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  1. Valorisation du biogaz de fermentation : combustion catalytique

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work concerns the study of two classes of catalysts, mixed oxides (CuO/Al2O3, CuO-CuAl2O4, CuO-CuCr2O4, CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 undoped or doped with Ag and Mn) and nobles supported metals (Pd/Al2O3 and Pt/ Al2O3, Pd-Pt /Al2O3 undoped or doped with B) used in two different reactions: low temperature gas phase ammonia oxidation into nitrogen and high temperature methane catalytic combustion for energy production. Biogas, a renewable energy, is mainly constituted of methane and carb...

  2. Prediction du transfert thermique parietal pour la chambre de combustion d'une turbine a gaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre

    Des travaux ont demontre que la temperature de paroi pouvait etre predite avec precision (+/-6 a 10%) pour une chambre de combustion a pleine-echelle. Pour les resultats obtenus d'une autre chambre, aussi identique mais de plus petit diametre, la prediction de temperature de paroi n'offrait pas la meme precision de calcul. Cette etude est limitee aux turbines aeronautiques. L'objectif a ete de reevaluer globalement la prediction de la temperature de paroi d'une chambre de combustion de type GHOST a la lumiere des resultats obtenus des programmes experimentaux, tout en prenant en consideration l'influence des differents types de carburants. Par l'analyse du grand nombre de donnees experimentales, des modifications furent apportees a la methode de prediction utilisee pour les chambres a pleine echelle afin de reduire l'erreur de prediction pour les echelles a 1:2 (basse pression), 1:3 (basse pression) et 1:3 (haute pression). Une modelisation de la chambre de combustion a ete effectuee. L'analyse numerique nous a demontree que le code FLUENT/UNS predisait tres bien l'ecoulement a froid a l'interieur de la chambre de combustion GHOST echelle 1:1. La prediction etait acceptable au niveau des profils de temperature a l'interieur de la chambre. Cependant, une lacune a ete observee au niveau du modele d'evaporation du code.

  3. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II n'est pas facile de parvenir à une vue complète des multiples phénomènes chimiques dont la flamme de charbon pulvérisé est le siège. La présente étude bibliographique s'efforce de donner plus qu'une juxtaposition des données de la littérature récente, en risquant une tentative de présentation cohérente des mécanismes chimiques clés qui s'affrontent dans cette combustion. Ces mécanismes font intervenir des réactions en phase gazeuse relativement rapides (combustion des produits gazeux de pyrolyse, formation d'oxydes d'azote à partir de l'azote organique ainsi qu'un certain nombre de réactions hétérogènes très importantes (dévolatilisation pyrolysante rapide, oxydation du coke, réduction hétérogène d'oxydes d'azote qui peuvent se dérouler de façon beaucoup plus lente. En ce qui concerne ces dernières, le régime non isotherme, auquel les soumet l'existence de gradients de température dans la flamme industrielle, entraîne souvent des conséquences non négligeables pour le déroulement de ces mécanismes cinétiques complexes : ainsi la quantité et la composition des produits de pyrolyse est fortement tributaire de ces conditions non isothermes. Carrefour de plusieurs mécanismes chimiques complexes, la flamme de charbon est caractérisée chimiquement par un grand nombre de cas de compétition : a compétition entre différentes voies réactionnelles à l'intérieur d'un mécanisme donné ; à titre d'exemple typique : la pyrolyse du charbon ; b compétition entre phénomènes chimiques et physiques, également à l'intérieur d'un même mécanisme, entraînant la transition éventuellement réversible d'un régime cinétique vers un régime diffusionnel, comme c'est le cas dans l'oxydation du coke, avec des conséquences sensibles pour la vitesse réactionnelle globale et sa dépendance par rapport à la température, pouvant même aller jusqu'à l'extinction de la combustion du coke ; c compétition entre

  4. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  5. Essais préliminaires de combustion d'asphaltes par la technique du charbon pulvérisé Preliminary Tests of Asphalt Combustion by the Pulverized Coal Technique

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    Flament G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les possibilités offertes par le procédé de désasphaltage étudié à L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP sont rapidement exposées. On montre en particulier que les asphaltes recueillis grâce à ce procédé ont des propriétés physiques telles, qu'il est possible de s'en servir comme combustible et donc de les valoriser sur le plan énergétique. The possibilities offered by the deasphalting process researched by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP are briefly described. It is shown in particular that the types of asphalts gathered by means of this process have physical properties enabling them to be used as a fuel so that they can be upgraded from the energy standpoint.

  6. Essais préliminaires de combustion d'asphaltes par la technique du charbon pulvérisé Preliminary Tests of Asphalt Combustion by the Pulverized Coal Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Flament G.; Mauss F.

    2006-01-01

    Les possibilités offertes par le procédé de désasphaltage étudié à L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP) sont rapidement exposées. On montre en particulier que les asphaltes recueillis grâce à ce procédé ont des propriétés physiques telles, qu'il est possible de s'en servir comme combustible et donc de les valoriser sur le plan énergétique. The possibilities offered by the deasphalting process researched by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP) are briefly described. It is shown in particular ...

  7. La pulvérisation du fuel oïl lourd par des combustibles gazeux Using Gaseous Fuels to Spray Heavy Fuel Oil

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    Ladurelli A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour faciliter l'inflammation du fuel lourd on procède à sa pulvérisation au droit du brûleur. Deux méthodes sont généralement employées à cet effet : - La pulvérisation mécanique qui consiste à faire passer le liquide sous forte pression au travers d'orifices calibrés de petit diamètre. - La pulvérisation pneumatique qui consiste à utiliser la détente d'un fluide auxiliaire préalablement comprimé. Les fluides couramment utilisés pour cela sont l'air comprimé et la vapeur d'eau ; toutefois tous les combustibles gazeux, notamment le gaz naturel et les gaz de raffinerie, peuvent également servir de fluide de pulvérisation quand ils sont disponibles sous pression. The igniting of heavy fuel oil is facilitated by spraying it at the burner. Two methods are used as a rule: - Pressure atomization, consisting in causing the liquid to pass at high pressure through calibrated small-diameter orifices. - Twin-fluid atomization, which consists in using the expansion of a previously compressed auxiliary fluid. The fluids commonly used for the purpose are compressed air and steam. However, any gaseous fuel, particularly natural gas and the refinery gases, can be used as the spraying fluid provided it is available under pressure.

  8. Natural gas combustion and indoor air quality in domestic premises; Combustion du gaz naturel et qualite de l'air a l'interieur des habitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhio, L.; Riva, A. [Snam, (Italy); Canci, F.; Scevarolli, V. [Italgas, Torino (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Indoor air quality depends on many factors; combustion appliances are one of the sources of emissions inside dwellings. Their installation is regulated by UNI-CIG standards which also establish the ventilation and aeration requirements needed to guarantee the safety and healthiness of the environment. In order to critically evaluate the effect on indoor air quality of using gas appliances under different operational regimes and in different types of building, Snam and Italgas have developed a research project in co-operation with Enitecnologie and Turin Polytechnic, even to provide theoretical and experimental support for standardisation activities. The results of the presented research include experimental measurements made in real buildings, mathematical modelling and analysis of Italian and international literature. The results show that use of combustion appliances has little influence on indoor air quality and does not affect people's health. (authors)

  9. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    OpenAIRE

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-01-01

    II n'est pas facile de parvenir à une vue complète des multiples phénomènes chimiques dont la flamme de charbon pulvérisé est le siège. La présente étude bibliographique s'efforce de donner plus qu'une juxtaposition des données de la littérature récente, en risquant une tentative de présentation cohérente des mécanismes chimiques clés qui s'affrontent dans cette combustion. Ces mécanismes font intervenir des réactions en phase gazeuse relativement rapides (combustion des produits gazeux de py...

  10. Experimental and numerical study of the active control of jets inside combustion chambers; Etude experimentale et numerique du controle actif de jets dans des chambres de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faivre, V.

    2003-12-15

    Combustion instabilities occur when the flame heat release couples with the acoustic waves propagating in the combustion chamber. This phenomenon can lead to strong vibrations and noise but also, sometimes, to the complete combustion device failure. That is the reason why so many studies focus on the control of those instabilities. The method chosen in this study consists in an active control device (or set of actuators) having a strong effect on the mixing of the burner exhaust flow with the ambient fluid. The model configuration studied consists in a non reactive jet of air controlled by four small tangential secondary jets. Experiments have been carried out to optimize the control device geometry. The configuration identified as the most efficient, in terms of mixing enhancement, has been simulated through Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The objective of the numerical part of the present work is double. First, the numerical simulations provide a better understanding of the phenomena occurring when the control is on. Then, it is shown that LES can be considered as a tool to predict the effects of a control device on a flow. (author)

  11. Chemical Looping with Copper Oxide as Carrier and Coal as Fuel Boucle chimique pour la combustion du charbon avec un transporteur d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de cuivre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyring E.M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary analysis has been conducted of the performance of a Chemical Looping system with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU with copper oxide as the oxygen carrier and coal approximated by carbon as the fuel. The advantages of oxygen uncoupling are demonstrated by providing the energy balances, the circulation rate of oxygen carrier, the oxygen carrier mass loadings, the carbon burnout and oxygen partial pressure in the fuel reactor. Experimental data on the cycling of cuprous oxide to cupric oxide and kinetics for the oxidation and decomposition reactions of the oxides were obtained for use in the analysis. For this preliminary study unsupported oxides were utilized. The decomposition temperatures were rapid at the high temperature of 950°C selected for the fuel reactor. The oxidation kinetics peaked at about 800°C with the decrease in rate at higher temperatures, a decrease which is attributed in the literature to the temperature dependence of the diffusional resistance of the CuO layer surrounding the Cu2O; the diffusion occurs through grain boundaries in the CuO layers and the rate of diffusion decreases as a consequence of growth of CuO grains with increasing temperature. The analysis shows the advantages of CLOU in providing rapid combustion of the carbon with carbon burnout times lower than the decomposition times of the oxygen carrier. For the full potential of CLOU to be established additional data are needed on the kinetics of supported oxides at the high temperatures (>850°C at which oxygen is released by the CuO in the fuel reactor. Une analyse préliminaire a été conduite pour estimer les performances d’un procédé en boucle chimique découplé (CLOU, chemical looping uncoupling pour la combustion du charbon avec un transporteur d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de cuivre. Les avantages de ce système sont démontrés en établissant le bilan énergétique, l’inventaire et le débit de circulation du matériau transportant l

  12. {alpha} grain refining and metallurgical study of alloyed uranium, Sicral F1, used for fuel elements; Affinage du grain {alpha} et etude metallurgique de l'alliage d'uranium sicral F1 pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study was made to know more about grain refining in low alloyed uranium of composition not very different from SICRAL F 1. Alpha grain refining of fuel elements made of these alloys was studied after casting and quenching by the methods used for mass production. The author describes the effect: - of the metallurgical history before quenching: - casting - purity - rate of solidification - of quenching parameters: - annealing temperature before quenching - annealing time - quenching rate - of the composition of the alloy. For the graphite gas fuel elements of various dimensions, he suggests some modifications to give a better adaptation of fabrication to size. He describes the grain refining made during quenching and the {beta} -> {alpha} and {gamma} -> {alpha} transformation types. He proposes the use of a U-Fe-Si especially useful from the point of view of grain refining. (author) [French] Le but de l'etude est de determiner les facteurs metallurgiques favorables a l'affinage du grain {alpha} des alliages d'uranium a tres faibles teneurs en elements d'addition voisins du SICRAL F 1 au cours du cycle de fabrication et de trempe industrielle des elements combustibles nucleaires prepares avec ces alliages. L'auteur met en evidence l'influence: - de l'histoire metallurgique avant trempe: - coulee - teneur en impuretes - vitesse de solidification - des parametres de la trempe: - temperature de trempe - temps et maintien a cette temperature - vitesse de trempe - des variations de composition de l'alliage. Il envisage les modifications a apporter au cycle de fabrication du SICRAL F 1 de facon a l'adapter aux differentes geometries des elements combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz. L'auteur presente a cette occasion les mecanismes de l'affinage du grain {alpha} par trempe dans les alliages d'uranium et les modes de transformation {beta} -> {alpha} et {gamma} -> {alpha} au cours de la trempe

  13. A Study on the Role of Reaction Modeling in Multi-phase CFD-based Simulations of Chemical Looping Combustion Impact du modèle de réaction sur les simulations CFD de la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruggel-Emden H.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion is an energy efficient combustion technology for the inherent separation of carbon dioxide for both gaseous and solid fuels. For scale up and further development of this process multi-phase CFD-based simulations have a strong potential which rely on kinetic models for the solid/gaseous reactions. Reaction models are usually simple in structure in order to keep the computational cost low. They are commonly derived from thermogravimetric experiments. With only few CFD-based simulations performed on chemical looping combustion, there is a lack in understanding of the role and of the sensitivity of the applied chemical reaction model on the outcome of a simulation. The aim of this investigation is therefore the study of three different carrier materials CaSO4, Mn3O4 and NiO with the gaseous fuels H2 and CH4 in a batch type reaction vessel. Four reaction models namely the linear shrinking core, the spherical shrinking core, the Avrami-Erofeev and a recently proposed multi parameter model are applied and compared on a case by case basis. La combustion en boucle chimique (Chemical Looping Combustion est une technologie de combustion efficace permettant le captage in situ du CO2 pour des charges gazeuses ou solides. Dans l’optique du développement et de l’extrapolation du procédé, la CFD est un outil de simulation à fort potentiel qui s’appuie notamment sur des modèles cinétiques pour décrire les réactions gaz-solide. Ces modèles décrivant les réactions sont généralement assez simples pour limiter les temps de simulation et sont obtenus à partir d’expérimentations en thermobalance. Il y a encore peu de travaux de modélisation CFD du procédé CLC et il est difficile d’estimer l’importance du modèle décrivant les réactions chimiques sur les résultats des simulations. Le but de ce travail est donc d’étudier la combustion de charges gazeuses H2 et CH4 dans des réacteurs en batch en consid

  14. Processing Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} fuel extracted from high temperature reactors HTGCR; Etude du traitement des combustibles Th C{sub 2} - UC{sub 2} issus de reacteurs a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, C.; Lessart, P.; Pianezza, E.; Verry, C.; Villain, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The object of this investigation is solubilisation head-end (from crushing and grinding phase to non included first purification phase) of pulverulent ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} (200 - 500 microns diameter) contained in a graphite matrix extracted from a 4.10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} thermalized neutrons average flux with an irradiation of 80000 MWjT{sup -1} HTGCR reactor. After having succinctly described different bibliographic processes we have chosen the burn - leach of reactor fuel and graphite matrix containing it. The technology of burner is original in nuclear field and still more by utilizing ultra-sounds to intensify burning reaction and to minimize the weight of unburnables. The mixture of ThO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and fission products oxides is solubilized by boiling HNO{sub 3} 13 M + HF 0.05 M. This process is profit-learning in a thorium recuperation and reprocessing point of view. In the contrary-case it would be interesting to consider a dry-process which would permit to separate solid ThF{sub 4} from gaseous UF{sub 6}. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet le traitement initial de mise en solution ou 'head-end' (allant de la phase broyag-concassage a la phase de premiere purification exclue) d'un combustible ({sup 233}U/{sup 232}Th)C{sub 2} pulverulent (de 200 a 500 {mu} de diametre) contenu dans une matrice de graphite issu d'un reacteur HTGCR surgenerateur a neutrons thermiques de flux moyen 4. l0{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} et taux d'irradiation 80000 MWjT{sup -1}. Apres exposition succincte des differents procedes bibliographiques decrits, nous avons finalement choisi le traitement par combustion-attaque ('Burn-Leach') du combustible et de la matrice etanche graphite qui le contient. La technologie du bruleur est originale dans le domaine nucleaire d'autant qu'elle utilise les ultra-sons pour ameliorer le rendement de la reaction de combustion et reduire au minimum le poids

  15. Nouveaux critères pour juger de l'efficacité d'un fourneau à la combustion du charbon de bois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaysenga, M.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available New Criteria to Judge Stove Efficiency in the Charcoal Combustion. The water boil test efficiency for choosing the most economic stove in combustion is estimated on the basis of four stoves. In addition to the heating and boiling energy usually considered as selection criterion, other criteria such as the boiling time and the combustion rate have been taken to indicate efficiency. Strangely, it appeared that the stove which maintains water at its boiling point for a long time and has the lowest combustion rate doesn 't valorize fuel energy efficiently if you only keep to the heating and boiling energy. The cooking test made it possible to explain that apparent contradiction : the fuel energy fraction which doesn't enter in the calculation of the heating and boiling energy isn't really lost. A low combustion rate associated with a long boiling time proved to be the best criteria of choosing the most economic stove in fuel. Therefore, the only water boil test doesn't make it possible to identify the most economically efficient stove. Resorting to the cooking test is compelling.

  16. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.

    2011-02-01

    activity of the OCs and both OCs performed well. The results were promising for the application of CLC directly to solid fuels. L’application de la combustion en boucle chimique (CLC aux combustibles solides est actuellement étudiée à l’Université du Kentucky, au Centre de Recherche de l’Energie Appliquée (CAER dans le but de développer un procédé de gazéification/combustion en boucle chimique pressurisé (PCLC/G afin de générer de l’électricité à partir de charbon. Un des principaux aspects de la combustion en boucle chimique de combustibles solides est la compréhension de l’effet des cendres sur la réactivité des porteurs d’oxygène (OCs. L’effet des cendres sur la capacité de transfert d’oxygène et sur l’aptitude à oxyder le charbon est étudié avec deux porteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxydes de fer. Les cendres utilisées sont des cendres volantes provenant d’une centrale thermique au charbon. Les expériences sont réalisées dans un système composé d’une thermo-balance couplée à un spectrographe de masse (TGMS dans lequel on utilise d’abord 500 mg d’un mélange de cendres/porteurs d’oxygène à différentes concentrations de cendres allant jusqu’à 75 %. Le gaz réducteur est composé de 10 % de H2, 15 % de CO, 20 % de CO2 et de 55 % de Ar; et le gaz oxydant est composé de 20 % de O2 dans Ar. Les réactions d’oxydation/réduction sont quasi totales. D’après ces expériences, les cendres ont une activité propre de porteur d’oxygène, liée à la présence de fer dans les cendres, confirmée par les analyses DRX. Cela génère une augmentation du gain ou de la perte de masse du mélange pendant l’oxydation/réduction. Les vitesses d’oxydation/réduction augmentent avec la concentration des cendres à cause de l’augmentation de la porosité du mélange de porteurs d’oxygène avec les cendres, ce qui permet un meilleur accès des gaz réactifs sur les sites actifs des porteurs d’oxygène. Dans un

  17. Experimental study of a separated jets burner: application to the natural gas-pure oxygen combustion; Etude experimentale du comportement de bruleurs a jets separes: application a la combustion gaz naturel-oxygene pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salentey, L.

    2002-04-15

    The evolution of pollution standards and the optimisation of furnaces performances require a development of new burner generation and also the improvement of combustion techniques. Actually, the use of oxy-combustion in separated jets burners offers interesting prospects for NO{sub x} emission reduction and on the modularity of flames properties (lift off, flame front topology, flame length). The complex geometry of those burners leads to several problems like the three-dimensional character of the flow, which may sometimes disturb the flame stability as flames are lifted above the burner. This experimental study deals with a simplified version of that kind of burner constituted with a central natural gas jet surrounded by two oxygen jets. Primary, the study of non-reactive jet was planned in order to understand dynamic and mixture phenomena involved between jets and to provide a database useful for the computer code validation. The reactive flow developed in a furnace, which simulates the real conditions, had been characterised. The studies of the dynamic field using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and of the turbulent mixture by conditional Laser tomography were supplemented in combustion by the visualisation of the spontaneous emission of radical OH, in the initial and final zone of the oxy-flames, like by the measurement of pollutants like NO{sub x} and soot. The measurements carried out while varying speeds of injection as well as the gap between the jets made possible the highlight of the influence of these parameters upon the stabilisation of the oxy-flames as well as the modification of the topology and the characteristics of the flows. The comparison of the measurements made in non-reactive and reactive flow shows the influence of oxy-combustion on the dynamic and scalar development of the flow for this type of burners. (author)

  18. Formation and destruction mechanisms of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion in circulating fluidized beds; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction des oxydes d`azote lors de la combustion du charbon en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrel, G.; Lecuyer, I. [Universite du Haut-Rhin, 68 - Mulhouse (France)

    1997-01-01

    Formation and reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO and N{sub 2}O) during coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed (CFBC) are very complicated and yet badly known. The aim of the present study was to better characterize these phenomena on a small-sized experimental unit (reactor diameter: 5 cm), with the possibility to re-inject the solids in the bottom of the furnace, as in a real industrial unit. This should allow then to develop a numerical set of chemical reactions involving the nitrogen oxides. The experimental results showed that coal ash plays a great role in reducing nitrogen oxides, the determining parameter being the quantity of unburnt carbon remaining in the ash. The study then detailed the interaction between nitrogen oxides and de-volatilized (char) according to the temperature, NO{sub x} concentration and the mass of solid. In the absence of oxygen small quantities of char can very significantly reduce NO as well as N{sub 2}O. It was possible to establish destruction kinetics on these particles, and orders of reaction could be determined versus the NO{sub x} concentration and the char particle mass (heterogeneous phase chemical reactions). Then, the coal pyrolysis study enabled to identify the products released during coal devolatilization and thermogravimetric analyses displayed several successive weight losses due CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} releases, during a linear temperature increase. Lastly coal combustion was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental results, a model was developed to calculate NO{sub x} concentrations during the coal combustion and validated. The NO and N{sub 2}O contents calculated are thoroughly correlated with the experimental data whatever the injection carbon/oxygen ratio is. (author) 96 refs.

  19. Periodical control of combustion facilities in agreement with the decree no. 98-833 from September 16, 1998. Specialist's guidebook; Controle periodique des installations de combustion au titre du decret no. 98-833 du 16 septembre 1998. Guide de l'expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This guidebook aims at specifying some of the conditions of application of the French decree no. 98-833 from September 16, 1998 relative to the periodical control of combustion facilities: 1 - introduction (goal, definitions, reference documents); 2 - objective of the periodical control; 3 - calculation of the characteristic efficiency of a boiler (type of boiler, losses with smokes, losses with unburnt solid residues, radiant and convection losses); 4 - measurement and control instrumentation; 5 - facilities devoted to thermal energy distribution; 6 - combustion quality and good operation of boilers; 7 - filling up of the maintenance book; 8 - operation and maintenance; 9 - report. (J.S.)

  20. Visualisation of Gasoline and Exhaust Gases Distribution in a 4-Valve Si Engine; Effects of Stratification on Combustion and Pollutants Visualisation de la répartition du carburant et des gaz brûlés dans un moteur à 4 soupapes à allumage commandé ; effet de la stratification sur la combustion et les polluants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps B.

    2006-12-01

    des dégagements d'énergie et des émissions de polluants très distincts. Le niveau de tumbleet l'emplacement de l'étincelle sont aussi modifiés. L'observation de la stratification telle qu'elle est réellement dans le moteur constitue un moyen pertinent pour expliquer ses performances. Les paramètres permettant d'optimiser les niveaux de NOx et d'HC peuvent en être déduits, de même que l'efficacité des stratégies de recirculation et d'injection du carburant. Les résultats des visualisations ont été confirmés par des mesures obtenues dans un moteur monocylindre muni d'une culasse conventionnelle avec la même géométrie de chambre de combustion.

  1. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  2. Instruments used to measure or check {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel; Appareils de mesure ou de controle {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, n, des circuits des usines de traitement du minerai ou du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A.; Brunet, M.; Kermagoret, M.; Labeyrie, J.; Roux, G.; Vasseur, J.; Weil, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the {beta} and {alpha} coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm{sup 3} of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of {alpha} detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to {gamma}. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of {gamma} activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the {alpha} activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the {beta} {gamma} activity of residue from a 100 cm{sup 3} sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [French] Parmi les controles relatifs au minerai en cours de traitement, figure le dosage rapide de thorium. Cette mesure est realisee au moyen d'un appareillage a scintillation qui met en evidence la coincidence des emissions {beta} et {alpha} du ThC et du ThC'. Le traitement des combustibles irradies s'accompagne d'un grand nombre de controles radioactifs portant sur le fonctionnement des operations de fixation et d'elution de l'uranium dans les

  3. Récupération du platine contenu dans les piles à combustible basse température par voie hydrométallurgique Platinum Recovery from used PEMFC by hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Denis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La récupération du platine contenu dans la couche catalytique des piles à combustible est nécessaire pour viabiliser cette technologie vers le secteur industriel. Dans cette étude la voie purement hydrométallurgique a été privilégiée au procédé de récupération pyrométallurgique, évitant la destruction des autres constituants de la pile (membrane, … et limitant la formation de gaz toxique. Le procédé mise en œuvre est constitué d'une étape de lixiviation à partir d'un mélange HCl/HNO3, suivie par la précipitation d'un sel de platine (NH42PtCl6 pouvant soit servir à la synthèse d'un nouveau catalyseur soit à l'obtention de platine métallique. Sur l'ensemble de la chaîne un rendement de récupération de plus de 80 % a pu être obtenu mettant en avant le potentiel de cette stratégie. The recovery of platinum in the catalyst layers of PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells is required to allow a transfer in industry. In this study, hydrometallurgical route was preferred to pyrometallurgical process, reducing both the destruction of the other components of the cell (membrane, … and the formation of hazardous gas. In this work, the process includes a leaching step from a diluted aqua regia solution, followed by a precipitation step of platinum under the (NH42PtCl6 form. This salt can be used either for the synthesis of a new catalyst or to obtain a metallic platinum. Considering these steps the recovery efficiency has been found to be over 80 %, which bring out the potential of this strategy.

  4. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  5. Du fratinoj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Vivis iam du fratinoj-Aje kaj Fatme.Iliapatrino estis duon-patrino por Fatme kaj in neamis.Foje i diris al sia edzo:-Faru kion ajn,sed mi ne plu volas vidiFatme.La sekvan tagon la patro forkondukis la

  6. modelisation du comportement hydrologique du bassin versant du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGE

    caractéristiques physiographiques du bassin dans le modèle permet la mise en évidence de son ... espèces les plus hygrophiles du secteur ombrophile. ...... [13] - F. HENDRICKX, Impact hydrologique d‟un changement climatique sur le bassin du ... LOPES, On the effect of uncertainty in spatial distribution of rainfall on ...

  7. Application des modèles mécanistiques de cinétique chimique aux combustions industrielles. Illustration par la fabrication du gaz de synthèse Application of Mechanistic Models of Chemical Kinetics to Industrial Combustion. Illustration by Synthetic Gas Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En combustion, la formation d'espèces mineures clés, comme les polluants, peut être interprétée par des modèles mécanistiques de cinétique chimique. Les informations que fournissent ces modèles, même s'il ne s'agit que de tendances, sont suffisamment fiables pour définir des choix technologiques. Toutefois, compte-tenu de la complexité des phénomènes traités, leur emploi fait appel à une méthode indirecte décrite dans cet article et illustrée par la conception d'un réacteur autotherme destiné à la préparation d'un syngaz (gaz de synthèse. Dans l'exemple proposé comme application, l'objectif est de faire fonctionner à l'air un réacteur opérant actuellement à l'oxygène pur. Le modèle mécanistique choisi établit très clairement les contraintes imposées par ce choix. During the development of a partial combustion reactor for natural gas [1], Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has made use of a mechanistic model to determine the impact of operational parameters on the formation of soot. The model we chose deals with the oxidation and pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons by several hundred elementary reactions, some of which are shown in Table 1. All the species taken into consideration as well as their linking are shown in the flowchart in Fig. 3. Our data mainly came from References [2] and [8], from which we took all the reactions of species having three carbon atoms or less as well as the pyrolysis reactions of hydrocarbons with four carbon atoms. In this database, the kinetic coefficients of reactions between CH4 and the C2H5, C2H3 and C2H radicals were replaced by the values published in Reference [9]. This set of reactions is not sufficient to analyze the formation of soot, and so we added on the pyrolysis reactions of acetylene from Reference [10]. The model assimilated the total mass of carbon contained in C5 and C6 hydrocarbons with a soot number assumed to be proportional to the mass of soot formed by the

  8. La maquette digitale du tunnel du LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Brouns, G

    2000-01-01

    Pour l'installation du LHC et son équipement périphérique (ligne cryogénique, câbles, tuyauterie, etc.) dans le tunnel du LEP, une maquette digitale CAO doit être faite. Après un rappel de la définition théorique du tunnel du LEP, cette LHC project Note décrit comment sont utilisées et intégrées d'anciennes et de nouvelles mesures du tunnel pour arriver à un ensemble de données qui permettent de construire la maquette digitale (CAO) du tunnel du LHC. Ensuite, les résultats sont comparés à leur valeur théorique d'une part, et aux anciennes valeurs disponibles d'autre part.

