponential vertex functions) for a more satisfactory description of the data at 19.0 GeV$\\leq \\sqrt{s}\\leq$ 7 TeV and 0.01 $\\leq |t|\\leq $14.2 GeV$^{2}$.
Electro symmetry breaking and beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.; Dawson, S.; Haber, H.E.
1995-05-01
The development of the Standard Model of particle physics is a remarkable success story. Its many facets have been tested at present day accelerators; no significant unambiguous deviations have yet been found. In some cases, the model has been verified at an accuracy of better than one part in a thousand. This state of affairs presents our field with a challenge. Where do we go from here? What is our vision for future developments in particle physics? Are particle physicists' recent successes a signal of the field's impending demise, or do real long-term prospects exist for further progress? We assert that the long-term health and intellectual vitality of particle physics depends crucially on the development of a new generation of particle colliders that push the energy frontier by an order of magnitude beyond present capabilities. In this report, we address the scientific issues underlying this assertion
Alive and well: A short review about standard solar models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serenelli, Aldo [Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans S/N, Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE/CSIC-IEEC), Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)
2016-04-15
Standard solar models (SSMs) provide a reference framework across a number of research fields: solar and stellar models, solar neutrinos, particle physics the most conspicuous among them. The accuracy of the physical description of the global properties of the Sun that SSMs provide has been challenged in the last decade by a number of developments in stellar spectroscopic techniques. Over the same period of time, solar neutrino experiments, and Borexino in particular, have measured the four solar neutrino fluxes from the pp-chains that are associated with 99% of the nuclear energy generated in the Sun. Borexino has also set the most stringent limit on CNO energy generation, only ∝ 40% larger than predicted by SSMs. More recently, and for the first time, radiative opacity experiments have been performed at conditions that closely resemble those at the base of the solar convective envelope. In this article, we review these developments and discuss the current status of SSMs, including its intrinsic limitations. (orig.)
Angular correlations in top quark decays in standard model extensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batebi, S.; Etesami, S. M.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.
2011-01-01
The CMS Collaboration at the CERN LHC has searched for the t-channel single top quark production using the spin correlation of the t-channel. The signal extraction and cross section measurement rely on the angular distribution of the charged lepton in the top quark decays, the angle between the charged lepton momentum and top spin in the top rest frame. The behavior of the angular distribution is a distinct slope for the t-channel single top (signal) while it is flat for the backgrounds. In this Brief Report, we investigate the contributions which this spin correlation may receive from a two-Higgs doublet model, a top-color assisted technicolor (TC2) and the noncommutative extension of the standard model.
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics, spinors and the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woit, P.
1988-01-01
The quantization of the simplest supersymmetric quantum mechanical theory of a free fermion on a riemannian manifold requires the introduction of a complex structure on the tangent space. In 4 dimensions, the subgroup of the group of frame rotations that preserves the complex structure is SU(2) x U(1), and it is argued that this symmetry can be consistently interpreted to be an internal gauge symmetry for the analytically continued theory in Minkowski space. The states of the theory carry the quantum numbers of a generation of leptons in the Weinberg-Salam model. Examination of the geometry of spinors in four dimensions also provides a natural SU(3) symmetry and very simple construction of a multiplet with the standard model quantum numbers. (orig.)
Decay of the standard model Higgs field after inflation
Figueroa, Daniel G; Torrenti, Francisco
2015-01-01
We study the nonperturbative dynamics of the Standard Model (SM) after inflation, in the regime where the SM is decoupled from (or weakly coupled to) the inflationary sector. We use classical lattice simulations in an expanding box in (3+1) dimensions, modeling the SM gauge interactions with both global and Abelian-Higgs analogue scenarios. We consider different post-inflationary expansion rates. During inflation, the Higgs forms a condensate, which starts oscillating soon after inflation ends. Via nonperturbative effects, the oscillations lead to a fast decay of the Higgs into the SM species, transferring most of the energy into $Z$ and $W^{\\pm}$ bosons. All species are initially excited far away from equilibrium, but their interactions lead them into a stationary stage, with exact equipartition among the different energy components. From there on the system eventually reaches equilibrium. We have characterized in detail, in the different expansion histories considered, the evolution of the Higgs and of its ...
From the CERN web: Standard Model, SESAME and more
2015-01-01
This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing... Left: ATLAS non-leptonic MWZ data. Right: ATLAS σ × B exclusion for W’ → WZ. Is the Standard Model about to crater? 28 October – CERN Courier The Standard Model is coming under more and more pressure from experiments. New results from the analysis of LHC’s Run 1 data show effects that, if confirmed, would be the signature of new interactions at the TeV scale. Continue to read… Students and teachers participate in lectures about CERN science at the first ever SESAME teacher and students school. New CERN programme to develop network between SESAME schools 22 October - by Harriet Jarlett In September CERN welcomed 28 visitors from the Middle East for the first ever student and teacher school f...
Collider physics within the standard model a primer
Altarelli, Guido
2017-01-01
With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field. In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses. “These lecture notes are a beautiful example of Guido’s unique pedagogical abilities and scientific vision”. From...
CP violation and flavour mixing in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; London, D.
1995-08-01
We review and update the constraints on the parameters of the quark flavour mixing matrix V CKM in the standard model and estimate the resulting CP asymmetries in B decays, taking into account recent experimental and theoretical developments. In performing our fits, we use inputs from the measurements of the following quantities: (i) vertical stroke εvertical stroke , the CP-violating parameter in K decays, (ii) ΔM d , the mass difference due to the B 0 d - anti B 0 d mixing, (iii) the matrix elements vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke and vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke , (iv) B-hadron lifetimes, and (v) the top quark mass. The experimental input in points (ii) - (v) has improved compared to our previous fits. With the updated CKM matrix we present the currently-allowed range of the ratios vertical stroke V td /V ts vertical stroke and vertical stroke V td /V ub vertical stroke , as well as the standard model predictions for the B s 0 - anti B s 0 mixing parameter x s , (or, equivalently, ΔM s ) and the quantities sin 2α, sin 2β and sin 2 γ, which characterize the CP-asymmetries in B-decays. Various theoretical issues related to the so-called ''penguin-pollution'', which are of importance for the determination of the phases α and γ from the CP-asymmetries in B decays, are also discussed. (orig.)
Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ping, Chia Swee
2015-01-01
The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated
Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ping, Chia Swee [High Impact Research, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-04-24
The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.
Nuclear anapole moment and tests of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flambaum, V. V.
1999-01-01
There are two sources of parity nonconservation (PNC) in atoms: the electron-nucleus weak interaction and the magnetic interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment. A nuclear anapole moment has recently been observed. This is the first discovery of an electromagnetic moment violating fundamental symmetries--the anapole moment violates parity and charge-conjugation invariance. We describe the anapole moment and how it can be produced. The anapole moment creates a circular magnetic field inside the nucleus. The interesting point is that measurements of the anapole allow one to study parity violation inside the nucleus through atomic experiments. We use the experimental result for the nuclear anapole moment of 133 Cs to find the strengths of the parity violating proton-nucleus and meson-nucleon forces. Measurements of the weak charge characterizing the strength of the electron-nucleon weak interaction provide tests of the Standard Model and a way of searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic experiments give limits on the extra Z-boson, leptoquarks, composite fermions, and radiative corrections produced by particles that are predicted by new theories. The weak charge and nuclear anapole moment can be measured in the same experiment. The weak charge gives the mean value of the PNC effect while the anapole gives the difference of the PNC effects for the different hyperfine components of an electromagnetic transition. The interaction between atomic electrons and the nuclear anapole moment may be called the ''PNC hyperfine interaction.''
Rare B-decays in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; Greub, C.; Mannel, T.
1993-02-01
We review theoretical work done in studies of the Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) B-decays in the context of the Standard Model. Making use of the QCD-improved effective Hamiltonian describing the so-called vertical stroke ΔBvertical stroke =1 and vertical stroke ΔBvertical stroke =2, vertical stroke ΔQvertical stroke =0 transitions, we calculate the rates and differential distributions in a large number of B-decays. The FCNC processes discussed here include the radiative decays B → X s + γ, B → X d + γ, and the semileptonic decays B → X s l + l - , B → X d l + l - , B → X s ν l anti ν l , and B → X d ν l anti ν l . We also discuss the inclusive photon energy spectrum calculated from the Charged Current (CC) decays B → X c + γ and B → X u + γ and the mentioned FCNC radiative decays. The importance of carrying out measurements of the inclusive photon energy spectrum in B-decays is emphasized. Using phenomenological potential models and the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) we estimate decay branching ratios in a number of exclusive FCNC B-decays. Purely leptonic and photonic decays (B d , B s ) → l + l - and (B d , B s ) → γγ are also estimated. The principal interest in the studies of FCNC B-decays lies in their use in determining the parameters of the standard Model, in particular the CKM matrix elements and the top quark mass. The parametric dependence of these and other QCD-specific parameters on the rates and distributions is worked out numerically. (orig.)
Rivett, Miriam
2002-01-01
Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…
On the metastability of the Standard Model vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isidori, Gino; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Strumia, Alessandro
2001-01-01
If the Higgs mass m H is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. We present a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m H imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. We perform a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and we improve it by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. We find that, for m H =115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m t >(166±2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m t <(175±2) GeV
On the metastability of the Standard Model vacuum
Isidori, Gino; Strumia, A; Isidori, Gino; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Strumia, Alessandro
2001-01-01
If the Higgs mass $m_H$ is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. We present a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on $m_H$ imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. We perform a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and we improve it by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. We find that, for $m_H=115$ GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for $m_t>(166\\pm 2) \\GeV$, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for $m_t > (175\\pm 2) \\GeV$.
Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong
1996-01-01
The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm
Testing the standard model of particle physics using lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Water, Ruth S van de
2007-01-01
Recent advances in both computers and algorithms now allow realistic calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) interactions using the numerical technique of lattice QCD. The methods used in so-called '2+1 flavor' lattice calculations have been verified both by post-dictions of quantities that were already experimentally well-known and by predictions that occurred before the relevant experimental determinations were sufficiently precise. This suggests that the sources of systematic error in lattice calculations are under control, and that lattice QCD can now be reliably used to calculate those weak matrix elements that cannot be measured experimentally but are necessary to interpret the results of many high-energy physics experiments. These same calculations also allow stringent tests of the Standard Model of particle physics, and may therefore lead to the discovery of new physics in the future
A Constrained Standard Model: Effects of Fayet-Iliopoulos Terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori
2001-01-01
In (1)the one Higgs doublet standard model was obtained by an orbifold projection of a 5D supersymmetric theory in an essentially unique way, resulting in a prediction for the Higgs mass m H = 127 +- 8 GeV and for the compactification scale 1/R = 370 +- 70 GeV. The dominant one loop contribution to the Higgs potential was found to be finite, while the above uncertainties arose from quadratically divergent brane Z factors and from other higher loop contributions. In (3), a quadratically divergent Fayet-Iliopoulos term was found at one loop in this theory. We show that the resulting uncertainties in the predictions for the Higgs boson mass and the compactification scale are small, about 25percent of the uncertainties quoted above, and hence do not affect the original predictions. However, a tree level brane Fayet-Iliopoulos term could, if large enough, modify these predictions, especially for 1/R.
CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1993-01-01
So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why
Ruling out a strongly interacting standard Higgs model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riesselmann, K.; Willenbrock, S.
1997-01-01
Previous work has suggested that perturbation theory is unreliable for Higgs- and Goldstone-boson scattering, at energies above the Higgs-boson mass, for relatively small values of the Higgs quartic coupling λ(μ). By performing a summation of nonlogarithmic terms, we show that perturbation theory is in fact reliable up to relatively large coupling. This eliminates the possibility of a strongly interacting standard Higgs model at energies above the Higgs-boson mass, complementing earlier studies which excluded strong interactions at energies near the Higgs-boson mass. The summation can be formulated in terms of an appropriate scale in the running coupling, μ=√(s)/e∼√(s)/2.7, so it can be incorporated easily in renormalization-group-improved tree-level amplitudes as well as higher-order calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
The hierarchy problem of the electroweak standard model revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jegerlehner, Fred
2013-05-01
A careful renormalization group analysis of the electroweak Standard Model reveals that there is no hierarchy problem in the SM. In the broken phase a light Higgs turns out to be natural as it is self-protected and self-tuned by the Higgs mechanism. It means that the scalar Higgs needs not be protected by any extra symmetry, specifically super symmetry, in order not to be much heavier than the other SM particles which are protected by gauge- or chiral-symmetry. Thus the existence of quadratic cutoff effects in the SM cannot motivate the need for a super symmetric extensions of the SM, but in contrast plays an important role in triggering the electroweak phase transition and in shaping the Higgs potential in the early universe to drive inflation as supported by observation.
On the metastability of the standard model vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.
2001-03-01
If the Higgs mass m H is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. It is presented a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m H imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. It is performed a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and it is improved by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. It has been found that, for m H = 115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m t > (166 ±2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m t < (175 ±2) GeV
Error modelling of quantum Hall array resistance standards
Marzano, Martina; Oe, Takehiko; Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca; Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa
2018-04-01
Quantum Hall array resistance standards (QHARSs) are integrated circuits composed of interconnected quantum Hall effect elements that allow the realization of virtually arbitrary resistance values. In recent years, techniques were presented to efficiently design QHARS networks. An open problem is that of the evaluation of the accuracy of a QHARS, which is affected by contact and wire resistances. In this work, we present a general and systematic procedure for the error modelling of QHARSs, which is based on modern circuit analysis techniques and Monte Carlo evaluation of the uncertainty. As a practical example, this method of analysis is applied to the characterization of a 1 MΩ QHARS developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Software tools are provided to apply the procedure to other arrays.
Multiphoton production at high energies in the standard model. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahlon, G.
1993-01-01
We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the standard model in the high-energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We utilize currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates n photons. Only one end of the charged line is off shell in these currents, which are known for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photons. We obtain a wide variety of helicity amplitudes for processes involving two pairs of charged particles by considering combinations of four currents. We examine the situation with respect to currents which have both ends of the charged line off shell, and present solutions for the case of like-helicity photons. These new currents may be combined with two of the original currents to produce additional amplitudes involving Higgs bosons, longitudinal Z, or neutrino pairs
DsixTools: the standard model effective field theory toolkit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Celis, Alejandro [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); Fuentes-Martin, Javier; Vicente, Avelino [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Virto, Javier [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland)
2017-06-15
We present DsixTools, a Mathematica package for the handling of the dimension-six standard model effective field theory. Among other features, DsixTools allows the user to perform the full one-loop renormalization group evolution of the Wilson coefficients in the Warsaw basis. This is achieved thanks to the SMEFTrunner module, which implements the full one-loop anomalous dimension matrix previously derived in the literature. In addition, DsixTools also contains modules devoted to the matching to the ΔB = ΔS = 1, 2 and ΔB = ΔC = 1 operators of the Weak Effective Theory at the electroweak scale, and their QCD and QED Renormalization group evolution below the electroweak scale. (orig.)
The global electroweak Standard Model fit after the Higgs discovery
Baak, Max
2013-01-01
We present an update of the global Standard Model (SM) fit to electroweak precision data under the assumption that the new particle discovered at the LHC is the SM Higgs boson. In this scenario all parameters entering the calculations of electroweak precision observalbes are known, allowing, for the first time, to over-constrain the SM at the electroweak scale and assert its validity. Within the SM the W boson mass and the effective weak mixing angle can be accurately predicted from the global fit. The results are compatible with, and exceed in precision, the direct measurements. An updated determination of the S, T and U parameters, which parametrize the oblique vacuum corrections, is given. The obtained values show good consistency with the SM expectation and no direct signs of new physics are seen. We conclude with an outlook to the global electroweak fit for a future e+e- collider.
New phenomena beyond both the standard model and MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewett, J.L.
1995-07-01
The Standard Model (SM) is in complete agreement with present experimental data. Nevertheless, it is believed to leave many questions unanswered, and this belief has resulted in numerous attempts to find a more fundamental underlying theory. One key ingredient in the extrapolation of the SM to higher energies is to identify the complete particle spectrum at the electroweak scale. Two popular examples of theories which populate the TeV scale with a plethora of new particles are supersymmetry and technicolor. This has resulted in extensive searches for super- and techni-particles, which have been reported elsewhere at this meeting. In this talk, the author identifies other possible manifestations of new physics, and discusses their implications on hadron collider physics
The hierarchy problem of the electroweak standard model revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-05-15
A careful renormalization group analysis of the electroweak Standard Model reveals that there is no hierarchy problem in the SM. In the broken phase a light Higgs turns out to be natural as it is self-protected and self-tuned by the Higgs mechanism. It means that the scalar Higgs needs not be protected by any extra symmetry, specifically super symmetry, in order not to be much heavier than the other SM particles which are protected by gauge- or chiral-symmetry. Thus the existence of quadratic cutoff effects in the SM cannot motivate the need for a super symmetric extensions of the SM, but in contrast plays an important role in triggering the electroweak phase transition and in shaping the Higgs potential in the early universe to drive inflation as supported by observation.
Consistent constraints on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berthier, Laure; Trott, Michael
2016-01-01
We develop the global constraint picture in the (linear) effective field theory generalisation of the Standard Model, incorporating data from detectors that operated at PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SpS, Tevatron, SLAC, LEPI and LEP II, as well as low energy precision data. We fit one hundred and three observables. We develop a theory error metric for this effective field theory, which is required when constraints on parameters at leading order in the power counting are to be pushed to the percent level, or beyond, unless the cut off scale is assumed to be large, Λ≳ 3 TeV. We more consistently incorporate theoretical errors in this work, avoiding this assumption, and as a direct consequence bounds on some leading parameters are relaxed. We show how an S,T analysis is modified by the theory errors we include as an illustrative example.
Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.
ATLAS, collaboration
2012-01-01
Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL
Through precision straits to next standard model heights
David, André
2016-01-01
After the LHC Run 1, the standard model (SM) of particle physics has been completed. Yet, despite its successes, the SM has shortcomings vis-\\`{a}-vis cosmological and other observations. At the same time, while the LHC restarts for Run 2 at 13 TeV, there is presently a lack of direct evidence for new physics phenomena at the accelerator energy frontier. From this state of affairs arises the need for a consistent theoretical framework in which deviations from the SM predictions can be calculated and compared to precision measurements. Such a framework should be able to comprehensively make use of all measurements in all sectors of particle physics, including LHC Higgs measurements, past electroweak precision data, electric dipole moment, $g-2$, penguins and flavor physics, neutrino scattering, deep inelastic scattering, low-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ scattering, mass measurements, and any search for physics beyond the SM. By simultaneously describing all existing measurements, this framework then becomes an intermed...
The Standard-Model Extension and Gravitational Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay D. Tasson
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The Standard-Model Extension (SME provides a comprehensive effective field-theory framework for the study of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. This work reviews the structure and philosophy of the SME and provides some intuitive examples of symmetry violation. The results of recent gravitational tests performed within the SME are summarized including analysis of results from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO, sensitivities achieved in short-range gravity experiments, constraints from cosmic-ray data, and results achieved by studying planetary ephemerids. Some proposals and ongoing efforts will also be considered including gravimeter tests, tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle, and antimatter experiments. Our review of the above topics is augmented by several original extensions of the relevant work. We present new examples of symmetry violation in the SME and use the cosmic-ray analysis to place first-ever constraints on 81 additional operators.