  9. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  10. The Nabucco project's economic failure - Lessons for the European Union's foreign gas policy; L'echec economique du projet Nabucco. Lecons pour la politique gaziere etrangere de l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [CNRS, Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et de Developpement - CIRED-CNRS, 94 - Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

    2010-11-15

    This article criticises the new strategy of the European Union's foreign gas policy. The new policy translates in the setting up of gas corridors to diversify importations in a context of increased political competition with Russia. The inherent limitations of the EU's plan to promote the Nabucco gas pipeline as merchant line without seeking exporter involvement in the project are analysed. Such limitations are analysed through various economic prospects. A micro-economic calculation shows the significance of the use rate of a gas pipeline for profitability. The competition theory shows the possibility for an existing dominating firm to compete with a newcomer's investment by building equipment likely to pre-empt access to the resources. The transaction cost saving shows how long term undertakings between producers and suppliers are necessary for the development of transit infrastructures and distant gas fields. The article ends with the need for economic relevance in the EU's gas policy actions. (author)

  11. RELIEF: Revue de linguistique et d'enseignement du francais (Review of Linguistics and French Language Instruction), 1991-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haillet, P., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the first two issues of the journal RELIEF. Each issue contains four articles. All articles deal with French second language instruction: (1) "Utiliser la presse ecrite en classe de francais-langue seconde (Using the Print Media in French Second Language Class)" (H. Canto); (2) "Une lecon de grammaire…

  12. The use of slightly alloyed uranium as fuel: its influence on the dissolution and other stages of treatment; Emploi de l'uranium faiblement allie comme combustible: son incidence sur la dissolution et les autres phases du retraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P.; Leroy, P.; Lheureux, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    This report deals chiefly with the treatment of binary alloys (UAI, UMo, UZr, UCr, USi) with a low concentration of the additional element ({<=}2 per cent). The investigation was pursued with a view to the continued utilisation, with a minimum of modification, of the existing plants for treatment of non-alloyed irradiated uranium. In the first part, the usual process for the treatment of irradiated uranium by solvent extraction is briefly recalled. The second part is devoted to a study of the selective dissolution of the canning around certain of these alloys. The third part gives the behaviour of these different alloys at various phases of the usual treatment: a) dissolution; b) extractions; c) final treatment of fission products; d) final purification of plutonium. To conclude, possible alloys are classed as a function of their repercussions on the normal treatment. (author) [French] Il s'agit surtout du traitement d'alliages binaires (UAI, UMo, UZr, UCr, USi) a faible teneur en element etranger ({<=}2 pour cent). L'etude a ete conduite en vue d'utiliser un minimum de modifications les usines de traitement d'uranium irradie non allie. Dans une premiere partie, nous rappelons brievement le procede habituel de traitement de l'uranium irradie par extraction au solvant. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude de la dissolution selective de la gaine entourant certains de ces alliages. La troisieme partie donne le comportement de ces differents alliages au cours des phases du traitement habituel: a) dissolution; b) extractions; c) traitement final des produits de fission; d) purification finale du plutonium. Enfin, en conclusion, nous etablirons un classement des alliages possibles en fonction des repercussions sur le traitement normal. (auteur)

  13. Study of the combustion of aluminium and magnesium particulates: influence of the composition of the gaseous mixture and of pressure; Etude de la combustion de particules d'aluminium et de magnesium: influence de la composition du melange gazeux et de la pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, B.

    2000-07-01

    The combustion of metal particulates has a major interest in the domain of space propulsion. Aluminium is today used as doping material in the solid propellant of Ariane 5 rocket engines. Magnesium represents a possible fuel for propellers allowing a come back from Mars. An electrostatic levitation device has been used to study the combustion in controlled environment of particulates having a size representative of those encountered in propellers. The particulates are ignited with a laser and observed by fast cinematography. The inhibitive property of hydrogen chloride, an important constituent of the propellant atmosphere, on the combustion of aluminium particulates has been evidenced. These results have been compared with those obtained with a kinetic model in gaseous phase. The combustion of magnesium particulates in carbon dioxide has been studied for 53-63 {mu}m and 1-2 mm particulates. It is shown that the ignition of small particulates is controlled by the chemical kinetics and that the limit ignition pressure is reversely proportional to the particulates size. A study on big samples, performed in normal gravity but also in reduced gravity to get rid of the natural convection phenomena, has permitted to show a pulsed combustion regime linked with the presence of heterogenous reactions. The measurement of the combustion durations for the different sizes of particulates has permitted to propose a correlation between these two parameters for the particulate diameters comprised between 50 {mu}m and 2 mm. (J.S.)

  14. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  15. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  16. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  17. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  18. Combustion en lit fluidisé Fluidized-Bed Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysostome G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après quelques rappels généraux sur la fluidisation où seront présentés en par-ticulier les avantages qu'elle offre en combustion, on exposera l'état actuel du développement des générateurs à lit fluidisé opérant avec les combustibles suivants : charbon, combustibles pétroliers, résidus divers ; il sera fait mention de la contribution de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP dans les deux derniers domaines.On présentera ensuite les installations les plus récentes en traitement de minerais (grillage des sulfures, calcination de calcaires. En raison de son importance on examinera encore les possibilités de désulfuration au sein de lits fluidisés, de même que seront commentés les travaux de régénération des absorbants.On terminera enfin en mentionnant les développements des lits circulants ou rapides, considérés comme les réacteurs de la seconde génération. After a general review of fluidization including in particular the advantages it offers for combustion, this article describes the present state of the development of fluidized-bed gcnerators operating with the following fuels : cool, petroleum fuels, different residues. Mention is made of Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP contribution in the last two fields. Then the most recent ore-treating installations are described (roasting of sulfides, calcination of limestones. Because of its importance, the possibilities of desulfurizoticn inside fluidized beds is examined, and research on the regeneration of absorbants is commented on. The article ends by mentioning the development of circulating or fast beds which are considered as second generation reactors.

  19. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learning About Prostate Cancer Learning About Cri du Chat Syndrome What is cri du chat syndrome? What ... cri du chat syndrome What is cri du chat syndrome? Cri du chat syndrome - also known as ...

  20. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  1. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  2. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  3. Restaurant du Rivage, Vevey

    OpenAIRE

    Basini, Sari Bianca; Glocki, Ryszard Nikodem

    2015-01-01

    Après cinquante ans de mutilations, d'abandon et de spéculations économiques, le complexe du château de l'Aile et de la salle du Castillo à Vevey doit redéfinir son rôle public par rapport à la place du Marché et au Jardin du Rivage. S'appuyant sur la mémoire historique en ajoutant une unité à l'ensemble, nous créons un îlot regroupant des fonctions publiques. Il dessert ainsi l'espace ouvert environnant en articulant la relation entre le jardin et la place. L'élargissement de la promenade du...

  4. Atlas du Liban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Philippe Maalouf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Compte-rendu de l’ouvrage Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, sous la direction d’Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour et Sébastien Velut, édition franco-libanaise de l’IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient et du CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban, Beyrouth 2007.Resenha do livro Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, sob a direção de Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour e Sébastien Velut, editado por iniciativa franco-libanesa do IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient e pelo CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban, Beirute, 2007.Review of Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, edited by Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour and Sébastien Velut, french-lebanese edition by IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient and CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban Beirut, 2007.

  5. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  6. Biomass Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels Using the MixAlcoTM Process Conversion de la biomasse en combustibles hydrocarbonés au moyen du procédé MixAlcoTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taco-Vasquez S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MixAlcoTM process converts biomass to hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline using the following generic steps: pretreatment, fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, oligomerization and saturation. This study describes the production of bio-gasoline from chicken manure and shredded office paper, both desirable feedstocks that do not require pretreatment. Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from marine soil, the biomass was fermented to produce a dilute aqueous solution of carboxylate salts, which were subsequently descummed and dried. The dry salts were thermally converted to raw ketones, which were distilled to remove impurities. Using Raney nickel catalyst, the distilled ketones were hydrogenated to mixed secondary alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. Using zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst, these alcohols were oligomerized to hydrocarbons in a plug -flow reactor. Finally, these unsaturated hydrocarbons were hydrogenated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that can be blended into commercial gasoline. Le procédé MixAlcoTM convertit la biomasse en hydrocarbures (par exemple, en essence selon les étapes génériques suivantes : prétraitement, fermentation, écumage, déshydratation, cétonisation thermique, distillation, hydrogénation, oligomérisation et saturation. Cette étude décrit la production de bioessence à partir de fumier de poulet et de papier en lambeaux, ces deux sources étant des matières premières convoitées ne nécessitant pas de prétraitement. À l’aide d’une culture mixte de microorganismes dérivés de sols marins, la biomasse a été soumise à une fermentation de manière à produire une solution aqueuse diluée de sels de carboxylates, ultérieurement écumés et séchés. Les sels séchés ont été thermiquement convertis en cétones brutes, ensuite distillées afin d’éliminer les impuretés. À l’aide du catalyseur à base de nickel de Raney, les c

  7. MODELES EPIDEMIOLOGIQUES DU SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    M MERAIHI; F. L RAHMANI

    2009-01-01

    L’objectif de cet article est de présenter la modélisation mathématique de la propagation de l’infection dans le contexte de la transmission du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et du syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise (SIDA). Ces modèles sont basés en partie sur les modèles proposés dans le domaine de la modélisation mathématique du SIDA.

  8. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  9. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  10. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  11. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  12. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  13. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  14. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  15. Le rythme du silence

    OpenAIRE

    Meschonnic, Henri

    2017-01-01

    1. Pour rompre le silence Dire « rythme du silence », c’est non seulement penser le silence comme langage, et parfois la réalisation maximale du langage, mais aussi parcourir les acceptions de la notion de silence. De ce qui n’est pas dit, ou qu’on est incapable de dire à ce que les mots ne peuvent pas dire, le fameux indicible, mais aussi l’innommable, et la censure, faire silence sur, jusqu’au problème poétique. Il y a aussi une langue de bois du silence. Et aussi le silence de ce qu’on ent...

  16. La profanation du montage

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Cet article examine les liens entre, pour l’aspect technique, le plan séquence et le montage, et, pour l’aspect philosophico-historique, la vie quotidienne et la politique mondiale, du point de vue d’une profanation capable de désamorcer la puissance et avec une attention particulière portée à l’unique film expérimental de Pasolini : La sequenza del fiore di (1968). Ce court métrage n’a pas seulement un statut spécial dans la filmographie de Pasolini, il marque aussi un tournant du tragique v...

  17. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  18. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  19. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  20. Historique du Web

    CERN Multimedia

    TV8 Mont-Blanc

    1995-01-01

    Documentaire court qui retrace l'implication de différentes personalités à la création du Web. Entrevues avec Robert Cailliau, Chris Llewellyn-Smith, David Williams, Tim Berners-Lee, Mike Sendall, Brian Carpenter.

  1. La foret du Banco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.

    1983-01-01

    Deze publicatie over het Nationaal Park 'La Forêt du Banco' nabij Abidjan, Ivoorkust, verschijnt als resultaat van vier jaar veldwerk (1972-1976) in dat land.Het Centre Néerlandais, onderzoeks- en stageverblijf van de Landbouwhogeschool, was basis en de faciliteiten verleend door het Franse ORSTOM-i

  2. Origine du vieux slave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mańczak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comme, pour prouver l'identité du vieux slave et du vieux bulgare, on invoque uniquement des critères phonétiques, rappelons que l'orientaliste allemand du XVIIe siècle Ludolf affirmait déjà que "die Sprachverwandtschaft offenbart sich nicht im Wörterbuch, sondern in der Grammatik"3. Pendant les 300 dernières années, tellement d'autorites ant approuvé !l’opinion de Ludolf qu'elle est devenue un dogme de la linguistique. Pourtant il nous est venu à l'esprit de le confronter avec des faits et ainsi nous sommes arrivé à la conclusion qu'en réalité, c'est le vocabulaire (et non la phonétique et la flexion qui décide du degre de la parenté des langues4. Voici des arguments à l'appui de cette thèse.

  3. On supersonic combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁生学

    1999-01-01

    Some basic concepts and features of supersonic combustion are explained from the view point of macroscopic aerodynamics. Two kinds of interpretations of supersonic combustion are proposed. The difference between supersonic combustion and subsonic combustion is discussed, and the mechanism of supersonic combustion propagation and the limitation of heat addition in supersonic flow are pointed out. The results of the calculation of deflagration in supersonic flow show that the entropy increment and the total pressure loss of the combustion products may decrease with the increase of combustion velocity. It is also demonstrated that the oblique detonation wave angle may not be controlled by the wedge angle under weak underdriven solution conditions and be determined only by combustion velocity. Therefore, the weak underdriven solution may become self-sustaining oblique detonation waves with a constant wave angle.

  4. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  5. Experimental Investigations on a Novel Chemical Looping Combustion Configuration Étude expérimentale d’une nouvelle configuration de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanpanah M.M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC is a promising novel combustion technology involving inherent separation of carbon dioxide with minimum energy penalty. An oxygen carrier is employed to continuously transfer oxygen from the air reactor to the fuel reactor where the oxygen is delivered to the fuel. Consequently, direct contact between the air and fuel is prevented. The resulting flue gas is CO2-rich, without N2 dilution. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported back to the air reactor for re-oxidation purposes, hence forming a chemical loop. Various CLC configurations have already been developed and tested on laboratory scales. However, more investigations are required to achieve feasible CLC processes. Among the different points to address, control of the solid circulation rate between the two reactors is of the highest importance regarding its effect on achievement of an appropriate oxygen transfer rate and solid oxidation degrees. Moreover, minimization of gas leakage between the fuel and air reactors is another important issue to be considered. A novel CLC configuration is proposed where reactions are carried out in two interconnected bubbling fluidized beds. Solid circulation rate control is achieved independently of gas flow rate in the reactors through use of pneumatic non-mechanical valves (L-valves. Moreover, loopseals are employed to minimize gas leakage while transferring solids. Experimental results from operation of a 10 kWth equivalent cold prototype are presented in this paper. The effect of operating variables on the solid circulation rate, gas leakage between the two beds and the pressure balance on all of the process elements is studied. The results demonstrate stable solid circulation with efficient control of the solid flow rate and effective gas tightness of the system. La combustion en boucle chimique (CLC est une nouvelle technologie prometteuse qui implique la separation inherente du dioxyde de carbone avec une perte

  6. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  7. Images du Valais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline COSINSCHI

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Une étude des revenus fiscaux ventilés par branches économiques permet de clore un ouvrage portant sur ce canton alpin suisse par excellence qu’est le Valais. Pris comme traceurs de l’activité régionale, l’analyse de leurs configurations spatiales permet une évaluation pouvant être considérée comme une mesure de l’efficacité différentielle du système socio-spatial valaisan. L’article décrit certains processus qui ont permis la réalisation du dernier chapitre d’un atlas portant sur le Valais.

  8. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  9. Les Cahiers du CREAD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    les littératures économique et gestionnaire, mais souvent dans ces travaux, l'effet de ... chiffre d'affaires du nouvel ensemble résultant de la vente des produits mieux .... syndicalisme, droit de grève), fiscales (différents taux d'imposition, etc.) .... nouvel ensemble et aussi, les différentes relations avec les alliances verticales ...

  10. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  11. Har du sikret din alderdom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Aagaard, Peter Gjerndrup

    2006-01-01

    Daglig fysisk aktivitet kan betragtes som indbetaling op din personlige helbredspension. Jo mere du sætter ind på kontoen, og jo oftere du gør det, jo større er sandsynligheden for, at du lever længere og får et sundere helbred. Og det er aldrig for sent at starte med indbetalingerne....

  12. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; Aval du cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dognon, J.P.; Rabbe, C.; Beudaert, Ph.; Lamare, V.; Wipff, G.; Moisy, Ph.; Charrin, N.; Blanc, P.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Revel, R.; Charbonnel, M.C.; Presson, M.T.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Chopin-Dumas, J.; Devisme, F.; Rat, B.; Hill, C.; Guillaneux, D.; Madic, C.; Carrera, A.; Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Allain, F.; Virelizier, H.; Moulin, Ch.; Lemort, F.; Orlhac, X.; Fillet, C.; Carpena, J.; Advocat, T.; Leturcq, G.; Lacombe, J.; Bonnetier, A.; Ribet, I.; Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H.; Meyer, D.; Conocar, O.; Pettier, J.L.; Raphael, T.; Bouniol, P.; Sercombe, J.; Badouix, P.; Adenot, F.; Le Bescop, P.; Mazoin, C.; Motellier, S.; Charles, Y.; Richet, C.; Ayache, R.; Pitsch, H.; Ly, J.; Beaucaire, C.; Devol-Brown, I.; Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B

    1999-07-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: electronic structure of lanthanides or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides aqueous solutions analytical and thermodynamical chemistry, actinides complexes structural determination. It also provides experimental studies: actinides and lanthanides separation, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning, plasma torch vitrification process, simulation of the wastes packages characterization, wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation. (A.L.B.)

  13. Developpement d'une methode hybride pour le suivi du coeur et la gestion du combustible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Eric

    The nuclear industry of CANDU reactors uses neutron physics methodologies (core follow-up, fuel management) that are considered out of date and do not reflect the latest developments in the field of neutronics. For instance, the software used by the reactor physics team in Gentilly-2, HQSIMEX 3, uses macroscopic cross sections ("grid-based" approach) calculated by two methods: (1) The "four factors" formula, an obsolete technique used in 1950; (2) The WIMS software, based on a microscopic cross section library. Among other method, the history-based approach is considered more precise but requires greater computing time. Processing a whole CANDU core follow-up through the history-based approach is not possible as of today with the actual computers, due to computing cost issues. The main goal of this research is to come up with a new strategy that will combine the interpolation technique of the "grid-based approach" with the isotopic depletion follow-up of the "history-based" approach.

  14. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  15. Les pirogues du Maroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie François

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sur le Maroni, fleuve frontière entre la Guyane française et le Surinam, les pirogues amarrées le long des berges se comptent par centaines. Elles représentent le seul moyen de transport pour les milliers de personnes vivant sur les rives du Maroni. Les différentes formes de pirogues sont révélatrices de la diversité géographique du Maroni et de la diversité culturelle des populations. Les Amérindiens du littoral naviguent uniquement dans l’estuaire du fleuve. Ils construisent des pirogues larges, hautes et terminées à la poupe par une haute étrave qui fend les vagues. Ces pirogues sont construites à partir d’une coque monoxyle expansée et rehaussée d’un ou de deux bordages. En chauffant la grume évidée, le bois acquiert une certaine plasticité qui permet d’écarter les flancs et d’obtenir une coque très large à partir d’un arbre de faible diamètre. Les Bushinenge, populations d’origine africaine qui ont déserté les grandes plantations de la Guyane hollandaise dès le début du XVIIe siècle et se sont installées sur les deux rives du Maroni, ont développé des formes de pirogues adaptées au passage des sauts. Leurs pirogues, construites également en expansant la coque au feu, sont étroites et longues et possèdent des extrémités curvilignes qui dépassent largement au–dessus du bordage. Les longues pirogues à moteur comme les canots–pagaies sont ornés de motifs d’entrelacs appelés tembé ; et de décors d’inspiration contemporaine. L’inventaire des pirogues du Maroni a mis en évidence la richesse et la vitalité du patrimoine nautique de cette région au début du XXIe siècle, tant au niveau des formes des embarcations que des décors et des pratiques de navigation.On the Maroni river, natural border between French Guyana and the Surinam, canoes tied to the river banks can be counted by the hundreds. They are the only mean of transportation for thousands of people living along the

  16. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  17. L'Origine du Monde

    CERN Multimedia

    CNET & Ecole Polytechnique Paris; Vincent Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Création, théologie, science, découverte, recherche, religion, condition humaine.Avec Maurice Jacob physicien, Hubert Curien Président du Conseil du CERN, Michael Doser physicien, Frère Emile Communauté de Taizé.

  18. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  20. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  1. discours du Directeur General

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    L'année 2007 est une année très spéciale pour le CERN. Je vous propose de nous retrouver pour faire le point sur les activités en cours. Rendez-vous le mercredi 27 juin à 15h00 dans l'amphithéâtre principal. La transmission simultanée sera assurée dans les amphithéâtres IT, AT, AB Prevessin et dans la Salle du Conseil. Robert Aymar

  2. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  3. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  4. Choeur du CERN : Concert

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Choir

    2017-01-01

    Une œuvre à découvrir! La grande Missa pro defunctis de François-Joseph Gossec (1734-1829) est le chef-d’œuvre tôt venu (à vingt-cinq ans) d’un compositeur qui vivra encore 70 ans après sa création. Elle a connu la gloire, puis s’est fait un peu oublier. Pas du tout le monde cependant : des musicologues ont montré ce que le Requiem de Mozart lui devait ; et il suffit de l’avoir entendue pour comprendre pourquoi Berlioz (qui avait vingt-six ans à la mort de Gossec) en a été impressionné : les nombreux cuivres et bois répartis dans des endroits plus ou moins cachés de la salle de concert pour exprimer les frayeurs du Jugement dernier annoncent son Requiem – et celui de Verdi. Mais « plus encore que par...

  5. Avis d'expert sur la détermination des caractéristiques d'inflammabilité du chanvre

    OpenAIRE

    Evanno, Sébastien; Dupont, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Des dépôts de chanvre de faible épaisseur (de l'ordre de quelques mm) sont sensibles au phénomène d'auto-échauffement avec amorçage d'une combustion retardée dans l'ensemble du dépôt. Le contact de points chauds peut amorcer localement un phénomène identique de combustion lente qui, à terme, va s'étendre à la totalité du dépôt. Sur la base du retour d'expérience mettant en oeuvre des travaux de meulage et de tronçonnage en présence de solide combustible pulvérulent, ai...

  6. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginni

  7. Strobes: An Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginni

  8. Lectures on combustion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A. (eds.)

    1978-09-01

    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  9. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  10. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  11. Combustion of coffee husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.; Hartge, E.-U.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Chemical Engineering 1, Hamburg (Germany); Ogada, T.; Siagi, Z. [Moi Univ., Dept. of Production Engineering, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2001-05-01

    Combustion mechanisms of two types of coffee husks have been studied using single particle combustion techniques as well as combustion in a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility (FBC), 150 mm in diameter and 9 m high. Through measurements of weight-loss and particle temperatures, the processes of drying, devolatilization and combustion of coffee husks were studied. Axial temperature profiles in the FBC were also measured during stationary combustion conditions to analyse the location of volatile release and combustion as a function of fuel feeding mode. Finally the problems of ash sintering were analysed. The results showed that devolatilization of coffee husks (65-72% volatile matter, raw mass) starts at a low temperature range of 170-200degC and takes place rapidly. During fuel feeding using a non water-cooled system, pyrolysis of the husks took place in the feeder tube leading to blockage and non-uniform fuel flow. Measurements of axial temperature profiles showed that during under-bed feeding, the bed and freeboard temperatures were more or less the same, whereas for over-bed feeding, freeboard temperatures were much higher, indicating significant combustion of the volatiles in the freeboard. A major problem observed during the combustion of coffee husks was ash sintering and bed agglomeration. This is due to the low melting temperature of the ash, which is attributed to the high contents of K{sub 2}O (36-38%) of the coffee husks. (Author)

  12. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Hoagland, M.C.; Hubbard, R.L.; Schaub, F.S.

    1981-12-22

    A method of combusting natural gas fuel in a two cycle, turbocharged internal combustion engine substantially reduces the production of nitrogen-oxygen emissions. An improved turbocharger design provides increased air charging pressure, produces a controlled lean air/fuel mixture and lowers peak combustion temperatures. A jet cell ignition device ensures uniform, reliable ignition of the lean air/fuel mixture under all operating conditions and the lean air/fuel mixture in turn encourages complete fuel combustion and provides excellent combustion characteristics with methane, ethane and heavier paraffinic hydrocarbon fuels. These structural modifications and adjustment of other operating parameters combine to reduce nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) emissions by as much as 75% while effecting only a negligible increase in fuel consumption.

  13. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  14. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  15. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  16. Le Brahmane du Komintern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Brahmane du Komintern, largometraje documental del realizador francés Vladimir León, constituye un ejercicio ejemplar de investigación histórica y  de lograda factura de realización. Y, pese a no haber contado con la ayuda de ninguno organismo público, se trata de un ambicioso proyecto que cubre una amplia extensión geográfica que abarca: Estados Unidos, México, Moscú, Berlín, y la India. Gira en torno a una figura que tuvo en su tiempo su hora de gloria. Un bengalí, hijo de braman, la c...

  17. Cultures du travail

    OpenAIRE

    de Bonnault-Cornu, Phanette; Charrasse, David; Herberich-Marx, Geneviève; Lamy, Yvon; Lazier, Isabelle; Mairot, Philippe; Morel, Alain; Périssère, Michèle; Raphaël, Freddy; Ribeill, Georges; Salmeron, Pierre; Vant, André

    2015-01-01

    Qu’est-ce qu’une culture du travail ? Comment la définir autrement qu’en opposition à la culture savante ? Quelles relations une société entretient-elle avec son ou ses industries ? Comment définir et appréhender ce qu’on appelle la culture d’entreprise ? A ces questions ethnologues, sociologues, géographes et historiens apportent ici des réponses.Ce livre est aussi consacré à l’intérêt que ces sociétés, villes, petites régions, entreprises, portent à ce qui constitue leur patrimoine industri...

  18. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  19. Sur quelques Ichthyurus du Tonkin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestro, R.

    1906-01-01

    Les espèces d Ichthyurus du Tonkin connues jusqu’ici étaient seulement trois: denticornis Gestro, décrite d’abord du Tenasserim (récoltes de feu Mr. L. Fea) et retrouvée ensuite dans le Haut Tonkin par S. A. R. le Prince Henri d’Orléans; Henrici Gestro, découverte par ce même explorateur, et dont le

  20. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  1. Improving combustion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solutions Oy (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes how nonlinear models are used to improve the efficiency of coal combustion while keeping NOx and other emissions under desired limits in the Naantali 2 boiler of Fortum Power and Heat Oy. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  3. Modelling diesel combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A; Shi, Yu; Reitz, Rolf D

    2010-01-01

    The underlying principles of combustion phenomena are presented here, providing the basis for quantitative evaluation. These phenomena - ignition delay, fuel air mixing, rate of release, etc. - are then modelled for greater understanding and applicability.

  4. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  5. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  6. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  7. METC Combustion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. High pressure combustion research is also important to other DOE programs. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems and second-generation, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems use gas turbines/electric generators as primary power generators. The turbine combustors play an important role in achieving high efficiency and low emissions in these novel systems. These systems use a coal-derived fuel gas as fuel for the turbine combustor. The METC facility is designed to support coal fuel gas-fired combustors as well as the natural gas fired combustor used in the advanced turbine program.

  8. Effect of CO Combustion Promoters on Combustion Air Partition in FCC under Nearly Complete Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 罗雄麟; 许锋

    2014-01-01

    With CO combustion promoters, the role of combustion air flow rate for concerns of economics and control is important. The combustion air is conceptually divided to three parts:the air consumed by coke burning, the air consumed by CO combustion and the air unreacted. A mathematical model of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, which includes a quantitative correlation of CO heterogeneous combustion and the amount of CO combustion promoters, is introduced to investigate the effects of promoters on the three parts of combustion air. The results show that the air consumed by coke burning is almost linear to combustion air flow rate, while the air consumed by CO combustion promoters tends to saturate as combustion air flow rate increases, indicating that higher air flow rate can only be used as a manipulated variable to control the oxygen content for an economic concern.

  9. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  10. Le collisionneur du futur?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Pourquoi deux études parallèles pour un même collisionneur linéaire ? Loin d’être un double effort et un gaspillage de ressources, ces deux études s’inscrivent dans une stratégie de complémentarité afin de fournir la meilleure technologie requise par la physique du futur. Vendredi 12 juin a eu lieu au CERN la première réunion conjointe CLIC et ILC. Elle n’a pas été avare de bons résultats et d’importantes décisions. Le Collisionneur Linéaire International (ILC) et le Collisionneur Linéaire Compact (CLIC) sont deux études qui font, tous deux, appel à des technologies de pointe. A première vue en compétition, les deux études sont en réalité complémentaires et elles ont un objectif commun : proposer dans les plus brefs délais et au moindre coût, l‘accélérateur linéaire le mieux adapté pour prendre le relais de la physique des très hautes énergies après le LHC.

  11. 战后法国劳资关系的变化及对我国的启示%De la relation travail-capital et son changement en France après la Deuxième Guerre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    en traitant de la relation travail-capltal et du changement de cette relation en France, l'auteur indique que les experiences et les lecons tirees de la pratique en France peuvent largement servlr a l'etablissement d'une bonne relation travail-capital en Chine.

  12. Simulation numérique du transfert de chaleur dans un moteur-fusée à propergol liquide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KHELIDJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail est une contribution à l'étude du refroidissement d'un moteur-fusée à propergol liquide. En effet pour protéger la paroi de la chambre propulsive, un système de refroidissement est nécessaire, car la température des gaz de combustion du propergol liquide dans la chambre de combustion, est très élevée. C'est pour montrer l'intérêt du refroidissement de la paroi de la chambre propulsive qu'une étude de simulation numérique, des phénomènes de combustion et de refroidissement dans la chambre propulsive, a été réalisée en régime permanent à l'aide du code de calcul Fluent. Les résultats de simulation, notamment ceux relatifs aux températures des parois le long de la chambre propulsive ont été confrontés à ceux trouvés dans la littérature.

  13. Nuclear wastes management: the lessons from the C.S.M. disposal site (Centre de Stockage de la Manche). Memory-less Centre, Future-less Centre?; Gestion des dechets radioactifs: les lecons du Centre de Stockage de la Manche (C.S.M.). Centre Sans Memoire, Centre Sans Avenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    With its 527 217 m{sup 3} of low and medium activity wastes put in storage between 1969 and 1994, the C.S.M.( center of storage of Manche) is and remains to this day a necessary element to understand the problems posed by the eternal storage of nuclear materials and the limits of the notion of reversibility. There are therefore teachings to be drawn. We cannot repeat past mistakes in particular with high activity wastes which we wish to bury deep underground. This report is based on the analysis of the existing bibliography, of the internal A.N.D.R.A. documents which we released to the public, of the lessons drawn from our participation in the official concerting and work groups, and finally of the data obtained after inquiries were done in the region in the framework of R.I.V.I.E;R.E. (citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation). In spite of all efforts produced, many questions remain unanswered regarding this site so it is sometimes difficult to be more precise. (N.C.)

  14. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes; 1. table ronde - La composition des combustibles uses. L'aval du combustible et le retraitement, la gestion du plutonium et des autres matieres nucleaires. 2. table ronde - Separation-transmutation. 3. table ronde - Scenarii pour un inventaire des matieres et des dechets nucleaires a LT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  15. Effets du fluor et du phosphogypse chez les organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J.L.; Le Guellec, Anne-marie; Cosson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre général des recherches visant à déterminer l'action des effluents industriels et plus précisément du fluor dans le cas de cette étude, le programme dont les résultats sont présentés avait pour but de déterminer les effets de cet élément sur les organismes marins. Trois aspects essentiels ont été envisagés : - Effets létaux du fluor ; - effets du fluor sur certaines fonctions éthologiques ; - bio-accumulation de l'élément par les organismes marins.

  16. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.

    1986-06-03

    A variable power internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a separate air compressor for receiving and compressing a flow of air to a given pressure, the compressor having an inlet valve introducing a flow of air into the compressor and an outlet valve for exhausting compressed air out of the compressor into a compressed air storage means, at least one expander having a cylinder, a cylinder head closing an end of the cylinder, a piston reciprocally mounted in the cylinder for movement away from the cylinder head in a power stroke from an initial position defining a combustion chamber within the cylinder between the cylinder head and the piston, the compressed air storage means receiving the pressurized flow of air from the compressor and being of a volume adequate to provide compressed air in the combustion chamber essentially at the given pressure essentially over the power output of the engine, means for introducing an amount of combustible fuel in the compressed charge to be present with compressed air in the combustion chamber and providing combustion of the amount of fuel in the cylinder with the inlet and exhaust valves closed, cam shaft means in contact with the piston for absorbing and storing the energy of the power stroke of the piston and controlling movement of the piston within the cylinder during the exhaust stroke; the means for varying the volume of the combustion chamber being controlled in accordance with power requirements to provide variable power output and improved efficiency of the engine at power outputs reduced relative to a given design power output of the engine by providing a variable expansion ratio of a minimum of at least about 30 to 1 at the given design power output and higher with reduced power output.

  17. Main: 1DU5 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DU5 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Zeamatin Precursor. Name=Zlp; Zea Mays Molecule: Zeama...NNACPVFKKDEYCCVGSAANDCHPTNYSRYFKGQCPDAYSYPKDDATSTFTCPAGTNYKVVFCP corn_1DU5.jpg ...

  18. Optimisation énergétique des chambres de combustion à haut taux de compression Energy Optimization of High-Compression-Ratio Combustion Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une synthèse des études entreprises à l'institut Français du Pétrole pour la compréhension des phénomènes de combustion, de transferts thermiques, de cliquetis et leur maîtrise pour l'optimisation du rendement de chambre à haut taux de compression conduit à proposer deux thèmes de réalisation : - chambre calme à double allumage; - chambre turbulente à effet de chasse. Les avantages de principe et les contraintes associés à la mise en oeuvre de chaque type de chambre sont examinés. A synthesis of research undertaken at the Institut Français du Pétrole on understanding combustion, heat-transfer and knock phenomena and on mastering them to optimize the efficiency of high-compression-ratio combustion chambers has led to the proposing of two topics of implementation:(a calm chamber with dual ignition;(b turbulent chamber with squish effect. The advantages of the principle and the constraints connected to the implementation of each type of chamber are examined.

  19. Gestion durable du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  20. Cri du Chat syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerruti Mainardi Paola

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-. The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF and δ-catenin (CTNND2, which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable

  1. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  2. Les paradoxes du littoral Swahili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le contact entre l'océan Indien occidental et le continent africain a forgé l'identité et l'originalité du littoral swahili. Cette interface, longue d'environ 2 000 kilomètres, du sud de la Somalie au nord du Mozambique, constitue un monde original où, au gré de traditions anciennes de circulation maritime et continentale se sont diffusées et mêlées des influences culturelles venues du continent africain, de la péninsule arabique et de la péninsule indienne. Le développement du continent, du littoral et des archipels s'inscrit dans une double logique de fragmentation et d'ouverture au monde. Dans cette vaste aire géographique, le rôle de relais des îles et des axes de pénétration continentale à partir des ports est essentiel.The identity and the original features of the Swahili seashore mainly proceed from the contact of African mainland and western indian Ocean. This coastal interface, stretching over 2 000 kilometres from southern Somalia to northern Mozambique, is characterized by ancient traditions of trade movements through maritime areas and mainland as well, which spread and mixed different cultural influences originating from Africa and both Arabic and Indian peninsulas. The development of this area is linked to both fragmentation and opening dynamics. In such a wide area, the relaying function of islands and continental corridors from main harbours is very important.

  3. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  4. ETUDE GEOCHIMIQUE ET ISOTOPIQUE DES EAUX SUPERFICIELLES DU BASSIN VERSANT DU FURAN ET DES EAUX MINERALES DU GRABEN DU FOREZ, EST DU MASSIF CENTRAL FRANÇAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Frédérick

    2005-01-01

    Ce travail est basé sur l'étude d'un continuum eau de pluie – eau de surface – eau minérale, en utilisant différents outils chimiques et géochimiques. La zone d'étude se situe en bordure Est du Massif Central Français. Elle comprend des entités géographiques et géologiques variées (complexe granito-gneissique et cristallophyllien – Monts du Forez et du Lyonnais d'âge hercynien, graben Oligocène du Forez à venues volcaniques miocènes).La première partie repose sur l'étude en isotopes stables (...

  5. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  6. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  7. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  8. Transition nozzle combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  9. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  10. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  11. Cri-du-chat syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15 000 to 1:50 000 live-born infants. Its main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds,

  12. A simplified proof of a conjecture for the perturbed Gelfand equation from combustion theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Philip; Li, Yi; Ouyang, Tiancheng

    2017-09-01

    For the perturbed Gelfand's equation on the unit ball in two dimensions, Y. Du and Y. Lou [5] proved that the curve of positive solutions is exactly S-shaped, for sufficiently small values of the secondary parameter. We present a simplified proof and some extensions. This problem is prominent in combustion theory, see e.g., the book of J. Bebernes and D. Eberly [1].

  13. Experimental combustion an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D P

    2014-01-01

    ""… other books available in this area do not cover the detailed topics covered here. Energy and combustion is a hot issue. It is expected to be even hotter with more demand in this area as we search for cleaner methods of energy conversion from chemical to thermal energy.""-Ashwani K. Gupta, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, USA

  14. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  15. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    . JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  16. Combustion Models in Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2001-01-01

    Combustion reaction kinetics models are used for the description of a special class of bursty Financial Time Series. The small number of parameters they depend upon enable financial analysts to predict the time as well as the magnitude of the jump of the value of the portfolio. Several Financial Time Series are analysed within this framework and applications are given.

  17. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-20

    operating hours, to produce low emission levels of NOx, CO and UHC . Gas turbine combustion stability has increasingly become a crucial design issue as...achieved proved: "* Safe and reliable operation ofgas turbine combustors "* Low emissions of NO., CO and UHC These results have clear economically

  18. Combustion calorimetry experimental chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sunner, Stig

    1979-01-01

    Combustion Calorimetry deals with expertise knowledge concerning the calorimetry of combustion reactions of an element or compound. After defining the use of units and physical constants, the book discusses the basic principles of combustion calorimetry and the various instruments and calorimeters used in the experiments to measure operations concerning temperatures and its time variations. One paper discusses the theory and design criteria of combustion calorimeter calibration. Another paper discusses the results obtained from a combustion calorimeter after it has measured the energy or entha

  19. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  20. Caractérisation des sables et morphologie du fond du lac du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Map of this lake 26 years after its setting in water. Key words : Dam .... La méthode d'interpolation retenue est l'IDW (Inverse Distance Weighting) avec un pas .... Figure 2 : Répartition des faciès de surface des sédiments du lac de Taabo. 3.3.

  1. LES GITES PLOMBO-ZINCIFERES DU DISTRICT MINIER DU KOUDIAT SIDU AUSUD DU KEF EN TUNISIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs ont dćcrit l:i stratigiaphie. I.i tectonique, le corps de minerals, la paragenese et la genese dcs gttes Koudiat Sidri situ&s environ 20 km au sud de la ville du Kef en Tunisie.

  2. Radioactivity: lessons learned from Chernobyl; Radioactivite: les lecons de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.; Rouat, S.; Mulot, R.; Chauveau, L.; Khalatbari, A.; Riou-Milliot, S.

    2011-05-15

    A set of articles draws lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident and indicates how they can be applied to the Fukushima accident. Notably, it describes contamination mechanisms and how food, milk, vegetables, water organisms become hazardous. It highlights the influence of the initial contamination concentration. Then, it addresses soil contamination where caesium 137 reveals itself not much mobile and concentrated in surface layers. As far as oceans are concerned, they are said to be able to absorb radioactivity: 60 years of anthropic radioactive releases apparently did not have any obvious negative impact on sea environment. Underground waters are affected with some delay, and radioactive dusts which are present in the atmosphere fall with the rain and may appear again later in case of forest fires as it has been noticed. A brief article presents the French radioactivity detection network. The lack of knowledge on the effect of low doses is also commented. The technological aspect is addressed, with the development of automatic means of intervention. A last article gives an overview of the situation in the Fukushima area, indicates and comments contamination levels

  3. Le parcours migratoire de jeunes ruraux du bled du kif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mouna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le parcours migratoire des jeunes ruraux originaires des zones de production du cannabis, jeunes qui cherchent à briser les chaînes de soumission et d’humiliation vécues au quotidien. Pour les jeunes concernés par notre étude, la migration constitue un moyen de s’intégrer dans des réseaux transnationaux et ainsi d’entamer une carrière de beznass (commerçant du cannabis. Ce parcours « initiatique » permet à ces jeunes de revenir au bled avec de nouvelles idées, des moyens accrus, et de jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie locale – qui reste pour eux focalisée sur la production de cannabis, cette dernière restant néanmoins officiellement interdite.

  4. Paul Celan in Translation: "Du sei wie du"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Felstiner

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Translating the lyric poetry of Paul Celan, especially his later poems, carries not only the endemic challenge and difficulty of any verse translation, but the added incentive of doing justice to a writer whose whole recourse after the Holocaust—whose sanctuary, if he was to have any at all—he sought in language itself, specifically in the Muttersprache , the mother tongue that was as well the tongue of those who murdered his mother and father. This essay exposes a process of translating "Du sei wie du" (1970, which perhaps more than any other poem by Celan, at once solicits and defies translation, moving as it does from modern to medieval German, and closing with Hebrew words from Isaiah— a messianic imperative that shows Celan verging as ever on his Jewish identity.

  5. Dynamique narrative du texte, du film et de la musique

    OpenAIRE

    Wildgen, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    La narrativité est foncièrement liée à la dynamique des événements et des actions représentés, et elle dépend du champ pragmatique narrateur/récepteur, c’est-à-dire du discours narratif. Cette dynamique demande une théorisation adéquate, par exemple au sein de la théorie des systèmes dynamiques ou de l’analyse vectorielle, et elle se manifeste dans des modalités différentes. Nous présentons des exemples d’analyse dans la modalité linguistique (récit oral spontané, conte populaire), dans la mo...

  6. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  7. Experimental chemical thermodynamics. Volume I. Combustion calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunner, S.; Mansson, M. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This book contains 18 chapters. The information included is: units and physical constants; basic principles of combustion calorimetry; calibration of combustion calorimeters; test and auxiliary substances in combustion calorimetry; strategies in the calculation of standard-state energies of combustion from the experimentally determined quantities; assignments of uncertainties; presentation of combustion calorimetric data in the primary literature; general techniques for combustion of liquid/solid organic compounds by oxygen bomb calorimetry; combustion of liquid/solid organic compounds with non-metallic hetero-atoms; combustion calorimetry of metals and simple metallic compounds; combustion calorimetry of organometallic compounds; combustion in fluorine and other halogens; bomb combustion of gaseous compounds in oxygen; oxygen flame calorimetry; fluorine flame calorimetry; combustion calorimetry as a technological service; trends in combustion calorimetry; and from the history of combustion calorimetry. (DP)

  8. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  9. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  10. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    regarded by implication or otherwise, or in any way licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to...00 _’N 1. TI TLE inctuat Security CZaaafication5 Combustion Characteristics of Sprays 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sohrab, Siavash H. 13& TYPE OF REPORT...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  11. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    University (NYU) has resulted in the selection of two cross-linked melamine / formaldehyde acrylic styrene resin systems that can be used in the beater additive... melamine resin Akaradit II stabilizer 20. ABSTRACT (con) Test coupons of combustible cartridge case material were fabricated using these recommended...and agitated for 30 min before the pH was slowly lowered to 3 with p-toluene sulfonic acid. In order to maintain this pH in the felting tank, it was

  12. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    required thrust-to-weight ratio goals. Shorter residence times in the combustion chamber may reduce the NOx emissions, but the CO and UHC emissions then...Emissions analyzing equipment is available to detect CO, CO2, NOx, O2, and total unburned hydrocarbons ( UHC ) at the combustor exit plane. Emissions... UHC ) emissions along with the CO data, as seen in Fig. 24, shows that Configuration 1 had much higher UHC levels. The reactions from hydrocarbons to

  13. Eléments d'analyse du cliquetis et de ses effets Elements for Analyzing Knocking and Its Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article une synthèse des travaux théoriques et expérimentaux relatifs à la génération du cliquetis et à ses effets sur le fonctionnement du moteur. L'apparition du cliquetis est décrite par un mécanisme global de délai d'auto-inflammation. Des exemples d'application portant sur l'identification du délai de carburants quelconques et sur l'optimisation de l'ensemble moteurs-carburants documentent cette approche. Le cliquetis a pour conséquence un accroissement de sollicitations mécaniques et thermiques des parois de la chambre de combustion. Des méthodes et résultats d'investigation de ces phénomènes sont présentés. A synthesis is presented of theoretical and experimental research concerning the generating of knocking and its effects on engine running. The appearance of knocking is described by an overall mechanism of autoignition delay. This approach is documented by applied examples concerning the identification of the delay involved with any type of fuel and the optimizing of engine-fuel systems. Knocking causes an increase in mechanical and thermal stresses on combustion-chamber walls. Investigational methods and results concerning these phenomena are described.

  14. L’Harmonie du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Bourgogne est particulièrement bien présente et représentée dans l’exposition sur la musique et ses représentations au Moyen Âge organisée par Isabelle Marchesin (université de Poitiers, Christine Laloue (conservatrice du Patrimoine au Musée et Martine Clouzot (université de Bourgogne, au Musée de la Musique à Paris du 26 mars au 27 juin 2004. En Côte-d’Or, à Dijon, la Bibliothèque municipale a donné son accord officiel pour le prêt de la Bible d’Etienne Harding, les Moralia in Job et u...

  15. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  16. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  17. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  18. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  19. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  20. Revision du Genre Aseraggodes Kaup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabanaud, P.

    1930-01-01

    Le présent travail comprend la définition du genre Aseraggodes Kaup et la revision, sous forme d'une clef dichotomique, de toutes les espèces qui le composent, revision établie d'après les types eux-mêmes de ces espèces. Ce genre Aseraggodes appartient à la famille des Soleidae et à la sousfamille

  1. Collecting uncollectables: Joachim Du Bellay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Bjørnerud Mo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lists of wonders have circulated for millennia. Over and over, such inventories of spectacular man made constructions have been rewritten, re-edited and reimagi-ned. Both the wonders and the lists of wonders, preferably of the seven, have had a profound and long-lasting effect, and have been abundantly imitated, copied and reworked. Renaissance creative thinking was obsessed with the seven wonders of the ancient world, and early-modern Europe experienced a surge of visual and verbal depictions of wonders. This article is about a remarkable list of seven wonders, included in one of Joachim Du Bellay's canonical poems on Roman antiquities (Antiquités de Rome, published in Paris in 1558. Du Bellay shapes his list of wonders by exploring pat-terns of both repetition and mutability. Almost imperceptibly, he starts suggesting connections between 16th-century Rome and distant civilizations. Through the eyes of a fictive traveller and collector, the poet venerates the greatness and la-ments the loss of ancient buildings, sites and works of art, slowly developing a ver-bal, visual and open-ended gallery, creating a collection of crumbling or vanished, mainly Roman, architecture. This poetic display of ruins and dust in the Eternal City is nourished by the attraction of the inevitable destruction of past splendour and beauty. In the sonnets, Du Bellay imitates classical models and patterns. Whi-le compiling powerful images and stories of destruction, he combines techniques associated with both a modern concept of copy and more ancient theories of co-pia. In this context, this article also explores whether Pliny's Natural History might be a source for the imaginary collection of lost sites and wonders in Du Bellay's Antiquit's.

  2. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  3. Désulfuration : avant, pendant ou après la combustion ? Synthèse bibliographique Desulfurization: Before, During Or After Combustion? Bibliographic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les perspectives d'applications de nouvelles normes aux émissions des grandes installations de combustion, tant aux Etats-Unis qu'en Europe de l'Ouest ont suscité de nombreuses recherches. Les diverses publications qui leur sont consacrées traitent le plus souvent de la combustion de charbons et, beaucoup plus rarement, de l'adaptabilité de ces procédés à des combustibles liquides ou de techniques spécifiques. Les principaux points technico-économiques qui se dégagent sur la désulfuration des combustibles liquides sont donnés dans cet article. Enfin, au-delà des aspects techniques, on notera que la désulfuration des combustibles liquides, et plus particulièrement du fuel lourd, est liée à deux aspects plus politiques : - l'application de normes sur les émissions des installations de combustion (ou les dérogations possibles qui concernent non seulement les oxydes de soufre mais aussi les oxydes d'azote et les particules contenues dans les fumées; - l'avenir des fuels lourds tant sur le plan quantitatif (marché que qualitatif (constitution du pool fuel et spécifîcations. The prospects that new emission standards will be applied to large combustion installations, both in the United States and Western Europe, have given rise to extensive research. The different publications devoted to this research usually deal with coal combustion and more rarely with the suitability of such processes for liquid fuels or specific techniques. The leading technico-economic points involved in the desulfurization of liquid fuels are given in this article. Likewise, over and beyond the technical aspects, it can be seen that the desulfurization of liquid fuels, and more particularly of heavy fuel oil, is linked to two more politicalaspects:(a the application of standards on emissions from combustion installations (or possible derogations concerning not only sulfur oxides but also nitrogen oxides and particles contained in fumes;(b the future of

  4. Prairie du Chien: A Historical Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Naudouwessee with whom this governor made peace and introduced trade and commerce among the whole nation. His son the successor told me that some of the...Nicholas Perrot, French Commandant of the West, with a party of couriers du bois and voyageurs descended the Wisconsin River and erected Fort St...number of traders and voyageurs settled at Prairie du Chien. Thomas Anderson who settled at Prairie du Chien in 1800 described the conditions on his

  5. Genetics Home Reference: cri-du-chat syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions cri-du-chat syndrome cri-du-chat syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Cri-du-chat (cat's cry) syndrome, also known as 5p- (5p ...

  6. Post combustion in converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasilasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to study the fundamentals of post combustion and the effect of different process parameters on the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) in converter steelmaking process. The PCR and HTE have been determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE. Based on enthalpy considerations, post combustion of CO gas is regarded as one of the most effective means of increasing the heat supply to the BOP. The thermodynamic study of gas-metal-slag reactions gives the limiting conditions for post combustion inside the converter reactor. Different process parameters influencing both thermodynamic equilibria and kinetic conditions can greatly affect the post combustion ratio. Different features of converter processes as well smelting reduction processes utilizing post combustion have been reviewed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 26 refs.

  7. Au fil du temps (1976 ou la loi du seuil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Singer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayant choisi de vivre dans un camion, les héros d’Au fil du temps (film de Wim Wenders de 1976 font du seuil une expérience particulière. Celle de la rupture avec toute idée de foyer et celle du refus d’appartenance à la terre natale, cette terre allemande traversée par une frontière le long de laquelle ils vont voyager, et qui les renvoie à chaque instant aux traumatismes de l’Histoire. Sur le pare-brise du camion, l’extérieur (campagnes indifférenciées, villes à l’abandon… et l’intérieur se superposent. Au fil du temps questionne le paysage : il s’agit d’en décoller un à un les mythes qui le recouvrent. L’image alors n’est plus surface mais volume à traverser, à lacérer et découvrir ce qui est tissé dans le paysage. La démarche de Wenders est alors proche de celle d’un de ses contemporains : Anselm Kiefer. Le paysage allemand provoque le rejet parce qu’il y a là toujours plus que le visible : des strates et des strates de culpabilité que le mythe - et c’est sa fonction - a recouvert. Et qu’il s’agira ici, de soulever. Le choix du nomadisme, c’est celui d’un état de l’humanité antérieur à l’idée de patrie. Et c’est aussi celui de la solitude, comme prix à payer à ce refus d’appartenance et à cette mise à jour des mythes. L’appartenance à la terre allemande et à son Histoire est profondément problématique parce que les pères sont fondamentalement coupables. On se reconnaîtra alors des pères de substitution : des pères de cinéma (Nicholas Ray ou Fritz Lang. Et l’on substituera l’Histoire du cinéma à l’Histoire. Bruno est réparateur ambulant de projecteurs et Au fil du temps dressera, au gré de ses pérégrinations, un état des lieux du cinéma allemand des années soixante-dix : déliquescent, colonisé par les images hollywoodiennes. Il faut que cela change : état du cinéma ; état des protagonistes solitaires en quête d’une identit

  8. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  9. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  10. The modes of gaseous combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of contemporary problems in combustion science, namely flame propagation, detonation and heterophaseous combustion based on the works of the author. The current problems in the area of gas combustion, as well as the methods allowing to calculate and estimate limiting conditions of ignition, and flame propagation on the basis of experimental results are considered. The book focuses on the virtually inaccessible works of Russian authors and will be useful for experienced students and qualified scientists in the area of experimental studies of combustion processes.

  11. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  12. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  13. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the...

  14. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational...

  15. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-20

    8217, tie imnrulse foree eyuilibr-um c’ the bomd’~ leye - is 173 pv-:irJ p~76vJbK 2sO) IL !-. = Zn pT -- a , bV T. z -,,r y.re C era 3oia * ~~I" onc art-=e...heat by combustion all have very large influences on the capabilities of a combustion chamber. A yellow- colored flame represents diffusion combustion in...the wakes of fuel droplets. Blue- colored flames represent gaseous combustion of evaporated vapors which have already left the fuel droplets. The

  16. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Dimethyl Ether (DME Fueled Compression Ignition Engine Études numériques et expérimentales sur les caractéristiques de combustion et d’émissions d’un éther diméthylique (EDM- moteur à auto-allumage rempli de combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyung Jun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation was carried out to study on the combustion and emission characteristics of dimethyl ether (DME with wide ranges of injection timings in compression ignition engines. In order to simulate DME combustion processes, a KIVA-3V code coupled with a chemistry solver was used to solve the detailed chemical kinetics model of DME oxidation. In addition, the Kelvin-Helmholtz-Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT hybrid breakup model and Renormalization Group (RNG k-ε  models were applied to analyze the spray characteristics and turbulent flow, respectively. To predict the NOx formation during DME combustion, a reduced Gas Research Institute (GRI NO mechanism was used. From these results on the combustion and emission, the calculated results were compared with experimental ones for the same operating conditions. In the combustion characteristics, the calculated combustion pressure and heat release rates agreed well with experimental results. The levels of experimental NOx emissions was reduced as the start of the injection timing retarded, and also these trends appeared in calculated emission characteristics. Additionally, the calculated CO and HC emissions show an increasing trend as the start of the injection is retarded. Dans cette étude, nous considérons la simulation de la combustion du dimethyl ether (DME dans un moteur à allumage par compression. Les caractéristiques de la combustion ainsi que les émissions polluantes sont analysées sur une large gamme d’avance à l’injection. Afin de simuler le processus de combustion du EDM, le code KIVA-3V couplé à un solveur chimique a été utilisé pour résoudre la cinétique détaillée de l’oxydation du EDM. Le modèle de rupture de Kelvin-Helmholtz-Rayleigh- Taylor (KH-RT ainsi que le modèle de turbulence k-ε  RNG ont été appliqués pour analyser respectivement les caractéristiques du jet et l’écoulement turbulent. Pour prévoir la formation de NOx pendant la combustion

  17. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  18. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  19. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  20. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  1. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  2. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  3. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  4. Des Taiwanais dans Ie sud du Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Se trouvant dans le sud-est de la Chine au bord dela mer, la province du Fujian s’appelle aussi toutsimplement "Min". Les anc(?)tres d’une grande partie de lapopulation de Taiwan sont venus du Fujian (Min). Les deux

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a Laboratory Fluidized-bed Reactor Combustion de charges solides avec la boucle chimique dans un lit fluidisé de laboratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leion H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When using solid fuel in a chemical looping system, the char fraction of the fuel needs to be gasified before syngas react with the oxygen carrier. This can be done inside the fuel reactor with fuel and oxygen carriers well mixed, and, since this gasification is comparably slow, this will be the time limiting step of such a system. An option is to use an oxygen carrier that is able to release gas-phase oxygen which can react with the fuel by normal combustion giving a significantly faster overall fuel conversion. This last option is generally referred to as Chemical Looping combustion with Oxygen Un-coupling (CLOU. In this work, an overview is given of parameters that affect the fuel conversion in laboratory CLC and CLOU experiments. The main factor determining the fuel conversion, in both CLC and CLOU, is the fuel itself. High-volatile fuels are generally more rapidly converted than low volatile fuels. This difference in fuel conversion rate is more pronounced in CLC than in CLOU. However, the fuel conversion is also, both for CLC and CLOU, increased by increasing temperature. Increased steam and SO2 fraction in the surrounding gas will also enhance the fuel conversion in CLC. CO2 gasification in CLC appears to be very slow in comparison to steam gasification. H2 can inhibit fuel gasification in CLC whereas CO did not seem to have any effect. Possible deactivation of oxygen carriers due to SO2 or ash also has to be considered. Lorsque l’on utilise des combustibles solides dans la boucle chimique (CLC pour Chemical Looping Combustion, il est nécessaire de gazéifier le char avant de faire la combustion du gaz de synthèse au contact du transporteur d’oxygène. Ces réactions peuvent s’effectuer dans le réacteur fuel, dans lequel le combustible et le transporteur d’oxygène sont bien mélangés. Cependant, la gazéification du charbon est lente et reste l’étape limitante du processus de combustion dans ces conditions. Une alternative

  6. Le vide univers du tout et du rien

    CERN Document Server

    Diner, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Pourquoi l'Univers plutôt que le vide ? Le temps et l'espace existent-ils en l'absence de l'Univers ? Que reste-t-il quand tout est enlevé ? Pourquoi quelque chose plutôt que rien ? Depuis des siècles, ces interrogations mobilisent philosophes et physiciens. Mais aujourd'hui, le vide n'est pas le rien. Il serait même l'acteur central de l'histoire de la matière et de l'Univers, le partenaire privilégié de la physique. Vide et matière ne sont plus deux manifestations séparées de la nature, mais deux aspects d'une même réalité. Le vide est l'état de base dont la matière émerge, sans couper son cordon ombilical Le vide comme Univers du rien cède la place au vide comme Univers du tout. Que le vide puisse être conçu par les physiciens comme réservoir potentiel d'univers, voici qui ne devrait laisser personne indifférent. Ce livre ouvre un débat et nous convie à une réflexion surprenante.