On the metastability of the standard model vacuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isidori, G. [Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, Geneve (Switzerland); Ridolfi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sect. Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Strumia, A. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sect. Pisa (Italy)
2001-03-01
If the Higgs mass m{sub H} is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. It is presented a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m{sub H} imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. It is performed a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and it is improved by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. It has been found that, for m{sub H} = 115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m{sub t} > (166 {+-}2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m{sub t} < (175 {+-}2) GeV.
Selected topics in phenomenology of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, R.G.
1991-01-01
These lectures cover some aspects of phenomenology of topics in high energy physics which advertise the success of the standard model in dealing with a wide variety of experimental data. First we begin with a look at deep inelastic scattering. This tells us about the structure of the nucleon, which is understood in terms of the SU(3) gauge theory of QCD, which then allows the information on quark and gluon distributions to be carried over to other 'hard' processes such as hadronic production of jets. Recent data on electroweak processes can estimate the value of Sin 2 θw to a precision where the inclusion of radiative corrections allow bounds to be made on the mass of the top quark. Electroweak effects arise in e + e - collisions, but we first present a review of the recent history of this topic within the context of QCD. We bring the subject up to date with a look at the physics at (or near) the Z pole where the measurement of asymmetries can give more information. We look at the conventional description of quark mixing by the CKM matrix and see how the mixing parameters are systematically being extracted from a variety of reactions and decays. In turn, the values can be used to set bounds on the top quark mass. The matter of CP violation in weak interactions is addressed within the context of the standard model, recent data on ε'/ε being the source of current excitement. Finally, we at the theoretical description and experimental efforts to search for the top quark. (author)
The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raczka, R. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1993-12-31
We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of {Lambda}-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} hadrons, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +} + W{sup -}, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} p + anti-p, e + p {yields} e + p and p + anti-p {yields} p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant {alpha}(M{sub z}) and we predicted the top baryon mass M{sub {Lambda}{sub t}} {approx_equal} 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, {Lambda}-particles, vector mesons like {rho}, {omega}, {phi}, J/{psi} ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab.
The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raczka, R [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of {Lambda}-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} hadrons, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +} + W{sup -}, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} p + anti-p, e + p {yields} e + p and p + anti-p {yields} p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant {alpha}(M{sub z}) and we predicted the top baryon mass M{sub {Lambda}{sub t}} {approx_equal} 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, {Lambda}-particles, vector mesons like {rho}, {omega}, {phi}, J/{psi} ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab.
Semileptonic B decays in the Standard Model and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wick, Michael
2010-09-15
In this thesis we study several aspects of decays based on the quark level transitions b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} and b{yields}s{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} as well as transition form factors for radiative and rare semileptonic B meson decays. The quark level transition b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} offers a transparent study of Z penguin and other electroweak penguin effects in New Physics (NP) scenarios in the absence of dipole operator contributions and Higgs penguin contributions. We present an analysis of B{yields}K*{nu}anti {nu} with improved form factors and of the decays B{yields}K{nu}anti {nu} and B{yields}X{sub s}{nu}anti {nu} in the Standard Model (SM) and in a number of NP scenarios like the general Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), general scenarios with modified Z/Z{sup '} penguins and in a singlet scalar extension of the SM. The results for the SM and NP scenarios can be transparently visualized in a ({epsilon};{eta}) plane. The rare decay B{yields}K*({yields}K{pi}){mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} is regarded as one of the crucial channels for B physics as it gives rise to a multitude of observables. We investigate systematically the often correlated effects in these observables in the context of the SM and various NP models, in particular the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity and various MSSM scenarios and identify those observables with small to moderate dependence on hadronic quantities and large impact of NP. Furthermore, we study transition form factors for radiative and rare semi-leptonic B-meson decays into light pseudoscalar or vector mesons, combining theoretical and phenomenological constraints from Lattice QCD, light-cone sum rules, and dispersive bounds. We pay particular attention to form factor parameterizations which are based on the so-called series expansion, and study the related systematic uncertainties on a quantitative level. In this analysis as well as in the analysis of the b{yields}s transitions, we use consistently a convenient form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joffre, S. [Institut Meteorolique de Finlande Geographical Research Vuorikatu, Helsinki (Finland)
1997-12-31
In the framework of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) concerning transfrontier air pollution in Europe, a model has been developed which gives, based on pollution emission and meteorological data, monthly and annual values for the atmospheric content of ten major pollutants, the deposited dry and wet compounds, and the source allocations. Physical principles of the model and its validation are described
Standard model baryogenesis through four-fermion operators in braneworlds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Daniel J.H.; Dent, Thomas
2002-01-01
We study a new baryogenesis scenario in a class of braneworld models with low fundamental scale, which typically have difficulty with baryogenesis. The scenario is characterized by its minimal nature: the field content is that of the standard model and all interactions consistent with the gauge symmetry are admitted. Baryon number is violated via a dimension-6 proton decay operator, suppressed today by the mechanism of quark-lepton separation in extra dimensions; we assume that this operator was unsuppressed in the early Universe due to a time-dependent quark-lepton separation. The source of CP violation is the CKM matrix, in combination with the dimension-6 operators. We find that almost independently of cosmology, sufficient baryogenesis is nearly impossible in such a scenario if the fundamental scale is above 100 TeV, as required by an unsuppressed neutron-antineutron oscillation operator. The only exception producing sufficient baryon asymmetry is a scenario involving out-of-equilibrium c quarks interacting with equilibrium b quarks
Flavor democracy in standard models at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, G.; Kim, C.S.
1993-01-01
It is possible that the standard model (SM) is replaced around some transition energy Λ by a new, possibly Higgsless, 'flavor gauge theory' such that the Yukawa (running) parameters of SM at E∼Λ show up an (approximate) flavor democracy (FD). We investigate the latter possibility by studying the renormalization group equations for the Yukawa couplings of SM with one and two Higgs doublets, by evolving them from given physical values at low energies (E≅1 GeV) to Λ (∼Λ pole ) and comparing the resulting fermion masses and CKM matrix elements at E≅Λ for various m t phy and ratios y u /y d of vacuum expectation values. We find that the minimal SM and the closely related SM with two Higgs doublets (type I) show increasing deviation from FD when energy is increased, but that SM with two Higgs doublets (type II) clearly tends to FD with increasing energy - in both the quark and the leptonic sector (q-q and l-l FD). Furthermore, we find within the type-II model that, for Λ pole Planck , m t phy can be less than 200 GeV in most cases of chosen y u /y d . Under the assumption that also the corresponding Yukawa couplings in the quark and the leptonic sector at E≅Λ are equal (l-q FD), we derive estimates of bounds on masses of top quark and tau-neutrino, which are compatible with experimental bounds. (orig.)
13th Workshop on What Comes Beyond the Standard Models
Nielsen, Holger Bech; Lukman, Dragan; What Comes Beyond the Standard Models
2010-01-01
1. Noncommutativity and Topology within Lattice Field Theories 2. The Construction of Quantum Field Operators 3. The Bargmann-Wigner Formalism for Spin 2 Fields 4. New Light on Dark Matter from the LHC 5. Extra Dimensional Metric Reversal Symmetry and its Prospect... 6. Masses and Mixing Matrices of Families within SU(3) Flavor Symmetry ... 7. Dark Atoms of the Universe: OHe Nuclear Physics, 8. Can the Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry be Easier to Understand Within the "Spin-charge-family-theory", .. 9. Mass Matrices of Twice Four Families of Quarks and Leptons, ...in the "Spin-charge-family-theory" 10. Bohmian Quantum Mechanics or What Comes Before the Standard Model 11. Backward Causation in Complex Action Model ... 12. Is the Prediction of the "Spin-charge-family-theory" in Disagreement with the XENON100..? 13. Masses and Mixing Matrices of Families of Quarks and Leptons Within the "Spin-charge-family-theory" 14. Can the Stable Fifth Family of the "Spin-charge-family-theory" ...Form the Fifth Antibaryon Cluster...
CRITICAL DIFFERENCES OF ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FROM STANDARD MODELS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nitta, S. [Hinode Science Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Wada, T. [Tsukuba University of Technology, 4-3-15 Amakubo, Tsukuba, 305-8520 (Japan); Fuchida, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime Univesity, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matuyama, Ehime, 790-8577 (Japan); Kondoh, K., E-mail: nittasn@yahoo.co.jp, E-mail: tomohide.wada@gmail.com, E-mail: fuchida@sp.cosmos.ehime-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kondo@cosmos.ehime-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577 (Japan)
2016-09-01
We have clarified the structure of asymmetric magnetic reconnection in detail as the result of the spontaneous evolutionary process. The asymmetry is imposed as ratio k of the magnetic field strength in both sides of the initial current sheet (CS) in the isothermal equilibrium. The MHD simulation is carried out by the HLLD code for the long-term temporal evolution with very high spatial resolution. The resultant structure is drastically different from the symmetric case (e.g., the Petschek model) even for slight asymmetry k = 2. (1) The velocity distribution in the reconnection jet clearly shows a two-layered structure, i.e., the high-speed sub-layer in which the flow is almost field aligned and the acceleration sub-layer. (2) Higher beta side (HBS) plasma is caught in a lower beta side plasmoid. This suggests a new plasma mixing process in the reconnection events. (3) A new large strong fast shock in front of the plasmoid forms in the HBS. This can be a new particle acceleration site in the reconnection system. These critical properties that have not been reported in previous works suggest that we contribute to a better and more detailed knowledge of the reconnection of the standard model for the symmetric magnetic reconnection system.
Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarmento, H.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.
Probing physics beyond the standard model in diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denis, M.