  7. Image du savoir, image du pouvoir dans le Lapidaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LACOMBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available À travers le prologue et les enluminures de présentation, le Lapidaire d’Alphonse X oriente l’interprétation de l’œuvre. Ces paratextes mettent en avant le rôle capital du savoir, représenté par la métaphore du trésor caché, qui a ici une valeur topique. Ils mettent également en exergue le rôle que s’attribue le roi dans la transmission de ce savoir, et placent cette nouvelle attribution royale au cœur de son projet politique.A través del prólogo y las miniaturas de presentación, el Lapidario de Alfonso X orienta la interpretación de la obra. Estos paratextos subrayan el papel capital del saber, representado por la metáfora del tesoro escondido, que tiene aquí un valor tópico. Ponen asimismo de manifiesto el papel que se atribuye el monarca en la transmisión de ese saber y colocan esta nueva atribución real en el centro de su proyecto político.

  8. Les esclaves du commandant Quiquandon

    OpenAIRE

    Tymowski, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Le 10 janvier 1895, Albert Grodet, gouverneur général du Soudan français, adressa au ministère des Colonies une dépêche accusant le commandant Quiquandon, dirigeant de la région Nord-Est (Ségou), d'exploiter illégalement un domaine sur lequel travaillent 140 esclaves. À partir de ce cas particulier, l'auteur analyse les conflits qui existaient à l'époque entre l'administration civile et un groupe d'officiers soudanais. Il se demande si la possession d'esclaves par des officiers, prenant...

  9. Du comptoir à la toge

    OpenAIRE

    Buti, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Descendant d’une famille de petits notables du Dauphiné, Antoine Anthoine (1749-1826) qui n’a pas pu accéder à la magistrature se destine à la marchandise. Après un apprentissage à Marseille au comptoir des Seimandy, il est nommé, par ces négociants, régisseur pour leur commandite de Constantinople. La mobilisation de sa proche parenté et les soutiens des pouvoirs politiques locaux, nationaux et internationaux lui permettent d’obtenir une mission destinée à ouvrir le commerce de la Russie mér...

  10. Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nickel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman Colloque international organisé par l’Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, en partenariat avec l’Université de Stuttgart 19-20 novembre 2015   Organisateurs :  Pierre-Marie Héron, Annie Pibarot, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, centre de recherche Rirra21. Françoise Joly, Beatrice Nickel, Universität Stuttgart 

  11. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  12. Combustion & Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLDRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLRDC) supports the experimental and computational study of fundamental combustion phenomena to...

  13. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  14. Sociologie et sociolinguistique du franbreu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Rafael Eliezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Des enquêtes ont montré que plus de 20 % des adultes israéliens ont quelque connaissance du français. Parmi cette population, 250 000 à 300 000 personnes pouvaient être considérées comme francophones. Le français a affirmé une présence importante – pas toujours reconnue – dès la phase cruciale du développement de cette société. Une immigration de masse suivit la création de l’État (1948 dont la population a quasiment triplé en moins de deux décennies, avec l’arrivée de plus de 200 000 immigrants d’Afrique du Nord et des dizaines de milliers des Balkans et du Moyen-Orient. Beaucoup parmi ces immigrants étaient francophones – le français étant pour eux soit la première langue soit une deuxième qu’ils contrôlaient. C’est depuis lors que la présence du français est devenue démographiquement significative dans la société israélienne, se prolongeant de nos jours dans l’immigration en provenance de France qui se poursuit jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Comme nous l’avons montré ailleurs (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013, Israël fait l’expérience simultanée de plusieurs francophonies originales qui diffèrent par leurs sources aussi bien que leurs expressions (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013. Un premier modèle est le « français vernaculaire » (voir Boudras-Chapon 2008 amené par les immigrants de classes défavorisées arrivant d’Afrique du nord qui se sont regroupés en Israël. Leur français n’a offert qu’une faible résistance à l’hébreu qui s’est imposée dans le processus d’intégration. Un bilinguisme fonctionnant sur un mode additif au début qui s’est mué progressivement en modèle soustractif. Un second modèle concerne les immigrants de même origine ainsi que des immigrants francophones d’autres pays (pays balkaniques, Turquie ou Egypte formant une strate instruite de classe moyenne, pour qui le français était d’utilisation quotidienne aussi bien que de langue de

  15. Rejets et environnement du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2007-01-01

    La radioactivité de l’environnement autour de l’Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) et les doses de rayonnements qui en résultent pour la population avoisinante sont contrôlées par la Commission de Sécurité du CERN et de manière indépendante par les autorités compétentes des deux États Hôtes, l’Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) côté France et l’Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique (OFSP) côté Suisse (voire Chapitre 8.6). Dans ce rapport, les résultats de mesures concernent en particulier le territoire suisse. L’ensemble des mesures effectuées en 2006 prouve que le fonctionnement des installations du CERN était sans conséquence radiologique sur l’environnement et la population. Le contrôle des émissions montre que les rejets effectifs se situent, également en 2006, nettement en dessous des limites réglementaires. Ce constat est confirmé par le contrôle des immissions dans l’environnement. Le CERN a bien respecté en 2...

  16. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rouviere, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  17. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    recherche de la competitivite, nous considerons deux cas: 1) le tonnage a transporter annuellement est limite; 2) le tonnage a transporter annuellement n'est pas limite. Dans les deux cas, nous recherchons les optima du navire classique et du navire nucleaire, et nous les comparons. Nous construisons les courbes de competitivite en fonction des rapports des couts de combustible nucleaire et classique, et des couts marginaux de la puissance nucleaire et classique. Ces courbes traduisent les valeurs limites des deux rapports ci-dessus pour lesquelles les couts de transport du navire nucleaire et du navire classique sont egaux. Suivant les hypotheses adoptees pour le marche du fret et pour la limite du tonnage transporte annuellement, nous avons des courbes de competitivite tres differentes. De toute facon, c'est l'augmentation de puissance qui favorise le nucleaire. On peut obtenir cette augmentation en accroissant le deplacement ce qui est toujours interessant dans la mesure ou le fret le justifie, et en accroissant la vitesse, mais dans ce cas le modele met en evidence l'existence d'une limite. Le sous-marin peut presenter certains avantages (moindre resistance hydrodynamique de l'eau, possibilite de vitesse plus reguliere, et eventuellement reduction de trajet) qui rendent la competitivite du nucleaire plus aisee. (auteur)

  18. The first turbulent combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2005-01-01

    The first turbulent combustion arises in a hot big bang cosmological model Gibson (2004) where nonlinear exothermic turbulence permitted by quantum mechanics, general relativity, multidimensional superstring theory, and fluid mechanics cascades from Planck to strong force freeze out scales with gravity balancing turbulent inertial-vortex forces. Interactions between Planck scale spinning and non-spinning black holes produce high Reynolds number turbulence and temperature mixing with huge Reynolds stresses driving the rapid inflation of space. Kolmogorovian turbulent temperature patterns are fossilized as strong-force exponential inflation stretches them beyond the scale of causal connection ct where c is light speed and t is time. Fossil temperature turbulence patterns seed nucleosynthesis, and then hydro-gravitational structure formation in the plasma epoch, Gibson (1996, 2000). Evidence about formation mechanisms is preserved by cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. CMB spectra indicate hydr...

  19. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113. Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  20. Le cas du Haut-Adige ou Tyrol du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Bagini Scantamburlo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La situation de cette région italienne est vraiment emblématique des rapports entre « les territoires et l’identité » à cause de la présence de différentes communautés linguistiques autochtones, dont les plus importantes sont les minorités germanophone et latine. S’il est vrai que cette situation existe également dans d’autres régions italiennes, il est incontestable que dans le Haut-Adige/Tyrol du Sud elle présente des caractéristiques très spécifiques et uniques pour l’Italie, car les italo...

  1. COMMUNICATION DU CREDIT AGRICOLE - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    La Direction du Crédit Agricole informe son aimable clientèle du CERN des jours et heures d'ouverture de l'agence du site de Prévessin à compter du mardi 14 janvier 2003 : 1. Horaires pour les opérations bancaires courantes 7 jours sur 7 et 24h/24 avec l'espace libre service bancaire. 2. Horaires conseil du mardi au vendredi - Mardi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 14h.15 à 16h.30. - Mercredi, jeudi et vendredi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 13h.30 à 16h.30. Deux collaboratrices au lieu d'une seront désormais présentes toute la journée du mardi au vendredi pour vous accueillir, vous informer et vous conseiller en crédits et placements (réception conseil sur rendez-vous). Autre nouveauté : les mêmes conseillers seront aussi à votre disposition le samedi, sur notre agence de Gex, de 8h.15 à 13h.05, notamment pour les études de financements habitat. La Direction et toute l'équipe de l'agence du Crédit Agricole vous souhaitent une excellent année 2003.

  2. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  3. Combustion Properties of Straw Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing-ling

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The low bulk density of straw is one of the major barriers, which blocks the collection, handling, transportation and storage. Densification of biomass into briquettes/pellets is a suitable method of increasing the bulk density of biomass. Yet in the process, a tremendous amount of air is ejected from biomass grind, which brings substantial specific variation including combustion property. Among them, combustion property is critical for proper design and operation of burning facilities. Therefore, a series of tests about combustion properties of 75mm diameter corn briquettes were done. First, the combustion process (ignition, full flaming and glowing phases., precipitation of tar were investigated by a heating stove, then, Some ash sample from the muffle burner was subjected to an ash melting characteristic test. The results show the combustion of briquettes takes more time than that of raw straw from ignition to complete combustion; in order to meet complete combustion in a short time, the raw straw needs more supply air volume than briquettes under the same α value; the temperature of furnace chamber should been controlled under 900°C, which help to reduce the dark smoke, tar and slag.

  4. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  5. Nouvelles du Centre Aéré de l’Association du Personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2015-01-01

    Cet été 2015, durant quatre semaines d’été, le Centre Aéré a accueilli plus de 40 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans. Devant le succès rencontré, et à la demande des parents, il a été décidé d’en doubler la capacité maximale. A l'été 2016, du 4 au 29 juillet, la structure pourra accueillir les enfants de 4 ans révolus et de moins de 7 ans (nés après le 31/07/2009 mais avant  01/07/2012). Les inscriptions se feront à la semaine durant le mois d'Avril 2016. Les programmes sont en cours d'élaboration cependant nous pouvons déjà vous communiquer le thème conducteur du centre qui sera : à la découverte d'un continent différent chaque ...

  6. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  7. Sylvain Fagot, Le cirque. Entre culture du corps et culture du risque

    OpenAIRE

    Crochet-Giacometti, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Cet ouvrage écrit par Sylvain Fagot, chercheur en sociologie associé à l'université du Québec, et auteur d'une thèse soutenue en 2003 intitulée « Ethno-sociologie du cirque. Arts de la piste / Arts du corps / Arts du risque », s'intéresse à un monde peu connu : celui du cirque. L'objectif y est de montrer comment chaque forme du cirque, le cirque dit « classique » et le cirque dit « nouveau », ont des stratégies sociales et économiques différentes mais surtout un rapport au corps et au risque...

  8. On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LEVENTIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.

  9. Regulation possibilities of biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzdalenko, Vera; Gedrovics, Martins; Zake, Maija; Barmina, Inesa

    2012-11-01

    The focus of the recent experimental research is to analyze the regulation possibilities of biomass combustion. Three possibilities were chosen as part of this research: a) biomass cofiring with propane, b) swirling flow with re-circulation zone, and c) use of a permanent magnet. The aim of the research is to provide stable, controllable and effective biomass combustion with minimum emissions. The special pilot device was created where biomass can be combusted separately and co-fired with propane. Wood pellets were used during the experiments.

  10. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  11. THE COMBUSTION ACTION VERIFICATION AND ESTIMATE OF COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN AVIATION GAS#TURBINE ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Verification results of combustion action simulating and estimate of calculation combustion efficiency that was given by simulating were shown. Mathematical model and its assumption are described. Execution calculations method was shown. Results of simulating are shown; their comparative analyses with results of experiment were executed. Accuracy of combustion action mathematical modeling by combustion efficiency in model with oneand two-stage reactions of combustion was estimated. The infere...

  12. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  13. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  14. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight, a

  15. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  16. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Smeets

    2013-01-01

    Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le v...

  17. L’abolition du vieillissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Reindl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I « L’humanité vieillit à un rythme inimaginable. (... »« L’humanité vieillit à un rythme inimaginable. Nous devons résoudre le problème de notre propre vieillissement pour résoudre celui du monde entier. » M. Schirrmacher, l’un des intellectuels médiatiques les plus connus de l’Allemagne, joue comme toujours de façon magistrale la partition de l’effroi. Il ne se contente nullement de s’arranger avec son propre vieillissement, mais il veut sauver le monde à travers « une révolution militante...

  18. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  19. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  20. Combustion Process Modelling and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Maduda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with realization of combustion control system on programmable logic controllers. Control system design is based on analysis of the current state of combustion control systems in technological device of raw material processing area. Control system design is composed of two subsystems. First subsystem is represented by software system for measured data processing and for data processing from simulation of the combustion mathematical model. Outputs are parameters for setting of controller algorithms. Second subsystem consists from programme modules. The programme module is presented by specific control algorithm, for example proportional regulation, programmed proportional regulation, proportional regulation with correction on the oxygen in waste gas, and so on. According to the specific combustion control requirements it is possible built-up concrete control system by programme modules. The programme modules were programmed by Automation studio that is used for development, debugging and testing software for B&R controllers.

  1. Putting combustion optimization to work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spring, N.

    2009-05-15

    New plants and plants that are retrofitting can benefit from combustion optimization. Boiler tuning and optimization can complement each other. The continuous emissions monitoring system CEMS, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy TDLAS can be used for optimisation. NeuCO's CombustionOpt neural network software can determine optimal fuel and air set points. Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group Inc's Flame Doctor can be used in conjunction with other systems to diagnose and correct coal-fired burner performance. The four units of the Colstrip power plant in Colstrips, Montana were recently fitted with combustion optimization systems based on advanced model predictive multi variable controls (MPCs), ABB's Predict & Control tool. Unit 4 of Tampa Electric's Big Bend plant in Florida is fitted with Emerson's SmartProcess fuzzy neural model based combustion optimisation system. 1 photo.

  2. Flameless Combustion for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Li, Guoqiang; Overman, Nick; Cornwell, Michael; Stankovic, Dragan; Fuchs, Laszlo; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2006-11-01

    An experimental study of a novel flameless combustor for gas turbine engines is presented. Flameless combustion is characterized by distributed flame and even temperature distribution for high preheat air temperature and large amount of recirculating low oxygen exhaust gases. Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC are reported. Measurements of the flame chemiluminescence, CO and NOx emissions, acoustic pressure, temperature and velocity fields as a function of the preheat temperature, inlet air mass flow rate, exhaust nozzle contraction ratio, and combustor chamber diameter are described. The data indicate that larger pressure drop promotes flameless combustion and low NOx emissions at the same flame temperature. High preheated temperature and flow rates also help in forming stable combustion and therefore are favorable for flameless combustion.

  3. Experimental validation of calculated capture rate for nucleus involved in fuel cycle; Validation experimentale du calcul du taux de capture des noyaux intervenant dans le cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benslimane-Bouland, A

    1997-09-01

    The framework of this study was the evaluation of the nuclear data requirements for Actinides and Fission Products applied to current nuclear reactors as well as future applications. This last item includes extended irradiation campaigns, 100 % Mixed Oxide fuel, transmutation or even incineration. The first part of this study presents different types of integral measurements which are available for capture rate measurements, as well as the methods used for reactor core calculation route design and nuclear data library validation. The second section concerns the analysis of three specific irradiation experiments. The results have shown the extent of the current knowledge on nuclear data as well as the associated uncertainties. The third and last section shows both the coherency between all the results, and the statistical method applied for nuclear data library adjustment. A relevant application of this method has demonstrated that only specifically chosen integral experiments can be of use for the validation of nuclear data libraries. The conclusion is reached that even if co-ordinated efforts between reactor and nuclear physicists have made possible a huge improvement in the knowledge of capture cross sections of the main nuclei such as uranium and plutonium, some improvements are currently necessary for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm). Both integral and differential measurements are recommended to improve the knowledge of minor actinide cross sections. As far as integral experiments are concerned, a set of criteria to be followed during the experimental conception have been defined in order to both reduce the number of required calculation approximations, and to increase as much as possible the maximum amount of extracted information. (author)

  4. Combustion of boron containing compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Y.; Pivkina, A. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Boron is one of the most energetic components for explosives, propellants and for heterogeneous condensed systems in common. The combustion process of mixtures of boron with different oxidizers was studied. The burning rate, concentration combustion limits, the agglomeration and dispersion processes during reaction wave propagation were analysed in the respect of the percolation theory. The linear dependence of the burning rate on the contact surface value was demonstrated. The percolative model for the experimental results explanation is proposed. (authors) 5 refs.

  5. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  6. Daphne du Maurier' unustatud jutud / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Ajalehe "The Independent" teatel kavatseb kirjastus "Virago" maikuus avaldada Daphne Du Maurier lühiproosa kogumiku "Nukk" (The Doll), mille on koostanud tema loomingu suur austaja Ann Willmore ja mis sisaldab 13 unustatud ja seni avaldamata novelli

  7. Flaubert et Du Camp : quelques remarques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Brix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Les spécialistes de Flaubert ont fait de nombreux reproches à Maxime Du Camp et ne prêtent plus guère d’attention à ce qu’il a écrit. C’est une situation très regrettable, qui prive les lecteurs d’informations nombreuses, susceptibles d’éclairer les enjeux mais aussi les impasses et les contradictions du projet esthétique de Flaubert. Quelques cas significatifs sont évoqués dans le présent article, qui se penche plus particulièrement sur la ressemblance entre un passage du livre de Du Camp Le Nil (1854 et les lignes de L’Éducation sentimentale (1869 qui rapportent l’“apparition” de Mme Arnoux.

  8. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  9. Daphne du Maurier' unustatud jutud / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Ajalehe "The Independent" teatel kavatseb kirjastus "Virago" maikuus avaldada Daphne Du Maurier lühiproosa kogumiku "Nukk" (The Doll), mille on koostanud tema loomingu suur austaja Ann Willmore ja mis sisaldab 13 unustatud ja seni avaldamata novelli

  10. DU-127090 Solvay/H Lundbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, William

    2003-01-01

    DU-127090 is a mixed dopamine antagonist/serotonin agonist in development by Solvay and H Lundbeck as a potential treatment for psychosis and schizophrenia, for which it is in phase II clinical trials. In August 2002, phase II trials were ongoing and Lundbeck expected to commence phase III trials in 2003 and file an NDA after 2004. DU-127090 is also under development for Parkinson's disease, for which it is in phase I clinical trials.

  11. La fin du risque zéro : du homegrown jihadism au terrorisme du loup solitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Baudouï

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le risque zéro représente un moment historique particulier dans la conceptualisation de la socio-politique du risque. Son application repose au début des années 1980 sur l’hypothèse de la possibilité de progresser dans le domaine de l’anticipation et de la gestion sécuritaire des crises potentielles au point de pouvoir prémunir les populations contre toute forme de menace. Il fut employé dans les domaines de la protection civile et de la sécurité militaire. Comme élément de gouvernance politique, il réfutait l’idée selon laquelle le risque existe en préalable comme catégorie d’acceptabilité collective de la menace.

  12. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  13. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  14. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskaris, M.A.; Broitman, K.; Natale, S.E.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes improvement in a two-stroke internal combustion engine adapted to run on a diesel or a kerosene type of fuel, and including a piston connected to the crankshaft of the engine to move within a cylinder through a first stroke from a top dead center position to a bottom dead center position and through a second stroke from the bottom dead center position back to the top dead center position. The improvement comprises: means providing a cylinder head at the top end of the engine cylinder in the shape of an open bowl having a generally cup-shaped configuration including a sidewall portion, a spark plug positioned centrally within the bowl at the top end of the cylinder, and means for injecting fuel into the top end of the engine cylinder at a location between the spark plug and the sidewall portion, the fuel injecting means including an injection nozzle having a plurality of nozzle openings therein, the nozzle openings being constructed and arranged to discharge a plurality of plume-like sprays into the top end of the cylinder at a location within the bowl, two of the sprays being directed from the nozzle to diverge and pass along opposite sides of the spark plug, and additional sprays being directed from the nozzle against the sidewall portion or the cylinder head to be deflected therefrom back toward the piston and the spark plug to thereby form a cloud of fuel over the spark plug for good ignition.

  15. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  16. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  17. Continuous dissolution of irradiated nuclear fuels; Dissolution continue des combustibles nucleaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, P.; Talmont, X.; Tarnerq, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    In the case of the continuous dissolution of nuclear fuels, the equations for the calculation of the fuel concentration of the solution flowing out of a pot dissolver have been written. Nitric acid feed flow rates have been calculated in order to obtain an adjusted solution when starting or stopping a dissolution, or when changing the number of rods introduced per hour. Then some transient states brought on by perturbations, have been studied: a) sudden change in nitric acid flow rate; b) continuous drift of the latter; c) sudden change in nitric acid feed concentration; d) transition from a fuel concentration to another by changing the flow rate of nitric acid feed. It has been shown that some transient states cannot be solved with general equations. Computer calculation programs would be probably more useful. (authors) [French] L'etude se rapporte a la dissolution dans l'acide nitrique des combustibles nucleaires irradies, en vue de la recuperation de la matiere fissile qu'ils contiennent. On a etabli, dans le cas de la dissolution continue, les differentes equations permettant le calcul de la concentration en combustible a la sortie d'un dissolveur du type 'marmite'. On a etudie les regimes du debit d'alimentation en acide nitrique a imposer lors du demarrage, de l'arret d'une dissolution, ou lors d'un changement de cadence d'introduction des barreaux, de facon a obtenir une solution ajustee. On a etudie ensuite differents regimes transitoires consecutifs a des perturbations: changement brusque du debit d'acide d'alimentation, derive continue de ce debit, changement brusque de la concentration de l'acide d'alimentation, passage d'une concentration en combustible a une autre par changement du debit d'acide d'alimentation. On a pu montrer que certains regimes transitoires ne peuvent se traiter par des equations generales, et necessiteraient plustot l'etablissement d

  18. The distribution, atmospheric transfer, and assessment of krypton-85; Distribution, transfert atmospherique et bilan du krypton-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannetier, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Techniques for sampling and measuring krypton-85 have been developed which allowed to determine its geographical distribution. From its use as a tracer, an evaluation of the air masses which cross over the subtropical fronts has been derived. Besides, the stratospheric character of air pollution by krypton-85 at the level of the antarctic soil has been shown out. Levels of krypton-85 seem to point out to an underestimation of the assessment of nuclear explosion fission energies as adopted by the United Nations Scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation and emphasize the need to set limits as soon as possible to the amounts of krypton-85 released to the atmosphere by fuel-reprocessing plants. (author) [French] La mise au point de techniques de prelevement et de mesure du krypton-85 atmospherique a permis de determiner sa repartition geographique. De son utilisation comme traceur on deduit une evaluation des masses d'air qui traversent les fronts subtropicaux. Par ailleurs, le caractere stratospherique de la pollution de l'air par le krypton-85 au niveau du sol antarctique est mis en evidence. Le bilan du krypton-85 semble reveler une sous-estimation du bilan des energies de fission des explosions adopte par le Comite scientifique des Nations Unies et souligne la necessite de limiter des que possible les quantites de krypton-85 rejetees dans l'atmosphere par les usines de traitement de combustibles irradies. (auteur)

  19. Two further years of operation of the reactor G1 (july 1958 - july 1960); Deux nouvelles annees de fonctionnement du reacteur G1. (juillet 1958 - Juillet 1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathot, P.; Bauzit, J.; Cante, R.; Hebrard, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The aim of the present report is to present certain observations and to give the results obtained during the period from july the 1{sup st} 1958 to july the 1{sup st} 1960. The main operations carried out during this period were, chronologically: - From july the 5{sup th} to october the 18{sup th} 1958: preparation and execution of the first annealing of the graphite. - From dec. the 15{sup th} 1958 to july the 15{sup th} 1959: a discharging campaign which resulted in the complete renewal of the fuel elements. During the monthly stoppages of this campaign, it was possible to make certain observations concerning the packing of the graphite, while at the same time measurements of the temperature of the element cans were made at an increased number of points. - From september the 25{sup th} 1959 to december the 9{sup th} 1959: preparation and execution of the second annealing. At the end of the annealing, the thorium lattice was modified and extra thermocouples were installed for measuring the temperature of the body of the graphite. An apparatus was built for measuring the radial flux. - From december the 9{sup th} 1959 to july 1960: a continuous operation campaign, with a minimum of stoppages. The experimental results are re-assembled, independently of their chronological order, under three main headings which describe the reactors history: - continuous operation, - discharges, - annealing of the reactor. (author) [French] Le but du present rapport est d'exposer certaines observations faites et les resultats obtenus au cours de la periode du 1{sup er} juillet 1958 au 1{sup er} juillet 1960. Cette periode a ete marquee chronologiquement par les operations essentielles suivantes: - du 5 juillet au 18 octobre 1958: preparation et execution du premier recuit du graphite. - du 15 decembre 1958 au 15 juillet 1959: campagne de dechargement entrainant un renouvellement total des cartouches de combustibles. Au cours des arrets mensuels de cette campagne, certaines

  20. Original Paper Performances comparées du HDL-cholestérol et du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT/HDL-C) et du HDL-Cholestérol est le meilleur prédicteur du SMet chez les adultes béninois. L'étude de ..... d'hypertension artérielle avaient observé qu'une ... facteurs tels que l'alimentation et l'activité physique sur les lipides sanguins.

  1. Engagez-vous, devenez délégué(e) du personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Dans notre ECHO N° 275, nous avons annoncé les élections à venir au Conseil du personnel du CERN. Dans le présent ECHO, nous vous informons du lancement du processus des élections qui débute par le dépôt des candidatures. Tous les titulaires, boursiers et associés, qui sont aussi membres de l’Association du personnel, peuvent s’engager et déposer leur candidature entre le 11 septembre à 08 h 00 et le 13 octobre 2017 à 17 h 00. N’hésitez plus, remplissez le formulaire de candidature, présentez-vous aux élections au Conseil du personnel afin de pouvoir représenter et défendre vos collègues du personnel du CERN. ÊTRE DÉLÉGUÉ(E), C’EST QUOI ? Poser la question à plusieurs d...

  2. Twenty-second symposium (international) on combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The following research areas were discussed at the symposium: coal combustion: carbon burnout, pyrolysis, furnaces, laboratory-scale combustion, and fluidized bed combustion; combustion-generated particulates: soot inception, growth, and soot formation in diffusion flames; engine combustion; turbulent combustion: flames in vortices, fractals and cellular automations, nonpremixed flames, premixed flames, premixed flame structure, and lifted flames; reaction kinetics: hydrocarbon oxidation, free radical chemistry, unsaturated species, aromatics, and nitrogen compounds/pollutant formation; combustion generated NO/sub x/ and SO/sub x/; fires: flame spread, radiation, characterization, and unsteady flames; Laminar flames: structure, opposed-flow combustion, shape, propagation/extinction, and inhibition, oscillations, microgravity; ignition; detonations; dusts; propellants; diagnostics; combustion of drops, sprays, and dispersions, and slurries. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  3. Combustion iron distribution and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Mahowald, N.; Bond, T.; Chuang, P. Y.; Artaxo, P.; Siefert, R.; Chen, Y.; Schauer, J.

    2008-03-01

    Iron is hypothesized to be an important micronutrient for ocean biota, thus modulating carbon dioxide uptake by the ocean biological pump. Studies have assumed that atmospheric deposition of iron to the open ocean is predominantly from mineral aerosols. For the first time we model the source, transport, and deposition of iron from combustion sources. Iron is produced in small quantities during fossil fuel burning, incinerator use, and biomass burning. The sources of combustion iron are concentrated in the industrialized regions and biomass burning regions, largely in the tropics. Model results suggest that combustion iron can represent up to 50% of the total iron deposited, but over open ocean regions it is usually less than 5% of the total iron, with the highest values (ocean biogeochemistry the bioavailability of the iron is important, and this is often estimated by the fraction which is soluble (Fe(II)). Previous studies have argued that atmospheric processing of the relatively insoluble Fe(III) occurs to make it more soluble (Fe(II)). Modeled estimates of soluble iron amounts based solely on atmospheric processing as simulated here cannot match the variability in daily averaged in situ concentration measurements in Korea, which is located close to both combustion and dust sources. The best match to the observations is that there are substantial direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion processes. If we assume observed soluble Fe/black carbon ratios in Korea are representative of the whole globe, we obtain the result that deposition of soluble iron from combustion contributes 20-100% of the soluble iron deposition over many ocean regions. This implies that more work should be done refining the emissions and deposition of combustion sources of soluble iron globally.

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  5. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the

  6. Comportement du carbone aux joints de grains du molybdène

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Pas de résumé en anglais; La mise en évidence et l'interprétation du rôle bénéfique du carbone et du rôle néfaste de l'oxygène sur la cohésion intergranulaire du molybdène en l'absence de précipitation visible au MEB constituaient le but de cette étude. Une méthode efficace de purification du molybdène a été mise au point. Les mesures de la concentration intergranulaire de carbone en fonction de la température de carburation et de la teneur volumique ont été effectuées à l'aide d'un spectromè...

  7. Modélisation de la combustion dans un moteur diesel d'automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchon, Philippe

    La plupart des moteurs diesels utilisés pour la traction des véhicules automobiles sont des moteurs à préchambre. Le combustible y est introduit sous forme liquide, à haute pression, se vaporise, auto-inflamme et brûle dans un espace confiné dans lequel règnent des vitesses d'écoulement très élevées. La vitesse de combustion, et donc le rendement du moteur, sont très sensibles à divers paramètres liés à l'injection ou à la géométrie de la chambre. Cette dernière joue un rôle prédominant sur l'aérodynamique interne et son interaction avec la propagation de la flamme.

  8. Subgrid Combustion Modeling for the Next Generation National Combustion Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Suresh; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Stone, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, a subgrid turbulent mixing and combustion methodology developed earlier at Georgia Tech has been provided to researchers at NASA/GRC for incorporation into the next generation National Combustion Code (called NCCLES hereafter). A key feature of this approach is that scalar mixing and combustion processes are simulated within the LES grid using a stochastic 1D model. The subgrid simulation approach recovers locally molecular diffusion and reaction kinetics exactly without requiring closure and thus, provides an attractive feature to simulate complex, highly turbulent reacting flows of interest. Data acquisition algorithms and statistical analysis strategies and routines to analyze NCCLES results have also been provided to NASA/GRC. The overall goal of this research is to systematically develop and implement LES capability into the current NCC. For this purpose, issues regarding initialization and running LES are also addressed in the collaborative effort. In parallel to this technology transfer effort (that is continuously on going), research has also been underway at Georgia Tech to enhance the LES capability to tackle more complex flows. In particular, subgrid scalar mixing and combustion method has been evaluated in three distinctly different flow field in order to demonstrate its generality: (a) Flame-Turbulence Interactions using premixed combustion, (b) Spatially evolving supersonic mixing layers, and (c) Temporal single and two-phase mixing layers. The configurations chosen are such that they can be implemented in NCCLES and used to evaluate the ability of the new code. Future development and validation will be in spray combustion in gas turbine engine and supersonic scalar mixing.

  9. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Smeets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le voyageur français au XIXe, c'est le home sweet home.

  10. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  11. Explosion limits for combustible gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Min-ming; WU Guo-qing; HAO Ji-fei; DAI Xin-lian

    2009-01-01

    Combustible gases in coal mines are composed of methane, hydrogen, some multi-carbon alkane gases and other gases. Based on a numerical calculation, the explosion limits of combustible gases were studied, showing that these limits are related to the concentrations of different components in the mixture. With an increase of C4H10 and C6H14, the Lower ExplosionLimit (LEL) and Upper Explosion-Limit (UEL) of a combustible gas mixture will decrease clearly. For every 0.1% increase in C4H10 and C6H14, the LEL decreases by about 0.19% and the UEL by about 0.3%. The results also prove that, by increasing the amount of H2, the UEL of a combustible gas mixture will increase considerably. If the level of H2 increases by 0.1%, the UEL will increase by about 0.3%. However, H2 has only a small effect on the LEL of the combustible gas mixture. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for judging the explosion risk of an explosive gas mixture in mines.

  12. New Combustion Regimes and Kinetic Studies of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Tasks 8 and 9: Kinetic model validation) Today’s Presentation 2. Multispecies diagnostics in a flow reactor with Mid-IR and molecular beam mass...S-Curve Competition between low T RO2 kinetics high T chain branching reactions 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 1x10 5 2x10 5 3x10 5 4x10...in Plasma assisted combustion • LTC in turbulent combustion at engine time scales 0-D modeling of DME /O2/He (0.03/0.1/0.896) ignition, P = 72

  13. A comprehensive fractal char combustion model☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuting Liu; Rong He

    2016-01-01

    The char combustion mechanisms were analyzed and a comprehensive fractal char combustion model was developed to give a better understanding and better predictions of the char combustion characteristics. Most of the complex factors affecting the char combustion were included, such as the coupling effects between the pore diffusion and the chemical reactions, the evolution of the char pore structures and the variation of the apparent reaction order during combustion, the CO/CO2 ratio in the combustion products and the correction for oxy-char combustion. Eleven different chars were then combusted in two drop tube furnaces with the conversions of the partly burned char samples measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The combustion processes of these chars were simulated with the predicted char conversions matching very well with the measured data which shows that this char combustion model has good accuracy. The apparent reaction order of the char combustion decreases, stabilizes and then increases during the combustion process. The combustion rates in the oxy-mode are general y slower than in the air-mode and the effect of the char-CO2 gasification reac-tion becomes obvious only when the temperature is relatively high and the O2 concentration is relatively low.

  14. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient

  15. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  16. Établissements recevant du public

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Synthèse pour les installations électriques, des règles de sécurité contre les risques d’incendie et de panique dans les établissements recevant du public (ERP), selon l’arrêté du 25 juin 1980 modifié. L'ouvrage traite à la fois des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe (1ère à 4ème catégorie), du 2ème groupe (5ème catégorie) et des règles particulières applicables aux différents types d'établissements (structures d'accueil pour personnes âgées ou handicapées, hôtels, magasins de vente, restaurants et débit de boisson, établissements de soins, administration, châpiteaux, etc...) Sont ainsi notamment traités, dans le cadre des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe, pour les installations électriques normales : les installations des appareils, tableaux et canalisations, les locaux électriques et installation de machines, l'éclairage normal des locaux accessibles au public, le chauffage et la ventilation, l'installation d'eau chaude sanita...

  17. L’internationalisation du roman arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dalia Khraibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La littérature arabe est presque invisible dans l’espace littéraire mondiale pour des raisons diverses. Pourtant, des écrivains réussissent à s’imposer sur la scène littéraire internationale et leurs œuvres deviennent des chefs d’œuvre de la littérature mondiale. Parmi ces écrivains, nous citons Tayeb Saleh qui connaît un succès international surtout avec la parution de son second roman "Saison de migration vers le Nord". Notre étude vise à montrer comment ce roman par son contenu et sa forme, occupe une place de choix dans la littérature mondiale. En effet, nous allons examiner le contexte historique de l’émergence du roman qui joue un rôle dans sa diffusion au niveau mondial. L’une des clés de réussite du roman est la technique narrative qui retient l’haleine du lecteur dès la première page. De plus, le roman répond à l’horizon d’attente du lectorat occidental en représentant des images particulières de la société arabo-africaine qui correspondent aux stéréotypes et clichés du public occidental vis-à-vis des Arabes.

  18. Influence du pH, d'acides aminés et de diverses substances organiques sur la fongitoxicité du pyriméthanil, du glufosinate, du captafol, du cymoxanil et du fenpiclonil vis-à-vis de certaines souches de Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    L’effet du pyriméthanil, du fenpiclonil, du captafol, du glufosinate et du cymoxanil sur l’élongation des filaments germinatifs des spores de Botrytis cinerea est étudié dans diverses conditions culturales du champignon. Si le fenpiclonil présente un niveau d’activité stable entre pH 3,6 et 7,3, en revanche les autres pesticides voient leur toxicité chuter dans des milieux acides (ex pyriméthanil) ou neutres à faiblement basiques (ex captafol, cymoxanil, glufosinate). L’adjonction d’extrait d...

  19. De Gainsborough à Turner : l'âge d'or du paysage et du portrait anglais dans les collections du musée du Louvre

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    L’exposition De Gainsborough à Turner : l'âge d'or du paysage et du portrait anglais dans les collections du musée du Louvre co-organisée par le Musée du Louvre, le Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie de Valence et le Musée des Beaux-arts de Quimper présentait une sélection de 35 peintures de la collection du Louvre, complétée par 38 dessins du département des Arts Graphiques. Les commissaires de l'exposition étaient : Guillaume Faroult, conservateur en charge des peintures françaises du 18ème siècl...

  20. Combustion synthesis method and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  1. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  2. Fundamentals of premixed turbulent combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Lipatnikov, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Lean burning of premixed gases is considered to be a promising combustion technology for future clean and highly efficient gas turbine engines. This book highlights the phenomenology of premixed turbulent flames. The text provides experimental data on the general appearance of premixed turbulent flames, physical mechanisms that could affect flame behavior, and physical and numerical models aimed at predicting the key features of premixed turbulent combustion. The author aims to provide a simple introduction to the field for advanced graduate and postgraduate students. Topics covered include La

  3. Autodesk Combustion 4 fundamentals courseware

    CERN Document Server

    Autodesk,

    2005-01-01

    Whether this is your first experience with Combustion software or you're upgrading to take advantage of the many new features and tools, this guide will serve as your ultimate resource to this all-in-one professional compositing application. Much more than a point-and-click manual, this guide explains the principles behind the software, serving as an overview of the package and associated techniques. Written by certified Autodesk training specialists for motion graphic designers, animators, and visual effects artists, Combustion 4 Fundamentals Courseware provides expert advice for all skill le

  4. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  5. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  6. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  7. Analyse énonciative du point du vue, narration et analyse de discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Rabatel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre que l’analyse énonciative du point de vue (PDV, en rupture avec la typologie des focalisations de Genette, peut renouveler partiellement la narratologie, à la condition de substituter à l’approche immanentiste du récit une analyse interactionnelle de la narration. L’article présente d’abord l’approche énonciative du PDV, en appui des théories de Ducrot, et, sur cette base, propose diverses modalités de PDV (représenté, raconté, asserté qui donnent corps au point de vue des personnages ou du narrateur en modifiant sensiblement les analyses de Genette. Dans une deuxième partie, l’article envisage le rôle des PDV dans la narration, notamment dans la réévaluation des dimensions cognitive et pragmatique de la mimésis, puis dans les mécanismes inférentiels-interprétatifs, proches du système de sympathie de Jouve, enfin, dans la revalorisation du rôle du narrateur •puisque ce dernier se construit dans le même temps qu’il construit ses personnages.

  8. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  9. Science et technologie du collage

    CERN Document Server

    Cognard, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    L'Homme a su coller avant de savoir écrire et compter. Le collage est en effet l'une des premières techniques d'assemblage d'une structure que l'homme ait utilisée, technique qui n'est devenue science qu'au début du 20e siècle avec la fabrication des premières colles synthétiques. Cette science de l'adhésion a considérablement progressé ces dix dernières années et ce livre présente l'état actuel des connaissances en décrivant les progrès considérables réalisés dans la compréhension des phénomènes fondamentaux qui font qu'un collage tient bien et durablement. Après l'exposé des bases scientifiques nécessaires et des modèles théoriques récents, l'auteur introduit la distinction entre collages faibles et collages forts puis expose les difficultés rencontrées dans les cas pratiques, difficultés souvent dues à la complexité de la chimie des surfaces et des réactions surface-polymère. L'ouvrage se termine par la présentation de quelques applications récentes, en particulier dans...

  10. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion c

  11. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion c

  12. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes.

  13. Simulation study on combustion of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M. L.; Liu, X.; Cheng, J. W.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass combustion is the most common energy conversion technology, offering the advantages of low cost, low risk and high efficiency. In this paper, the transformation and transfer of biomass in the process of combustion are discussed in detail. The process of furnace combustion and gas phase formation was analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results not only help to optimize boiler operation and realize the efficient combustion of biomass, but also provide theoretical basis for the improvement of burner technology.

  14. Les métamorphoses du pouvoir

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    On sait que la sorcellerie en Afrique peut s'exercer du faible au fort ou l'inverse. Les situations qui sont ici analysées sont celles où les rois ou les chefs sont expressément désignés comme sorciers, soit qu'ils le deviennent du fait même de leur investiture, soit qu'il leur ait fallu le devenir pour accéder au pouvoir et le conserver face à des rivaux usant des mêmes moyens. Quoi qu'il en soit, un roi-sorcier offre une figure paradoxale du pouvoir, et cela doublement : garant de l'...

  15. Au fond de la logique du lieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Berque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’école de Kyôto ( Kyôto gakuha est cette mouvance philosophique, née dans l’entre-deux-guerres, dont le Nihonshi jiten ( Dictionnaire historique du Japon des éditions Iwanami donne la présentation suivante : 1 École centrée sur la Faculté de philosophie de l’Université de Kyôto dans les années Taishô et Shôwa. Elle débuta autour de Nishida Kitarô et de Tanabe Hajime, mais on la connaît plutôt du fait que peu après le début de la guerre du Pacifique, en 1942, ...

  16. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  17. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à ...

  18. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  19. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard shall...

  20. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking...

  1. The ``SILVA`` program; Le cycle du combustible (evolution des techniques d`enrichissement isotopique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M.

    1996-12-31

    The ``SILVA`` process (Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotopic Separation) is an innovating system of enriched uranium (electronuclear reactors fuel) production. Its great interest comes from its selectivity. The aim is to divide by a factor of three the costs of production compared with those of the current plants. The stakes of this research program, its principle, the main research axis, the material means and the future prospects beyond 1997 are given as well as its technical advancement state. (O.M.).

  2. Optimisation de la gestion du combustible dans les reacteurs CANDU refroidis a l'eau legere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Richard

    This research has two main goals. First, we wanted to introduce optimization tools in the diffusion code DONJON, mostly for fuel management. The second objective is more practical. The optimization capabilities are applied to the fuel management problem for different CANDU reactors at refueling equilibrium state. Two kinds of approaches are considered and implemented in this study to solve optimization problems in the code DONJON. The first methods are based on gradients and on the quasi-linear mathematical programming. The method initially developed in the code OPTEX is implemented as a reference approach for the gradient based methods. However, this approach has a major drawback. Indeed, the starting point has to be a feasible point. Then, several approaches have been developed to be more general and not limited by the initial point choice. Among the different methods we developed, two were found to be very efficient: the multi-step method and the mixte method. The second kind of approach are the meta-heuristic methods. We implemented the tabu search method. Initially, it was designed to optimize combinatory variable problems. However, we successfully used it for continuous variables. The major advantage of the tabu method over the gradient methods is the capability to exit from local minima. Optimisation of the average exit burnup has been performed for CANDU-6 and ACR-700 reactors. The fresh fuel enrichment has also been optimized for ACR-700. Results match very well what the reactor physics can predict. Moreover, a comparison of the two totally different types of optimization methods validated the results we obtained.

  3. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Kiil, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Several options are available to control the emission of SO2 from combustion processes. One possibility is to use a cleaner technology, i.e. fuel switching from oil and coal to natural gas or biomass, or to desulphurize coal and oil. Another possibility is to change to a different technology for ...

  4. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  5. Les perspectives du commerce international de gaz naturel d'ici 2000 The World Natural Gas Trade Outlook to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'abondance des ressources gazières mondiales et l'excellence des qualités du gaz naturel, comme combustible et matière première pétrochimique, devraient lui permettre d'accroître sa pénétration sur les marchés énergétiques internationaux. Toutefois, la répartition géographique de ses réserves prouvées coïncide de moins en moins avec celle de sa consommation. En conséquence, la croissance du commerce international de gaz naturel apparaît comme une nécessité de plus en plus vitale du développement mondial de ses marchés. A partir d'une étude prospective menée au sein de l'Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, le présent mémoire se propose d'analyser les perspectives des échanges gaziers internationaux d'ici l'horizon 2000. The abundance of the world reserves of natural gas and the excellence of its qualities as a fuel and a petrochemical feedstock should enable natural gas to increase its penetration on international energy markets. However the geographic distribution of its proved reserves coincides less and less with the distribution of its consumption. Therefore, the increase in international gas trade appears more and more to be of vital necessity for the world development of its markets. On the basis of a study carried out within the Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, the present paper will attempt to analyse the outlook for international gas trade between now and the year 2000.

  6. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  7. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  8. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  9. Combustive management of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  10. L’ombre du Condor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Gaudichaud

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Si l’on observe aujourd’hui, avec un regard d’historien, le Cône Sud à la fin des années soixante soixante-dix et que par, la suite, on tourne une page de quelques années, pour fixer la même partie du monde, le constat est sans appel : le sous-continent latino-américain est passé, en général, d’une phase de forte mobilisation et politisation sociale, montée en puissance de partis et organisations révolutionnaires, surgissements de gouvernements populistes de gauche ou progressistes – appelant à une rupture avec l’impérialisme –, à un reflux généralisé du mouvement ouvrier, une ère de violence politique étatisée, la destruction massive de tous les espaces d’expression et de participation démocratiques, l’écrasement physique et idéologique sans relâche des militants et mouvements révolutionnaires, la mise en place de modèles économiques capitalistes dirigistes puis/ou néolibéraux. Que s’est-il passé ? Quel fil conducteur a été rompu et par quels moyens l’Amérique Latine a été conduite à ce reflux des luttes sociales ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous nous contenterons dans cet article de focaliser notre objectif sur un aspect spécifique et essentiel de ce retournement de tendance que vit alors l���Amérique Latine : celui de la mise en place d’un terrorisme d’Etat contre-révolutionnaire transnational, appuyé par l’impérialisme américain, nommé « l’Opération Condor ». Dans cet article, il s’agit de montrer le fonctionnement d’un terrorisme hégémonique dont l’impact sur les sociétés latino-américaines est considérable en termes de destruction du mouvement social, des activités culturelles et de l’ensemble de la vie sociale et politique qui restent marquées, encore aujourd’hui à des degrés divers, par la violence, la peur et l’atomisation structurelle.Si miramos hoy en día, desde una perspectiva histórica, el Cono Sur hacia finales de

  11. Stravinsky : figures clownesques du spectacle dansé

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Leonard H.

    2013-01-01

    L’origine du mot clown remonte au vieux Scandinave klunni (lourdaud / benêt). Comme nous avons pu en juger au cours de ces rencontres, la sémantique historique du terme a connu de nombreuses variations, a été, au fil du temps, soumise aux fluctuations plus ou moins heureuses imposées par le théâtre. Dans cette étude, je me propose d’étudier l’iconographie de la représentation du clown à travers l’une des variantes du spectacle, la danse, le ballet et les musiques d’Igor Stravinsky. Au cours d...

  12. Une force venant du futur chercherait à saboter l'expérience du LHC...

    CERN Multimedia

    Scappaticci, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    "A quelques jours de la reprise de l'expérience du LHC, on ne parle plus de la menace d'un trou noir, mais deux physicines souteinnent aujourd'hui une tout autres hypothèse: la nature, depuis le futur, va continuer de contrarier les travaux du Cern, afin d'éviter à l'Homme de mettre le doigt là où il ne faut pas..." (1.5 pages)

  13. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  14. Utilisation du langage signal pour l'etude d'algorithmes de traitement du Signal electrocardiographique

    OpenAIRE

    Médigue, Claire; Clairambault, Jean; Kauffmann, François; Sorine, Michel; Cursi-Dascalova, Lilia

    1992-01-01

    Projet SOSSO; Pour etudier la maturation du Systeme Nerveux Autonome (SNA) chez les nouveaux nes, on analyse la Variabilite du Rythme Cardiaque (VRC), en relation avec d'autres informations biologiques telles que les changements de stades de sommeil. La VRC est calculee par la Transformee de Fourier a Court Terme dans trois bandes de frequence : la haute frequence, refletant le controle para sympathique seul et liee au cycle respiratoire ; les moyenne et basse frequences, refletant a la fois ...

  15. Secondary combustion device for woodburning stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craver, R.D.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes in a wood burning stove including an exhaust flue opening, a combustion chamber for primary combustion having an access door, a support for wood to be burned and a primary air inlet means for supplying air to support primary combustion of the wood to produce flue gases containing combustible particulate material, plenum means for directing the flue gases in a direction from the combustion chamber to the flue opening in a preselected path, and secondary combustion means for burning the particulate material in the flue gases before flue gases through the exhaust flue opening. The improvement comprising: the combustion chamber having a flue gas exit opening extending laterally across the top of the combustion chamber and communicating the combustion chamber with the plenum means, an elongated manifold extending laterally across and above the combustion chamber substantially coextensively with the flue gas exit opening, a number of air opening spaced longitudinally along the manifold and facing opposite the direction of the flue gases closely adjacent the flue gas exit opening, and an air inlet means for supplying ambient, secondary combustion air to the manifold for counterflow thereof from the openings into the path of the flue gases in a plurality of distinct jets.

  16. Measurement and simulation of swirling coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan Hu; Lixing Zhou; Yonghao Luo; Caisong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV),thermocouples and flue gas analyzer are used to study swirling coal combustion and NO formation under different secondary-air ratios.Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) using the Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale stress model,presumed-PDF fast chemistry and eddy-break-up (EBU) gas combustion models,particle devolatilization and particle combustion models,are simultaneously used to simulate swirling coal combustion.Statistical LES results are validated by measurement results.Instantaneous LES results show that the coherent structures for swirling coal combustion are stronger than those for swirling gas combustion.Particles are shown to concentrate along the periphery of the coherent structures.Combustion flame is located in the high vorticity and high particle concentration zones.Measurement shows that secondary-air ratios have little effect on final NO formation at the exit of the combustor.

  17. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd; Daw, Charles Stuart; Wagner, Robert Milton

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  18. ESTIMATION DU MODELE LINEAIRE GENERALISE ET APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika CHIKHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente  le modèle linéaire généralisé englobant les  techniques de modélisation telles que la régression linéaire, la régression logistique, la régression  log linéaire et la régression  de Poisson . On Commence par la présentation des modèles  des lois exponentielles pour ensuite estimer les paramètres du modèle par la méthode du maximum de vraisemblance. Par la suite on teste les coefficients du modèle pour voir leurs significations et leurs intervalles de confiances, en utilisant le test de Wald qui porte sur la signification  de la vraie valeur du paramètre  basé sur l'estimation de l'échantillon.

  19. Clinical Application of the Du Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑娅; 王世杰

    2003-01-01

    @@ The authors have, in recent years, obtained quite good therapeutic results in their acupuncture treatment of mental diseases, heat syndromes and cerebrovascular diseases through treating mainly the Du Channel with the methods of resuscitating and regulating the mind, and clearing and activating the channels and collaterals. The illustrative cases are reported below.

  20. Annonce du diagnostic et rupture biographique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    du cancer en Tunisie , maladie chronique identifiée parmi les plus répandues ... et quelques tentatives de redéploiement des activités des praticiens .... appréhendant ainsi la nature de la souffrance physique mais aussi morale, ces cliniciens.

  1. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  2. Le PT à la conquête du pouvoir

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Candido

    2014-01-01

    LES PREMIERS PAS DU PT AU POUVOIR La première victoire du PT pour l′accès à un exécutif fut celle de la candidate Maria Luiza, en 1989, dans la capitale du Ceará, Fortaleza. Son arrivée au pouvoir démontra à la fois un certain manque d′expérience personnel ainsi qu′un bégaiement des cadres du parti, trop empreints de la radicalité, de l′utopie de gauche, du culte des « razzias » de pureté politique, du changement complet de tous les acteurs du pouvoir, tant la victoire était marquée par le dé...

  3. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Excellent optical access for laser- based diagnostic measurements ; (ii) Accurate experimental control of boundary conditions; (iii) Aerodynamic flame...potential to extend methods based on bimodal approximations, such as the BML [21] framework , by permitting inter- mediate fluid states, which is of...identify the impact of the major chemical pathways on combustion mode transitions. The conceptual multifluid approach of Spalding can be used to avoid

  4. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines...

  5. Sébastien Broca, Utopie du logiciel libre. Du bricolage informatique à la réinvention sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Goëta, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Traitant des pratiques et des conceptions du logiciel libre mais aussi, plus largement, du mouvement pour l’ouverture des savoirs, Utopie du logiciel libre ambitionne, premièrement, de nourrir une réflexion critique sur l’ethos du libre au sens d’un « ensemble de valeurs qui constituent un cadre pour l’action et s’actualisent dans des pratiques » (p. 24) et, deuxièmement, d’élaborer une sociologie critique du libre. Reprenant la notion d’utopie concrète chez Ernst Bloch (Le principe Espérance...

  6. Néotoponymie contestée à Potchefstroom / Tlokwe (Province du Nord-Ouest, Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 - Extrait du site de la municipalité de Potchefstroom / TlokweSource : http://www.potch.co.za/newsarchive/streetnames.htmlIllustration 2- Potchefstroom (Afrique du SudAuteur : Béatrice Obry-Guyot, début décembre 2007.Illustration 3 - Extrait du plan Google Map de PotchefstroomSource : Google Map.La question toponymique en Afrique du Sud sur la longue durée porte sur deux thèmes essentiels porteurs de controverses : le plurilinguisme et le marquage symbolique et mémoriel du te...

  7. Esquisse du parlementarisme et du monopartisme en Afrique: le cas du Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. B. van Rouveroy van Nieuwaal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessed the last hundred years profound political and constitutional changes. In this respect there are many differences between African States depending on which kind of colonial overlord has been the ruling power. The African State was a juridical entity in international law, but was it also, at the time of independence, an empirical entity in national fact?In almost all cases the empirical reality as a functioning government was still primarily the presence of European bureaucrats who has embodied the colonial state. Independence therefore opened a gap between the international legitimacy and the internal marginality of many emergent African State. The gap often presented a real political dilemma to the new African rulers: they usually could retain European officials only by compromising their national independence and could dispense with them only at the risk of undermining governmental performance. After adoption of European constitutional law and with, initially, a high degree of similarity between most constitutions in French-speaking Africa, nowadays these constitutions differ widely, contrary to the Commonwealth Africa that has experienced fewer innovations and constitutional breakdowns.Parliamentary systems of government gave way to One Party Systems, introduced in many cases by the national army, as the best equiped, trained, paid and organised power in the country. This has been the political and constitutional development in Togo as well. Since 1969, it has a One Party System, the Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, founded by the President of the Togolese Republic, Gen. Gnassingbé Eyadéma. But, as everywhere else, doubts are growing about the effectiveness of the One Party System. Are the Togolese perspectives such that Eyadéma is willing to have an open mind and to be all ears for the critics to his own creation? Another intriguing question is to know in which way the Africantraditional authorities (" chieftancy", as the core

  8. L'évolution des combustibles pour moteurs thermiques Evolution of Fuels for Thermal Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la crise pétrolière, l'accroissement des prix et les craintes de pénurie ont conduit à adapter les moteurs aux combustibles disponibles. Si la situation apparaît comme moins tendue, l'industrie des machines thermiques, qui pendant longtemps a eu comme partenaire une industrie du pétrole très sûre, se trouve cependant confrontée à un marché des combustibles incertain dans son ravitaillement et surtout dans ses prix. Les progrès des moteurs diesel et des turbines à gaz, dûs à une meilleure adaptation à leur usage et aussi à l'évolution de la technologie, supposent que les combustibles n'apporteront aucune contrainte majeure en quantité ou en qualité. La modification des usages dévolus désormais au pétrole entraînera une réduction de la coupe lourde et un raffinage plus profond des bruts avec en particulier un développement du craquage catalytique et de la viscoréduction. Or, ces différentes opérations de conversion peuvent conduire à une détérioration de la qualité des combustibles moins grave pour le gazole que pour le fuel lourd. Dans les différents domaines impliqués, les parades technologiques sont en cours de développement. L'industrie des machines thermiques, qui poursuit l'amélioration des engins, et l'industrie du pétrole, qui recherche une réduction des prix des combustibles, sont donc conduites à un compromis optimal auquel elles ne peuvent accéder efficacement qu'en définissant les règles du jeu c'est-à-dire des spécifications internationales rigoureuses des combustibles. Since the oil crisis, the increase in prices and fears of a shortage have led to the adapting of engines to what fuels are available. Whereas the situation now seems somewhat less tense, the thermal machinery industry, which for a long time had a very reliable petroleum industry as its partner, nonetheless finds itself confronted with an uncertain fuel market with regard to supplies and especially to prices. Progress

  9. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  10. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  11. Steady state HNG combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L. [TNO Prins Maurits Lab., Rijswijk (Netherlands); Brewster, M.Q. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Son, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Two simplified modeling approaches are used to model the combustion of Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF, N{sub 2}H{sub 5}-C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}). The condensed phase is treated by high activation energy asymptotics. The gas phase is treated by two limit cases: the classical high activation energy, and the recently introduced low activation energy approach. This results in simplification of the gas phase energy equation, making an (approximate) analytical solution possible. The results of both models are compared with experimental results of HNF combustion. It is shown that the low activation energy approach yields better agreement with experimental observations (e.g. regression rate and temperature sensitivity), than the high activation energy approach.