2017-01-01
Nowadays, the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particles (SM) is largely acknowledged. One of its most obvious shortcomings is the lack of explanation for the huge surplus of matter over antimatter in the universe, the so-called baryon asymmetry of the universe. New CP (charge conjugation and spatial parity) violations absent in the SM are assumed to be responsible for this asymmetry. Such a violation could be observed, in ordinary matter through a set of interactions violating both parity and time-reversal symmetries (P, T -odd) among which the preponderant ones are the electron Electric Dipole Moment (eEDM), the electron-nucleon scalar-pseudoscalar (enSPS) and the nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (nMQM) interactions. Hence, an experimental evidence of a non-zero P, T -odd interaction constant would be a probe of this New Physics beyond the Standard Model. The calculation of the corresponding molecular parameters is performed by making use of an elaborate four-component relativistic configuration interaction approach in polar diatomic molecules containing an actinide, that are particularly adequate systems for eEDM experiments, such as ThO that allowed for assigning the most constraining upper bound on the eEDM and ThF"+ that will be used in a forthcoming experiment. Those results will be of crucial importance in the interpretation of the measurements since the fundamental constants can only be evaluated if one combines both experimental energy shift measurements and theoretical molecular parameters. This manuscript proceeds as follows, after an introduction to the general background of the search of CP-violations and its consequences for the understanding of the Universe (Chapter 1), a presentation of the underlying theory of the evidence of such violation in ordinary matter, namely the P, T -odd sources of the Electric Dipole Moment of a many-electron system, as well as the relevant molecular parameters is given in Chapter 2. A similar introduction to
Van Houtven, Andrea
2017-01-01
Cet article identifie la femme assise du Portrait de femme comme étant Marguerite Arosa, fille de Gustave Arosa, qui a collaboré avec Tessié du Motay et Maréchal, les inventeurs d’un nouveau procédé de collotype, afin de créer la Société de Phototypie Arosa et Cie. Il examine la formation de ce partenariat via son acte de constitution, et en lien avec la présentation du procédé à l’Assemblée générale de la Société Française de Photographie en avril 1867 lors de l’annonce du lauréat du concour...
Standard Model with a real singlet scalar and inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi, E-mail: tommi.tenkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland)
2014-08-01
We study the post-inflationary dynamics of the Standard Model Higgs and a real singlet scalar s, coupled together through a renormalizable coupling λ{sub sh}h{sup 2}s{sup 2}, in a Z{sub 2} symmetric model that may explain the observed dark matter abundance and/or the origin of baryon asymmetry. The initial values for the Higgs and s condensates are given by inflationary fluctuations, and we follow their dissipation and relaxation to the low energy vacua. We find that both the lowest order perturbative and the non-perturbative decays are blocked by thermal effects and large background fields and that the condensates decay by two-loop thermal effects. Assuming instant reheating at T=10{sup 16} GeV, the characteristic temperature for the Higgs condensate thermalization is found to be T{sub h} ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV, whereas s thermalizes typically around T{sub s} ∼ 10{sup 6} GeV. By that time, the amplitude of the singlet is driven very close to the vacuum value by the expansion of the universe, unless the portal coupling takes a value λ{sub sh}∼< 10{sup -7} and the singlet s never thermalizes. With these values of the coupling, it is possible to slowly produce a sizeable fraction of the observed dark matter abundance via singlet condensate fragmentation and thermal Higgs scattering. Physics also below the electroweak scale can therefore be affected by the non-vacuum initial conditions generated by inflation.
On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Lecce,via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Urbano, Alfredo [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies,via Bonomea 256, 34136 Trieste (Italy)
2016-05-10
In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically — both at zero and finite temperature — the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. Assuming a maximum temperature in the early Universe of the order of 10{sup 18} GeV, we find that the instability bound excludes values of the top mass M{sub t}≳173.6 GeV, with M{sub h}≃125 GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.
Is the standard model saved asymptotically by conformal symmetry?
Gorsky, A.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Tomaras, T. N.
2015-03-01
It is pointed out that the top-quark and Higgs masses and the Higgs VEV with great accuracy satisfy the relations 4 m {/H 2} = 2 m {/T 2} = v 2, which are very special and reminiscent of analogous ones at Argyres-Douglas points with enhanced conformal symmetry. Furthermore, the RG evolution of the corresponding Higgs self-interaction and Yukawa couplings λ(0) = 1/8 and y(0) = 1 leads to the free-field stable point in the pure scalar sector at the Planck scale, also suggesting enhanced conformal symmetry. Thus, it is conceivable that the Standard Model is the low-energy limit of a distinct special theory with (super?) conformal symmetry at the Planck scale. In the context of such a "scenario," one may further speculate that the Higgs particle is the Goldstone boson of (partly) spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. This would simultaneously resolve the hierarchy and Landau pole problems in the scalar sector and would provide a nearly flat potential with two almost degenerate minima at the electroweak and Planck scales.
Baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farrar, G.R.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.
1994-01-01
We study the interactions of quarks and antiquarks with the changing Higgs field during the electroweak phase transition, including quantum mechanical and some thermal effects, with the only source of CP violation being the known CKM phase. We show that the GIM cancellation, which has been commonly thought to imply a prediction which is at least 10 orders of magnitude too small, can be evaded in certain kinematic regimes, for instance, when the strange quark is totally reflected but the down quark is not. We report on a quantitative calculation of the asymmetry in a one-dimensional approximation based on the present understanding of the physics of the high-temperature environment, but with some aspects of the problem oversimplified. The resulting prediction for the magnitude and sign of the present baryonic asymmetry of the Universe agrees with the observed value, with moderately optimistic assumptions about the dynamics of the phase transition. Both magnitude and sign of the asymmetry have an intricate dependence on quark masses and mixings, so that quantitative agreement between prediction and observation would be highly nontrivial. At present uncertainties related to the dynamics of the EW phase transition and the oversimplifications of our treatment are too great to decide whether or not this is the correct explanation for the presence of remnant matter in our Universe; however, the present work makes it clear that the minimal standard model cannot be discounted as a contender for explaining this phenomenon
LHCb is trying to crack the Standard Model
2011-01-01
LHCb will reveal new results tomorrow that will shed more light on the possible CP-violation measurement reported recently by the Tevatron experiments, different from Standard Model predictions. Quantum Diaries blogger for CERN, Pauline Gagnon, explains how. LHCb, one of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, was designed specifically to study charge-parity or CP violation. In simple words, its goal is to explain why more matter than antimatter was produced when the Universe slowly cooled down after the Big Bang, leading to a world predominantly composed of matter. This is quite puzzling since in laboratory experiments we do not measure a preference for the creation of matter over antimatter. Hence the CP-conservation law in physics that states that Nature should not have a preference for matter over antimatter. So why did the Universe evolve this way? One of the best ways to study this phenomenon is with b quarks. Since they are heavy, they can decay (i.e break down into smaller parts) ...
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu [Department of Physics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Investigating multiple solutions in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allanach, B.C. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); George, Damien P. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Nachman, Benjamin [SLAC, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)
2014-02-07
Recent work has shown that the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) can possess several distinct solutions for certain values of its parameters. The extra solutions were not previously found by public supersymmetric spectrum generators because fixed point iteration (the algorithm used by the generators) is unstable in the neighbourhood of these solutions. The existence of the additional solutions calls into question the robustness of exclusion limits derived from collider experiments and cosmological observations upon the CMSSM, because limits were only placed on one of the solutions. Here, we map the CMSSM by exploring its multi-dimensional parameter space using the shooting method, which is not subject to the stability issues which can plague fixed point iteration. We are able to find multiple solutions where in all previous literature only one was found. The multiple solutions are of two distinct classes. One class, close to the border of bad electroweak symmetry breaking, is disfavoured by LEP2 searches for neutralinos and charginos. The other class has sparticles that are heavy enough to evade the LEP2 bounds. Chargino masses may differ by up to around 10% between the different solutions, whereas other sparticle masses differ at the sub-percent level. The prediction for the dark matter relic density can vary by a hundred percent or more between the different solutions, so analyses employing the dark matter constraint are incomplete without their inclusion.
On the standard model group in F-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Kang-Sin
2014-01-01
We analyze the standard model gauge group SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) constructed in F-theory. The non-Abelian part SU(3) x SU(2) is described by a surface singularity of Kodaira type. Blow-up analysis shows that the non-Abelian part is distinguished from the naive product of SU(3) and SU(2), but that it should be a rank three group along the chain of E n groups, because it has non-generic gauge symmetry enhancement structure responsible for desirablematter curves. The Abelian part U(1) is constructed from a globally valid two-form with the desired gauge quantum numbers, using a similar method to the decomposition (factorization) method of the spectral cover. This technique makes use of an extra section in the elliptic fiber of the Calabi-Yau manifold, on which F-theory is compactified. Conventional gauge coupling unification of SU(5) is achieved, without requiring a threshold correction from the flux along the hypercharge direction. (orig.)
Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.
2005-01-01
It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac (ν 4 ) and Majorana (N 1 ) neutrinos at future linear colliders with √(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e + e - →ν 4 ν 4 (N 1 N 1 ) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels (ν 4 (N 1 )→μ ± W ± ) provide cleanest signature at e + e - colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at √(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.
2015-01-01
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyato, N., E-mail: miyato.naoaki@jaea.go.jp; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-116 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-01-15
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.
Using polarized positrons to probe physics beyond the standard model
Furletova, Yulia; Mantry, Sonny
2018-05-01
A high intensity polarized positron beam, as part of the JLAB 12 GeV program and the proposed electron-ion collider (EIC), can provide a unique opportunity for testing the Standard Model (SM) and probing for new physics. The combination of high luminosity with polarized electrons and positrons incident on protons and deuterons can isolate important effects and distinguish between possible new physics scenarios in a manner that will complement current experimental efforts. A comparison of cross sections between polarized electron and positron beams will allow for an extraction of the poorly known weak neutral current coupling combination 2C3u - C3d and would complement the proposed plan for a precision extraction of the combination 2C2u - Cd at the EIC. Precision measurements of these neutral weak couplings would constrain new physics scenarios including Leptoquarks, R-parity violating supersymmetry, and electron and quark compositeness. The dependence of the charged current cross section on the longitudinal polarization of the positron beam will provide an independent probe to test the chiral structure of the electroweak interactions. A polarized positron can probe charged lepton flavor violation (CLFV) through a search for e+ → τ+ transitions in a manner that is independent and complementary to the proposed e- → τ- search at the EIC. A positron beam incident on an electron in a stationary nuclear target will also allow for a dark-photon (A') search via the annihilation process e+ + e- → A' + γ.