  12. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  13. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  14. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  15. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  16. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  17. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NATIO& NAk H(fJI At tl TANUAHTOb 19 A ~omm.81-0287 LVL RADIATION/CATALYTIC AUGMENTED COMBUST ION MOSHE LAVID CORPORATE RESEARCH-TECHNOLOGY FEASIBILITY...refinements as necessary. i. Perform cannular combustor experiments to Investigate ignition and flame attachment in flowing, liquid -fuel, unpremixed...stabilizer, with a sintered metal disk on the downstream side through which hot gases or products of partial fuel oxidation can be passed. Experimental

  18. Laser Optics/Combustion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    been demonstrated. CARS measurements of axial and 0.12 radial temperature profiles in a highly sooting flame compared favorably with profiles...of Number-Density Equation ’Eckbreth. A.C. and Hatt. R.., "CARS Thermomrry in a The third-order susceptibility can be rewritten to show its Sooting ... Flame ." Combustion and Homie, Vol. 36. 1979, pp. 87-98. explcitdepndece ponthenumer ensty Roh. %W.B.. "Coherent Anti-Stokcs Raman Scattering ofexpici

  19. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  20. Vortex Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-19

    TURBULENT COMBUSTION (AFOSR Grant No. 89-0491) Principal Investigator: Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of...Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Japan.(talk and discussion). 17. 1990, Mazda Motor Co., Yokohama, Japan, (talk and discussion). 18. 1990, American Math Society...VORTICITY LAYERS UNDER NON-SYMMETRIC CONDITIONS Omar M. Kniot and Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of

  1. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  2. Combustion char characterisation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, P.; Ingermann Petersen, H.; Sund Soerensen, H.; Thomsen, E.; Guvad, C.

    1996-06-01

    The aim was to correlate reactivity measures of raw coals and the maceral concentrates of the coals obtained in a previous project with the morphology of the produced chars by using a wire grid devolatilization method. Work involved determination of morphology, macroporosity and a detailed study by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Systematic variations in the texture of chars produced in different temperature domains and heating rates were demonstrated by using incident light microscopy on polished blocks and by SEM studies directly on the surfaces of untreated particles. Results suggest that work in the field of char reactivity estimates and correlations between char morphology and coal petrography can be accomplished only on chars produced under heating rates and temperatures comparable to those for the intended use of coal. A general correlation between the coals` petrography and the the morphology of high temperature chars was found. The SEM study of the chars revealed that during the devolatilization period the particles fuse and the macroporosity and thus the morphotypes are formed. After devolatilization ceases, secondary micropores are formed. These develop in number and size throughout the medium combustion interval. At the end of the combustion interval the macrostructure breaks down, caused by coalescence of the increased number of microspores. This can be observed as a change in the morphology and the macroporosity of the chars. Results indicate that char reactivity is a function of the macroporosity and thus the morphology of combustion chars. (AB) 34 refs.

  3. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  4. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  5. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  6. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    (EGR. A comparison has been made between simulated EGR (using pure nitrogen with real EGR under Diesel LTC conditions. Finally, “pure”, single component fuels are often employed in optical Diesel engines due to laser diagnostic constraints. However, these fuels generally differ from standard Diesel fuel in terms of cetane number and fuel volatility which can significantly influence the combustion and emissions characteristics in optical engines. These aspects have also been investigated within the present study. An improved understanding of the differences between optical and all-metal engines has allowed us to develop appropriate strategies to compensate for these differences on the optical engine. It is shown here that combustion phasing (and engine-out emissions matching between optical and all-metal engines can be achieved even for advanced LTC Diesel combustion strategies. The ability to ensure fully representative combustion and emissions behaviour of optical engines ultimately increases the value of optical engine data, highlighting the importance of using such engines as research tools for the further development of innovative, low emission combustion concepts. Les moteurs monocylindres transparents sont employés comme outils de recherche et de développement des moteurs à combustion interne. Ils permettent l’utilisation de techniques de diagnostics non-intrusifs (qualitatifs et quantitatifs pour étudier des phénomènes comme l’aérodynamique interne, la préparation du mélange, la combustion et la formation de polluants. Ces données expérimentales sont importantes pour la validation des modèles numériques et permettent également d’obtenir une compréhension détaillée des phénomènes physiques se déroulant dans la chambre. Les données recueillies aident au développement des nouvelles stratégies de combustion telles que la combustion homogène (HCCI et la combustion Diesel à basse température (LTC. Dans ce contexte, il est important

  7. COMBUSTION SIMULATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE CYLINDER: EFFECTS OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion...

  8. Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joakim; Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Gharibi, Arash [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics

    2003-05-01

    We have shown that high concentrations of fine particles of the order of 2-7x10{sup -7} particles per cm{sup 3} are being formed in all the combustion units studied. There was a higher difference between the units in terms of particle mass concentrations. While the largest differences was found for gas-phase constituents (CO and THC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In 5 out of 7 studied units, multi-cyclones were the only measure for flue-gas separation. The multicyclones had negligible effect on the particle number concentration and a small effect on the mass of particles smaller than 5 {mu}m. The separation efficiency was much higher for the electrostatic precipitators. The boiler load had a dramatic influence on the coarse mode concentration during combustion of forest residue. PM0.8-6 increased from below 5 mg/m{sup 3} to above 50 mg/m{sup 3} even at a moderate change in boiler load from medium to high. A similar but less pronounced trend was found during combustion of dry wood. PM0.8-PM6 increased from 12 to 23 mg/m{sup 3} when the load was changed from low to high. When increasing the load, the primary airflow taken through the grate is increased; this itself may lead to a higher potential of the air stream to carry coarse particles away from the combustion zone. Measurements with APS-instrument with higher time-resolution showed a corresponding increase in coarse mode number concentration with load. Additional factor influencing observed higher concentration of coarse mode during combustion of forest residues, could be relatively high ash content in this type of fuel (2.2 %) in comparison to dry wood (0.3 %) and pellets (0.5 %). With increasing load we also found a decrease in PM1 during combustion of forest residue. Whether this is caused by scavenging of volatilized material by the high coarse mode concentration or a result of a different amount of volatilized material available for formation of fine particles needs to be shown in future studies. The

  9. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was

  10. Sandia Combustion Research Program: Annual report, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents research results of the past year, divided thematically into some ten categories. Publications and presentations arising from this work are included in the appendix. Our highlighted accomplishment of the year is the announcement of the discovery and demonstration of the RAPRENOx process. This new mechanism for the elimination of nitrogen oxides from essentially all kinds of combustion exhausts shows promise for commercialization, and may eventually make a significant contribution to our nation's ability to control smog and acid rain. The sections of this volume describe the facility's laser and computer system, laser diagnostics of flames, combustion chemistry, reacting flows, liquid and solid propellant combustion, mathematical models of combustion, high-temperature material interfaces, studies of engine/furnace combustion, coal combustion, and the means of encouraging technology transfer. 182 refs., 170 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking......-column’’ approach and includes the energy equations for both the fuel and the gas accounting for heat transfer between the two phases. The model gives important insight into the combustion process and provides inlet conditions for a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the freeboard. The model predictions...... indicate the existence of two distinct combustion modes. Combustion air temperature and mass flow-rate are the two parameters determining the mode. There is a significant difference in reaction rates (ignition velocity) and temperature levels between the two modes. Model predictions were compared...

  12. Présentation du volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zwitter Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques, le discours parlé représente depuis quelques décennies un objet de recherche proéminent. Ce fait s’explique probablement par deux caractéristiques principales du discours parlé: la structure complexe de sa matérialité et les fonctions variées de différentes pratiques langagières. C’est pourquoi le présent numéro réunit les articles basés sur les approches actuelles du discours parlé et sur les pratiques langagières spécifiques. Le volume est introduit par deux articles interdisciplinaires: Peter Garrard et Ahmed Samrah présentent le domaine de la pathologie du langage en donnant une revue fouillée sur les approches actuelles de l’analyse linguistique lors de la détection de la maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que Harry Hollien donne un aperçu structuré sur le domaine de la phonétique judiciaire destiné à dévoiler l’identité des locuteurs et de détecter la déception dans le discours parlé. Les analyses explorant l’acquisition du langage commencent par l’article de Katharina Zipser qui examine la progression de structures grammaticales en les mettant en comparaison avec la compétence des apprenants et continuent par l’étude de Meta Lah proposant une évaluation des documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants de langue étrangère. Vesna Požgaj Hadži, Damir Horga et Tatjana Balažic Bulc remettent en question la corrélation entre la compétence linguistique et la fluence linguistique auprès de locuteurs non-maternels et l'analyse de Gemma Santiago Alonso aborde l'acquisition de l'article défini dans le langage enfantin. Les articles suivants se réunissent autour du domaine de l'interprétation: Jana Zidar Forte présente une approche actuelle dans l'entrainement d'interprètes, Lea Burjan analyse les phénomènes issus de la pratique de l'interprétation juridique et Simona  Šumrada traite de la reformulation dans le discours de la traduction et de

  13. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  14. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbets during coal combustion (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-jie; LIN Zhi-yan; LIU Jian-zhong; WU Xian; ZHOU Jun-hu; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide experimental guide to commercial use of fluorine pollution control during coal combustion, with fluorine pollution control during coal combustion in mind, this paper proposed the theory of combustion fluorine retention technology. Feasibility of fluorine retention reaction with calcium-based fluorine retention agent was analyzed through thermo-dynamic calculation during coal combustion. By simulating the restraining and retention effects and influential factors of calcium-based sorbets on vaporized fluoride during experimental combustion using fixed bed tube furnace, the paper systematically explored the influential law of such factors as combustion temperature, retention time, and added quantities of calcium-based sorbets on effects of fluorine retention. The research result shows that adding calcium-based fluorine retention agent in coal combustion has double effects of fluorine retention and sulfur retention, it lays an experimental foundation for commercial test of combustion fluorine retention.

  15. Fuel combustion test in constant volume combustion chamber with built-in adaptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEONG; DongSoo; CHO; GyuBack; CHOI; SuJin; LEE; JinSoo

    2010-01-01

    Combustion tests of pre-mixture of methane and air in constant volume combustion chamber(CVCC) have been carried out by means of flame propagation photo and gas pressure measurement,the effects of CVCC body temperature,intake pressure of pre-mixture of methane and air,equivalence ratio and location of the built-in adaptor have been investigated.The whole combustion chamber can be divided into two parts,i.e.the upper combustion chamber and the lower combustion chamber,by the built-in adaptor with through hole.Owing to the built-in adaptor with through hole,jet ignition or compression ignition(auto-ignition) phenomena may occur in the lower combustion chamber,which is helpful to getting higher flame propagation velocity,higher combustion peak pressure,low cycle-to-cycle variation and more stable combustion process.

  16. Combustion Behavior of Free Boron Slurry Droplets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    weak disruptive behavior while pure JP-1t burn quiescently, except for a flash extinction which occurs at the termination of combustion. The...I AD-R158 628 COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS(U) i/i I PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENINEERIN., F TAKAHASHI...COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS TAM by F. Takahashi, F.L. Dryer, and F.A. Williams Department of M~echanical and keyosase Engineering

  17. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  18. The combustion of solid fuels and wastes

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, David

    1991-01-01

    Careful organization and empirical correlations help clarify the prodigious technical information presented in this useful reference.Key Features* Written for practicing engineers, this comprehensive book supplies an overall framework of the combustion process; It connects information on specific reactions and reaction sequences with current applications and hardware; Each major group of combustion solids is evaluated; Among the many topics covered are:* Various biomass forms* The coalification process* Grate, kiln, and suspension firing* Fluidized bed combustion

  19. Basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-ren; SUN Yan-qiu; ZHAO Qing-fu; DENG Cun-bao; DENG Han-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Discussed latest research results of basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion in detail, with quantum chemical theory and method and experiment systematically studied chemical structure of coal molecule, adsorption mechanism of coal surface to oxygen molecule and chemical reaction mechanism and process of spontaneous combustion of organic macromolecule and low molecular weight compound in coal from microcosmic view, and established complete theoretical system of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion.

  20. Nitrous Oxide from Combustion and Industry: Chemistry, Emissions and Control Protoxyde d'azote provenant de la combustion et de l'industrie : chimie, émissions et techniques de réduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    'industrie chimique, d'autre part il s'interroge sur les technologies possibles de destruction de N2O dans les cas où sa teneur dans les fumées ou autres effluves industriels pose des problèmes. Comme les émissions, aussi bien que les moyens de les abattre, sont fortement tributaires des mécanismes chimiques responsables de la production et de la destruction du N2O, une introduction substantielle sur la cinétique homogène et hétérogène de sa formation/réduction, telle qu'elle apparaît dans un contexte de combustion, est fournie, permettant au lecteur de comprendre le pourquoi de ces émissions et le comment des technologies d'abattement suggérées. Dans une première section de l'introduction, on rappelle brièvement la chimie du N2O en phase gazeuse et ses relations avec la chimie du monoxyde d'azote NO (fig. 1 ; l'effet de la température sur la production nette de N2O est accentué, puisqu'elle expliquera en grande partie les émissions relativement élevées de la combustion à basse température, telle qu'elle est mise en oeuvre dans les lits fluidisés (fig. 2. On mentionne pour finir les réactions du système rédox SO2/NO (fig. 3, responsable de la formation artificiellede N2O dans les échantillons de fumées stockés. La deuxième section de l'introduction traite de la chimie hétérogène du protoxyde d'azote, dont la compréhension est actuellement encore relativement fragmentaire. Parmi les mécanismes hétérogènes non catalytiques, figurent principalement : la réduction de N2O sur le carbone constitutif du charbon et du coke, la formation de N2O à partir de l'azote constitutif de ces derniers et la production de N2O par des réactions entre carbone, NO et sulfates. Les deux premiers mécanismes sont traités en parallèle avec ceux, similaires, qui opèrent sur le NO, auxquels ils sont intimement liés (voir tableau 1 et réactions S1 à S8 dans le texte. La réduction de N20 sur carbone constitutif ne produit que peu de N2O, au moins en absence d

  1. L’écologie du coupable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ourednik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available « Denn dass der Mensch erlöst werde von der Rache  : das ist mir die Brücke zur höchsten Hoffnung und ein Regenbogen nach langen Unwettern. » 1 Nous l’aurions presque oublié, en fouillant parmi les fondations du rapport moral au monde de nos sociétés, nous trouverons encore bien en place deux piliers érigés au cours du processus de la chrétienté : celui de l’ empathie et celui de la culpabilité . Le premier semble offrir le seul appui plausible à notre vivre ...

  2. Les Nymphes dans les rites du mariage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Le champ du mariage (où l’on rencontre à la fois les Nymphes puissances surnaturelles et les numphai humaines) peut se révéler intéressant pour croiser des données littéraires, archéologiques et épigraphiques sur le culte des Nymphes. Lors des préliminaires, ces puissances peuvent être l’objet des protéléia (sacrifices prénuptiaux) ou être associées avec la loutrophorie et le bain prénuptial. Les Nymphes n’interviennent guère pendant la journée de célébration du mariage, sauf dans des textes ...

  3. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion chamber. It destroys the thermal boundary layer wall increasing heat transfer and could lead to compromised performance, and ultimately to destruction of the engine and mission loss. The main object...

  4. Hydrodynamique, transfert de chaleur et combustion de gaz naturel en lit fluidisé circulant Hydrodynamics, Heat Transfer and Combustion of Natural Gas in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'hydrodynamique, les transferts de chaleur et la combustion du gaz naturel ont été étudiés dans un réacteur à lit circulant de 15 cm de diamètre et de 7 m de haut. Ce réacteur peut opérer avec des vitesses de gaz allant jusqu'à 15 m/s, jusqu'à des températures de 880-900°C et avec des débits de solides compris entre 0 et 15t/h. Les charges utilisées sont des sables de granulométrie allant de 95 à 625 microns. Le profil de concentration en solides dans le réacteur est déterminé à partir du profil de pression. Une corrélation reliant la vitesse de glissement des particules aux principaux paramètres opératoires, rend compte de façon très satisfaisante de l'ensemble des résultats expérimentaux. La mise en place d'un échangeur en paroi dans la partie supérieure du réacteur a permis la détermination de coefficients d'échange thermique. Ces derniers sont essentiellement fonction de la, concentration en particules au droit de l'échangeur et de la granulométrie des particules. Des valeurs allant jusqu'à 200 W/m2 K peuvent, être obtenues. Enfin, la combustion du méthane s'avère très sensible à la présence de particules dans le réacteur. Ces particules ont un effet inhibiteur. Hydrodynamics, heat transfer and combustion of natural gas have been investigated in a circulating-bed reactor 15 cm in diameter and 7 m high. This reactor can operate with gas velocities up to 15 m/s, at temperature up to 880-900°C and with solids flow rates of between 0 and 15 t/h. The solids used are sands with a particle size ranging from 95 to 625 microns. The solids concentration profile in the reactor is determined from the pressure profile. A correlation linking the slippage velocity of particles to the principal operating parameters very satisfactorily takes into consideration the overall experimental results. The installation of a wall heat exchanger in the upper part of the reactor enabled the heat exchange coefficients to be

  5. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  6. Secondary combustion device for woodburning stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craver, R.D.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a wood burning stove including an exhaust flue opening, a combustion chamber for primary combustion having an access door, a support for wood to be burnt and a primary air inlet means for supplying air to support primary combustion of the wood to produce flue gases containing combustible particulate material. A conduit means for directing the flue gases is included from the combustion chamber to the flue opening in a preselected path. Also included is a secondary combustion means for burning particulate material in flue gases before flue gases pass through the exhaust flue opening. The improvement comprises: secondary combustion means including an elongated manifold extending laterally across and above the combustion chamber at a preselected position on the preselected path; a number of air openings spaced longitudinally along the manifold and facing the path of the flue gases and an air inlet means for supplying ambient; secondary combustion air to the manifold for flow from openings into the path of the flue gases in distinct jets; and a laterally elongated passageway above the manifold with upper and lower portions and defined at its upper portion by a sheet metal wall, and a layer of extremely low heat conducting insulation in the passageway. On the sheet metal wall the layer of insulation prevents appreciable conduction of heat from the passageway into the sheet metal wall and flue gases flow through the passageway and from passageway in a generally wide thin flow pattern.

  7. Determining Heats of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Puster, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Enrichment-oxygen flow rate-ratio related to heat of combustion. Technique developed for determining heats of combustion of natural-gas samples. Based on measuring ratio m/n, where m is (volmetric) flow rate of oxygen required to enrich carrier air in which test gas flowing at rate n is burned, such that mole fraction of oxygen in combustion-product gases equals that in carrier air. The m/n ratio directly related to heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons present in natural gas.

  8. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  9. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  10. Sådan forebygger du faldulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Bidrag til serien 'Eksperten skriver'. Her gennemgås en kort vejledning til, hvordan man arbejder systematisk med faldforebyggelse. Ved at arbejde systematisk med dine hverdagsobservationer kan du få øje på og reagere på ændringer hos svækkede ældre borgere og på den måde forebygge faldet, før de...

  11. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  12. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  13. Autour du paradigme d’écotourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Transler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’écotourisme ouvre un cadre conceptuel original qui permet d’envisager des démarches renouvelées de développement à partir des revenus issus de consommations touristiques mieux réfléchies et organisées, susceptibles de soutenir des initiatives de développement local s’inscrivant dans un projet global de développement durable. Variante douce du tourisme, loin du tourisme de masse, le champ de l’écotourisme s’étend aux confins du tourisme de nature, du tourisme culturel et des pratiques scientifiques et sportives de plein air. Une définition de l’écotourisme peut être proposée à partir des six points suivants : 1/ nature et culture, 2/ le bien-être des sociétés hôtes, 3/ des touristes responsables, 4/ la participation des sociétés hôtes, 5/ la durabilité, 6/ l’art de la rencontre.Ecotourism provides an original conceptual framework that enables approaches to development that are better able to provide a more equitable distribution of income, as well as better organized and thought through initiatives which are more likely to promote a holistic sustainable local development. With somewhat less negative impact than normal tourism, considerably less that mass tourism, ecotourism can encompass nature tourism, cultural tourism, scientific exploration, and even outdoor sports... A definition of ecotourism should take into account the following six points: 1/ nature and culture, 2/ the welfare of the host community, tourists acting responsibly, 3/ participation by the local community, 5 / sustainability , 6/ promotion of cultural exchanges

  14. Pertinence du dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus au sein d'un établissement de santé

    OpenAIRE

    Chignier, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Le dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus est un enjeu de Santé Publique. Le plan cancer 2014-2019 souligne l'importance de réduire les inégalités face au dépistage et de couvrir 80% de la population cible. L'objectif principal de l'étude était d'évaluer la conformité des pratiques cliniques des professionnels de santé aux recommandations de la HAS. L'objectif secondaire était d'évaluer la qualité du dépistage du cancer du col selon le type de suivi : gynécologique versus obstétrical. Il s'ag...

  15. Enfants du soleil histoire de nos origines

    CERN Document Server

    Brahic, André

    1999-01-01

    D'où venons-nous ? Comment le Soleil et la Terre sont-ils apparus ? Nous avons enfin atteint le moment où la science peut apporter des réponses de plus en plus précises, de plus en plus étonnantes. La Nature a décidément plus d'imagination que les hommes ! Depuis l'exploration spatiale, nous en avons plus appris sur notre système solaire et son origine en une génération qu'en quarante siècles. Là où l'on attendait l'uniformité, on a trouvé la plus grande diversité. André Brahic, qui a découvert les anneaux de Neptune, nous présente les multiples facettes du système solaire et nous raconte quatre milliards et demi d'années de son histoire. Les planètes sont les soeurs du Soleil. Nous sommes les enfants du temps et des étoiles. Sommes-nous seuls dans l'Univers ? Les astronomes commencent à apercevoir d'autres planètes autour de quelques soleils proches, Ils espèrent bientôt trouver d'autres Terres...

  16. Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail (TAOIT)

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Organization. Geneva

    Le Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail connaît des requêtes formées par les fonctionnaires ou les anciens fonctionnaires du Bureau international du Travail et des quelque trente organisations qui ont reconnu sa compétence. The ILO Administrative Tribunal (ILOAT) hears complaints from serving and former officials of the International Labour Office or one of the thirty-odd intergovernmental organizations that recognise its jurisdiction.

  17. Rapport d'Activite du Service Medical - 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2003-01-01

    Le rapport annuel de l’année 2002 fait état de l’activité du service médical et de ses conclusions en matière de santé au travail ou de conditions de travail pour les membres du personnel du CERN, c’est à dire!: les titulaires, boursiers, étudiants, utilisateurs, attachés, etc…

  18. Quelques observations sur les Bryopsis du Golfe de Naples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1941-01-01

    Evidemment la flore algologique du Golfe de Naples a été étudiée, d’assez près, tant du point de vue floristique que du point de vue écologique. Surtout FALKENBERG (1879), BERTHOLD (1882) et FUNK (1927) se sont occupés des investigations de cette nature. Il reste cependant un certain nombre de genre

  19. Le corps du saint dans l'hagiographie du Maghreb médiéval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Amri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail tente de réfléchir sur la place accordée par l’hagiographie du Maghreb médiéval au corps dans l'expérience de sainteté et dans le processus de “sanctification” d’un homme ou d’une femme, ainsi que dans la reconnaissance ou la “consécration” de cette sainteté. Il vise à repérer les infléchissements perceptibles dans les critères de sainteté et la valeur accordée par l'hagiographie à telle ou telle voie de sanctification. Il se propose également d’examiner la représentation par les contemporains du corps du saint vivant et les bénéfices qu’ils en attendent.

  20. Christophe Brissonneau, Olivier Aubel, Fabien Ohl, L'épreuve du dopage. Sociologie du cyclisme professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Martinache, Igor

    2011-01-01

    L'épreuve du dopage se lit comme un roman policier. A la manière d'une intrigue, la trame du livre invite à chaque fin de page à tourner la suivante pour découvrir si le cycliste va basculer dans la pratique du dopage. De fait, il ne bascule jamais. Et c'est bien là l'intérêt de l'ouvrage qui, à l'encontre de la plupart des discours sur le sujet, montre que le dopage est une pratique processuelle qui rend rigoureusement impossible toute distinction binaire entre deux états : dopé ou non. Une ...

  1. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    OpenAIRE

    R BELOUETTAR; Klepaczko, J.R.; Abadlia, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau). En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé...

  2. Consequences economiques du transfert de marché de cotation : cas du NYSE-Euronext Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Cisse, A.K

    2010-01-01

    Cahier de recherche n° 2010-06 E2; Cette étude empirique a pour objet d'analyser les effets d'un changement de marché de cotation sur la rentabilité, la liquidité et le risque systématique. Elle porte sur des sociétés qui ont transféré le marché de cotation de leurs titres d'un compartiment non (ou peu) réglementé à un compartiment plus réglementé du marché français (Euronext Paris) entre 1995 et 2007. Globalement, les résultats montrent une réaction positive du marché à l'annonce du transfer...

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  4. High pressure optical combustion probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod in a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.

  5. Combustion char morphology related to combustion temperature and coal petrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, P.; Petersen, H.I.; Thomsen, E. [Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-07-01

    Chars produced from different reactors were found to lack consistency of morphological charactersitics. Therefore, the morphology of chars sampled from various laboratory-scale reactors operating at temperatures from 800 to {gt} 1400{degree}C, together with chars collected directly in the flame zone in a full-scale pulverised fuel combustion experiment, was examined. A coal and coal blend dominated by vitrinite-rich microlithotypes together with four coals dominated by inertinite-rich microlithotypes were used to produce the combustion chars. Char samples produced at temperatures above {approximately} 1300{degree}C have a morphotype composition very similar to the composition of the full-scale char samples, whereas the morphotype compositions of those produced at {approximately} 1550{degree}C or lower are significantly different. Correlation between coal petrography and char morphology and determination of char reactivity should thus be attempted only using chars produced at temperatures comparable with those for the intended use of the coal. A clear distinction between the high-temperature char samples (burnout 50-60wt% daf) emerges which is related mainly to the parent coal petrography and probably secondarily to the rank. Vitrite, clarite and vitrinertie V may be correlated with the porous tenuisphere and crassisphere morphotypes, whereas inertite, durite, vitrinertite I, duroclarite and charodurite may be correlated with the crassinetwork-mixed-network-mixed morphotype group. 29 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  7. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  8. Microscale combustion and power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cadou, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of

  9. Particle emissions from biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabadová, Jana; Papučík, Štefan; Nosek, Radovan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the impact of fuel feed to power and emissions parameters of the automatic domestic boiler for combustion of wood pellets. For the analysis has been proposed an experimental methodology of boiler measuring. The investigated boiler is designed for operation in domestic heating system. It has heat power equal to 18 kW. Concentrations of flue gas species were registered at the exit the boiler and based on the measured parameters was carried out evaluation of the impact of the fuel feed to heat power and production of emissions.

  10. PENERAPAN ANALISIS DU PONT PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTY DAN REAL ESTATE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novita Ratna Satiti

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana analisis Du Pont System menilai kinerja keuangan industry property dan real estate, apakah analisis tersebut dapat mengetahui perusahaan mana yang...

  11. La diffusion du football de haut niveau en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc RAVENEL

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available La pratique du football de haut niveau s'est diffusée sur le territoire français selon deux modèles complémentaires: une diffusion hiérarchique privilégiant les plus grandes villes du pays; une diffusion de proximité soucieuse d'imitation et indispensable à la création des compétitions. Les dirigeants du football ont valorisé le processus par l'intégration de nouvelles aires géographiques, évitant ainsi la saturation du système.

  12. Construire les défis du génie civil du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dans les années 80, le CERN a vécu la formidable aventure de la construction du tunnel de 27 kilomètres de circonférence. Ces dernières années, les équipes du génie civil se sont lancées dans l’excavation d’immenses cavernes souterraines et de kilomètres de galeries pour le LHC. Ces travaux ont exigé de véritables prouesses techniques.

  13. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  14. Optimisation du renforcement parasismique du viaduc de Caronte par une analyse dynamique temporelle

    OpenAIRE

    VIVIER, Aurélie; Charles, Pascal; DAVI, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Cet article présente un exemple d'application de l'analyse temporelle dynamique à un cas concret : l'optimisation du renforcement parasismique du viaduc de Caronte. Le diagnostic a permis de converger vers une solution de renforcement avec amortisseurs. Cette étude a été l'occasion de mettre en oeuvre des méthodes d'analyse temporelle, seules rigoureusement compatibles avec l'emploi d'amortisseurs et la complexité de l'ouvrage. Des outils de prédimensionnement des caractéristiques des disposi...

  15. Analyse du développement du tourisme pour tous dans le Val d’Anniviers

    OpenAIRE

    Rossier, Sandrine; Margot-Cattin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude vise à offrir une image actuelle du développement du tourisme pour tous dans le Val d’Anniviers. Cette activité touristique permet aux destinations de proposer leur offre à un public très large. S’adressant tout d’abord à une clientèle en situation de handicap, le tourisme pour tous peut également bénéficier à toute personne ayant des besoins particuliers en termes d’accessibilité. Son implantation dans une région touristique exige de franchir un certain nombre de barrières. Quell...

  16. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  17. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Combustion Field in the Combustion Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ping; QIAN Zhi-bo; YANG Jie; ZHANG Jin-jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the effect of rotation on the combustion in the underwater vehicle, a two-phase turbulent combustion process is described with Reynolds stress turbulence model, eddy-dissipation turbulent combustion model, P-1 radiation model and particle tracking model of liquid. The flow in the rotating combustion chamber is simulated at two different working speeds, 0 r/min and 1 000 r/min by Fluent software. The temperature, gas velocity, static pressure of wall and fuel concentration are computed and compared. The results show that the combustion in rotating combustor is faster and more effective.

  18. Automatisation partielle du traitement de la littérature grise dans le service d'information scientifique du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Deroche, C

    1998-01-01

    L'automatisation partielle du traitement de la litterature grise est un projet ineluctable dans un service d'information scientifique aussi important que celui du CERN. Ce rapport presente l'automatis ation du rapport annuel par la detection et l'importation automatique d'informations de publication pour les articles ecrits par les physiciens travaillant au CERN et par d'autres utilisant les outils du CERN. La recherche de ces articles est effectuee dans la base de donnees scientifiques INSPEC.

  19. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Sanyo; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Osamu; Yamashita, Iwao

    The hydrogen combustion Stirling engine utilizes internal combustion of a stoichiometric H2 and O2 mixture injected into the working gas as thermal input, and the cyclic operation is completed with the removal of water from the engine after condensation at the cooler. In the prototype engine, a catalytic combustor is substituted for the conventional heater, and the H2-O2 mixture is injected at a constant flow rate from the boundary between the regenerator and the cooler. The engine internal heating characteristics were compared to those on external heating to clarify the internal heating effect on the engine performance. The internal heating performance showed almost the same characteristics as those of external heating, except for the increase of expansion work due to the direct thermal input. The increase of expansion work improved the engine performance, particularly in the region of high engine speed. Furthermore, it was found that the steady injection method was able to suppress the mixture strength to a relatively low level.

  20. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY: THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility. Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation, or SITE, program, a critical assessment was made of the American Combustion Pyretron™ oxygen enha...

  1. Analyse quantitative du réseau hydrographique du bassin versant du Slănic (Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Grecu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude porte sur le bassin versant du Slănic, un affluent du Buzău. Ce bassin de taille relativement réduite (433 km2 est situé dans la région des Carpates et des Subcarpates de la Courbure, région très active sur le plan sismique. Du point de vue lithologique, le bassin du Slănic correspond à des flyschs paléogènes et à des molasses mio-pliocènes. Ces roches peu résistantes ont facilité une forte érosion du relief. Actuellement, les précipitations présentent souvent une forte intensité, et elles se produisent fréquemment après des périodes de sécheresse. Elles sont ainsi très agressives et déclenchent une érosion intense. L'analyse de quelques paramètres morphométriques [grand nombre de segments de cours d'eau d'ordres 1 (5230 et 2 (944 ; densité élevée des segments par rapport à la superficie du bassin (environ 15 segments / km2 ; longueur moyenne réduite des segments d'ordre 1 (260 m par rapport à ceux d'ordre 2 (530 m] s'accorde avec des temps de concentration des eaux courts et une forte énergie des écoulements. La vitesse de réaction aux précipitations des segments d'ordres inférieurs est en outre favorisée par la répartition spatiale des pluies et par les conditions lithologiques.The study is focused on the Slănic basin which has a small size (433 km2. The hydrographical basin of Slănic, situated in the Carpathian and Subcarpathian Curvature, a very active from neotectonical viewpoint area, is a part of the Buzău basin. From a petrographic point of view, the Slănic hydrographic basin belongs to the paleogen flysch deposits (within the Carpathian sector and to the mio-pliocen molasse (within the Subcarpathian area latter formed by predominantely friable rocks which have encouraged deep fragmentation of the relief. Actual rainfalls are often very intensive, and they frequently occur after dry seasons. The analysis of morphometric parameters shows many elementary segments of first

  2. FLARE FLAME INSTABILITY AND BURNER COMBUSTION CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    БОНДАРЕНКО А.В.; В. Э. Волков; Максимов, М. В.

    2014-01-01

    Research of the flare instability development and the laminar-to-turbulent transition for the flares was executed. It was proved that the effects of viscosity and compressibility have the stabilizing influence on the gas flame. The study of the individual flare stability makes the theoretical basis of the fuel burning technology in combustion chambers and for the burner combustion control.

  3. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags containing...

  4. Combustion Limits and Efficiency of Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, H. C.; Jonash, E. R.

    1956-01-01

    Combustion must be maintained in the turbojet-engine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions resulting from variations in required engine thrust, flight altitude, and flight speed. Furthermore, combustion must be efficient in order to provide the maximum aircraft range. Thus, two major performance criteria of the turbojet-engine combustor are (1) operatable range, or combustion limits, and (2) combustion efficiency. Several fundamental requirements for efficient, high-speed combustion are evident from the discussions presented in chapters III to V. The fuel-air ratio and pressure in the burning zone must lie within specific limits of flammability (fig. 111-16(b)) in order to have the mixture ignite and burn satisfactorily. Increases in mixture temperature will favor the flammability characteristics (ch. III). A second requirement in maintaining a stable flame -is that low local flow velocities exist in the combustion zone (ch. VI). Finally, even with these requirements satisfied, a flame needs a certain minimum space in which to release a desired amount of heat, the necessary space increasing with a decrease in pressure (ref. 1). It is apparent, then, that combustor design and operation must provide for (1) proper control of vapor fuel-air ratios in the combustion zone at or near stoichiometric, (2) mixture pressures above the minimum flammability pressures, (3) low flow velocities in the combustion zone, and (4) adequate space for the flame.

  5. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  6. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  7. A method of determining combustion gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon Tempi, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.

  8. Oxy Coal Combustion at the US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing, and potentially a strategically key technology intended to accommodate direct CO2 recovery and sequestration. Oxy-coal combustion is also intended for retrofit application to existing power plants. During oxy-coal comb...

  9. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  10. Acousto-elastic interaction in combustion chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Huls, Rob Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with the interaction between combustion, acoustics and vibrations with emphasis on frequencies below 500 Hz. Extensive literature is available on the interaction between combustion and acoustics and much work is also available on the interaction between acoustics and vibration. The work presented in this thesis attempts to combine these fields in order to calculate the vibrations of the liner.

  11. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  12. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems.

  13. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  14. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-08-01

    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  15. Progrès de la connaissance du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi de 1993 à 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette chronique, la vingt et unième d’une série qui a commencé avec l’année 1949, couvre la période 1993-2008 et a pour objectif de faire le point sur les progrès réalisés sur la connaissance du Congo (République démocratique du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, dans le domaine de la géographie mais aussi dans les domaines des sciences naturelles et des sciences humaines qui peuvent fournir des données utiles ou indispensables aux géographes. Chaque référence bibliographique, livre ou article, est accompagnée d’un bref commentaire qui en retient les éléments principaux et surtout les faits ou les idées qui intéressent particulièrement les géographes. L’article comporte onze chapitres dont les plus importants concernent le milieu naturel, la géographie de la santé, la démographie, l’histoire (y compris l’histoire récente, la vie sociale et économique des campagnes traditionnelles et modernes, le secteur informel, les aspects de la vie urbaine. Les événements dramatiques qui se sont produits dans ces territoires africains au cours des quinze dernières années ont rendu la recherche sur le terrain particulièrement difficile tant pour les chercheurs nationaux que pour les chercheurs étrangers, ce qui se traduit notamment par une part de plus en plus importante des recherches menées en milieu urbain.This paper, the 21st issue of an edition of books and paper reviews on the knowledge of three countries of former Belgian Africa (DR Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi, covers the period 1993-2008. A short text for each reference points out the facts or ideas that are useful for geographers. The paper is composed of eleven sections. The most important are coping with the natural environment, health geography, population geography, history (including recent events, social and economic life in traditional and modern rural areas, informal economy, and urban geography. During the last sixteen years, conditions for field

  16. Combustion Engines Development Mixture Formation, Combustion, Emissions and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Christian; Teichmann, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    In the development of engines and vehicles it is nowadays standard practice to use commercially available computing programmes for simulation, not only of the transient reaction of vehicles or of the complete driveshaft, but also of the highly unsteady processes in the combustion chamber of an engine. Normally the source code is not available for these computing programmes and it takes too much time to study the respective specifications, so the users often do not have sufficient knowledge about the physical and chemical contents of the approaches that the programmes are based on. We have often been faced with this fact in talks to employees or in discussions during the presentation of results of simulation. Therefore it is our aim to point out different physical and chemical approaches and to show the possibilities and limits of the models used.

  17. Évaluation de l'effet du stress hydrique et du porte- greffe sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2013 ... orchards are often in water shortage situations in the most of the ..... significative de la hauteur finale et du diamètre au point ..... quantifying resistance to drought, salt and freezing, abiotic stresses that affect plant water status.

  18. Perception locale de l'évolution du milieu à Oula au Nord du Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratoire Dynamiques des Espaces et Sociétés (LDES)/Université Ouaga I ... variabilités climatiques ainsi que la perception des impacts sur la production agricole. ... The purpose of this study in the Northern Region of Burkina Faso is to ... (2008), l'impact du changement climatique ... Partant de la position géographique.

  19. LE MARCHE MONDIAL DU VIN ET LES NOUVELLES ORIENTATIONS DU MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epuran Gheorghe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le marché mondial du vin est caractérisé par un développement sans précédent en ce qui concerne la production, mais aussi l’aire géographique qu’il comprend. La surproduction qui a tendance ŕ dégénérer en une crise est due premičrement ŕ l’apparition de nouveaux acteurs sur ce marché, c’est-ŕ-dire les pays du nouveau monde du vin: les Etats-Unis, le Chili, l’Afrique de Sud, l’Australie. Dans ce contexte, les grands producteurs traditionnels de l’Europe sont soumis ŕ une forte pression concurrentielle aussi bien sur leurs marchés qu’ŕ l’extérieur. Męme si en matičre d’image et de notoriété les vins de ces pays sont restés encore trčs connus, les pays du nouveau monde des vins ont réussi, par un marketing «ŕ l’américain», ŕ pénétrer en force sur plusieurs marchés, inclusivement sur les pays qui étaient pas traditionnellement consommateurs de vins (la Russie, la Chine, etc..

  20. Un Genevois coopte a la tete du Front islamique du salut

    CERN Document Server

    Merckling, N

    2002-01-01

    "Le Front islamique du salut (FIS), a nomme a la tete de ce parti fondamentaliste un resident genevois, Mourad Dhani, chois parmi trois candidats. Ce physicien algerien est arrive a Geneve il y a 14 ans pour travailler au CERN (1 page).

  1. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  2. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BELOUETTAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau. En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé présente une sensibilité à la vitesse de déformation positive. La valeur du module d’élasticité est proche de la valeur standard (1.5 GPa pour un béton cellulaire autoclavé de masse volumique égale à 500-550 kg/m3.

  3. La préparation et le passage du recensement du Soudan 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Denis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les opérations de comptage du 5e recensement de la population du Soudan viennent de s'achever. Elles se devaient d'aller à la rencontre des quelques 38 millions d'habitants du plus étendu des pays d'Afrique avec un questionnaire unique. Elles étaient conduites par deux institutions statistiques, l'une au Nord et l'autre au Sud. Le principe du recensement  a été scellé dans les accords de paix qui ont mis fin à la guerre civile entre le Sud et le Nord Soudan en 2005. Les résultats sont extrêmement attendus puisqu'ils doivent servir de base pour déterminer le partage des revenus pétroliers, préparer les élections législatives de 2009 et le référendum d'auto-détermination du Sud en 2011. Autant d'enjeux, les multiples conflits identitaires et pour l'accès, le contrôle et la redistribution des ressources à toutes les échelles et sur toutes les marges du Soudan font du recensement un catalyseur et finalement un révélateur des limites tragiques de la gouvernance ethnocratique.The Fith population census enumeration operations have just been achieved. They have to meet the 38 millions inhabitants of the largest countries of Africa with a unique questionnaire shared by two statistical institutions, one in the North and a second for the South. The census is a milestone of the peace agreement of 2005 that put an end to the civil war between the Nord and the South. The census results are extremely waited as they will determine the petrol dividend sharing, the parlement election of 2009 and the independence referendum of 2011. So much stakes, identity and ressources access, control and redistribution conflicts at all scales and in every sudanese margin are pushing the census to catalyse and finally reveal the tragical limits of an ethnocratic governance.

  4. Developpement du systeme de gestion des ressources humaines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans l'optique du pilotage de la performance, une évaluation régulière du système ... Lacs Health District faced different issues in human resources management ... management, the policy and practice for the welfare of the human resources, ...

  5. Cyber Dhaba: un kiosque internet en Inde du Nord

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Il y a deux ans, l'association Orient Yourself installait un PC connecté sous un banyan sacré, dans un village agricole du Rajasthan (Inde du Nord). Claire Dixsaut dirige ELSE, elle est membre fondateur de l'association Orient Yourself.

  6. Role of Du Channel in Treating Senile Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The author believes that senile dementia is very closely related to not only deficiency of the liver and kidney, but also Eight Extra Channels, Du Channel in particular. Nourishing the liver and kidney and clearing Du Channel in the treatment can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect.

  7. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  8. Le devenir actif du corps affectif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Séverac

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de saisir ce que signifie, pour le corps, être actif. À partir de la proposition 49 de la partie IV de l’Éthique, on propose de distinguer deux manières d’appréhender le corps – soit comme corps organique, soit comme corps affectif -, et l’on montre que la question éthique du devenir actif s’adresse à la dimension affective du corps. Il faut penser le devenir actif du corps affectif comme augmentation de son aptitude non seulement à affecter, mais aussi à être affecté. En effet, être affecté pour le corps n’est pas identique à pâtir : au contraire, plus est grande l’ouverture sensible d’un corps aux autres corps, plus est grande son activité éthique.The aim of this paper is to understand how the body can be active. With the proposition 49 of the fourth part of Ethics, two ways of conceiving of the body are distinguished : like an organic body or like an affective body. The ethics question of becoming active is about the affective body. This becoming active must be understood as increasing of the ability to affect, as well as to be affected. To be affected is different from to be passive. On the contrary, the more the body is able to be affected, the more he becomes active.

  9. Le pari du numérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Durand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En lançant ce premier numéro du Ceriscope, le Centre de recherches et d’études internationales (CERI et l’Atelier de cartographie de Sciences Po ont conscience de relever un défi. Engagés dans l’analyse scientifique des sociétés du monde, le CERI, en tant que centre de recherche, et l’Atelier de cartographie, en sa qualité de concepteurs de cartes, entendent faire accéder un grand nombre de lecteurs à leurs productions en utilisant la gratuité d’Internet. L’avantage d’une publication en ligne par rapport au livre papier ne se résume évidemment pas à la gratuité. Elle permet en effet un usage plus souple de la lecture en autorisant, grâce à l’indexation par mots clés, une recherche à l’intérieur des textes. Elle offre ensuite une rapidité de mise à jour des connaissances qui, compte tenu de l’évolution de l’économie et des sociétés, sont vite touchées par l’obsolescence. Les contributions mises en ligne seront ainsi actualisées et de nouvelles publications pourront les développer et les enrichir au fil du temps. La publication en ligne permet enfin les réactions des lecteurs qui deviennent ainsi des « acteurs » de la publication.

  10. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  11. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  12. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  13. Perception de la gestion du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Coy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex landscape management instruments based on a dynamic, innovative land-conservation paradigm and spatial zoning to provide for graded intensity of protection and human use are being implemented in the newer generation of biosphere reserves and biosphere parks. The multifunctionality of these exemplary landscapes with sustainable development is a great challenge; it also offers considerable potential for conflict. This paper intends to demonstrate the extent to which multifunctionality has been realised in the alpine Großes Walsertal Biosphere Park, and how the local population perceive the quality of their park five years after it was created. Landscape management efforts in the Großes Walsertal were monitored by accompanying regional-economic and perceptional studies, resulting in a discussion of required future actions.Des instruments complexes de gestion du paysage, fondés sur un paradigme dynamique et innovant de conservation ainsi que sur un zonage de l’espace visant à réguler la protection du territoire et son utilisation par l’homme, ont été mis en œuvre dans la dernière génération de réserves de biosphère et de parcs. La multifonctionnalité de ces paysages exemplaires du développement durable constitue un défi majeur, mais représente également une importante source de conflits. L’objectif de cet article est de démontrer dans quelle mesure la notion de multifonctionnalité a été appliquée à la réserve de biosphère alpine de Grosse Walsertal et d’évaluer comment la population locale perçoit la qualité de son parc, cinq ans après sa création. Les efforts de gestion du paysage dans la réserve de Grosse Walsertal ont été évalués par des études économiques régionales et par des enquêtes de perception, à l’origine d’un débat sur les actions futures à mettre en place.

  14. Modos de ver. Du Bois y Fanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mezzadra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sovereignty of glance and the primacy of sight represent the Western modern culture far beyond its artistic expression, organizing its philosophical and political conceptuality. They deeply influence the way in which subjects are conceived and constructed in Western modernity. This is the point of departure of the long-distance dialogue between W. E. B. Du Bois and Frantz Fanon staged in the article. Their political thought and militancy developed against the background of experiences – such as slavery and colonialism – characterized by process of construction of subjectivities which appear as “anomalous” with regard to the “standards” set by Modernity.

  15. QUELQUES RESULTATS SUR LA COMMANDE DU CHEMOSTAT

    OpenAIRE

    ROBLEDO VELOSO, GONZALO

    2006-01-01

    L'Introduction est essentiellement consacrée á dresser un aperçu de la modélisation de quelques processus biologiques dans le chemostat, á introduire les notions de base de la théorie de la comniande (commandabilité, stabilisation asymptotique, ensemble atteignable) et á montrer á quoi elles correspondent dans le cas spécifique du chemostat. Pour cela nous avons partagé l'introduction en deux parties: la premiére partie décrit le modéle de compétition dans le chemostat (section 1.1) ...

  16. Generic 'du' in time and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel

    2017-01-01

    speakers, and that variation also prevails within a micro-diachronic perspective (between conversations recorded within a few months, and even within the same conversation). The results emphasise that great caution should be exercised when taking the difference between two pieces of attested language use......This article considers the way individual speakers respond to a macro-level process of language change: an increased use of the second-person pronoun du for generic reference. Real time panel studies show that life span change is much more common than is often assumed, particularly among adult...

  17. Environmental behaviour and bioavailability of Depleted Uranium (DU) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Gerstmann, U.; Schimmack, W.; Szymczak, W.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This work was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and KFOR personnel serving on the Balkans. Therefore, the environmental behaviour and bioavailability of DU material have been explored. In order to investigate the environmental impact of DU ammunition, leaching experiments were carried out. DU penetrators were buried in soil filled in columns. The soil was irrigated (16 mm/week) and the uranium isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U which were washed out and transported into the eluate were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After one year, an average of 1.7% of the original DU material corroded. About 40% of the corrosion products were located on the surface of the penetrator, 60% were recovered in the soil. On the other hand, only very small amounts of the DU material could be found in the eluate (about 1 ppm per year) suggesting a low solubility of DU and the corrosion products and/or a strong sorption to the soil. In another part of the study, the solubility of DU material in human body fluids was investigated to assess the bioavailability after oral intake and inhalation of DU particles. Therefore, DU corrosion products were powdered and incubated in artificial gastric juice and simulated lung fluid. About three-fourths of the DU material was dissolved in artificial gastric juice after 30 minutes. This fraction could not be increased, even when the incubation time was extended to 120 minutes. The dissolution of DU material in artificial lung fluid showed a distinct bi-phasic course with a readily soluble fraction and a fraction of very low solubility. These findings suggest that the DU corrosion products consist mainly of two types of uranium oxides, hexavalent and fast soluble compounds and tetravalent compounds with low solubility. Additional measurements with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) of DU corrosion material support this conclusion. The resulting

  18. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique : une localisation exceptionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moncef Hamdane

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L� hydatidose est une anthropozoonose due au developpement chez l�homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extremement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportes dans la litterature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d�hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s�agissait d�un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales evoluant depuis huit mois. L�examen clinique a mis en evidence une tumefaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L�echographie testiculaire a objective une hernie inguinale droite associee a deux kystes epididymaires bilateraux. Le patient a ete opere pour cure de son hernie avec decouverte en per-operatoire d�un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a ete reseque. L�examen anatomopathologique a conclu a une hydatidose du cordon spermatique.

  19. Luminescence de transfert de charge dans les composés oxyfluorés du molybdène, du tungstène, du niobum et du tantale

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong Jie

    1993-01-01

    Non disponible; Les caractéristique de la luminescence de transfert de charge de composés oxifluorés du niobium, du tantale, du molybdène et du tungstène ont été déterminées. L'influence de la coordinence de l'élément de transition et du mode d'assemblage des polyèdres de coordination a été examinée. Contrairement aux oxydes homologués, les phases comportant des ions alcalins peuvent présenter un rendement de luminescence élevé à 300 K lorsque les groupements oxifluorés sont isolés (ex. K3NbO...

  20. Festival du rire de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Connaissez-vous le Festival du rire de Genève ? La deuxième édition aura lieu du 25 au 28 mars 2015 au Casino-Théâtre à Carouge. Côté programmation, Marc Donnet-Monay ouvre les festivités avant trois autres soirées de folie et d’humour que nous vous laissons le soin de découvrir dans le programme : http://www.rire-geneve.ch/#programme. Réduction de 30% sur l’achat de places pour les membres du personnel du CERN. Pour cela, il suffit de se rendre sur la billetterie en ligne de notre site : www.rire-geneve.ch et d’utiliser le code promotionnel. Contacter le secrétariat de l’Association du personnel (Staff.Association@cern.ch) pour connaitre ce code promotionnel.

  1. Nanoparticle emissions from combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

     This book focuses on particulate matter emissions produced by vehicles with combustion engines. It describes the physicochemical properties of the particulate matter, the mechanisms of its formation and its environmental impacts (including those on human beings). It discusses methods for measuring particulate mass and number, including the state-of-the-art in Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) equipment for measuring the exhaust emissions of both light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses under actual operating conditions. The book presents the authors’ latest investigations into the relations between particulate emission (mass and number) and engine operating parameters, as well as their new findings obtained through road tests performed on various types of vehicles, including those using diesel particulate filter regeneration. The book, which addresses the needs of academics and professionals alike, also discusses relevant European regulations on particulate emissions and highlights selected metho...

  2. Assembly for directing combustion gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Little, David A.; Snyder, Gary D.

    2016-04-12

    An arrangement is provided for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors of a can-annular gas turbine combustion engine to a first row of turbine blades including a first row of turbine blades. The arrangement includes a gas path cylinder, a cone and an integrated exit piece (IEP) for each combustor. Each IEP comprises an inlet chamber for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor, and includes a connection segment. The IEPs are connected together to define an annular chamber extending circumferentially and concentric to an engine longitudinal axis, for delivering the gas flow to the first row of blades. A radiused joint extends radially inward from a radially outer side of the inlet chamber to an outer boundary of the annular chamber, and a flared fillet extends radially inward from a radially inner side of the inlet chamber to an inner boundary of the annular chamber.

  3. Microwave plasma combustion of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.M. Kanilo; V.I. Kazantsev; N.I. Rasyuk; K. Schuenemann; D.M. Vavriv [Institute of Machine Building Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2003-01-01

    Microwave plasma is studied as an alternative to oil or gas fuel for ignition and stabilisation of burning of lean coal. The study is performed on an experimental set-up, which includes a burner with a microwave plasma generator, coal and air supply systems, and measurement equipment. Power and thermochemical characteristics of the coal-plasma interaction have been measured and analysed. The obtained results indicate an essential intensification of ignition and combustion processes in the microwave burner compared to those in conventional burners. In particular, it has been demonstrated that the microwave energy consumption is only about 10% of the required expenditure of oil or gas, measured in heat equivalent. A design of an industrial microwave-plasma burner is proposed. Prospects of such burner for applications at industrial boilers of power plants are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Paul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics has reached a stage where flow field in practical situation can be predicted to aid the design and to probe into the fundamental flow physics to understand and resolve the issues in fundamental fluid mechanics. The study examines the computation of reacting flows. After exploring the conservation equations for species and energy, the methods of closing the reaction rate terms in turbulent flow have been examined briefly. Two cases of computation, where combustion-flow interaction plays important role, have been discussed to illustrate the computational aspects and the physical insight that can be gained by the reacting flow computation.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.577-582, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.600

  5. Combustion chemistry of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, A. D.; Ryan, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Several studies are described of the chemistry of solid propellant combustion which employed a fast-scanning optical spectrometer. Expanded abstracts are presented for four of the studies which were previously reported. One study of the ignition of composite propellants yielded data which suggested early ammonium perchlorate decomposition and reaction. The results of a study of the spatial distribution of molecular species in flames from uncatalyzed and copper or lead catalyzed double-based propellants support previously published conclusions concerning the site of action of these metal catalysts. A study of the ammonium-perchlorate-polymeric-fuel-binder reaction in thin films, made by use of infrared absorption spectrometry, yielded a characterization of a rapid condensed-phase reaction which is likely important during the ignition transient and the burning process.

  6. Effect of Variant End of Injection Period on Combustion Process of Biodiesel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel as a replacement to the standard diesel fuel in combustion diesel engine. The biodiesel fuel has a significantly influences throughout the combustion process and exhaust emission. The purpose of this research is to investigate the combustion process behavior during the End of Injection (EOI period and operates under variant conditions using Rapid Compression Machine (RCM. Experimental of RCM is used to simulate a combustion process and combustion characteristics of diesel engine combustion. Three types of biodiesel blend which are B5, B10 and B15 were tested at several injection pressures of 80 MPa, 90 MPa and 130 MPa under different ambient temperatures, 750 K to 1100 K. The results of this study showed that the ignition delay slightly reduced with increasing the content of biodiesel blends from B5, B10 and B15 and became more shorten as the injection pressure been enhanced. As the injection pressure increased, the behavior of combustion pressure at end of injection is reduced, radically increased the NOX emission. It is noted that the process of combustion at the end of injection increased as the ambient temperature is rising. In fact, higher initial ambient temperature improved the fuel atomization and mixing process. Under the biodiesel combustion with higher ambient temperature condition, the exhaust emission of CO, O2, and HC became less but increased in NOX emission. Besides, increased in blends of biodiesel ratio are found to enhance the combustion process, resulted a decreased in HC emissions.

  7. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n -butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  8. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  9. Evaluation épidémiologique du programme genevois de dépistage du cancer du sein : 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A l'instar de nombreux pays industrialisés, le cancer du sein est à Genève le cancer le plus fréquent (environ 460 cas par an) et la première cause de décès chez les femmes entre 45 et 55 ans. Depuis mars 1999, le Programme genevois de dépistage du cancer du sein a pour missions de promouvoir, d'organiser et de mener une action de prévention auprès de la population féminine du canton âgée de 50 à 69 ans. Ce rapport décrit l'évolution de 15 ans d'activité de dépistage (chapitre 2) et analys...