Improved metastability bounds on the standard model Higgs mass
Espinosa, J R; Espinosa, J R; Quiros, M
1995-01-01
Depending on the Higgs-boson and top-quark masses, M_H and M_t, the effective potential of the Standard Model at finite (and zero) temperature can have a deep and unphysical stable minimum \\langle \\phi(T)\\rangle at values of the field much larger than G_F^{-1/2}. We have computed absolute lower bounds on M_H, as a function of M_t, imposing the condition of no decay by thermal fluctuations, or quantum tunnelling, to the stable minimum. Our effective potential at zero temperature includes all next-to-leading logarithmic corrections (making it extremely scale-independent), and we have used pole masses for the Higgs-boson and top-quark. Thermal corrections to the effective potential include plasma effects by one-loop ring resummation of Debye masses. All calculations, including the effective potential and the bubble nucleation rate, are performed numerically and so the results do not rely on any kind of analytical approximation. Easy-to-use fits are provided for the benefit of the reader. Conclusions on the possi...
Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.
2015-01-01
Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at 0T > 16 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors
Electroweak precision observables in the minimal supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinemeyer, S.; Hollik, W.; Weiglein, G.
2006-01-01
The current status of electroweak precision observables in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is reviewed. We focus in particular on the W boson mass, M W , the effective leptonic weak mixing angle, sin 2 θ eff , the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g-2) μ , and the lightest CP-even MSSM Higgs boson mass, m h . We summarize the current experimental situation and the status of the theoretical evaluations. An estimate of the current theoretical uncertainties from unknown higher-order corrections and from the experimental errors of the input parameters is given. We discuss future prospects for both the experimental accuracies and the precision of the theoretical predictions. Confronting the precision data with the theory predictions within the unconstrained MSSM and within specific SUSY-breaking scenarios, we analyse how well the data are described by the theory. The mSUGRA scenario with cosmological constraints yields a very good fit to the data, showing a clear preference for a relatively light mass scale of the SUSY particles. The constraints on the parameter space from the precision data are discussed, and it is shown that the prospective accuracy at the next generation of colliders will enhance the sensitivity of the precision tests very significantly
Ros JPM; LAE
1994-01-01
Dit rapport over Du Pont de Nemours (produktie van o.a. chemische stoffen) is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning
Environmental standards as strategic outcomes: A simple model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, Rabindra N.; Pal, Rupayan
2010-01-01
This paper analyses the strategic nature of choice of environmental standards considering both local and global pollution under alternative regimes of international trade. It also compares and contrasts the strategic equilibrium environmental standards and levels of pollution, local and global, with the world optimum levels. It shows that, in case of open economies, environmental standards can be either strategic substitutes or strategic complements. On the contrary, in case of closed economies, environmental standards are always strategic substitutes. It also shows that the strategic equilibrium environmental standards in case of open economies are higher than the world optimum in certain situations. Whereas, in absence of international trade, countries set, in equilibrium, lower environmental standards than the world optimum. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gomez Lazaro, E.; Jimenez-Buendia, F.; Muljadi, Eduard
2016-11-01
The International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 61400-27-1 was published in February 2015. This standard deals with the development of generic terms and parameters to specify the electrical characteristics of wind turbines. Generic models of very complex technological systems, such as wind turbines, are thus defined based on the four common configurations available in the market. Due to its recent publication, the comparison of the response of generic models with specific vendor models plays a key role in ensuring the widespread use of this standard. This paper compares the response of a specific Gamesa dynamic wind turbine model to the corresponding generic IEC Type III wind turbine model response when the wind turbine is subjected to a three-phase voltage dip. This Type III model represents the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine, which is not only one of the most commonly sold and installed technologies in the current market but also a complex variable-speed operation implementation. In fact, active and reactive power transients are observed due to the voltage reduction. Special attention is given to the reactive power injection provided by the wind turbine models because it is a requirement of current grid codes. Further, the boundaries of the generic models associated with transient events that cannot be represented exactly are included in the paper.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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6 juil. 2007 ... La problématique du développement du secteur de l'artisanat en. Algérie a été très peu abordée par les chercheurs, qu'ils soient universitaires ou .... La loi a institué une taxe d'apprentissage dont le taux a été fixé à. 1% de la ...
1999-01-01
C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
La mise à l'échelle de la recherche et de l'innovation en vue de créer un impact social constitue une priorité pour la communauté du développement. Toutefois ... Nous avons renouvelé notre soutien à la recherche auprès du gouvernement de l'Inde ... Des femmes étudient à l'École supérieure d'infotronique d'Haïti.
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venet V.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available L'étude du discage des carottes pétrolières peut être utilisée, soit : - quand il survient, comme un indicateur des contraintes in situ; - comme un moyen d'optimiser le carottage en vue de l'obtention de carottes intactes pour les essais en laboratoire. Nous n'aborderons dans cet article que le dernier aspect du problème. Dans un premier temps, nous dégagerons, à partir d'une étude bibliographique, les principaux paramètres qui influent sur le discage. Le logiciel DISCAGELF (éléments finis en symétrie de révolution sera ensuite décrit succinctement. Il inclut un mailleur automatique et une possibilité d'effectuer une loupe sur la zone à haute probabilité de rupture pour assurer son accessibilité et son implantation éventuelle sur des micro-ordinateurs (type PC. Une validation de ce logiciel à partir d'essais réalisés sur le Triaxial vrai de Lille et sur la cellule à disquer de l'Institut National pour l'Environnement et les Risques (INERIS (avec ou sans simulation de pression de boue a ensuite été effectuée. Dans la quatrième partie de cet article, nous présenterons les résultats essentiels, provenant de plus de 200 simulations numériques, relatifs à l'influence des paramètres : caractéristiques géomécaniques du matériau, densité de boue, poids sur l'outil, type et géométrie de l'outil de carottage, sur les contraintes d'amorce de la rupture. Nous avons ainsi mis en évidence l'existence : - d'un domaine de sécurité vis-à-vis de l'amorce de la rupture ; - de relations linéaires entre les contraintes radiales d'amorce de la rupture d'une part, et les caractéristiques géomécaniques du matériau et la densité de la boue d'autre part ; - de quatre positions préférentielles du point d'amorce de la rupture pour lesquels le mécanisme engendrant la rupture est différent ; - de l'influence du type et de la géométrie du carottier sur l'amorce de la rupture et sur la courbure des disques potentiels
Higgs particles in the standard model and supersymmetric theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehlleitner, M.M.
2000-08-01
This thesis presents a theoretical analysis of the properties of the Higgs bosons in the standard model (SM) and the minimal supersymmetric extension (MSSM), which can be investigated at the LHC and e + e - linear colliders. The final goal is the reconstruction of the Higgs potential and thus the verification of the Higgs mechanism. MSSM Higgs boson production processes at future γγ colliders are calculated in several decay channels. Heavy scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs bosons can be discovered in the bb final state in the investigated mass range 200 to 800 GeV for moderate and large values of tanβ. The τ + τ - channel provides a heavy Higgs boson discovery potential for large values of tanβ. Several mechanisms that can be exploited at e + e - linear colliders for the measurement of the lifetime of a SM Higgs boson in the intermediate mass range are analysed. In the WW mode, the lifetime of Higgs scalars with masses below ∝160 GeV can be determined with an error less than 10%. The reconstruction of the Higgs potential requires the measurement of the Higgs self-couplings. The SM and MSSM trilinear Higgs self-couplings are accessible in double and triple Higgs production. A theoretical analysis is presented in the relevant channels at the LHC and e + e - linear colliders. For high luminosities, the SM trilinear Higgs self-coupling can be measured with an accuracy of 20% at a 500 GeV e + e - linear collider. The MSSM coupling among three light Higgs bosons has to be extracted from continuum production. The other trilinear Higgs couplings are measurable in a restricted range of the MSSM parameter space. At the LHC, the Hhh coupling can be probed in resonant decays. (orig.)
The pion: an enigma within the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horn, Tanja; Roberts, Craig D.
2016-05-27
Almost 50 years after the discovery of gluons & quarks, we are only just beginning to understand how QCD builds the basic bricks for nuclei: neutrons, protons, and the pions that bind them. QCD is characterised by two emergent phenomena: confinement & dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). They are expressed with great force in the character of the pion. In turn, pion properties suggest that confinement & DCSB are closely connected. As both a Nambu-Goldstone boson and a quark-antiquark bound-state, the pion is unique in Nature. Developing an understanding of its properties is thus critical to revealing basic features of the Standard Model. We describe experimental progress in this direction, made using electromagnetic probes, highlighting both improvements in the precision of charged-pion form factor data, achieved in the past decade, and new results on the neutral-pion transition form factor. Both challenge existing notions of pion structure. We also provide a theoretical context for these empirical advances, first explaining how DCSB works to guarantee that the pion is unnaturally light; but also, nevertheless, ensures the pion is key to revealing the mechanisms that generate nearly all the mass of hadrons. Our discussion unifies the charged-pion elastic and neutral-pion transition form factors, and the pion's twist-2 parton distribution amplitude. It also indicates how studies of the charged-kaon form factor can provide significant contributions. Importantly, recent predictions for the large-$Q^2$ behaviour of the pion form factor can be tested by experiments planned at JLab 12. Those experiments will extend precise charged-pion form factor data to momenta that can potentially serve in validating factorisation theorems in QCD, exposing the transition between the nonperturbative and perturbative domains, and thereby reaching a goal that has long driven hadro-particle physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
bahram Delgoshai
2005-02-01
Conclusion: Writing method of evaluation items in »B hand out« has significant difference with what is done in ISO audit. Research findings showed that in spite of leaping that »B hand out« developing had in national. There are serious lacks in hospital compelete evaluaton so that consider a hospitals system, means and content beacause of lack of enough experiment in standard development based on ISO principles.
Effet du Pediococcus acidilactici sur le bilan lipidique sanguin du ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Les résultats relatifs aux performances zootechniques ont montré que l'addition du probiotique a amélioré significativement le gain de poids pendant la phase de croissance se traduisant par un indice de consommation meilleur. Les dosages du cholestérol total, des triglycérides, du HDL et du LDL ont été déterminés à la ...
Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Ju Han
2014-01-01
Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmanuel de Jonge
2008-09-01
la Seconde Guerre Mondiale constituera un anti-exemple dans lequel il faut puiser les moyens d’éviter la reproduction de l’événement. Nous utiliserons le terme de désenchantement pour qualifier cette disposition psycho-cognitive qui affecte toute la rhétorique. Au niveau des discours d’opposition, on constate une immixtion du génocide dans le politique, que ce soit dans les discours négationnistes, théories du complot, ou dans les discours sur l’esclavage, mettant en jeu une concurrence des victimes. La méthode d’analyse toulminienne permet cet éclairage, et établit ainsi un lien essentiel entre la rhétorique et l’analyse du discours.How can we use Toulmin’s model in the analysis of specific case studies? It seems that it has been almost exclusively used for either discussions in logical reasoning, or for theoretical discussions about probability. In this article, I want to show that Toulmin’s model can be very useful for Discourse Analysis since it allows the analyst to extract mostly implicit warrants and backings. In my view, the notion of backing is related, on the one hand, to its technical argumentative side, and on the other hand, to the psycho-cognitive foundation of any reasoning, linked both to cognitive dispositions and to cultural factors. The Toulminian analysis thus proves to be very interesting when discussing deep-level arguments in a text. The article is divided into two sections. The first one is devoted to a comparative analysis of three Declarations: the 1776 American Declaration of Independence, the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. I assume that the declarations constitute the linguistic expression of the deep-level or “backing” of society’s discourses. They show which warrants the argumentation is based on, in other words, on the basis of which values the society is going to argue. In the specific context of democracies concerned with
Prototyping an online wetland ecosystem services model using open model sharing standards
Feng, M.; Liu, S.; Euliss, N.H.; Young, Caitlin; Mushet, D.M.
2011-01-01
Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America.
Folmer, Erwin; van Bekkum, Michael; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; van Hillegersberg, Jos
2011-01-01
eGovernment interoperability should be dealt with using high-quality standards. A quality model for standards is presented based on knowledge from the software engineering domain. In the tradition of action research the model is used on the SETU standard, a standard that is mandatory in the public
Towards a standard model for research in agent-based modeling and simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuno Fachada
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Agent-based modeling (ABM is a bottom-up modeling approach, where each entity of the system being modeled is uniquely represented as an independent decision-making agent. ABMs are very sensitive to implementation details. Thus, it is very easy to inadvertently introduce changes which modify model dynamics. Such problems usually arise due to the lack of transparency in model descriptions, which constrains how models are assessed, implemented and replicated. In this paper, we present PPHPC, a model which aims to serve as a standard in agent based modeling research, namely, but not limited to, conceptual model specification, statistical analysis of simulation output, model comparison and parallelization studies. This paper focuses on the first two aspects (conceptual model specification and statistical analysis of simulation output, also providing a canonical implementation of PPHPC. The paper serves as a complete reference to the presented model, and can be used as a tutorial for simulation practitioners who wish to improve the way they communicate their ABMs.
Implementation of IEC Standard Models for Power System Stability Studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Margaris, Ioannis; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Bech, John
2012-01-01
, namely a model for a variable speed wind turbine with full scale power converter WTG including a 2- mass mechanical model. The generic models for fixed and variable speed WTGs models are suitable for fundamental frequency positive sequence response simulations during short events in the power system...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GILLOT, Sylvie ; LANGERGRABER, Günter ; OHTSUKI, Takayuki ; SHAW, Andrew ; TAKACS, Imre ; WINKLER, Stefan ; RIEGER, Leiv
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Les stations d’épuration sont des systèmes dynamiques, soumis à d’importantes variations temporelles. La modélisation de leur fonctionnement, qui consiste à représenter mathématiquement l’évolution dans le temps de variables d’intérêt représentant les phénomènes biologiques, physiques et chimiques qui se déroulent dans les ouvrages, est utilisée pour mieux comprendre les processus mis en jeu et optimiser le traitement des eaux résiduaires.. Focus sur les activités du groupe de travail Good Modelling Practice de l’IWA, auquel participe activement les équipes d’Irstea, notamment dans l’élaboration d’un protocole pour l’utilisation des modèles de boues activées en pratique.The IWA Task Group on Good Modelling Practice (GMP has analysed current practice and experience on the use of activated sludge models. The group developed a framework to make modelling more straightforward and that helps structuring the interaction between modellers and the project stakeholders. The GMP protocol is a synthesis of existing procedures, and contains five major steps: (i Project definition, (ii Data collection and reconciliation, (iii Plant model set-up, (iv Calibration and validation, and (v Simulation and result interpretation. The Unified Protocol forms the basis of a Scientific and Technical Report that will be published in late 2012.
MUSiC - Model-independent search for deviations from Standard Model predictions in CMS
Pieta, Holger
2010-02-01
We present an approach for a model independent search in CMS. Systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectations, such an analysis can help to understand the detector and tune event generators. By minimizing the theoretical bias the analysis is furthermore sensitive to a wide range of models for new physics, including the uncounted number of models not-yet-thought-of. After sorting the events into classes defined by their particle content (leptons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy), a minimally prejudiced scan is performed on a number of distributions. Advanced statistical methods are used to determine the significance of the deviating regions, rigorously taking systematic uncertainties into account. A number of benchmark scenarios, including common models of new physics and possible detector effects, have been used to gauge the power of such a method. )
Roueff, Olivier
2007-01-01
L’ouvrage d’André Schaeffner constitue la première analyse savante du jazz (1926). Il a marqué une étape importante dans le processus de réinvention du jazz en France en contribuant notamment, par sa réception et les polémiques qu’il a suscitées, à transformer l’identification du jazz d’une musique « américaine » à une musique « noire-américaine » (c’est-à-dire aux « racines » africaines). Les analyses proposées dans cet ouvrage, alors qu’elles désignaient des musiques que la critique de jazz...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
pie du lit tumoral est employée comme complément thé- rapeutique [9] alors que la chimiothérapie est générale- ment indiquée dans les formes métastatiques. Le pronos- tic dépend essentiellement du degré de différentiation his- tologique. En fait, le fibrosarcome bien différencié est caractérisé par la fréquence de récidive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
plancton de 90 µm de vide de maille. Ils ont été conservés dans du formol à 5%. L'identification de l'espèce est basée sur des critères morphologiques [20]: la forme des furcas, les lobes frontaux des antennes des mâles, de l'organe copulateur (pénis) et du sac ovigère. Le comptage des soies furcales a été réalisé. L'étude ...
Cirque du Monde as a health intervention
Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard
2014-01-01
Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient
Implementation of Electrical Simulation Model for IEC Standard Type-3A Generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Subramanian, Chandrasekaran; Casadei, Domenico; Tani, Angelo
2013-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of electrical simulation model for IEC 61400-27-1 standard Type-3A generator. A general overview of the different wind electric generators(WEG) types are given and the main focused on Type-3A WEG standard models, namely a model for a variable speed wind tur...
Searches for rare and non-Standard-Model decays of the Higgs boson
Sun, Xiaohu; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Theories beyond the Standard Model predict Higgs boson decays at a much enhanced rate compared to the Standard Model, e.g. for decays to Z+photon or a meson and a photon, or decays that do not exist in the Standard Model, such as decays into two light bosons (a). This talk presents recent results based on 36 fb-1 of pp collision data collected at 13 TeV.
Physics at a 100 TeV pp Collider: Standard Model Processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mangano, M. L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zanderighi, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Aguilar Saavedra, J. A. [Univ. of Granada (Spain); Alekhin, S. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Inst. for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Badger, S. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bauer, C. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Becher, T. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Bertone, V. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bonvini, M. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Boselli, S. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Bothmann, E. [Gottingen Univ. (Germany); Boughezal, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cacciari, M. [Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Carloni Calame, C M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Caola, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Campbell, J. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Carrazza, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chiesa, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Cieri, L. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Cimaglia, F. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Febres Cordero, F. [Physikalisches Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Ferrarese, P. [Gottingen Univ. (Germany); D' Enterria, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ferrera, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Garzelli, M. V. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Germann, E. [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hirschi, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Han, T. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ita, H. [Physikalisches Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Jager, B. [Univ. of Tubingen (Germany); Kallweit, S. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Karlberg, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Kuttimalai, S. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Krauss, F. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Larkoski, A. J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lindert, J. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Luisoni, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Maierhofer, P. [Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Mattelaer, O. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Martinez, H. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Moch, S. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Montagna, G. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Moretti, M. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Nason, P. [Univ. of Milano (Italy); Nicrosini, O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Oleari, C. [Univ. of Milano (Italy); Pagani, D. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Papaefstathiou, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Petriello, F. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Piccinini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Pierini, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pierog, T. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Pozzorini, S. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Re, E. [National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Lab. of Annecy-le-Vieux for Theoretical Physics (LAPTh); Robens, T. [Technische Universitat Dresden (Germany); Rojo, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Ruiz, R. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Sakurai, K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Salam, G. P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salfelder, L. [Univ. of Tubingen (Germany); Schonherr, M. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Schulze, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schumann, S. [Univ. Gottingen (Germany); Selvaggi, M. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Shivaji, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Siodmok, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Krakow (Poland); Skands, P. [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Torrielli, P. [Univ. of Torino (Italy); Tramontano, F. [Univ. of Napoli (Italy); Tsinikos, I. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Tweedie, B. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vicini, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Westhoff, S. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Zaro, M. [Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Zeppenfeld, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)
2017-06-22
This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.
Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc
2015-12-01
Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-David Gerber
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.
A Statistical Model for Natural Gas Standardized Load Profiles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brabec, Marek; Konár, Ondřej; Malý, Marek; Pelikán, Emil; Vondráček, Jiří
2009-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 123-139 ISSN 0035-9254 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : disaggregation * generalized additive models * multiplicative model * non-linear effects * segmentation * semiparametric regression model Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2009
Specification for a standard radar sea clutter model
Paulus, Richard A.
1990-09-01
A model for the average sea clutter radar cross section is proposed for the Oceanographic and Atmospheric Master Library. This model is a function of wind speed (or sea state), wind direction relative to the antenna, refractive conditions, radar antenna height, frequency, polarization, horizontal beamwidth, and compressed pulse length. The model is fully described, a FORTRAN 77 computer listing is provided, and test cases are given to demonstrate the proper operation of the program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trocheris, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1953-07-01
The systematic comparison of {beta} decays of the cores of number of odd mass with the predictions of the modal of Mrs. Mayer on spins and parities, has already been made by several authors. It is taken in the present work with more recent experimental data and with a method of classification of the {beta} transitions. A simultaneous comparison to the experience of the model of the layers and the theory of the {beta} transitions can serve to verify one and the other too. In the present work, it appeared more fruitful to try to verify the model of the layers with the help of the very established theory of the {beta} transitions. One will look to verify and perfect the models of the layers for transitions between fundamental states or isomers of the cores. (M.B.) [French] La comparaison systematique des desintegrations {beta} des noyaux de nombre de masse impair avec les predictions du modale de Mme MAYER sur les spins et les parites, a deja ete faite par plusieurs auteurs. Elle est reprise dans le present travail avec des donnees experimentales plus recentes et avec une methode de classification des transitions {beta}. Une comparaison simultanee a l'experience du modele des couches et de la theorie des transitions {beta} peut, a priori, servir a verifier egalement l'un et l'autre. Dans le present travail, il a paru plus fructueux de chercher a verifier le modele des couches a l'aide de la theorie bien etablie des transitions {beta}. On cherchera de verifier et de perfectionner le modele des couches pour les transitions entre etats fondamentaux ou isomeres des noyaux. (M.B.)
1998-12-01
into the Systems Engineering Process 17 5.3 Validation of HPMs 18 5.4 Commercialisation of human performance modelling software 18 5.5 Model Tool...budget) so that inappropriate models/tools are not offered. The WG agreed that another form of ’ educating ’ designers in the use of models was by means... Commercialisation of human performance modelling Software 5.2.8 Include human performance in system test. g More and more, customer’s are mandating the provision
On the Estimation of Standard Errors in Cognitive Diagnosis Models
Philipp, Michel; Strobl, Carolin; de la Torre, Jimmy; Zeileis, Achim
2018-01-01
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) are an increasingly popular method to assess mastery or nonmastery of a set of fine-grained abilities in educational or psychological assessments. Several inference techniques are available to quantify the uncertainty of model parameter estimates, to compare different versions of CDMs, or to check model…
78 FR 45447 - Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard
2013-07-29
...; Order No. 782] Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard AGENCY: Federal Energy... Analysis (MOD) Reliability Standard MOD- 028-2, submitted to the Commission for approval by the North... Organization. The Commission finds that the proposed Reliability Standard represents an improvement over the...
New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corominas, L.; Rieger, L.; Takacs, I.
2010-01-01
Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new...... is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper...... notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Our Journal “les cahiers du cread” is a quarterly economic review publishing original findings of empirical research and theoretical debates on fields pertaining to our mission coverage (Macro Economics, Industrial Economics and Firms, Human Development & Social Economics, Agriculture & Environment). Other websites ...
Realizing three generations of the Standard Model fermions in the type IIB matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Hajime; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato
2014-01-01
We discuss how the Standard Model particles appear from the type IIB matrix model, which is considered to be a nonperturbative formulation of superstring theory. In particular, we are concerned with a constructive definition of the theory, in which we start with finite-N matrices and take the large-N limit afterwards. In that case, it was pointed out recently that realizing chiral fermions in the model is more difficult than it had been thought from formal arguments at N=∞ and that introduction of a matrix version of the warp factor is necessary. Based on this new insight, we show that two generations of the Standard Model fermions can be realized by considering a rather generic configuration of fuzzy S"2 and fuzzy S"2×S"2 in the extra dimensions. We also show that three generations can be obtained by squashing one of the S"2’s that appear in the configuration. Chiral fermions appear at the intersections of the fuzzy manifolds with nontrivial Yukawa couplings to the Higgs field, which can be calculated from the overlap of their wave functions.
Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, Yasunori
2009-07-31
A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressing the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.
STRESS MODELING IN COMPOSITE PRODUCTS USING STANDARD OPTICALLY SENSITIVE MATERIAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elifkhan K. Agakhanov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The problem of physically modelling stresses in a compound solid body of revolution having a complex shape and with a complex load distribution is considered. According to the similarity criteria of stress, deformations and displacements from the volume forces decrease proportionally to the scale of similarity of geometric dimensions, which complicates their direct modelling by the photoelasticity method typically using models made from epoxy materials. Methods Based on the principle of the independent action of the forces, the initial problem is represented as the sum of two problems. In the first uniform problem, the stresses in the body of revolution from the centrifugal forces are simulated by the conventional “freezing” method. In order to solve the second nonuniform problem, the stresses in the region of the model, corresponding to the acting centrifugal forces, are “frozen”. The models are glued in a natural state at room temperature, and the compound model is annealed. Results The band patterns in sections as well as components of radial, tangential and axial stresses on contours and in sections of models are obtained by the methods of normal transmission and numerical integration of the equilibrium equation. According to the modelling criteria, the formula for the transition from stresses in models to stresses in the natural structure is established. The results of the analysis of the effect of a body's material density ratio on the stress state of the entire structure are obtained. Conclusion Axial stresses have insignificant value as compared to radial and tangential stresses; in addition, the ratio of the densities of the compound body has both a quantitative and qualitative influence on the stress state of the structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches
1997-12-31
This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.
Towards a 'standard model' of large scale structure formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafi, Q.
1994-01-01
We explore constraints on inflationary models employing data on large scale structure mainly from COBE temperature anisotropies and IRAS selected galaxy surveys. In models where the tensor contribution to the COBE signal is negligible, we find that the spectral index of density fluctuations n must exceed 0.7. Furthermore the COBE signal cannot be dominated by the tensor component, implying n > 0.85 in such models. The data favors cold plus hot dark matter models with n equal or close to unity and Ω HDM ∼ 0.2 - 0.35. Realistic grand unified theories, including supersymmetric versions, which produce inflation with these properties are presented. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs
Z2 monopoles in the standard SU(2) lattice gauge theory model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Petkova, V.B.
1979-04-01
The standard SU(2) lattice gauge theory model without fermions may be considered as a Z 2 model with monopoles and fluctuating coupling constants. At low temperatures β -1 (= small bare coupling constant) the monopoles are confined. (orig.) [de
Comparison of standard fast reactor calculations (Baker model)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voropaev, A I; Van' kov, A A; Tsybulya, A M
1978-12-01
Compared are standard fast reactor calculations performed at different laboratories using several nuclear data files: BNAB-70 and OSKAR-75 (the USSR), CARNAVAL-4 (France), FD-5 (Great Britain), KFK-INR (West Germany), ENDF/B4 (the USA). Three fuel compositions were chosen: (1) /sup 239/Pu and /sup 238/U; (2) /sup 239/Pu, /sup 238/U and fission products; (3) /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, /sup 238/U and fission products. Medium temperature was 300K. The calculations have been conducted in the diffusion approximation. Data on critical masses and breeding ratios are tabulated. Discrepancies in the calculations of all the characteristics are small since all the countries possess practically the same nuclear data files.
Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer
Kogut, Alan J.
2011-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.
Vandenplas, Denis
Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car
Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de neurones pour le filtrage du courant de reference pour la commande du filtre actif parallele. C Benachaiba, A Bassou, B Mazari ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mrad, M
2005-10-15
The use of compacted swelling soils in engineering practice is very widely spread, especially in geotechnical and environmental engineering. After their setup, these materials are likely to be subject to complex suction/stress paths involving significant variations of their hydro-mechanical properties which can affect their initial behaviour. It is important to be able to predict the hydro-mechanical behaviour of these materials taking into account the significant applications for which they are intended. Barcelona team developed a finite-element code (Code-Bright) for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling (THM) integrating the BBM elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils based on the independent variables approach. This model is recognized to correctly describe the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils but fails to take into account some particular observed aspects on swelling soils. A second model BExM was then proposed to address these aspects. The objective of this study is: (i) to implement the elastoplastic model BExM for the unsaturated swelling soils in the finite-element code (Code-Bright); (ii) to check the numerical model validity through the numerical simulation of laboratory tests made on swelling soils; and (iii) to apply this model to some practical problems. For this purpose, a new family of numerical procedures adapted to the BExM model was introduced into the code. The equation of the yield surface of this model for a given deviatoric stress states was given in a manner to facilitate calculations of its derivatives. The model was checked by the numerical simulation of suction-controlled odometric tests made on three different swelling soils. The simulation results showed that the numerical model is able to correctly reproduce the experimental data. Lastly, the model was applied to two practical problems: radioactive waste repository in deep geological layers and a shallow footing under the action of a swelling soil. The results obtained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lestaevel, Ph.; Bensoussan, H.; Racine, R.; Airault, F.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M. [Direction de la radioprotection de l' Homme, service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, BP no 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)
2011-02-15
Some heavy metals, or aluminium, could participate in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). Depleted uranium (DU), another heavy metal, modulates the cholinergic system and the cholesterol metabolism in the brain of rats, but without neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine what happens in organisms exposed to DU that will/are developing the AD. This study was thus performed on a transgenic mouse model for human amyloid precursor protein (APP), the Tg2576 strain. The possible effects of DU through drinking water (20 mg/L) over an 8-month period were analyzed on acetylcholine and cholesterol metabolisms at gene level in the cerebral cortex. The mRNA levels of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABC A1) decreased in control Tg2576 mice in comparison with wild-type mice (respectively -89%, -86% and -44%, p < 0.05). Chronic exposure of Tg2576 mice to DU increased mRNA levels of ChAT (+189%, p < 0.05), VAChT (+120%, p < 0.05) and ABC A1 (+52%, p < 0.05) compared to control Tg2576 mice. Overall, these modifications of acetylcholine and cholesterol metabolisms did not lead to increased disturbances that are specific of AD, suggesting that chronic DU exposure did not worsen the pathology in this experimental model. (authors)
g-2 and α(MZ2): Status of the Standard Model predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teubner, T.; Hagiwara, K.; Liao, R.; Martin, A.D.; Nomura, D.
2012-01-01
We review the status of the Standard Model prediction of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and the electromagnetic coupling at the scale M Z . Recent progress in the evaluation of the hadronic contributions have consolidated the prediction of both quantities. For g-2, the discrepancy between the measurement from BNL and the Standard Model prediction stands at a level of more than three standard deviations.
Simulating the SU(2) sector of the standard model with dynamical fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, I. Hsiu.
1988-01-01
The two-generation SU(2) sector of the standard model with zero Yukawa couplings is studied on the lattice. The results from analytic studies and simulations with quenched fermions are reviewed. The methods and results of a Langevin simulation with dynamical fermions are presented. Implications for the strongly coupled standard model are mentioned. 23 refs
Lectures on perturbative QCD, jets and the standard model: collider phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, S.D.
1988-01-01
Applications of the Standard Model to the description of physics at hadron colliders are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the use of jets to characterize this physics. The issue of identifying physics beyond the Standard Model is also discussed. 59 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs
Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in the decay ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-10-06
Oct 6, 2012 ... s = 7 TeV. No evidence is found for a significant deviation from Standard Model expectations anywhere in the ZZ mass range considered in this analysis. An upper limit at 95% CL is placed on the product of the cross-section and decay branching ratio for the Higgs boson decaying with Standard Model-like ...
Violations of universality in a vectorlike extension of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montvay, I.
1996-04-01
Violations of universality of couplings in a vectorlike extension of the standard model with three heavy mirror fermion families are considered. The recently observed discrepancies betwen experiments and the standard model in the hadronic branching fractions R b and R c of the Z-boson are explained by the mixing of fermions with their mirror fermion partners. (orig.)
Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
metry searches at the LHC is thus the channel with large missing transverse momentum and jets of high transverse momentum. No excess above the expected SM background is observed and limits are set on supersymmetric models. Figures 1 and 2 show the limits from ATLAS [11] and CMS [12]. In addition to setting limits ...
The standard Higgs-model on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montvay, I.
1985-06-01
Some recent Monte Carlo calcuations in the SU(2) Higgs-model with a scalar doublet field are reviewed. Questions about the dependence on the scalar self-coupling are discussed in the framework of a strong self-coupling expansion. The numerical results are consistent with an asymptotically free continuum limit at vanishing bare gauge coupling. (orig.)
Physics beyond the standard model and cosmological connections ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E-mail: Sridhar@theory.tifr.res.in. Abstract. .... of anomaly mediation one gets Pτ = −1, while in gauge mediation Pτ = sin2θτ − cos2θτ . Thus it is .... effort needed in pinpointing the role of the ILC in specific model contexts. No doubt much of this ...
LEP Higgs boson searches beyond the standard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These include the searches for charged Higgs bosons, models with two Higgs field doublets, searches for 'fermiophobic' Higgs decay, invisible Higgs boson decays, decay-mode independent searches, and limits on Yukawa and anomalous Higgs couplings. I review the searches done by the four LEP experiments and ...
Simple Brownian diffusion an introduction to the standard theoretical models
Gillespie, Daniel T
2013-01-01
Brownian diffusion, the motion of large molecules in a sea of very many much smaller molecules, is topical because it is one of the ways in which biologically important molecules move about inside living cells. This book presents the mathematical physics that underlies the four simplest models of Brownian diffusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somot, S
2005-12-15
Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)
Le ministre du Commerce international du Canada rencontre des ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
17 juil. 2017 ... La promotion de l'entrepreneuriat, la façon dont le commerce peut profiter aux femmes et à leur famille, et la création d'emplois pour les plus vulnérables étaient au coeur de la discussion en table ronde du ministre du Commerce international du Canada, l'honorable François-Philippe Champagne, et des ...
Dimensional reduction of the Standard Model coupled to a new singlet scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, Tomáš [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Tenkanen, Tuomas V.I. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Tranberg, Anders [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Weir, David J. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)
2017-03-01
We derive an effective dimensionally reduced theory for the Standard Model augmented by a real singlet scalar. We treat the singlet as a superheavy field and integrate it out, leaving an effective theory involving only the Higgs and SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} gauge fields, identical to the one studied previously for the Standard Model. This opens up the possibility of efficiently computing the order and strength of the electroweak phase transition, numerically and nonperturbatively, in this extension of the Standard Model. Understanding the phase diagram is crucial for models of electroweak baryogenesis and for studying the production of gravitational waves at thermal phase transitions.
Beyond-the-Standard Model Higgs Physics using the ATLAS Experiment
Madsen, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV has prompted the question of whether or not this particle is part of a larger and more complex Higgs sector than that envisioned in the Standard Model. In this talk, the latest results from the ATLAS experiment on Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) Higgs searches are outlined. Searches for additional Higgs bosons are presented and interpreted in well-motivated BSM Higgs frameworks, such as two-Higgs-doublet Models and the Minimal and Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Beyond-the-Standard Model Higgs Physics using the ATLAS Experiment
Vanadia, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV has prompted the question of whether or not this particle is part of a larger and more complex Higgs sector than that envisioned in the Standard Model. In this talk, the latest Run 1 results from the ATLAS Experiment on Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) Higgs searches are outlined. Searches for additional Higgs bosons are presented and interpreted in wellmotivated BSM Higgs frameworks, including the two-Higgs-doublet Models and the Minimal and Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Beyond-the-Standard Model Higgs Physics using the ATLAS Experiment
Scutti, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV has prompted the question of whether or not this particle is part of a larger and more complex Higgs sector than that envisioned in the Standard Model. In this talk, the current results from the ATLAS experiment on Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) Higgs searches are summarized. Searches for additional Higgs bosons are presented and interpreted in well-motivated BSM Higgs frameworks, such as two-Higgs-doublet Models and the Minimal and Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Beyond-the-Standard Model Higgs Physics using the ATLAS Experiment
Vanadia, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV/$\\rm{c^2}$ has prompted the question of whether or not this particle is part of a larger and more complex Higgs sector than that envisioned in the Standard Model. In this report, the latest Run 1 results from the ATLAS Experiment on Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) Higgs searches are outlined. Searches for additional Higgs bosons are presented and interpreted in well motivated BSM Higgs frameworks, including the two-Higgs-doublet Models and the Minimal and Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Beyond-the-Standard Model Higgs Physics using the ATLAS Experiment
Nagata, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV has prompted the question of whether or not this particle is part of a larger and more complex Higgs sector than that envisioned in the Standard Model. In this talk, the current results from the ATLAS experiment on Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) Higgs searches are outlined. Searches for additional Higgs bosons are presented and interpreted in well-motivated BSM Higgs frameworks, such as two-Higgs-doublet Models and the Minimal and Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Beyond-the-Standard Model Higgs physics using the ATLAS experiment
Ernis, G; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV has prompted the question of whether or not this particle is part of a larger and more complex Higgs sector than that envisioned in the Standard Model. In this talk, the current results from the ATLAS experiment on Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) Higgs searches are outlined. Searches for additional Higgs bosons are presented and interpreted in well-motivated BSM Higgs frameworks, such as two-Higgs-doublet Models and the Minimal and Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Top quark and Higgs physics in standard model extensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, Patrick Jose
2012-05-25
In this thesis we have studied several extensions of the SM and their implications on the strength and structure of the tbW vertex, on the production and decays of pseudoscalar and heavy Higgs scalars at the LHC, and the effects that models with a fourth generation have on electroweak precision observables. Apart from the SM with a fourth generation of chiral fermions, the extensions we studied all feature an extended electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) sector. In the case of the type-II 2HDM and the MSSM, the extended EWSB sector consists of elementary Higgs fields. In the case of Topcolor assisted Technicolor (TC2), which is a model of dynamical EWSB, the scalar and pseudoscalar fields are composite. By scanning over the phenomenologically and theoretically allowed regions of the respective parameters spaces, we determined the largest possible cross sections σ(pp→φ→VV{sup '}) where VV{sup p}rime element of {W"+W"-, ZZγγ, Zγ} for both the heavy scalar and pseudoscalar states in the above models. We found that non-SUSY models with an extended Higgs sector and only three generations, namely the type-II 2HDM and the TC2, still allow for observable pseudoscalar cross sections σ(pp → A → VV') at the LHC. In particular for the final states W{sup +}W{sup -} and γγ. In the MSSM, the discovery of the pseudoscalar A through its decays into electroweak gauge bosons is very unlikely. However, scalar cross sections σ(pp→H→W{sup +}W{sup -}) can still be of observable size at the LHC in large parts of the MSSM parameter space. SM extensions with an extended EWSB sector and four chiral generations are strongly disfavoured; direct Higgs boson searches exclude large parts of the parameter space and it is challenging to bring such an extension into accordance with electroweak precision data. On the other hand, models with additional vector-like quarks and an extended Higgs sector are still viable. The SM with four chiral generations is (still) not