  10. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  11. Ignition et oxydation des particules de combustible solide pulvérisé Ignition and Oxidation of Pulverized Solid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article, en utilisant la méthode du ruban chauffé, une étude de la compétition entre (1 la dévolatilisation et l'oxydation consécutive des produits de pyrolyse et (2 l'ignition de la matrice solide et sa combustion rapide. La comparaison entre le moment de l'ignition et le début de la pyrolyse permet de déterminer en fonction de la température, de la taille des particules et de la concentration en oxygène, le domaine dans lequel l'ignition d'un combustible solide pyrolysable est du type whole coal ignition (c'est-à-dire lorsque l'ignition intervient avant que la pyrolyse devienne mesurable. Les résultats suggèrent que ce type d'ignition doit s'effectuer en règle générale dans les conditions de mise en oeuvre des combustibles solides pulvérisés dans les flammes industrielles. Dans le cas de l'ignition whole coal , la vitesse de combustion de la matrice solide est inhibée dans la période qui suit l'ignition. Cette inhibition est due d'une part à la difficulté pour l'oxygène de diffuser dans les pores pendant la sortie des produits de pyrolyse, et d'autre part à la consommation préférentielle de l'oxygène dans l'oxydation des produits de pyrolyse, principalement dans le cas où cette oxydation se développe sous forme de flamme. Ce n'est que lorsque la pyrolyse s'achève que la vitesse de combustion hétérogène peut atteindre sa valeur stationnaire normale, qui est alors pratiquement identique à celle du coke. Aux températures situées entre la température d'ignition du combustible solide et la température d'extinction du coke résiduel, la combustion est incomplète, une extinction intervenant à un degré de dévolatilisation d'autant plus grande que la température est élevée. Ce phénomène s'explique qualitativement par la théorie classique d'ignition thermique lorsqu'on l'applique au cas particulier des combustibles solides pyrolysables. Les températures d'ignition ainsi que les d

  12. A Dynamic Simulation Strategy for PCCI Combustion Control Design Méthode de développement de lois de commande pour la combustion PCCIbasée sur la simulation système

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this work is a dynamic simulation strategy for PCCI combustion that can be used in closed-loop control development. A detailed multi-zone chemistry model for the high-pressure part of the engine cycle is extended by a mean value model accounting for the gas exchange losses. The resulting stationary model is capable of describing PCCI combustion sufficiently well. It is at the same time very economic with respect to computational costs. The model is further extended by identified system dynamics influencing the stationary inputs. For this, a Wiener model is set up that uses the stationary model as a nonlinear system representation. In this way, a dynamic nonlinear model for the representation of the controlled plant Diesel engine is created. This paper summarizes an important outcome of the the Collaborative Research Centre "SFB 686 - Modellbasierte Regelung der homogenisierten Niedertemperatur-Verbrennung" at RWTH Aachen University and Bielefeld University, Germany. Cet article présente une méthodologie de développement de lois de commande pour la combustion PCCI. La méthode proposée repose sur l’utilisation d’un simulateur du moteur dont le niveau de représentation est adapté aux besoins de l’application ciblée. Le simulateur proposé repose sur l’association d’un modèle de combustion multidimensionnel (pour la partie haute pression du cycle moteur et d’un modèle à valeurs moyennes (pour la description des d’échanges gazeux. L’association des caractéristiques de ces modèles permet d’aboutir à un niveau de représentation suffisamment précis pour accompagner le développement de lois de commande. De plus, les simplifications réalisées permettent des gains conséquents en termes de temps de simulation. Cet article propose aussi une simplification supplémentaire en introduisant une méthode d’identification d’un modèle de Wiener. Les résultats présentés dans cette publication sont le fruit

  13. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This overview compiles the on-going research in Europe to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the reaction mechanisms and pathways associated with the combustion of an increased range of fuels. Focus is given to the formation of a large number of hazardous minor pollutants and the inability of current combustion models to predict the  formation of minor products such as alkenes, dienes, aromatics, aldehydes and soot nano-particles which have a deleterious impact on both the environment and on human health. Cleaner Combustion describes, at a fundamental level, the reactive chemistry of min

  14. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey [NETL; Richards, George

    2012-09-30

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  15. 3rd International Conference on Numerical Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Larrouturou, Bernard; Numerical Combustion

    1989-01-01

    Interest in numerical combustion is growing among applied mathematicians, physicists, chemists, engine manufacturers and many industrialists. This proceedings volume contains nine invited lectures and twenty seven contributions carefully selected by the editors. The major themes are numerical simulation of transsonic and supersonic combustion phenomena, the study of supersonic reacting mixing layers, and turbulent combustion. Emphasis is laid on hyperbolic models and on numerical simulations of hydrocarbon planes with a complete set of chemical reactions carried out in two-dimensional geometries as well as on complex reactive flow simulations.

  16. Kinetic investigation for slow combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The renewed interest in biomass as a renewable, clean, and inexpensive fuel was discussed. Many different mechanisms take place simultaneously during biomass combustion and also during other thermal processes such as gasification, pyrolysis or carbonization. These mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the design and operation of thermal conversion processes. In addition, product yields and product distributions from the thermal processes are sensitive to the kinetic properties of biomass. In order to evaluate the combustion mechanisms and the combustion kinetics of biomass, the behavior of these constituents under combustion conditions were properly evaluated. In this study, combustion of biomass samples was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer by heating them from ambient to 1173 K with heating rates of 5 K/min and 10 K/min under dynamic dry air atmosphere of 40 mL/min. The biomass samples included olive refuse, sunflower seed shell, rapeseed, grape seed, and hybrid poplar. The purpose of the study was to examine the kinetic properties of biomass during slow combustion for the overall combustion process as well as for some definite temperature intervals at which different combustion mechanisms are present according to the type and complexity of biomass used. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves were derived, and data obtained from these curves were used to compute the kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and governing mechanisms for the combustion processes. The governing mechanisms for individual temperature intervals were examined along with the overall combustion process. The study showed that at lower temperature intervals, the combustion process was controlled primarily by the chemical reaction. At least 3 sequential mechanisms may occur at different temperature intervals during combustion of biomass. Activation energy and pre-exponential factors were determined for each temperature interval

  17. Relationship Between Coal Powder and Its Combustibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Coal's volatile component,ash and fixed carbon content have different functions in different stages of a combustion process, but the traditional coal classification can precisely show its combustion property.In this experiment coal's evaluation indexes (ignition index Di),(burn off index Df) were used to qualitatively show the ignition property and combustion ending property of coal samples.Meanwhile,considering actual heating circumstances in calciner (in cement plants),this thesis established the relationship among the ignition index,burn off index and coal's industrial analysis value, which makes it possible for the user to predict the quality of coal before using it and is very valuable in practice.

  18. The John Zink Hamworthy combustion handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the length of time it has been around, its importance, and vast amounts of research, combustion is still far from being completely understood. Issues regarding the environment, cost, and fuel consumption add further complexity, particularly in the process and power generation industries. Dedicated to advancing the art and science of industrial combustion, The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 3 - Applications offers comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of equipment used in the process and power generation industries. Under the leadership of Charles E. Baukal

  19. La mathématique du physicien

    CERN Document Server

    Diu, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    " Le livre de la nature est écrit dans la langue mathématique, et ses caractères sont des triangles, des cercles et autres figures géométriques, sans lesquels il est humainement impossible d'en comprendre le moindre mot ". Ce célèbre aphorisme de Galilée a scellé l'alliance des mathématiques et de la physique. Et pourtant, trois siècles plus tard, Einstein se montrait plus sceptique. Dans ce livre, Bernard Diu montre que, en effet, si les mathématiques sont un instrument indispensable de la physique, elles n'en constituent pas le fondement. En multipliant les exemples, il marque la différence entre la mathématique du mathématicien et celle du physicien. Un livre de nature à remettre en question l'enseignement de la physique dans nos écoles et des sciences en général, soumis à l'hégémonie des mathématiques.

  20. Du Bois的对话句法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦梅

    2015-01-01

    日常口语交流过程中,人们会自觉不自觉地复用即时语境中前面说话人或历史上前人的词语、短语、句法结构等成分。这样便在自己和前面说话人的话语之间唤起了共鸣。Du Bois在Bakhtin的对话理论、Jakobson的平行理论和Harris的话语分析程序的启发之下,依据自然口语语料、从社会认知角度发展了对话句法理论,目的在于揭示人类交流过程中符号与符号之间并通过符号表达的介入结构。本文综合Du Bois以及相关学者过去三十年间对对话句法的研究,呈现对话句法理论的主体脉络。

  1. Rejets et environnement du CERN - 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2006-01-01

    La radioactivité de l’environnement autour de l’Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) et les doses de rayonnements qui en résultent pour la population avoisinante sont contrôlées par la Commission de Sécurité du CERN et de manière indépendante par les autorités compétentes des deux États Hôtes, l’Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) côté France et l’Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique (OFSP) côté Suisse. Dans ce rapport, les résultats de mesures concernent en particulier le territoire suisse. L’ensemble des mesures effectuées en 2005 prouve que le fonctionnement des installations du CERN était sans conséquence radiologique sur l’environnement et la population. Le contrôle des émissions montre que les rejets effectifs se situent également en 2005 nettement en dessous des limites réglementaires. Ce constat est confirmé par le contrôle des immissions dans l’environnement. Le CERN a bien respecté en 2005 comme dans les ann�...

  2. Key factors of combustion from kinetics to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nikolai M

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the main advances in the mechanisms of combustion processes. It focuses on the analysis of kinetic mechanisms of gas combustion processes and experimental investigation into the interrelation of kinetics and gas dynamics in gas combustion. The book is complimentary to the one previously published, The Modes of Gaseous Combustion.

  3. Pulse combustion: an assessment of opportunities for increased efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1984-12-01

    The results of a literature review on pulse combustion are discussed. Current, near-future, and potential opportunities for pulse combustion applications are summarized, and the barriers to developing and using pulse combustion technology are discussed, along with research and development needs. Also provided are the proceedings of a pulse combustion workshop held in May, 1984 in Seattle, Washington. (LEW)

  4. Coal Combustion Science quarterly progress report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    This document provides a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Program that is being conducted at the Combustion, Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California. Coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 56 refs., 25 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Theoretical Analysis and Derivation of Combustion Wave Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical relations of pressure, density, velocity, temperature and Mach number of combustion waves are built. The parameters' curves with different combustion energy are illustrated in which four zones are pointed out to represent different combustion states. The expressions and curves of parameters are important to analyze the trends of combustion waves, and to determine conditions on which detonation waves or deflagration waves occur.

  6. A numerical study of turbulent combustion characteristics in a combustion chamber of a scramjet engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE; ChunHian

    2010-01-01

    3D numerical simulation of flow fields in a combustion chamber of a scramjet engine using an SST turbulence model with an explicit compressibility correction was performed and the results were compared to the experimental results.The characteristics of the turbulent combustion flow fields were analyzed via the numerical results and presented.In order to identify the mechanisms of turbulent combustion in supersonic flows,the evolutions of governing dimensionless parameters in the flow fields were investigated based on the theory of combustion and the available numerical results.It was found that the supersonic combustion takes place in the region of fully developed turbulence and that the strongest effects of turbulence and combustion processes appear in the vicinity of the injector.The unsteady effects and the local flame extinction phenomenon induced by turbulent flows were found to be negligibly small,and the steady flamelet approximation will hold for practical applications.

  7. Combustion instability detection using the wavelet detail of pressure fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie JI; Yonghao LUO

    2008-01-01

    A combustion instability detection method that uses the wavelet detail of combustion pressure fluctuations is put forward. To confirm this method, combustion pressure fluctuations in a stoker boiler are recorded at stable and unstable combustion with a pressure transducer. Daubechies one-order wavelet is chosen to obtain the wavelet details for comparison. It shows that the wavelet approximation indicates the general pressure change in the furnace, and the wavelet detail magnitude is consistent with the intensity of turbulence and combustion noise. The magnitude of the wavelet detail is nearly constant when the combustion is stable, however, it will fluctuate much when the combustion is unstable.

  8. Survey of Greener Ignition and Combustion Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wuqiao; Li, Yun; Tian, Zhong; Gao, Bo; Tong, Ling; Wang, Houjun; Zeng, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The spark and compression ignition principles of, petrol and diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have, not advanced for a century. These do not lead to complete, combustion and hence result in high exhaust emission and, low energy efficiency. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the attempts and developments of greener ignition, and combustion systems for ICEs and points out that, homogeneous charge microwave ignition (HCMI) holds the, key to a perfect solution. Increasing the ...

  9. Progress on the Combustion Integrated Rack Component of the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a facility-class payload planned for the International Space Station. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of investigations encompassing most of the range of microgravity fluid physics and combustion science. The Combustion Integrated Rack component of the FCF is currently scheduled to be launched in 2003 and will operate independently until additional racks of the FCF are launched. The FCF is intended to complete between five and fifteen combustion experiments per year over its planned ten-year lifetime. Combustion arm that may be studied include laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flame-synthesized materials. Three different chamber inserts, one each for investigations of droplet, solid fuel, and gaseous fuel combustion, that can accommodate multiple experiments will be used initially so as to maximize the reuse of hardware. The current flight and flight-definition investigations are briefly described.

  10. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc... concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

  11. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-06-28

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  12. Plume Diagnostics for Combustion Stability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Engineering Inc. and Purdue University propose to develop a non-intrusive plume instrument capable of detecting and diagnosing combustion instability. This...

  13. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2004-12-15

    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.

  14. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  15. Plume Diagnostics for Combustion Stability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Engineering and Purdue University propose to leverage combustion stability testing, already funded and planned for the second and third quarters of next year...

  16. Trends in modeling of porous media combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Abdullah, M. Zulkifly [Porous Media Combustion Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mohamad, A.A. [College of Engineering, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, P.O. Box 50927 (Saudi Arabia); Bakar, M.Z. Abu [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Porous media combustion (PMC) has interesting advantages compared with free flame combustion due to higher burning rates, increased power dynamic range, extension of the lean flammability limits, and low emissions of pollutants. Extensive experimental and numerical works were carried out and are still underway, to explore the feasibility of this interesting technology for practical applications. For this purpose, numerical modeling plays a crucial role in the design and development of promising PMC systems. This article provides an exhaustive review of the fundamental aspects and emerging trends in numerical modeling of gas combustion in porous media. The modeling works published to date are reviewed, classified according to their objectives and presented with general conclusions. Numerical modeling of liquid fuel combustion in porous media is excluded. (author)

  17. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  18. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  19. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting: Submerged Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-01-01

    Oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter offers simpler, improved performance. For the last 100 years, the domestic glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass on an industrial scale.

  20. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2007 was 10...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....

  1. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2008...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....

  2. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  3. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  4. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  5. A highly combustible composite solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonetaka, K.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Y.

    1983-07-12

    To increase the combustibility, the briqueted solid fuel is coated with an auxiliary fuel which is characterized by high flamability. The composition ofthe basic fuel includes a solid fuel with a high combustion temperature and seeming density (mineral coal, activated charcoal, coke, graphite and a carbonized product), a desulfurizing agent (CaCO3 or MgO), a combustion promotor (Ca(CO3)2, KNO3, sodium acetate, iron oxalate) and forming additives (bentonite, clay or talc) or a binder (pitch, tar, methylcellulose or cement). The auxiliary fuel has the very same composition, but is characterized by a low ignition temperature and density (for instance, due to the addition of sawdust). The obtained two layer composite fuel is characterized by improved ignitibility and combustibility.

  6. Fine particle emissions from residential wood combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissari, J.

    2008-07-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) appliances have the high probability of incomplete combustion, producing e.g. fine particles and hazardous organic compounds. In this thesis, the fine particle number and mass emissions, particle composition and morphology, and gas emissions were investigated from the modern (MMH) and conventional masonry heaters (CMH), sauna stoves (SS) and pellet burner. The investigation was based on laboratory and field experiments applying extensive and unique particle sampling methods. The appliance type, fuel and operational practices were found to affect clearly the fine particle emissions. In good combustion conditions (e.g. in pellet combustion), the fine particle mass (PM{sub 1}) emission factors were low, typically below 0.3 g kg-1, and over 90% of the PM{sub 1} consisted of inorganic compounds (i.e fine ash). From the CMH the typical PM{sub 1} values were 1.6-1.8 g kg-1, and from the SS 2.7-5.0 g kg-1, but were strongly dependent on operational practices. The smouldering combustion in CMH increased PM{sub 1} emission up to 10 g kg-1. The good secondary combustion in the MMH reduced the particle organic matter (POM) and gaseous emissions, but not substantially the elemental carbon (EC, i.e. soot) emission, and the typical PM{sub 1} values were 0.7-0.8 g kg-1. The particle number emissions were high, and did not correspond with the completition of combustion. The particle number distributions were mainly dominated by ultrafine (<100 nm) particles, but varied dependent on combustion conditions. The electronmicroscopy analyses showed that ultrafine particles were composed mainly of K, S and Zn. From the smouldering combustion, particles were composed mainly of carbon compounds and they had a closed sinteredlike structure, due to organic matter on the particles. Controlling the gasification rate via the primary air supply, log and batch size, as well as fuel moisture content, is important for the reduction of emissions in batch combustion

  7. Applicability of heat transfer equations to hydrogen combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2002-01-01

    Previous research by the authors showed that hydrogen combustion exhibits a higher cooling loss to the combustion chamber wall of an internal combustion engine compared to hydrocarbon combustion because of its higher burning velocity and shorter quenching distance. The high cooling loss means that reduction of the cooling loss is essential to establish a high thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion engines. This research analyzed the applicability of equations to describe the h...

  8. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  9. Principes de base du fonctionnement du réseau GSM

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Si la téléphonie mobile se banalise aujourd'hui, on le doit à la conjonction de l'avènement du numérique, à l'accroissement des performances des semi-conducteurs et à différentes avancées technologiques. Mais le facteur déterminant fut sans doute la cristallisation autour de la norme GSM issue d'un effort soutenu de standardisation mené à l'ETSI (Organe européen de normalisation en télécommunications, créé à l'initiative du Conseil des ministres). Dans cet article, nous passerons en revue...

  10. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 p...

  11. Impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement hydraulique foliaire du peuplier Populus tremula x alba

    OpenAIRE

    Daaboul, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Afin d’aborder l’impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement hydraulique foliaire, des plants de Populus tremula x alba ont été soumis à un stress hydrique modéré ou sévère pendant une semaine par ajout de PEG dans la solution nutritive. La mesure de paramètres écophysiologiques et moléculaires tissus spécifiques a permis de dégager plusieurs tendances sur la caractérisation de l’influence du stress. Les deux types de stress n’ont que peu d’impact sur la croissance et la capacité de synth...

  12. Caractérisation du canal de propagation dans le contexte d'usine du futur

    OpenAIRE

    Traoré, Albekaye; Boeglen, Hervé; Boria, Sébastien; Vauzelle, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    National audience; Nos travaux de recherche s'inscrivent dans le contexte de l'usine du futur des lignes d'assemblages finaux du groupe Airbus. Ce projet vise à numériser et à automatiser le processus d'assemblage d'un avion à travers des robots collaboratifs, des robots autonomes, de la réalité augmentée, des outils connectés et des opérateurs humains. L'ensemble de ces agents doit échanger des commandes de gestion, de contrôle et de surveillance au sein d'un Réseau de Capteurs Sans Fil (RCS...

  13. Effets du chlorure de cadmium et du chromate de plomb sur deux mollusques bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Ballan-dufrancais, C.; Jeantet, A.y.; Martoja, R; Truchet, M

    1985-01-01

    La contamination expérimentale d'huîtres par le chlorure de cadmium (500 µg/1 pendant 7 et 26 jours) ne cause aucune lésion histologique ou cytologique, mais elle accélère la déplétion testiculaire et, dans quelques cas, s'oppose au stockage du glycogène. L'excellente résistance des huîtres est due à l'efficacité de deux types de mécanismes de détoxication. Le premier consiste en une immobilisation du cadmium, dans les organes absorbants, dans un état chimique stable et inerte sur le plan mét...

  14. Étude comparée du Liber Judiciorum et du Fuero Juzgo

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle MAINTIER-VERMOREL

    2009-01-01

    Étant donné sa situation géographique, entre l’Europe et le monde arable, la Castille a joué un rôle particulièrement important, au Moyen Âge, dans le cadre des activités de traduction - notamment avec la célèbre École de Tolède ou les ateliers d’Alphonse X. Cette étude est centrée sur l’une de ces traductions, réalisée sous le règne de Ferdinand III, qui a représenté un point de départ dans le passage des textes officiels du latin au romance. Il s’agit du Fuero Juzgo, un ensemble de lois oct...

  15. Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gingras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les développements structuralistes et post-structuralistes ont favorisé la “textualisation” de la littérature médiévale, l’auteur suggère que la recontextualisation de la réception du roman médiéval passe par un retour aux manuscrits. Appliquée au manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, cette hypothèse de recherche révèle une technique de contrepoint que permet la juxtaposition de différents romans et dont, en dernier recours, le lecteur est toujours un peu juge.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Application to an HCCI Engine . Proceedings of the 4th Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, 2005. [34] K. Fieweger...LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT COMBUSTION Principle Investigator: Heinz Pitsch Flow Physics and Computation Department of Mechanical Engineering ...burners and engines found in modern, industrially relevant equipment. In the course of this transition of LES from a scientifically interesting method

  17. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  18. Composite Propellant combustion and Transition to Detonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    I combustion BYU Brigham Young University I CMDB Composite-modified double-base propellant CPIA Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (at Johns...incorporate a model of active binder combustion and apply the model to composite-modified double-base ( CMDB ) propellants. The porous burner apparatus...Hercules composite-modified double-base ( CMDB ) pro- pellants, containing AP or HMX, but not containing aluminum. Qualita- tive effects of composition and

  19. Building America Expert Meeting. Combustion Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This is an overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World," held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  20. Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2013-03-01

    This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  1. Measuring Combustion Advance in Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Set of gauges on solid-propellant rocket motor with electrically insulating case measures advance of combustion front and local erosion rates of propellant and insulation. Data furnished by gauges aid in motor design, failure analysis, and performance prediction. Technique useful in determining propellant uniformity and electrical properties of exhaust plum. Gauges used both in flight and on ground. Foilgauge technique also useful in basic research on pulsed plasmas or combustion of solids.

  2. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatolij P. Burdukov; Vitalij A. Popov; Valentin A. Faleev [Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods of coal grinding on their chemical activity at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activity that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimizu, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Micro-Trottoir à Genève à propos du CERN et du LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : Qu'est-ce-que le LHC? Quelle est la fonction du LHC? Qu'est-ce-que le CERN? D'après vous, les recherches engendrées pour le LHC peuvent-elles ?tre bénéfiques, utiles pour la société? Où a été inventé le Web? Lieux : Forum Meyrin Université de Genève Genève Centre

  5. Sur la biologie du Castor du Rhône (Castor fiber L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbain, Achille

    1949-01-01

    Le Castor du Rhône ( Castor fiber L.) a été particulièrement bien étudié par de nombreux auteurs. VICTOR PIRAUD ¹) a donné d’intéressants renseignements sur ses moeurs; M. P. CORDIER ²) et A. HUGUES ³) ont fait aussi une étude appronfondie de cet animal et L. GERMAND 4) a fourni une description déta

  6. Sur la biologie du Castor du Rhône (Castor fiber L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbain, Achille

    1949-01-01

    Le Castor du Rhône ( Castor fiber L.) a été particulièrement bien étudié par de nombreux auteurs. VICTOR PIRAUD ¹) a donné d’intéressants renseignements sur ses moeurs; M. P. CORDIER ²) et A. HUGUES ³) ont fait aussi une étude appronfondie de cet animal et L. GERMAND 4) a fourni une description

  7. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  8. Combustion of Interacting Droplet Arrays Being Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion of liquid fuels is a major source of energy in the world today, and the majority of these fuels are burned in the form of a spray. This droplet combustion project at the NASA Glenn Research Center has the overall goal of providing a better understanding of spray combustion by extending existing studies of single droplets to a regime where droplet interactions are important (as occurs in a practical spray). The Combustion of Interacting Droplet Arrays is a collaborative effort between Glenn and the National Center for Microgravity Research. The group at Glenn also collaborates with scientists at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Hokkaido, Japan. The project is studying the combustion of a small number of droplets suspended on small quartz fibers in a 0.1-atm combustion chamber. Data consist primarily of video images of the flames and droplets. The tests are being conducted in Glenn's reduced-gravity facilities (2.2-sec and 5.2-sec drop towers) and in the Japan Microgravity Center's 10-sec drop tower (JAMIC).

  9. Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

  10. Fluidized bed combustion: mixing and pollutant limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1997-10-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has been applied commercially during a few decades, and sufficient knowledge is gained to design boilers with sizes of up to several hundreds of megawatt thermal power (MW{sub th}). The knowledge of what goes on inside a large combustion chamber is still limited, however, and this impedes further optimization and efficient solution of problems that might occur. Despite this lack of knowledge the present survey deals with combustion chamber processes and discusses mixing and distribution of fuel and air in the combustion chamber and its importance for sulphur capture and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides. It is desirable to present the material in a general way and to cover the entire field of FBC. However, the scarce openly published information deals mostly with coal combustion in atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors, and therefore this application will receive most attention, but reference is also made to pressurized combustion and to other fuels than coal. In this context the important work made in the LIEKKI project on the analysis of different fuels and on the influence of pressure should be especially pointed out. (orig.)

  11. Peuplements profonds du Golfe de Gascogne. Campagnes BIOGAS

    OpenAIRE

    Laubier, Lucien; Monniot, Claude

    1985-01-01

    Ce volume contient les résultats recueillis sur les peuplements benthiques profonds du golfe de Gascogne pendant les campagnes du programme BIOGAS effectuées au cours de deux périodes successives: 1972-1974 et 1977-1981. Les caractéristiques hydrologiques, courantologiques, morphologiques et sédimentologiques, indispensables à l'étude écologique des peuplements, sont présentées dans la première partie consacrée à l'étude du milieu, avec des informations sur la production pélagique et le flux ...

  12. Accidents du travail et mesures de prevention - Annee 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    Ce rapport présente les statistiques relatives aux accidents du travail pour l’année 2005 pour les membres du personnel CERN et du personnel entreprise. Il fournit les taux de fréquence et de gravité, la répartition des accidents par cause et par lésion. Ce rapport présente également une synthèse de l’analyse des accidents les plus graves et des recommandations associées.

  13. L'impact du "narcotrafic" à Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Texte intégral déposé avec l'aimable autorisation de l'éditeur; International audience; L'article étudie l'impact du narcotrafic dans une ville qui était le siège du cartel le plus puissant de la drogue en Colombie au début des années 1990. Les effets du trafic de drogue sont étudiés dans leur diversité et complexité: situation politique et trouble à l'ordre public, violence et homicides, conséquences sociales et économiques.

  14. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  15. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  16. Lettre ouverte au Président du Conseil du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Genève, le 1er février 2010 Monsieur le Président, Les membres de la Caisse de pensions, actifs et pensionnés, sont à la fois très inquiets et indignés par la manière avec laquelle le Conseil traite la question, devenue alarmante, de l’équilibre de la Caisse. Dès 2004 en effet, l’étude actuarielle avait alerté le Conseil au sujet du déficit technique du régime et de l’insuffisance du financement de son plan de prestations. Le Conseil s’est alors contenté de mettre en place un mécanisme de sous indexation des pensions – arbitraire et discriminatoire dans la mesure où il ne fait appel qu’à la solidarité des pensionnés – et de décider une augmentation minime des contributions à la Caisse, une mesurette ...

  17. L’INFLUENCE DU FLUX SOLAIRE SUR L’EFFICACITE DU CONVERTISSEUR SOLAIRE PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir BELLEL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le solaire thermique est une énergie gratuite, nous présentons dans cette travail une application de cette énergie. Notre étude consiste à maître en présence l’influence du flux solaire Sur la température de sortie du fluide caloporteur et le la température de la plaque d'absorbeur d’un capteur solaire plan incliné. On découper le capteur en tranches fictives dans le sens de l’écoulement du fluide caloporteur et à établir les bilans des échanges qui interviennent aux niveaux des noeuds considérés : l’extérieure de la vitre, l’intérieur de la vitre, l’absorbeur, dans le fluide colporteur ainsi que l’intérieure et l’extérieur de l’isolant. Il est commode pour cela d’utiliser l’analogie qui existe entre les transferts de chaleur et les lois électrique, les profils des températures au niveau des noeuds principaux résultats commentés. Le programme élaboré a été validé par l’étude comparative des résultats théoriques et expérimentaux pris dans les mêmes conditions.

  18. L'odyssée du zeptoespace un voyage au coeur de la physique du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2013-01-01

    La découverte du boson de Higgs va bouleverser le monde de la physique des particules. Mais quelle est la nature exacte de cette particule ? Pourquoi est-elle si importante pour la compréhension de notre univers ? Celui-ci recèle-t-il une supersymétrie cachée ? Ou s’étend-il dans des dimensions supplémentaires ? C’est à ces questions, parmi beaucoup d’autres, que répond Gian Giudice, physicien au CERN, dans cet ouvrage exceptionnel et déjà traduit dans plusieurs langues à travers le monde. Le lecteur explore au fil des pages le coeur même de la physique des particules, perçoit la nature des composants intimes de la matière, prend conscience des innovations technologiques inouïes qui ont été nécessaires à l’élaboration du plus grand accélérateur de physique des particules, le Grand collisionneur de particules (LHC) du CERN, et découvre les théories spéculatives qui tentent de décrire les lois fondamentales de l’Univers. Ce guide simple et accessible à tous ne se contente p...

  19. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  20. Recycling of coal combustion wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

    2009-05-01

    The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers.